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1.
Front Public Health ; 10: 942618, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36062084

RESUMO

Background: Drug resistance is becoming a major bottleneck for tuberculosis (TB) control programs in countries with high TB burdens. Although several studies were conducted on the drug sensitivity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) in central Ethiopia, there is a lack of data on the drug sensitivity of M. tuberculosis in the peripheral regions of the country including in the Somali region. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the drug sensitivity of M. tuberculosis and its association with bacterial genotype and evaluate the performance of Xpert MTB/RIF (Xpert) in detecting resistance to rifampicin (RIF). Methods: A total of 302 M. tuberculosis were tested using the BD BACTEC-Mycobacteria Growth Indicator Tube 960 (MGIT 960) system for their drug sensitivity to the first-line anti-TB drugs. Besides, the drug sensitivity of 10 multidrug-resistant (MDR) M. tuberculosis isolates was evaluated for the second-line anti-TB drugs. Additionally, 177 of the 302 isolates were tested for genotypic drug resistance using Xpert. Chi-square and Fisher's exact tests were used for the evaluation of the association between variables and drug sensitivity. Results: The overall prevalence of resistance to at least one drug was 11.6% (95% CI: 7.9-15.2%), while the prevalence of MDR was 3.3% (95% CI: 1.3-5.3%). Two of the 10 MDR isolates were resistant to capreomycin. The spoligotype Shared International Type (SIT) 149 was significantly associated with either monoresistance or MDR (p < 0.05). Of the 177 isolates tested by Xpert, 6.2% (11/177) were RIF-resistant. Discordant between Xpert and MGIT 960 was observed in one isolate and linked with probe-binding delay (ΔCT max = 5.8). The sensitivity and specificity of the Xpert assay were 100 and 99.4%, respectively, while its positive and negative predictive values were 90.9 and 100%, respectively. Conclusion: The magnitude of MDR M. tuberculosis in the Somali region of Ethiopia was higher than the national prevalence of MDR-TB warranting the strengthening of the TB control program in the Somali region. Besides, drug resistance was associated with SIT 149 spoligotype (genotype). The Xpert assay was observed to have high sensitivity and specificity in detecting RIF-resistant M. tuberculosis, which is encouraging for its application widely.


Assuntos
Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos , Antituberculosos/farmacologia , Antituberculosos/uso terapêutico , Resistência a Medicamentos , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Genótipo , Humanos , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genética , Rifampina/farmacologia , Somália , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/diagnóstico , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/epidemiologia , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/microbiologia
2.
Front Public Health ; 10: 956171, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36062095

RESUMO

Setting: Controlling drug-resistant tuberculosis in Ningbo, China. Objective: Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) has not been employed to comprehensively study Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates, especially rifampicin-resistant tuberculosis, in Ningbo, China. Here, we aim to characterize genes involved in drug resistance in RR-TB and create a prognostic tool for successfully predicting drug resistance in patients with TB. Design: Drug resistance was predicted by WGS in a "TB-Profiler" web service after phenotypic drug susceptibility tests (DSTs) against nine anti-TB drugs among 59 clinical isolates. A comparison of consistency, sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values between WGS and DST were carried out for each drug. Results: The sensitivities and specificities for WGS were 95.92 and 90% for isoniazid (INH), 100 and 64.1% for ethambutol (EMB), 97.37 and 100% for streptomycin (SM), 75 and 100% for amikacin (AM), 80 and 96.3%for capreomycin (CAP), 100 and 97.22% for levofloxacin (LFX), 93.33 and 90.91% for prothionamide (PTO), and 70 and 97.96% for para-aminosalicylic acid (PAS). Around 53 (89.83%) and 6 (10.17%) of the isolates belonged to lineage two (East-Asian) and lineage four (Euro-American), respectively. Conclusion: Whole-genome sequencing is a reliable method for predicting resistance to INH, RIF, EMB, SM, AM, CAP, LFX, PTO, and PAS with high consistency, sensitivity, and specificity. There was no transmission that occurred among the patients with RR-TB in Ningbo, China.


Assuntos
Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos , Antituberculosos/farmacologia , Antituberculosos/uso terapêutico , Resistência a Medicamentos , Etambutol , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genética , Rifampina/farmacologia , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/genética , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/microbiologia
3.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 14879, 2022 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36050506

RESUMO

We performed a high-throughput phenotypic whole cell screen of Mycobacterium tuberculosis against a diverse chemical library of approximately 100,000 compounds from the AbbVie corporate collection and identified 24 chemotypes with anti-tubercular activity. We selected two series for further exploration and conducted structure-activity relationship studies with new analogs for the 4-phenyl piperidines (4PP) and phenylcyclobutane carboxamides (PCB). Strains with mutations in MmpL3 demonstrated resistance to both compound series. We isolated resistant mutants for the two series and found mutations in MmpL3. These data suggest that MmpL3 is the target, or mechanism of resistance for both series.


Assuntos
Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Antituberculosos/química , Antituberculosos/farmacologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Ensaios de Triagem em Larga Escala , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/genética , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/metabolismo
4.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 12: 958240, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36072228

RESUMO

Suboptimal efficacy of the current antibiotic regimens and frequent emergence of antibiotic-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), an etiological agent of tuberculosis (TB), render TB the world's deadliest infectious disease before the COVID-19 outbreak. Our outdated TB treatment method is designed to eradicate actively replicating populations of Mtb. Unfortunately, accumulating evidence suggests that a small population of Mtb can survive antimycobacterial pressure of antibiotics by entering a "persister" state (slowly replicating or non-replicating and lacking a stably heritable antibiotic resistance, termed drug tolerance). The formation of drug-tolerant Mtb persisters is associated with TB treatment failure and is thought to be an adaptive strategy for eventual development of permanent genetic mutation-mediated drug resistance. Thus, the molecular mechanisms behind persister formation and drug tolerance acquisition are a source of new antibiotic targets to eradicate both Mtb persisters and drug-resistant Mtb. As Mtb persisters are genetically identical to antibiotic susceptible populations, metabolomics has emerged as a vital biochemical tool to differentiate these populations by determining phenotypic shifts and metabolic reprogramming. Metabolomics, which provides detailed insights into the molecular basis of drug tolerance and resistance in Mtb, has unique advantages over other techniques by its ability to identify specific metabolic differences between the two genetically identical populations. This review summarizes the recent advances in our understanding of the metabolic adaptations used by Mtb persisters to achieve intrinsic drug tolerance and facilitate the emergence of drug resistance. These findings present metabolomics as a powerful tool to identify previously unexplored antibiotic targets and improved combinations of drug regimens against drug-resistant TB infection.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Tuberculose dos Linfonodos , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos , Antituberculosos/farmacologia , Antituberculosos/uso terapêutico , Carbono , Resistência a Medicamentos , Tolerância a Medicamentos , Humanos , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/tratamento farmacológico
5.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 12: 959911, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36118032

RESUMO

Ethambutol (EMB) is a first-line antituberculosis drug currently being used clinically to treat tuberculosis. Mutations in the embCAB operon are responsible for EMB resistance. However, the discrepancies between genotypic and phenotypic EMB resistance have attracted much attention. We induced EMB resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis in vitro and used an integrated genome-methylome-transcriptome-proteome approach to study the microevolutionary mechanism of EMB resistance. We identified 509 aberrantly methylated genes (313 hypermethylated genes and 196 hypomethylated genes). Moreover, some hypermethylated and hypomethylated genes were identified using RNA-seq profiling. Correlation analysis revealed that the differential methylation of genes was negatively correlated with transcription levels in EMB-resistant strains. Additionally, two hypermethylated candidate genes (mbtD and celA1) were screened by iTRAQ-based quantitative proteomics analysis, verified by qPCR, and corresponded with DNA methylation differences. This is the first report that identifies EMB resistance-related genes in laboratory-induced mono-EMB-resistant M. tuberculosis using multi-omics profiling. Understanding the epigenetic features associated with EMB resistance may provide new insights into the underlying molecular mechanisms.


Assuntos
Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Tuberculose dos Linfonodos , Antituberculosos/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Etambutol/farmacologia , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genética , Proteoma , Serina Proteases
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(17)2022 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36077494

RESUMO

Given the current epidemic of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis, there is an urgent need to develop new drugs to combat drug-resistant tuberculosis. Direct inhibitors of the InhA target do not require activation and thus can overcome drug resistance caused by mutations in drug-activating enzymes. In this work, the binding thermodynamic and kinetic information of InhA to its direct inhibitors, phenoxyphenol derivatives, were explored through multiple computer-aided drug design (CADD) strategies. The results show that the van der Waals interactions were the main driving force for protein-ligand binding, among which hydrophobic residues such as Tyr158, Phe149, Met199 and Ile202 have high energy contribution. The AHRR pharmacophore model generated by multiple ligands demonstrated that phenoxyphenol derivatives inhibitors can form pi-pi stacking and hydrophobic interactions with InhA target. In addition, the order of residence time predicted by random acceleration molecular dynamics was consistent with the experimental values. The intermediate states of these inhibitors could form hydrogen bonds and van der Waals interactions with surrounding residues during dissociation. Overall, the binding and dissociation mechanisms at the atomic level obtained in this work can provide important theoretical guidance for the development of InhA direct inhibitors with higher activity and proper residence time.


Assuntos
Antituberculosos , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Antituberculosos/química , Antituberculosos/farmacologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Ligantes , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/metabolismo , Oxirredutases/metabolismo , Termodinâmica
7.
Molecules ; 27(16)2022 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36014572

RESUMO

Tuberculosis (TB) caused by the bacterial pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) remains a threat to mankind, with over a billion of deaths in the last two centuries. Recent advancements in science have contributed to an understanding of Mtb pathogenesis and developed effective control tools, including effective drugs to control the global pandemic. However, the emergence of drug resistant Mtb strains has seriously affected the TB eradication program around the world. There is, therefore, an urgent need to develop new drugs for TB treatment, which has grown researchers' interest in small molecule-based drug designing and development. The small molecules-based treatments hold significant potential to overcome drug resistance and even provide opportunities for multimodal therapy. In this context, various natural and synthetic flavonoids were reported for the effective treatment of TB. In this review, we have summarized the recent advancement in the understanding of Mtb pathogenesis and the importance of both natural and synthetic flavonoids against Mtb infection studied using in vitro and in silico methods. We have also included flavonoids that are able to inhibit the growth of non-tubercular mycobacterial organisms. Hence, understanding the therapeutic properties of flavonoids can be useful for the future treatment of TB.


Assuntos
Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Tuberculose , Antituberculosos/farmacologia , Antituberculosos/uso terapêutico , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Flavonoides/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Tuberculose/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose/microbiologia
8.
BMC Infect Dis ; 22(1): 705, 2022 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36002805

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) is a communicable, preventable and curable disease caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB). Peru is amongst the 30 countries with the highest burden of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) worldwide. In the fight against drug-resistant tuberculosis, the UKMYC6 microdilution plate was developed and validated by the CRyPTIC project. The objective of the study was to evaluate the use of the broth microdilution (BMD) plate methodology for susceptibility testing of drug-resistant MTB strains in Peru. METHODS: MTB strains isolated between 2015 and 2018 in Peru were used. 496 nationally-representative strains determined as drug-resistant by the routine 7H10 Agar Proportion Method (APM) were included in the present study. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of 13 antituberculosis drugs were determined for each strain using the UKMYC6 microdilution plates. Diagnostic agreement between APM and BMD plate methodology was determined for rifampicin, isoniazid, ethambutol, ethionamide, kanamycin and levofloxacin. Phenotypes were set using binary (or ternary) classification based on Epidemiological cut-off values (ECOFF/ECV) proposed by the CRyPTIC project. Whole Genome Sequencing (WGS) was performed on strains with discrepant results between both methods. RESULTS: MIC distributions were determined for 13 first- and second-line anti-TB drugs, including new (bedaquiline, delamanid) and repurposed (clofazimine, linezolid) agents. MIC results were available for 80% (397/496) of the strains at 14 days and the remainder at 21 days. The comparative analysis determined a good agreement (0.64 ≤ k ≤ 0.79) for the drugs rifampicin, ethambutol, ethionamide and kanamycin, and the best agreement (k > 0.8) for isoniazid and levofloxacin. Overall, 12% of MIC values were above the UKMYC6 plate dilution ranges, most notably for the drugs rifampicin and rifabutin. No strain presented MICs higher than the ECOFF/ECV values for the new or repurposed drugs. Discrepant analysis using genotypic susceptibility testing by WGS supported half of the results obtained by APM (52%, 93/179) and half of those obtained by BMD plate methodology (48%, 86/179). CONCLUSIONS: The BMD methodology using the UKMYC6 plate allows the complete susceptibility characterization, through the determination of MICs, of drug-resistant MTB strains in Peru. This methodology shows good diagnostic performances for rifampicin, isoniazid, ethambutol, ethionamide, kanamycin and levofloxacin. It also allows for the characterization of MICs for other drugs used in previous years against tuberculosis, as well as for new and repurposed drugs recently introduced worldwide.


Assuntos
Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Tuberculose dos Linfonodos , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos , Antituberculosos/farmacologia , Etambutol/farmacologia , Etionamida , Humanos , Isoniazida , Canamicina , Levofloxacino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Peru , Rifampina/farmacologia , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/microbiologia
9.
PLoS One ; 17(8): e0271508, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35930613

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ethiopia is one of the high multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) burden countries. However, phenotypic drug susceptibility testing can take several weeks due to the slow growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) strains. In this study, we assessed the performance of a Sanger sequencing approach to predict resistance against five anti-tuberculosis drugs and the pattern of resistance mediating mutations. METHODS: We enrolled 226 MTBC culture-positive MDR-TB suspects and collected sputum specimens and socio-demographic and TB related data from each suspect between June 2015 and December 2016 in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Phenotypic drug susceptibility testing (pDST) for rifampicin, isoniazid, pyrazinamide, ethambutol, and streptomycin using BACTEC MGIT 960 was compared with the results of a Sanger sequencing analysis of seven resistance determining regions in the genes rpoB, katG, fabG-inhA, pncA, embB, rpsL, and rrs. RESULT: DNA isolation for Sanger sequencing was successfully extracted from 92.5% (209/226) of the MTBC positive cultures, and the remaining 7.5% (17/226) strains were excluded from the final analysis. Based on pDST results, drug resistance proportions were as follows: isoniazid: 109/209 (52.2%), streptomycin: 93/209 (44.5%), rifampicin: 88/209 (42.1%), ethambutol: 74/209 (35.4%), and pyrazinamide: 69/209 (33.0%). Resistance against isoniazid was mainly mediated by the mutation katG S315T (97/209, 46.4%) and resistance against rifampicin by rpoB S531L (58/209, 27.8%). The dominating resistance-conferring mutations for ethambutol, streptomycin, and pyrazinamide affected codon 306 in embB (48/209, 21.1%), codon 88 in rpsL (43/209, 20.6%), and codon 65 in pncA (19/209, 9.1%), respectively. We observed a high agreement between phenotypic and genotypic DST, such as 89.9% (at 95% confidence interval [CI], 84.2%-95.8%) for isoniazid, 95.5% (95% CI, 91.2%-99.8%) for rifampicin, 98.6% (95% CI, 95.9-100%) for ethambutol, 91.3% (95% CI, 84.6-98.1%) for pyrazinamide and 57.0% (95% CI, 46.9%-67.1%) for streptomycin. CONCLUSION: We detected canonical mutations implicated in resistance to rifampicin, isoniazid, pyrazinamide, ethambutol, and streptomycin. High agreement with phenotypic DST results for all drugs renders Sanger sequencing promising to be performed as a complementary measure to routine phenotypic DST in Ethiopia. Sanger sequencing directly from sputum may accelerate accurate clinical decision-making in the future.


Assuntos
Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos , Antituberculosos/farmacologia , Antituberculosos/uso terapêutico , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla/genética , Etambutol/farmacologia , Etambutol/uso terapêutico , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Isoniazida/farmacologia , Isoniazida/uso terapêutico , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Mutação , Pirazinamida , Rifampina/farmacologia , Rifampina/uso terapêutico , Estreptomicina/farmacologia , Estreptomicina/uso terapêutico , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/diagnóstico , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/genética
10.
PLoS One ; 17(8): e0271297, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35947609

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The AID line probe assay has shown promising evaluation data on the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis as well as 1st- and 2nd-line drug resistance, using isolates and selected clinical samples in previous studies. METHODS: The diagnostic performance of three AID-modules (AID INH/RIF, AID FQ/EMB and AID AG) was analyzed in sputum samples from patients with presumed tuberculosis against culture methods and phenotypic drug resistance as reference standards. RESULTS: 59 patients had culture-confirmed tuberculosis. All AID modules showed moderate sensitivity (46/59, 78.0%, 65.3-87.7) and very good specificity (100%, 95.5%, 93.7%). There was a high proportion of invalid tests, resulting in 32.6%, 78.3% and 19.6% of 46 AID-positive tuberculosis cases, who could not be assessed for drug resistance by the AID INH/RIF-, AID FQ/EM- and AID AG-module, respectively. A small number of patients showed drug resistance by reference standards: Three MDR-TB cases plus three, one and one patients with resistance to streptomycin, fluoroquinolones and aminoglycosides, respectively. The AID-assay detected all MDR-TB cases, two of three streptomycin-resistant TB cases, one of one of fluoroquinolone-resistant and missed one aminoglycoside-resistant TB case. DISCUSSION: The high proportion of invalid results precludes the use of the AID-assay from direct sputum-based tuberculosis and drug-resistance testing.


Assuntos
Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Tuberculose dos Linfonodos , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos , Antituberculosos/farmacologia , Antituberculosos/uso terapêutico , Resistência a Medicamentos , Fluoroquinolonas , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Rifampina , Romênia , Estreptomicina , Tuberculose dos Linfonodos/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/diagnóstico , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/microbiologia
12.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 58(67): 9361-9364, 2022 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35917119

RESUMO

Dimeric boronic acids kill Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) by targeting mycobacterial specific extracellular glycans, removing the requirement for a therapeutic agent to permeate the complex cell envelope. Here we report the successful development and use of new 'clickable' boronic acid probes as a powerful method to enable the direct detection and visualisation of this unique class of cell-surface targeting antitubercular agents.


Assuntos
Ácidos Borônicos , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Antituberculosos/metabolismo , Antituberculosos/farmacologia , Ácidos Borônicos/metabolismo , Ácidos Borônicos/farmacologia , Polímeros/metabolismo , Polissacarídeos/metabolismo
13.
Microbiol Spectr ; 10(4): e0075422, 2022 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35924839

RESUMO

Drug resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) has long been a serious health issue worldwide. Most drug-resistant MTB isolates were identified due to treatment failure or in clinical examinations 3~6 months postinfection. In this study, we propose a whole-genome sequencing (WGS) pipeline via the Nanopore MinION platform to facilitate the efficacy of phenotypic identification of clinical isolates. We used the Nanopore MinION platform to perform WGS of clinical MTB isolates, including susceptible (n = 30) and rifampin- (RIF) or rifabutin (RFB)-resistant isolates (n = 20) according to results of a susceptibility test. Nonsynonymous variants within the rpoB gene associated with RIF resistance were identified using the WGS analytical pipeline. In total, 131 variants within the rpoB gene in RIF-resistant isolates were identified. The presence of the emergent Asp531Gly or His445Gln was first identified to be associated with the rifampin and rifabutin resistance signatures of clinical isolates. The results of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) test further indicated that the Ser450Leu or the mutant within the rifampin resistance-determining region (RRDR)-associated rifabutin-resistant signature was diminished in the presence of novel mutants, including Phe669Val, Leu206Ile, or Met148Leu, identified in this study. IMPORTANCE Current approaches to diagnose drug-resistant MTB are time-consuming, consequently leading to inefficient intervention or further disease transmission. In this study, we curated lists of coding variants associated with differential rifampin and rifabutin resistant signatures using a single molecule real-time (SMRT) sequencing platform with a shorter hands-on time. Accordingly, the emerging WGS pipeline constitutes a potential platform for efficacious and accurate diagnosis of drug-resistant MTB isolates.


Assuntos
Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos , Antituberculosos/farmacologia , Antituberculosos/uso terapêutico , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , RNA Polimerases Dirigidas por DNA/genética , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Mutação , Rifabutina/farmacologia , Rifampina/farmacologia , Rifampina/uso terapêutico , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/tratamento farmacológico
14.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 5105, 2022 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36042200

RESUMO

Transmission-driven multi-/extensively drug resistant (M/XDR) tuberculosis (TB) is the largest single contributor to human mortality due to antimicrobial resistance. A few major clades of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex belonging to lineage 2, responsible for high prevalence of MDR-TB in Eurasia, show outstanding transnational distributions. Here, we determined factors underlying the emergence and epidemic spread of the W148 clade by genome sequencing and Bayesian demogenetic analyses of 720 isolates from 23 countries. We dated a common ancestor around 1963 and identified two successive epidemic expansions in the late 1980s and late 1990s, coinciding with major socio-economic changes in the post-Soviet Era. These population expansions favored accumulation of resistance mutations to up to 11 anti-TB drugs, with MDR evolving toward additional resistances to fluoroquinolones and second-line injectable drugs within 20 years on average. Timescaled haplotypic density analysis revealed that widespread acquisition of compensatory mutations was associated with transmission success of XDR strains. Virtually all W148 strains harbored a hypervirulence-associated ppe38 gene locus, and incipient recurrent emergence of prpR mutation-mediated drug tolerance was detected. The outstanding genetic arsenal of this geographically widespread M/XDR strain clade represents a "perfect storm" that jeopardizes the successful introduction of new anti-M/XDR-TB antibiotic regimens.


Assuntos
Tuberculose Extensivamente Resistente a Medicamentos , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos , Antituberculosos/farmacologia , Antituberculosos/uso terapêutico , Teorema de Bayes , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla/genética , Tuberculose Extensivamente Resistente a Medicamentos/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose Extensivamente Resistente a Medicamentos/epidemiologia , Tuberculose Extensivamente Resistente a Medicamentos/microbiologia , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/epidemiologia , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/microbiologia
15.
J Med Chem ; 65(15): 10534-10553, 2022 08 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35915958

RESUMO

In this work, pyrrole-2-carboxamides were designed with a structure-guided strategy based on the crystal structure of MmpL3 and a pharmacophore model. The structure-activity relationship studies revealed that attaching phenyl and pyridyl groups with electron-withdrawing substituents to the pyrrole ring and attaching bulky substituents to the carboxamide greatly improved anti-TB activity. Most compounds showed potent anti-TB activity (MIC < 0.016 µg/mL) and low cytotoxicity (IC50 > 64 µg/mL). Compound 32 displayed excellent activity against drug-resistant tuberculosis, good microsomal stability, almost no inhibition of the hERG K+ channel, and good in vivo efficacy. Furthermore, the target of the pyrrole-2-carboxamides was identified by measuring their potency against M. smegmatis expressing wild-type and mutated variants of the mmpL3 gene from M. tuberculosis (mmpL3tb) and determining their effect on mycolic acid biosynthesis using a [14C] acetate metabolic labeling assay. The present study provides new MmpL3 inhibitors that are promising anti-TB agents.


Assuntos
Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos , Antituberculosos/farmacologia , Antituberculosos/uso terapêutico , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Humanos , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Pirróis/química , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
16.
J Antibiot (Tokyo) ; 75(10): 552-558, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35941150

RESUMO

Identifying small compounds capable of inhibiting Mycobacterium tuberculosis polyketide synthase 13 (Pks13), in charge of final step of mycolic acid biosynthesis, could lead to the development of a novel antituberculosis drug. This study screened for lead compounds capable of targeting M. tuberculosis Pks13 from a chemical library comprising 154,118 compounds through multiple in silico docking simulations. The parallel compound screening (PCS), conducted via two genetic algorithm-based programs was applied in the screening strategy. Out of seven experimentally validated compounds, four compounds showed inhibitory effects on the growth of the model mycobacteria (Mycobacterium smegmatis). Subsequent docking simulation of analogs of the promising leads with the assistance of PCS resulted in the identification of three additional compounds with potent antimycobacterial effects (compounds A1, A2, and A5). Further, molecular dynamics simulation predicted stable interaction between M. tuberculosis Pks13 active site and compound A2, which showed potent antimycobacterial activity comparable to that of isoniazid. The present study demonstrated the efficacy of in silico structure-based drug screening through PCS in antituberculosis drug discovery.


Assuntos
Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Tuberculose , Algoritmos , Antituberculosos/química , Antituberculosos/farmacologia , Proteínas de Bactérias , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Humanos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Policetídeo Sintases , Tuberculose/microbiologia
17.
PLoS Biol ; 20(8): e3001721, 2022 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35944069

RESUMO

The Comprehensive Resistance Prediction for Tuberculosis: an International Consortium (CRyPTIC) presents here a data compendium of 12,289 Mycobacterium tuberculosis global clinical isolates, all of which have undergone whole-genome sequencing and have had their minimum inhibitory concentrations to 13 antitubercular drugs measured in a single assay. It is the largest matched phenotypic and genotypic dataset for M. tuberculosis to date. Here, we provide a summary detailing the breadth of data collected, along with a description of how the isolates were selected, collected, and uniformly processed in CRyPTIC partner laboratories across 23 countries. The compendium contains 6,814 isolates resistant to at least 1 drug, including 2,129 samples that fully satisfy the clinical definitions of rifampicin resistant (RR), multidrug resistant (MDR), pre-extensively drug resistant (pre-XDR), or extensively drug resistant (XDR). The data are enriched for rare resistance-associated variants, and the current limits of genotypic prediction of resistance status (sensitive/resistant) are presented by using a genetic mutation catalogue, along with the presence of suspected resistance-conferring mutations for isolates resistant to the newly introduced drugs bedaquiline, clofazimine, delamanid, and linezolid. Finally, a case study of rifampicin monoresistance demonstrates how this compendium could be used to advance our genetic understanding of rare resistance phenotypes. The data compendium is fully open source and it is hoped that it will facilitate and inspire future research for years to come.


Assuntos
Tuberculose Extensivamente Resistente a Medicamentos , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos , Antituberculosos/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla/genética , Tuberculose Extensivamente Resistente a Medicamentos/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose Extensivamente Resistente a Medicamentos/microbiologia , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Mutação , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genética , Fenótipo , Rifampina , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/genética , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/microbiologia
18.
PLoS Biol ; 20(8): e3001755, 2022 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35944070

RESUMO

The emergence of drug-resistant tuberculosis is a major global public health concern that threatens the ability to control the disease. Whole-genome sequencing as a tool to rapidly diagnose resistant infections can transform patient treatment and clinical practice. While resistance mechanisms are well understood for some drugs, there are likely many mechanisms yet to be uncovered, particularly for new and repurposed drugs. We sequenced 10,228 Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) isolates worldwide and determined the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) on a grid of 2-fold concentration dilutions for 13 antimicrobials using quantitative microtiter plate assays. We performed oligopeptide- and oligonucleotide-based genome-wide association studies using linear mixed models to discover resistance-conferring mechanisms not currently catalogued. Use of MIC over binary resistance phenotypes increased sample heritability for the new and repurposed drugs by 26% to 37%, increasing our ability to detect novel associations. For all drugs, we discovered uncatalogued variants associated with MIC, including in the Rv1218c promoter binding site of the transcriptional repressor Rv1219c (isoniazid), upstream of the vapBC20 operon that cleaves 23S rRNA (linezolid) and in the region encoding an α-helix lining the active site of Cyp142 (clofazimine, all p < 10-7.7). We observed that artefactual signals of cross-resistance could be unravelled based on the relative effect size on MIC. Our study demonstrates the ability of very large-scale studies to substantially improve our knowledge of genetic variants associated with antimicrobial resistance in M. tuberculosis.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Antituberculosos/farmacologia , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Mutação , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genética , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/genética , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/microbiologia
19.
Int J Tuberc Lung Dis ; 26(9): 869-874, 2022 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35996285

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rapid diagnosis of drug-resistant TB is critical for early initiation of effective therapy. YD Diagnostics in South Korea recently developed the MolecuTech® REBA MTB-XMDR test to rapidly detect multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB), pre-extensively drug-resistant TB (pre-XDR-TB) and resistance to second-line injectable drugs (SLIDs) simultaneously using a fully automated test platform. This study aimed to evaluate the MolecuTech® test for the detection of MDR- and pre-XDR-TB, as well as SLID resistance.METHODS: A total of 151 clinical Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from South Korea were tested using the MolecuTech test, and the results were analysed by comparing these with phenotypic drug susceptibility testing (pDST) and sequencing.RESULTS: Compared to pDST, the MolecuTech test showed a sensitivity and specificity of respectively 97.7% and 100.0% for rifampicin (RIF), 82.4% and 100.0% for isoniazid (INH), 97.5% and 97.2% for fluoroquinolones (FQs), and 94.0% and 98.8% for SLIDs. Concordances with the sequencing results of each resistance determinant were 99.3% for RIF, 96.7% for INH, 98.7% for FQs and 99.3% for SLIDs.CONCLUSION: The MolecuTech test is an efficient and reliable rapid molecular diagnostic tool for the simultaneous screening of MDR- and pre-XDR-TB.


Assuntos
Tuberculose Extensivamente Resistente a Medicamentos , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos , Antituberculosos/farmacologia , Antituberculosos/uso terapêutico , Tuberculose Extensivamente Resistente a Medicamentos/diagnóstico , Tuberculose Extensivamente Resistente a Medicamentos/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose Extensivamente Resistente a Medicamentos/microbiologia , Fluoroquinolonas/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Isoniazida/farmacologia , Isoniazida/uso terapêutico , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Rifampina/farmacologia , Rifampina/uso terapêutico , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/diagnóstico , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/microbiologia
20.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 12: 956311, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35959378

RESUMO

Tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) is an ancient chronic infectious disease and is still the leading cause of death worldwide due to a single infectious disease. MTB can achieve immune escape by interacting with host cells through its special cell structure and secreting a variety of effector proteins. Innate immunity-related pattern recognition receptors (PPR receptors) play a key role in the regulation of signaling pathways. In this review, we focus on the latest research progress on related signal transduction molecules in the interaction between MTB and the host. In addition, we provide new research ideas for the development of new anti-tuberculosis drug targets and lead compounds and provide an overview of information useful for approaching future tuberculosis host-oriented treatment research approaches and strategies, which has crucial scientific guiding significance and research value.


Assuntos
Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Tuberculose dos Linfonodos , Antituberculosos/farmacologia , Antituberculosos/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Imunidade Inata , Receptores de Reconhecimento de Padrão
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