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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e253508, 2024. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1360218

RESUMO

Present research work represents antiviral and antibacterial value of body fat of Saara hardwickii commonly called as spiny tailed lizard. Oil was extracted from body fats located in the ventral region of this animal using hydrocarbons e.g., n-hexane, methanol, butanol and ethyl acetate as a solvent. The antibacterial activity of lizard oil was tested against standard as well as multi-resistant lines ofEscherichia coli, Styphalococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Proteus vulgaris alone and with antibiotic ampicillin. For antibacterial potential, Ethyl acetate and Butanol solvent extract showed best zone of inhibition (7mm) with P. aeruginosa and S. aureus respectively. For antiviral potential, Butanol and Methanol extract showed best HA (Hemagglutination) titer of 04 with NDV and IBV viral strain respectively. It is concluded that lizard oil has antimicrobial potential against different pathogens strains (virus, bacteria).


O presente trabalho de pesquisa apresenta a importância antiviral e antibacteriana da gordura corporal de Saara hardwickii, comumente chamado de lagarto de cauda espinhosa. O óleo foi extraído de gorduras corporais localizadas na região ventral desse animal usando hidrocarbonetos, por exemplo, n-hexano, metanol, butanol e acetato de etila, como solvente. A atividade antibacteriana do óleo do lagarto foi testada em linhagens padrão e multirresistentes de Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa e Proteus vulgaris, de forma isolada e com antibiótico ampicilina. Para o potencial antibacteriano, acetato de etila e extrato de butanol apresentaram melhor zona de inibição (7 mm) com P. aeruginosa e S. aureus, respectivamente. Para o potencial antiviral, o extrato de butanol e o extrato de metanol apresentaram melhor título de hemaglutinação de 4 com as cepas virais NDV e IBV, respectivamente. Conclui-se que o óleo do lagarto possui potencial antimicrobiano contra diferentes cepas de patógenos (vírus e bactérias).


Assuntos
Animais , Antivirais , Tecido Adiposo , Lagartos , Antibacterianos
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e248083, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278546

RESUMO

Abstract Species of the genus Cordia have shown biological activities, such as anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antioxidant, antiviral, and antifungal activities. The species Cordia glabrata (MART) A.DC. Has no information concerning its phytochemical profile and possible biological activities. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate this profile in ethanolic extracts of young, adult and senescent leaves, as well as their antioxidant, photoprotective, antimicrobial, and virucidal potentials. Phytochemical analysis was performed by TLC (thin-layer chromatography) and showed the presence of flavonoids, tannins, and terpenes. The evaluation by UPLC-MS/MS (Ultra performance liquid chromatography - tandem mass spectrometer) evidenced the presence of caffeic (3.89 mgL-1), p-cumaric (6.13 mgL-1), and ferulic (0.58 mgL-1) acids, whilst, in GC/MS (Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry) analysis there was a greater amount of palmitic (51.17%), stearic (20.34%), linoleic (9.62%), and miristic (8.16%) fatty acids. The DPPH (2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) and ABTS+ (2′-Azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)) radicals were used to verify the potential antioxidant activity, observing a better activity for the leaf extract in the adult phenological stage: 54.63 ± 1.06 µgmL-1 (DPPH) and 44.21 ± 1.69 mM (ABTS). The potential photoprotective activity of the extracts was determined by spectrophotometry and the in vitro values of SPF (Sun Protection Factor) in young and adult leaves (5.47 and 5.41, respectively) showed values close to the minimum SPF of 6.0 required by ANVISA (Brazilian Health Regulatory Agency). It was not observed an antimicrobial activity for Staphylococcus aureus with a minimum inhibitory concentration of 2000 μgmL-1, however the anti-herpetic assay against the Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) showed a potent virucidal activity at the tested concentrations with CV50 value <0.195 μgmL-1 and a Selectivity Index (SI = CC50 / CV50) greater than 448. The results obtained in this study suggest that extracts of leaves of C. glabrata in their adult phenological stage have potential antioxidant, photoprotective and virucidal activity, considering in vitro test results.


Resumo Espécies do gênero Cordia apresentam atividades biológicas, como anti-inflamatória, analgésica, antioxidante, antiviral e antifúngica. Para a espécie Cordia glabrata (MART) A.DC., ainda não existem informações sobre seu perfil fitoquímico e possíveis atividades biológicas, deste modo, o presente estudo teve como objetivo avaliar este perfil em extratos etanólicos de folhas jovens, adultas e senescentes, bem como o potencial antioxidante, fotoprotetor, antimicrobiano e virucida. A análise fitoquímica foi realizada por CCD (Cromatografia em Camada Delgada), mostrando a presença de flavonóides, taninos e terpenos. Na avaliação por CLAE EM/EM (Cromatografia Líquida de Ultra Eficiência acoplada a Espectrometria de Massas) foi evidenciado a presença dos ácidos caféico (3,89 mgL-1), p-cumárico (6,13 mgL-1) e ferúlico (0,58 mgL-1), paralelamente, na CG/EM (Cromatografia Gasosa acoplada a Espectrometria de Massas) verificou-se maior quantidade dos ácidos graxos palmítico (51,17%), esteárico (20,34%), linoléico (9,62%) e mirístico (8,16%). Os radicais DPPH (2,2-Difenil-1-picrilhidrazil) e ABTS+ (2′-Azino-bis (ácido 3-etilbenzotiazolina-6-sulfônico)) foram utilizados para verificar o potencial antioxidante, observando-se uma atividade superior para o extrato da folha em sua fase fenológica adulta: 54,63 ± 1,06 µgmL-1 (DPPH) e 44,21 ± 1,69 mM (ABTS+). A potencial atividade fotoprotetora dos extratos foi determinada espectrofotometricamente e os valores in vitro de FPS (Fator de Proteção Solar) em folhas jovens e adultas (5,47 e 5,41 respectivamente) apresentaram valores próximos ao FPS mínimo de 6,0 exigido pela ANVISA (Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária). Não foi observada atividade antimicrobiana para Staphylococcus aureus sendo a concentração inibitória mínima de 2000 μgmL-1, no entanto o ensaio anti-herpético contra o vírus Herpes simplex tipo 2 (HSV-2) mostrou uma potente atividade virucida nas concentrações testadas com um valor de CV50 <0,195 μgmL-1 e um Índice de Seletividade (IS = CC50 / CV50) maior que 448. Os resultados obtidos neste estudo sugerem que extratos de folhas de C. glabrata em seu estágio fenológico adulto apresentam potencial antioxidante, fotoprotetora e virucida, considerando os resultados de testes in vitro.


Assuntos
Cordia , Anti-Infecciosos , Antivirais/farmacologia , Brasil , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Cromatografia Líquida , Folhas de Planta , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Antioxidantes/farmacologia
3.
J. Health Biol. Sci. (Online) ; 10(1): 1-12, 01/jan./2022. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1378476

RESUMO

Objective: Analyze lysosomotropic agents and their action on COVID-19 targets using the molecular docking technique. Methods: Molecular docking analyses of these lysosomotropic agents were performed, namely of fluoxetine, imipramine, chloroquine, verapamil, tamoxifen, amitriptyline, and chlorpromazine against important targets for the pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2. Results: The results revealed that the inhibitors bind to distinct regions of Mpro COVID-19, with variations in RMSD values from 1.325 to 1.962 Å and binding free energy of -5.2 to -4.3 kcal/mol. Furthermore, the analysis of the second target showed that all inhibitors bonded at the same site as the enzyme, and the interaction resulted in an RMSD variation of 0.735 to 1.562 Å and binding free energy ranging from -6.0 to -8.7 kcal/mol. Conclusion: Therefore, this study allows proposing the use of these lysosomotropic compounds. However, these computer simulations are just an initial step toward conceiving new projects for the development of antiviral molecules.


Objetivo: aAnalisar agentes lisossomotrópicos e sua ação em alvos de COVID-19 usando a técnica de docking molecular. Métodos: Foram realizadas análises de docagem molecular destes agentes lisossomotrópicos, nomeadamente de fluoxetina, imipramina, cloroquina, verapamil, tamoxifeno, amitriptilina e clorpromazina contra alvos importantes para a patogenia do SARS-CoV-2. Resultados: Os resultados revelaram que os inibidores se ligam a regiões distintas do Mpro COVID-19, com variações nos valores de RMSD de 1.325 a 1.962 Å e energia livre de ligação de -5,2 a -4,3 kcal/mol. Além disso, a análise do segundo alvo mostrou que todos os inibidores se ligaram no mesmo sítio da enzima, e a interação resultante em uma variação de RMSD de 0,735 a 1.562 Å e energia livre de ligação variando de -6,0 a -8,7 kcal/mol. Conclusão: Portanto, este estudo permite propor o uso desses compostos lisossomotrópicos. No entanto, essas simulações em computador são apenas um passo inicial para a concepção de novos projetos para o desenvolvimento de moléculas antivirais.


Assuntos
SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 , Antivirais , Cloroquina , Programas de Rastreamento , Fluoxetina , Amitriptilina , Imipramina
4.
J. Health Biol. Sci. (Online) ; 10(1): 1-10, 01/jan./2022. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1378456

RESUMO

Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the interactions of di- and tri-terpenes from Stillingia loranthacea with the enzyme NSP16-NSP10 of SARS-CoV-2, important for viral replication. Methods: The molecular docking technique was used to evaluate this interaction. Results: The analysis showed that the evaluated compounds obtained RMSD values of 0.888 to 1.944 Å and free energy of -6.1 to -9.4 kcal/mol, with the observation of hydrogen bonds, salt bridges, and pi-sulfur, pi-alkyl, and hydrophobic interactions. Conclusion: Thus, the results obtained show the potential of the compounds analyzed against the selected target. Since computer simulations are only an initial step in projects for the development of antiviral drugs, this study provides important data for future research.


Objetivo: avaliar as interações de di- e tri-terpenos de Stillingia loranthacea com a enzima NSP16-NSP10 de SARS-CoV-2, importante para a replicação viral. Métodos: A técnica de docking molecular foi utilizada para avaliar essa interação. Resultados: A análise mostrou que os compostos avaliados obtiveram valores de RMSD de 0,888 a 1,944 Å e energia livre de -6,1 a -9,4 kcal/mol, observando-se ligações de hidrogênio, pontes salinas e pi-enxofre, pi-alquil, e interações hidrofóbicas. Conclusão: Assim, os resultados obtidos mostram o potencial dos compostos analisados frente ao alvo selecionado. Como as simulações computacionais são apenas um passo inicial nos projetos de desenvolvimento de medicamentos antivirais, este estudo fornece dados importantes para pesquisas futuras.


Assuntos
SARS-CoV-2 , Antivirais , Terpenos , Replicação Viral , Enzimas , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular
6.
PLoS One ; 17(9): e0270718, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36103519

RESUMO

Medical textiles are subject to particularly harsh disinfection procedures in healthcare settings where exposure risks are high. This work demonstrates a fabric treatment consisting of a reactive silver ink and low surface energy PDMS polymer that provides for superhydrophobicity and antiviral properties against enveloped herpes simplex virus stocks even after extended ultrasonic bleach washing. The antiviral properties of reactive silver ink has not been previously reported or compared with silver nanoparticles. The fabric treatment exhibits high static contact angles and low contact angle hysteresis with water, even after 300 minutes of ultrasonic bleach washing. Similarly, after this bleach washing treatment, the fabric treatment shows reductions of infectious virus quantities by about 2 logs compared to controls for enveloped viruses. The use of silver ink provides for better antiviral efficacy and durability compared to silver nanoparticles due to the use of reactive ionic silver, which demonstrates more conformal coverage of fabric microfibers and better adhesion. This study provides insights for improving the wash durability of antiviral silver fabric treatments and demonstrates a bleach wash durable, repellent antiviral treatment for reusable, functional personal protective equipment applications.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Nanopartículas Metálicas , Antivirais , Ácido Hipocloroso , Tinta , Prata/farmacologia , Compostos de Sódio , Têxteis , Ultrassom
7.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 101(35): e30097, 2022 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36107613

RESUMO

Real-life data on the HCV treatment with direct-acting agents in patients with decompensated cirrhosis are scarce. Study to investigate the effectiveness and safety of sofosbuvir-containing regimens in a prospective cohort of patients with HCV decompensated cirrhosis. A total of 150 patients were enrolled (64% male, 84% genotype 1 with a mean age of 61 ± 9 years). The median MELD was 12, and 79% were Child-PughB. Most patients were treated with sofosbuvir and daclatasvir (98%) with ribavirin in 27%. The overall intention to treat SVR12 was 91% (137/150). The most frequent adverse event was anemia (17%), 73% associated with ribavirin. Twenty-one (14%) patients experienced renal dysfunction, 81% AKI I, and 1 discontinued treatment. Thirty-five (23%) patients presented at least 1 infectious episode, mainly respiratory tract infection (29%). Thirty-three patients (22%) had at least 1 episode of cirrhosis decompensation throughout treatment, particularly worsening of previous ascites in 19%. Nine patients died, and among those, 7 patients died from sepsis. The probability of decompensation in 28, 90 and 180 days was 4%, 19% and 25%. During treatment, infection (OR 2.24; 95 CI 1.09-4.61; P = .03) was a predictor of cirrhosis decompensation, and baseline MELD and CHILD ≥ B8 were both associated with infection. In decompensated cirrhosis, the overall virological response was high with mild adverse events. However, this population had a high frequency of liver-associated decompensation and infections.


Assuntos
Hepatite C , Sofosbuvir , Idoso , Antivirais/efeitos adversos , Brasil/epidemiologia , Feminino , Hepatite C/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Interferons/uso terapêutico , Cirrose Hepática/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Ribavirina/uso terapêutico , Sofosbuvir/efeitos adversos , Resposta Viral Sustentada , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
BMC Vet Res ; 18(1): 348, 2022 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36109741

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Atypical porcine pestivirus (APPV) is a neurotropic virus associated with congenital tremor type A-II. A few experimental studies also indicate an association between APPV and splay leg. The overarching aim of the present study was to provide insights into the virome, local cytokine response, and histology of the CNS in piglets with signs of congenital tremor or splay leg. RESULTS: Characterization of the cytokine profile and virome of the brain in piglets with signs of congenital tremor revealed an APPV-associated upregulation of Stimulator of interferon genes (STING). The upregulation of STING was associated with an increased expression of the gene encoding IFN-α but no differential expression was recorded for the genes encoding CXCL8, IFN-ß, IFN-γ, IL-1ß, IL-6, or IL-10. No viral agents or cytokine upregulation could be detected in the spinal cord of piglets with signs of splay leg or in the brain of piglets without an APPV-infection. The histopathological examination showed no lesions in the CNS that could be attributed to the APPV-infection, as no difference between sick and healthy piglets could be seen. CONCLUSION: The results from this study provide evidence of an APPV-induced antiviral cytokine response but found no lesions related to the infection nor any support for a common causative agent.


Assuntos
Infecções por Pestivirus , Pestivirus , Doenças dos Suínos , Animais , Antivirais , Citocinas/genética , Interferons , Interleucina-10 , Interleucina-6 , Infecções por Pestivirus/veterinária , Suínos , Tremor/congênito , Tremor/veterinária , Viroma
9.
Drug Des Devel Ther ; 16: 2995-3013, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36110398

RESUMO

Purpose: The development of effective treatments for coronavirus infectious disease 19 (COVID-19) caused by SARS-Coronavirus-2 was hindered by the little data available about this virus at the start of the pandemic. Drug repurposing provides a good strategy to explore approved drugs' possible SARS-CoV-2 antiviral activity. Moreover, drug synergism is essential in antiviral treatment due to improved efficacy and reduced toxicity. In this work, we studied the effect of approved and investigational drugs on one of SARS-CoV-2 essential proteins, the main protease (Mpro), in search of antiviral treatments and/or drug combinations. Methods: Different possible druggable sites of Mpro were identified and screened against an in-house library of more than 4000 chemical compounds. Molecular dynamics simulations were carried out to explore conformational changes induced by different ligands' binding. Subsequently, the inhibitory effect of the identified compounds and the suggested drug combinations on the Mpro were established using a 3CL protease (SARS-CoV-2) assay kit. Results: Three potential inhibitors in three different binding sites were identified; favipiravir, cefixime, and carvedilol. Molecular dynamics simulations predicted the synergistic effect of two drug combinations: favipiravir/cefixime, and favipiravir/carvedilol. The in vitro inhibitory effect of the predicted drug combinations was established on this enzyme. Conclusion: In this work, we could study one of the promising SARS-CoV-2 viral protein targets in searching for treatments for COVID-19. The inhibitory effect of several drugs on Mpro was established in silico and in vitro assays. Molecular dynamics simulations showed promising results in predicting the synergistic effect of drug combinations.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Proteases 3C de Coronavírus , Amidas , Antivirais/química , Antivirais/farmacologia , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Carvedilol , Cefixima , Cisteína Endopeptidases/química , Cisteína Endopeptidases/metabolismo , Drogas em Investigação , Humanos , Ligantes , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Pirazinas , SARS-CoV-2 , Proteínas Virais
10.
F1000Res ; 112022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36111219

RESUMO

Background: COVID-19 has become a global threat. Since its first outbreak from Wuhan, China in December 2019, the SARS-CoV-2 virus has gone through structural changes arising due to mutations in its surface glycoprotein. These mutations have led to the emergence of different genetic variants threatening public health due to increased transmission and virulence. As new drug development is a long process, repurposing existing antiviral drugs with potential activity against SARS-CoV-2 might be a possible solution to mitigate the current situation. Methods: This study focused on utilizing molecular docking to determine the effect of potential drugs on several variants of concern (VOCs). The effect of various drugs such as baricitinib, favipiravir, lopinavir, remdesivir and dexamethasone, which might have the potential to treat SARS-CoV-2 infections as evident from previous studies, was investigated for different VOCs. Results: Remdesivir showed promising results for B.1.351 variant (binding energy: -7.3 kcal/mol) with residues Gln319 and Val503 facilitating strong binding. Favipiravir showed favorable results against B.1.1.7 (binding energy: -5.6 kcal/mol), B.1.351 (binding energy: -5.1 kcal/mol) and B.1.617.2 (binding energy: -5 kcal/mol). Molecular dynamics simulation for favipiravir/B.1.1.7 was conducted and showed significant results in agreement with our findings. Conclusions: From structural modeling and molecular docking experiments, it is evident that mutations outside the receptor binding domain of surface glycoprotein do not have a sharp impact on drug binding affinity. Thus, the potential use of these drugs should be explored further for their antiviral effect against SARS-CoV-2 VOCs.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Amidas , Antivirais/farmacologia , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Dexametasona , Humanos , Lopinavir , Glicoproteínas de Membrana , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Pirazinas , SARS-CoV-2/genética
11.
Zhongguo Xiu Fu Chong Jian Wai Ke Za Zhi ; 36(9): 1084-1089, 2022 Sep 15.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36111469

RESUMO

Objective: To explore the feasibility and effectiveness of total hip arthroplasty (THA) with acetabulum structural bone grafting using autogenous femoral head through direct anterior approach (DAA) in lateral decubitus position in the treatment of Crowe type Ⅲ and Ⅳ developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH). Methods: Between June 2016 and July 2020, 12 patients with Crowe type Ⅲ and Ⅳ DDH were treated with THA with acetabulum structural bone grafting using autogenous femoral head through DAA in lateral decubitus position. There were 2 males and 10 females with an average age of 60.2 years (range, 50-79 years). Crowe classification was type Ⅲ in 10 hips and type Ⅳ in 2 hips. The preoperative Harris score of hip joint was 48.8±7.5, the difference in length of both lower extremities was (3.0±0.7) cm, and the visual analogue scale (VAS) score during activity was 7.2±0.9. The surgical incision length, operation time, intraoperative blood loss, and complications were recorded; the position and press-fitting of acetabulum and femoral prosthesis were observed after operation, and the difference in length of both lower extremities was measured; the horizontal coverage of acetabular cup and bone graft were measured, the healing with the host bone and the loosening of the prosthesis were evaluated; Harris score was used to evaluate hip joint function, and VAS score was used to evaluate patients' pain during activity. Results: The average surgical incision length was 9.3 cm, the average operation time was 117 minutes, and the average intraoperative blood loss was 283 mL. Two patients (16.7%) received blood transfusion during operation. There was no acetabular and femoral fractures during operation. All incisions healed by first intention, without dislocation, periprosthetic infection, sciatic nerve injury, deep venous thrombosis, and other complications. One patient had lateral femoral cutaneous nerve injury after operation. X-ray films at discharge showed a total acetabular cup level coverage of 93%-100%, with an average of 97.8%, and a bone graft level coverage of 25%-45%, with an average of 31.1%. All the 12 patients were followed up 22-71 months, with an average of 42.2 months. At last follow-up, the Harris score of hip joint was 89.7±3.9, the difference in length of both lower extremities was (0.9±0.4) cm, and the VAS score during activity was 1.1±0.6, which were significantly different from those before operation (P<0.05). During follow-up, there was no patient who needed hip revision surgery because of prosthesis loosening. At last follow-up, there was no translucent line between the graft and the host bone, the graft was fused, the position was good, and there was no obvious movement. One patient had one screw fracture and bone resorption at the outer edge of the graft, but the bone graft did not displace and healed well. Conclusion: THA with acetabulum structural bone grafting using autogenous femoral head through DAA in lateral decubitus position in the treatment of Crowe type Ⅲ and Ⅳ DDH is safe and reliable, and has satisfactory short-term effectiveness.


Assuntos
Artroplastia de Quadril , Displasia do Desenvolvimento do Quadril , Luxação Congênita de Quadril , Prótese de Quadril , Ferida Cirúrgica , Antivirais , Artroplastia de Quadril/efeitos adversos , Perda Sanguínea Cirúrgica , Transplante Ósseo , Feminino , Luxação Congênita de Quadril/cirurgia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ferida Cirúrgica/etiologia , Ferida Cirúrgica/cirurgia , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
BMC Gastroenterol ; 22(1): 425, 2022 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36115934

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: New direct-acting antiviral therapies have revolutionized hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection therapy. Nonetheless, once liver cirrhosis is established, the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) still exists despite virus eradication. Late HCV diagnosis hinders timely access to HCV treatment. Thus, we determined trends and risk factors associated with late HCV among patients with a diagnosis of HCC in Taiwan. METHODS: We conducted a population-based unmatched case-control study. 2008-2018 Claims data were derived from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. Individuals with an initial occurrence of liver cancer between 2012 and 2018 were included. The late HCV group were referred as individuals who were diagnosed with HCC within 3 years after HCV diagnosis. The control group were referred as individuals who were diagnosed more than 3 years after the index date. We used multivariable logistic models to explore individual- and provider-level risk factors associated with a late HCV diagnosis. RESULTS: A decreasing trend was observed in the prevalence of late HCV-related HCC diagnosis between 2012 and 2018 in Taiwan. On an individual level, male, elderly patients, patients with diabetes mellitus (DM), and patients with alcohol-related disease had significantly higher risks of late HCV-related HCC diagnosis. On a provider level, patients who were mainly cared for by male physicians, internists and family medicine physicians had a significantly lower risk of late diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS: Elderly and patients who have DM and alcohol related disease should receive early HCV screening. In addition to comorbidities, physician factors also matter. HCV screening strategies shall take these higher risk patients and physician factors into consideration to avoid missing opportunities for early intervention.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular , Diabetes Mellitus , Hepatite C Crônica , Hepatite C , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Idoso , Antivirais , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/diagnóstico , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/epidemiologia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Diagnóstico Tardio/efeitos adversos , Hepacivirus , Hepatite C/complicações , Hepatite C/diagnóstico , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Hepatite C Crônica/complicações , Hepatite C Crônica/diagnóstico , Hepatite C Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/etiologia , Masculino
13.
BMC Immunol ; 23(1): 44, 2022 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36115937

RESUMO

Lupus nephritis (LN) is a common and serious clinical manifestation of systemic lupus erythematosus. However, the pathogenesis of LN is not fully understood. The currently available treatments do not cure the disease and appear to have a variety of side effects in the long term. The purpose of this study was to search for key molecules involved in the LN immune response through bioinformatics techniques to provide a reference for LN-specific targeted therapy. The GSE112943 dataset was downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus database, and 20 of the samples were selected for analysis. In total, 2330 differentially expressed genes were screened. These genes were intersected with a list of immune genes obtained from the IMMPORT immune database to obtain 128 differentially expressed immune-related genes. Enrichment analysis showed that most of these genes were enriched in the interferon signalling pathway. Gene set enrichment analysis revealed that the sample was significantly enriched for expression of the interferon signalling pathway. Further analysis of the core gene cluster showed that nine genes, GBP2, VCAM1, ADAR, IFITM1, BST2, MX2, IRF5, OAS1 and TRIM22, were involved in the interferon signalling pathway. According to our analysis, the guanylate binding protein 2 (GBP2), interferon regulatory factor 5 and 2'-5'-oligoadenylate synthetase 1 (OAS1) genes are involved in three interferon signalling pathways. At present, we do not know whether GBP2 is associated with LN. Therefore, this study focused on the relationship between GBP2 and LN pathogenesis. We speculate that GBP2 may play a role in the pathogenesis of LN as a member of the interferon signalling pathway. Further immunohistochemical results showed that the expression of GBP2 was increased in the renal tissues of LN patients compared with the control group, confirming this conjecture. In conclusion, GBP2 is a member of the interferon signalling pathway that may have implications for the pathogenesis of LN and serves as a potential biomarker for LN.


Assuntos
Nefrite Lúpica , Antivirais , Biomarcadores , Proteínas de Ligação ao GTP , Humanos , Fatores Reguladores de Interferon , Interferons , Ligases
14.
PLoS Pathog ; 18(9): e1010807, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36067210

RESUMO

Understanding the host pathways that define susceptibility to Severe-acute-respiratory-syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and disease are essential for the design of new therapies. Oxygen levels in the microenvironment define the transcriptional landscape, however the influence of hypoxia on virus replication and disease in animal models is not well understood. In this study, we identify a role for the hypoxic inducible factor (HIF) signalling axis to inhibit SARS-CoV-2 infection, epithelial damage and respiratory symptoms in the Syrian hamster model. Pharmacological activation of HIF with the prolyl-hydroxylase inhibitor FG-4592 significantly reduced infectious virus in the upper and lower respiratory tract. Nasal and lung epithelia showed a reduction in SARS-CoV-2 RNA and nucleocapsid expression in treated animals. Transcriptomic and pathological analysis showed reduced epithelial damage and increased expression of ciliated cells. Our study provides new insights on the intrinsic antiviral properties of the HIF signalling pathway in SARS-CoV-2 replication that may be applicable to other respiratory pathogens and identifies new therapeutic opportunities.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Inibidores de Prolil-Hidrolase , Animais , Antivirais , Cricetinae , Hipóxia , Pulmão/patologia , Mesocricetus , Oxigênio , RNA Viral , SARS-CoV-2
15.
PLoS Pathog ; 18(9): e1010743, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36067236

RESUMO

The tripartite motif (TRIM) family of E3 ubiquitin ligases is well known for its roles in antiviral restriction and innate immunity regulation, in addition to many other cellular pathways. In particular, TRIM25-mediated ubiquitination affects both carcinogenesis and antiviral response. While individual substrates have been identified for TRIM25, it remains unclear how it regulates diverse processes. Here we characterized a mutation, R54P, critical for TRIM25 catalytic activity, which we successfully utilized to "trap" substrates. We demonstrated that TRIM25 targets proteins implicated in stress granule formation (G3BP1/2), nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (UPF1), nucleoside synthesis (NME1), and mRNA translation and stability (PABPC4). The R54P mutation abolishes TRIM25 inhibition of alphaviruses independently of the host interferon response, suggesting that this antiviral effect is a direct consequence of ubiquitination. Consistent with that, we observed diminished antiviral activity upon knockdown of several TRIM25-R54P specific interactors including NME1 and PABPC4. Our findings highlight that multiple substrates mediate the cellular and antiviral activities of TRIM25, illustrating the multi-faceted role of this ubiquitination network in modulating diverse biological processes.


Assuntos
Antivirais , DNA Helicases , Antivirais/metabolismo , DNA Helicases/metabolismo , Interferons/metabolismo , Nucleosídeos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a Poli-ADP-Ribose/metabolismo , RNA Helicases/metabolismo , Proteínas com Motivo de Reconhecimento de RNA/metabolismo , Proteínas com Motivo Tripartido/genética , Proteínas com Motivo Tripartido/metabolismo , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/metabolismo , Ubiquitinação , Ubiquitinas/metabolismo
16.
PLoS Pathog ; 18(9): e1010808, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36067252

RESUMO

Previous studies have shown that the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling pathway has antiviral functions or is beneficial for viral replication, however, the detail mechanisms by which mTORC1 enhances viral infection remain unclear. Here, we found that proliferation of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) was decreased after knockdown of mTor (mechanistic target of rapamycin) or injection inhibitor of mTORC1, rapamycin, in Marsupenaeus japonicus, which suggests that mTORC1 is utilized by WSSV for its replication in shrimp. Mechanistically, WSSV infects shrimp by binding to its receptor, polymeric immunoglobulin receptor (pIgR), and induces the interaction of its intracellular domain with Calmodulin. Calmodulin then promotes the activation of protein kinase B (AKT) by interaction with the pleckstrin homology (PH) domain of AKT. Activated AKT phosphorylates mTOR and results in the activation of the mTORC1 signaling pathway to promote its downstream effectors, ribosomal protein S6 kinase (S6Ks), for viral protein translation. Moreover, mTORC1 also phosphorylates eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E-binding protein 1 (4EBP1), which will result in the separation of 4EBP1 from eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) for the translation of viral proteins in shrimp. Our data revealed a novel pathway for WSSV proliferation in shrimp and indicated that mTORC1 may represent a potential clinical target for WSSV control in shrimp aquaculture.


Assuntos
Receptores de Imunoglobulina Polimérica , Vírus da Síndrome da Mancha Branca 1 , Antivirais/farmacologia , Calmodulina/metabolismo , Fator de Iniciação 4E em Eucariotos/metabolismo , Alvo Mecanístico do Complexo 1 de Rapamicina/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Receptores de Imunoglobulina Polimérica/metabolismo , Proteínas Quinases S6 Ribossômicas/metabolismo , Proteínas Quinases S6 Ribossômicas/farmacologia , Transdução de Sinais , Sirolimo/farmacologia , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo , Proteínas Virais/metabolismo , Replicação Viral , Vírus da Síndrome da Mancha Branca 1/metabolismo
17.
PLoS Pathog ; 18(9): e1010799, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36067253

RESUMO

The binding of the SARS-CoV-2 spike to angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) promotes virus entry into the cell. Targeting this interaction represents a promising strategy to generate antivirals. By screening a phage-display library of biosynthetic protein sequences build on a rigid alpha-helicoidal HEAT-like scaffold (named αReps), we selected candidates recognizing the spike receptor binding domain (RBD). Two of them (F9 and C2) bind the RBD with affinities in the nM range, displaying neutralisation activity in vitro and recognizing distinct sites, F9 overlapping the ACE2 binding motif. The F9-C2 fusion protein and a trivalent αRep form (C2-foldon) display 0.1 nM affinities and EC50 of 8-18 nM for neutralization of SARS-CoV-2. In hamsters, F9-C2 instillation in the nasal cavity before or during infections effectively reduced the replication of a SARS-CoV-2 strain harbouring the D614G mutation in the nasal epithelium. Furthermore, F9-C2 and/or C2-foldon effectively neutralized SARS-CoV-2 variants (including delta and omicron variants) with EC50 values ranging from 13 to 32 nM. With their high stability and their high potency against SARS-CoV-2 variants, αReps provide a promising tool for SARS-CoV-2 therapeutics to target the nasal cavity and mitigate virus dissemination in the proximal environment.


Assuntos
Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2 , COVID-19 , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/genética , Antivirais/química , Antivirais/farmacologia , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/metabolismo , Ligação Proteica , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/metabolismo
18.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 299: 115685, 2022 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36067840

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Mayaro fever is a neglected tropical disease. The region of the most significant circulation of the Mayaro virus (MAYV) is the Amazon rainforest, situated in remote areas that are difficult to access and where medicine is scarce. Thus, the regional population uses plants as an alternative for the treatment of various diseases. Fridericia chica is an endemic plant of tropical regions used in traditional medicine to treat fever, malaise, inflammation, and infectious diseases such as hepatitis B. However, its antiviral activity is poorly understood. AIM OF THE STUDY: This study aimed to investigate the anti-MAYV activity of the hydroethanolic extract of the leaves of Fridericia chica (HEFc) in mammalian cells and its possible mechanism of action. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The antiviral activity of HEFc was studied using Vero cell lines against MAYV. The cytotoxicity and antiviral activity of the extract were evaluated by the 3-(4, 5- dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2, 5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The overall antiviral activity was confirmed by the plaque forming units (PFU) method. Then, the effects of HEFc on MAYV multiplication kinetics, virus adsorption, penetration, and post-penetration, and its virucidal activity were determined in Vero cells using standard experimental procedures. RESULTS: HEFc exerted a effect against viral infection in Vero cells at a non-cytotoxic concentration, and no virion was detected in the supernatant in a dose-dependent and selective manner. HEFc inhibited MAYV in the early and late stages of the viral multiplication cycle. The extract showed significant virucidal activity at low concentrations and did not affect adsorption or viral internalization stages. In addition, HEFc reduced virions at all post-infection times investigated. CONCLUSIONS: HEFc has good antiviral activity against MAYV, acting directly on the viral particles. This plant extract possesses an excellent and promising potential for developing effective herbal antiviral drugs.


Assuntos
Alphavirus , Bignoniaceae , Animais , Antivirais/farmacologia , Brometos/farmacologia , Chlorocebus aethiops , Mamíferos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Células Vero
19.
Molecules ; 27(17)2022 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36080333

RESUMO

Enterovirus E (EV-E), a representative of the Picornaviridae family, endemically affects cattle across the world, typically causing subclinical infections. However, under favorable conditions, severe or fatal disorders of the respiratory, digestive, and reproductive systems may develop. There is no specific treatment for enterovirus infections in humans or animals, and only symptomatic treatment is available. The aim of this study was to determine the in vitro antiviral effect of bovine lactoferrin (bLF) against enterovirus E using virucidal, cytopathic effect inhibition, and viral yield reduction assays in MDBK cells. The influence of lactoferrin on the intracellular viral RNA level was also determined. Surprisingly, lactoferrin did not have a protective effect on cells, although it inhibited the replication of the virus during the adsorption and post-adsorption stages (viral titres reduced by 1-1.1 log). Additionally, a decrease in the viral RNA level in cells (by up to 75%) was observed. More detailed studies are needed to determine the mechanism of bovine lactoferrin effect on enterovirus E. However, this highly biocompatible protein ensures some degree of protection against infection by bovine enterovirus, which is particularly important for young animals that receive this protein in their mother's milk.


Assuntos
Infecções por Enterovirus , Enterovirus Bovino , Lactoferrina , Animais , Antivirais/farmacologia , Bovinos , Infecções por Enterovirus/tratamento farmacológico , Lactoferrina/farmacologia , RNA Viral
20.
Molecules ; 27(17)2022 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36080488

RESUMO

Ganlanye (GLY), the leaf of Canarium album (Lour.) DC., is a traditional Chinese medicinal herb for warm disease treatment. We found that its aqueous extract could inhibit the influenza A virus. To find and characterize anti-influenza virus phytochemicals from GLY, we performed (1) bioassay-guided isolation, (2) a cell and animal assay, and (3) a mechanism study. Bioassay-guided isolation was used to identify the effective components. Influenza virus-infected MDCK cell and BALB/c mouse models were employed to evaluate the anti-influenza virus activities. A MUNANA assay was performed to find the NA inhibitory effect. As a result, urolithin M5 was obtained from the crude extract of GLY. It inhibited influenza virus activities in vitro and in vivo by suppressing the viral NA activity. In the MDCK cell model, urolithin M5 could inhibit an oseltamivir-resistant strain. In a PR8-infected mouse model, 200 mg/kg/d urolithin M5 protected 50% of mice from death and improved lung edema conditions. GLY was recorded as a major traditional herb for warm disease treatment. Our study identified GLY as a potent anti-influenza herb and showed urolithin M5 as the active component. We first report the in vivo activity of urolithin M5 and support the anti-influenza application of GLY.


Assuntos
Antivirais , Burseraceae , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1 , Neuraminidase , Animais , Antivirais/química , Burseraceae/química , Cães , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Madin Darby de Rim Canino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Neuraminidase/antagonistas & inibidores , Oseltamivir/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta/química
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