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1.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 10244, 2024 05 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38702350

RESUMO

Access to Hepatis C treatment in Sub-Saharan Africa is a clinical, public health and ethical concern. The multi-country open-label trial TAC ANRS 12311 allowed assessing the feasibility, safety, efficacy of a specific care model of HCV treatment and retreatment in patients with hepatitis C in Sub Saharan Africa. Between November 2015 and March 2017, with follow-up until mid 2019, treatment-naïve patients with HCV without decompensated cirrhosis or liver cancer were recruited to receive 12 week-treatment with either sofosbuvir + ribavirin (HCV genotype 2) or sofosbuvir + ledipasvir (genotype 1 or 4) and retreatment with sofosbuvir + velpatasvir + voxilaprevir in case of virological failure. The primary outcome was sustained virological response at 12 weeks after end of treatment (SVR12). Secondary outcomes included treatment adherence, safety and SVR12 in patients who were retreated due to non-response to first-line treatment. The model of care relied on both viral load assessment and educational sessions to increase patient awareness, adherence and health literacy. The study recruited 120 participants, 36 HIV-co-infected, and 14 cirrhotic. Only one patient discontinued treatment because of return to home country. Neither death nor severe adverse event occurred. SVR12 was reached in 107 patients (89%): (90%) in genotype 1 or 2, and 88% in GT-4. All retreated patients (n = 13) reached SVR12. HCV treatment is highly acceptable, safe and effective under this model of care. Implementation research is now needed to scale up point-of-care HCV testing and SVR assessment, along with community involvement in patient education, to achieve HCV elimination in Sub-Saharan Africa.


Assuntos
Antivirais , Hepacivirus , Sofosbuvir , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , África Central , África Ocidental , Ácidos Aminoisobutíricos , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Antivirais/efeitos adversos , Benzimidazóis/uso terapêutico , Benzimidazóis/efeitos adversos , Benzopiranos , Carbamatos/uso terapêutico , Ciclopropanos/uso terapêutico , Ciclopropanos/efeitos adversos , Quimioterapia Combinada , Estudos de Viabilidade , Fluorenos/uso terapêutico , Fluorenos/efeitos adversos , Genótipo , Hepacivirus/genética , Hepacivirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepatite C/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatite C Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatite C Crônica/virologia , Compostos Heterocíclicos de 4 ou mais Anéis/uso terapêutico , Compostos Heterocíclicos de 4 ou mais Anéis/efeitos adversos , Lactamas Macrocíclicas , Leucina/análogos & derivados , Prolina/análogos & derivados , Prolina/uso terapêutico , Quinoxalinas , Ribavirina/uso terapêutico , Ribavirina/efeitos adversos , Sofosbuvir/uso terapêutico , Sofosbuvir/efeitos adversos , Sulfonamidas/uso terapêutico , Sulfonamidas/efeitos adversos , Resposta Viral Sustentada , Resultado do Tratamento
2.
Wiad Lek ; 77(3): 491-496, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38691791

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Aim: To showcase a rare retinal lesion and the results of contemporary diagnostic and treatment of interferon-induced retinopathy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Materials and Methods: We describe a case of a 36-year-old patient with interferon-induced retinopathy, with hepatitis C, that received prolonged interferon treatment. Clinical signs, examination and combined laser and pharmacologic treatment were showcased in the study. RESULTS: Results: As a result of pharmacologic and laser treatment, the patient's visual acuity increased from 0.1 to 1.0 through the duration of 3 months after treatment. The patients` condition remained stable under dynamic observation. CONCLUSION: Conclusions: Because interferon-induced retinopathy is a rare occurrence in routine ophthalmologic practice, combined laser therapy can be used for treatment of preretinal hemorrhage, which leads to improvement of visual functions and stabilization of the retinal processes. This case is an addition to the few described cases of interferon-induced retinopathy.


Assuntos
Doenças Retinianas , Humanos , Adulto , Doenças Retinianas/induzido quimicamente , Doenças Retinianas/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Acuidade Visual , Antivirais/efeitos adversos , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Interferons/efeitos adversos , Interferons/uso terapêutico , Resultado do Tratamento , Hepatite C/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatite C/complicações
4.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 5: CD003774, 2024 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38700045

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The risk of cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection in solid organ transplant recipients has resulted in the frequent use of prophylaxis to prevent the clinical syndrome associated with CMV infection. This is an update of a review first published in 2005 and updated in 2008 and 2013. OBJECTIVES: To determine the benefits and harms of antiviral medications to prevent CMV disease and all-cause death in solid organ transplant recipients. SEARCH METHODS: We contacted the information specialist and searched the Cochrane Kidney and Transplant Register of Studies up to 5 February 2024 using search terms relevant to this review. Studies in the Register are identified through searches of CENTRAL, MEDLINE, and EMBASE, conference proceedings, the International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) Search Portal, and ClinicalTrials.gov. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs comparing antiviral medications with placebo or no treatment, comparing different antiviral medications or different regimens of the same antiviral medications for CMV prophylaxis in recipients of any solid organ transplant. Studies examining pre-emptive therapy for CMV infection are studied in a separate review and were excluded from this review. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two authors independently assessed study eligibility, risk of bias and extracted data. Summary estimates of effect were obtained using a random-effects model, and results were expressed as risk ratios (RR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) for dichotomous outcomes and mean difference (MD) and 95% CI for continuous outcomes. Confidence in the evidence was assessed using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach. MAIN RESULTS: This 2024 update found four new studies, bringing the total number of included studies to 41 (5054 participants). The risk of bias was high or unclear across most studies, with a low risk of bias for sequence generation (12), allocation concealment (12), blinding (11) and selective outcome reporting (9) in fewer studies. There is high-certainty evidence that prophylaxis with aciclovir, ganciclovir or valaciclovir compared with placebo or no treatment is more effective in preventing CMV disease (19 studies: RR 0.42, 95% CI 0.34 to 0.52), all-cause death (17 studies: RR 0.63, 95% CI 0.43 to 0.92), and CMV infection (17 studies: RR 0.61, 95% CI 0.48 to 0.77). There is moderate-certainty evidence that prophylaxis probably reduces death from CMV disease (7 studies: RR 0.26, 95% CI 0.08 to 0.78). Prophylaxis reduces the risk of herpes simplex and herpes zoster disease, bacterial and protozoal infections but probably makes little to no difference to fungal infection, acute rejection or graft loss. No apparent differences in adverse events with aciclovir, ganciclovir or valaciclovir compared with placebo or no treatment were found. There is high certainty evidence that ganciclovir, when compared with aciclovir, is more effective in preventing CMV disease (7 studies: RR 0.37, 95% CI 0.23 to 0.60). There may be little to no difference in any outcome between valganciclovir and IV ganciclovir compared with oral ganciclovir (low certainty evidence). The efficacy and adverse effects of valganciclovir or ganciclovir were probably no different to valaciclovir in three studies (moderate certainty evidence). There is moderate certainty evidence that extended duration prophylaxis probably reduces the risk of CMV disease compared with three months of therapy (2 studies: RR 0.20, 95% CI 0.12 to 0.35), with probably little to no difference in rates of adverse events. Low certainty evidence suggests that 450 mg/day valganciclovir compared with 900 mg/day valganciclovir results in little to no difference in all-cause death, CMV infection, acute rejection, and graft loss (no information on adverse events). Maribavir may increase CMV infection compared with ganciclovir (1 study: RR 1.34, 95% CI: 1.10 to 1.65; moderate certainty evidence); however, little to no difference between the two treatments were found for CMV disease, all-cause death, acute rejection, and adverse events at six months (low certainty evidence). AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Prophylaxis with antiviral medications reduces CMV disease and CMV-associated death, compared with placebo or no treatment, in solid organ transplant recipients. These data support the continued routine use of antiviral prophylaxis in CMV-positive recipients and CMV-negative recipients of CMV-positive organ transplants.


Assuntos
Antivirais , Infecções por Citomegalovirus , Ganciclovir , Transplante de Órgãos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Humanos , Aciclovir/uso terapêutico , Aciclovir/efeitos adversos , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Antivirais/efeitos adversos , Viés , Causas de Morte , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/prevenção & controle , Ganciclovir/uso terapêutico , Ganciclovir/efeitos adversos , Ganciclovir/análogos & derivados , Transplante de Órgãos/efeitos adversos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Transplantados , Valaciclovir/efeitos adversos , Valaciclovir/uso terapêutico , Valganciclovir/efeitos adversos , Valganciclovir/uso terapêutico
5.
BMC Infect Dis ; 24(1): 446, 2024 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38724914

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Amidst limited influenza treatment options, evaluating the safety of Oseltamivir and Baloxavir Marboxil is crucial, particularly given their comparable efficacy. This study investigates post-market safety profiles, exploring adverse events (AEs) and their drug associations to provide essential clinical references. METHODS: A meticulous analysis of FDA Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS) data spanning the first quarter of 2004 to the fourth quarter of 2022 was conducted. Using data mining techniques like reporting odds ratio (ROR), proportional reporting ratio, Bayesian Confidence Propagation Neural Network, and Multiple Gamma Poisson Shrinkage, AEs related to Oseltamivir and Baloxavir Marboxil were examined. Venn analysis compared and selected specific AEs associated with each drug. RESULTS: Incorporating 15,104 Oseltamivir cases and 1,594 Baloxavir Marboxil cases, Wain analysis unveiled 21 common AEs across neurological, psychiatric, gastrointestinal, dermatological, respiratory, and infectious domains. Oseltamivir exhibited 221 significantly specific AEs, including appendicolith [ROR (95% CI), 459.53 (340.88 ∼ 619.47)], acne infantile [ROR (95% CI, 368.65 (118.89 ∼ 1143.09)], acute macular neuroretinopathy [ROR (95% CI), 294.92 (97.88 ∼ 888.64)], proctitis [ROR (95% CI), 245.74 (101.47 ∼ 595.31)], and Purpura senile [ROR (95% CI), 154.02 (81.96 ∼ 289.43)]. designated adverse events (DMEs) associated with Oseltamivir included fulminant hepatitis [ROR (95% CI), 12.12 (8.30-17.72), n=27], ventricular fibrillation [ROR (95% CI), 7.68 (6.01-9.83), n=64], toxic epidermal necrolysis [ROR (95% CI), 7.21 (5.74-9.05), n=75]. Baloxavir Marboxil exhibited 34 specific AEs, including Melaena [ROR (95% CI), 21.34 (14.15-32.18), n = 23], cystitis haemorrhagic [ROR (95% CI), 20.22 (7.57-54.00), n = 4], ileus paralytic [ROR (95% CI), 18.57 (5.98-57.71), n = 3], and haemorrhagic diathesis [ROR (95% CI), 16.86 (5.43-52.40)), n = 3]. DMEs associated with Baloxavir Marboxil included rhabdomyolysis [ROR (95% CI), 15.50 (10.53 ∼ 22.80), n = 26]. CONCLUSION: Monitoring fulminant hepatitis during Oseltamivir treatment, especially in patients with liver-related diseases, is crucial. Oseltamivir's potential to induce abnormal behavior, especially in adolescents, necessitates special attention. Baloxavir Marboxil, with lower hepatic toxicity, emerges as a potential alternative for patients with liver diseases. During Baloxavir Marboxil treatment, focused attention on the occurrence of rhabdomyolysis is advised, necessitating timely monitoring of relevant indicators for those with clinical manifestations. The comprehensive data aims to provide valuable insights for clinicians and healthcare practitioners, facilitating an understanding of the safety profiles of these influenza treatments in real-world scenarios.


Assuntos
Sistemas de Notificação de Reações Adversas a Medicamentos , Antivirais , Dibenzotiepinas , Morfolinas , Oseltamivir , Farmacovigilância , Triazinas , United States Food and Drug Administration , Humanos , Dibenzotiepinas/efeitos adversos , Triazinas/efeitos adversos , Estados Unidos , Oseltamivir/efeitos adversos , Antivirais/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Masculino , Morfolinas/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sistemas de Notificação de Reações Adversas a Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Piridonas/efeitos adversos , Adulto Jovem , Idoso , Influenza Humana/tratamento farmacológico , Criança , Triazóis/efeitos adversos , Tiepinas/efeitos adversos , Pirazinas/efeitos adversos , Piridinas/efeitos adversos , Pré-Escolar , Oxazinas/efeitos adversos
6.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 103(20): e37953, 2024 May 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38758884

RESUMO

To explore the therapeutic effectiveness of tenofovir alafenamide (TAF) and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) on the treatment for chronic hepatitis B (CHB). Retrospectively analyzing 241 cases of chronic hepatitis B patients admitted to our hospital from January 2020 to December 2021, they were divided into a TAF group of 180 cases and a TDF group of 61 cases. The liver function, serum virus markers, clinical efficacy, adverse reactions and cost-effectiveness ratio (CER) analysis of 2 groups were compared. Two groups of patients had no statistically significant difference in the levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and total bilirubin (TBIL) before treatment. After treatment, the levels of ALT, AST and TBIL were lower than before treatment in both groups (P < .05), but the inter-group difference was not statistically significant (P > .05). After treatment, Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) conversion rate and Hepatitis B virus DNA (HBV-DNA) conversion rate in the 2 groups had no statistically significant difference. After treatment, the difference in total clinical cure rate between the 2 groups has no statistical significance (P > .05), adverse reactions rate of TAF group was lower than that of TDF group (P < .05). The drug cost median of TAF group was higher than that of TDF (P < .05), but Cost-effectiveness analysis showed the CER of TAF group was similar of TDF group. TAF or TDF therapy can both improve liver function and promote recovery in patients with CHB, achieving the goal of treatment. TAF have more cost but have similar CER to TDF. Moreover, TAF therapy has a higher safety profile.


Assuntos
Antivirais , Hepatite B Crônica , Tenofovir , Humanos , Tenofovir/uso terapêutico , Tenofovir/efeitos adversos , Tenofovir/análogos & derivados , Hepatite B Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Feminino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Antivirais/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Resultado do Tratamento , Análise Custo-Benefício , Alanina/uso terapêutico , DNA Viral/sangue , Alanina Transaminase/sangue , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/sangue
7.
Iran J Med Sci ; 49(5): 275-285, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38751873

RESUMO

Background: The RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) inhibitors, molnupiravir and VV116, have the potential to maximize clinical benefits in the oral treatment of COVID-19. Subjects who consume these drugs may experience an increased incidence of adverse events. This study aimed to evaluate the safety profile of molnupiravir and VV116. Methods: A comprehensive search of scientific and medical databases, such as PubMed Central/Medline, Embase, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library, was conducted to find relevant articles in English from January 2020 to June 2023. Any kind of adverse events reported in the study were pooled and analyzed in the drug group versus the control group. Estimates of risk effects were summarized through the random effects model using Review Manager version 5.2, and sensitivity analysis was performed by Stata 17.0 software. Results: Fifteen studies involving 32,796 subjects were included. Eleven studies were placebo-controlled, and four were Paxlovid-controlled. Twelve studies reported adverse events for molnupiravir, and three studies described adverse events for VV116. The total odds ratio (OR) for adverse events in the RdRp inhibitor versus the placebo-controlled group was 1.01 (95% CI=0.84-1.22; I2=26%), P=0.88. The total OR for adverse events in the RdRp inhibitor versus the Paxlovid-controlled group was 0.32 (95% CI=0.16-0.65; I2=87%), P=0.002. Individual drug subgroup analysis in the placebo-controlled study showed that compared with the placebo group, a total OR for adverse events was 0.97 (95% CI, 0.85-1.10; I2=0%) in the molnupiravir group and 3.77 (95% CI=0.08-175.77; I2=85%) in the VV116 group. Conclusion: The RdRp inhibitors molnupiravir and VV116 are safe for oral treatment of COVID-19. Further evidence is necessary that RdRp inhibitors have a higher safety profile than Paxlovid.


Assuntos
Antivirais , Tratamento Farmacológico da COVID-19 , Citidina , Hidroxilaminas , RNA Polimerase Dependente de RNA , Humanos , Hidroxilaminas/uso terapêutico , Hidroxilaminas/farmacologia , Citidina/análogos & derivados , Citidina/uso terapêutico , Citidina/farmacologia , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Antivirais/efeitos adversos , Antivirais/farmacologia , Administração Oral , RNA Polimerase Dependente de RNA/antagonistas & inibidores , SARS-CoV-2 , Adenosina/análogos & derivados
8.
J Infect Public Health ; 17(5): 897-905, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38569269

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The efficacy of the viral clearance and clinical outcomes of favipiravir (FPV) in outpatients being treated for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is unclear. Ivermectin (IVM), niclosamide (NCL), and FPV demonstrated synergistic effects in vitro for exceed 78% inhibiting severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) replication. METHODS: A phase 2, open-label, 1:1, randomized, controlled trial was conducted on Thai patients with mild-to-moderate COVID-19 who received either combination FPV/IVM/NCL therapy or FPV alone to assess the rate of viral clearance among individuals with mild-to-moderate COVID-19. RESULTS: Sixty non-high-risk comorbid patients with mild-to-moderate COVID-19 were randomized; 30 received FPV/IVM/NCL, and 30 received FPV alone. Mixed-effects multiple linear regression analysis of the cycle threshold value from SARS-CoV-2 PCR demonstrated no statistically significant differences in viral clearance rates between the combined FPV/IVM/NCL therapy group and the FPV-alone group. World Health Organization Clinical Progression scores and symptomatic improvement did not differ between arms on days 3, 6, and 10, and no adverse events were reported. No patients required hospitalization, intensive care unit admission, or supplemental oxygen or died within 28 days. C-reactive protein on day 3 was lower in the FPV/IVM/NCL group. CONCLUSION: Viral clearance rates did not differ significantly between the FPV/IVM/NCL combination therapy and FPV-alone groups of individuals with mild-to-moderate COVID-19, although the combined regimen demonstrated a synergistic effect in vitro. No discernible clinical benefit was observed. Further research is required to explore the potential benefits of FVP beyond its antiviral effects. TRIAL REGISTRATION: TCTR20230403007, Registered 3 April 2023 - Retrospectively registered,https://trialsearch.who.int/Trial2.aspx?TrialID=TCTR20230403007.


Assuntos
Amidas , COVID-19 , Pirazinas , Adulto , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2 , Ivermectina/uso terapêutico , Niclosamida , Aceleração , Resultado do Tratamento , Antivirais/efeitos adversos
10.
N Engl J Med ; 390(13): 1186-1195, 2024 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38598573

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nirmatrelvir in combination with ritonavir is an antiviral treatment for mild-to-moderate coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19). The efficacy of this treatment in patients who are at standard risk for severe Covid-19 or who are fully vaccinated and have at least one risk factor for severe Covid-19 has not been established. METHODS: In this phase 2-3 trial, we randomly assigned adults who had confirmed Covid-19 with symptom onset within the past 5 days in a 1:1 ratio to receive nirmatrelvir-ritonavir or placebo every 12 hours for 5 days. Patients who were fully vaccinated against Covid-19 and who had at least one risk factor for severe disease, as well as patients without such risk factors who had never been vaccinated against Covid-19 or had not been vaccinated within the previous year, were eligible for participation. Participants logged the presence and severity of prespecified Covid-19 signs and symptoms daily from day 1 through day 28. The primary end point was the time to sustained alleviation of all targeted Covid-19 signs and symptoms. Covid-19-related hospitalization and death from any cause were also assessed through day 28. RESULTS: Among the 1296 participants who underwent randomization and were included in the full analysis population, 1288 received at least one dose of nirmatrelvir-ritonavir (654 participants) or placebo (634 participants) and had at least one postbaseline visit. The median time to sustained alleviation of all targeted signs and symptoms of Covid-19 was 12 days in the nirmatrelvir-ritonavir group and 13 days in the placebo group (P = 0.60). Five participants (0.8%) in the nirmatrelvir-ritonavir group and 10 (1.6%) in the placebo group were hospitalized for Covid-19 or died from any cause (difference, -0.8 percentage points; 95% confidence interval, -2.0 to 0.4). The percentages of participants with adverse events were similar in the two groups (25.8% with nirmatrelvir-ritonavir and 24.1% with placebo). In the nirmatrelvir-ritonavir group, the most commonly reported treatment-related adverse events were dysgeusia (in 5.8% of the participants) and diarrhea (in 2.1%). CONCLUSIONS: The time to sustained alleviation of all signs and symptoms of Covid-19 did not differ significantly between participants who received nirmatrelvir-ritonavir and those who received placebo. (Supported by Pfizer; EPIC-SR ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT05011513.).


Assuntos
Antivirais , Tratamento Farmacológico da COVID-19 , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , COVID-19 , Adulto , Humanos , Antivirais/efeitos adversos , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , COVID-19/terapia , Diarreia/induzido quimicamente , Assistência Ambulatorial , Disgeusia/induzido quimicamente , Vacinação , Vacinas contra COVID-19/uso terapêutico
11.
Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol ; 20(4): 275-292, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38568077

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Since COVID-19 patients are often polytreated, monitoring drug-drug interaction (DDIs) is necessary. We evaluated whether drugs used after the second COVID-19 pandemic wave were associated with DDI-related adverse events and the role of drug interaction checkers in identifying them. METHODS: The study (PROSPERO-ID: CRD42024507634) included: 1) consulting the drug interaction checkers Drugs.com, Liverpool COVID-19 Interactions, LexiComp, Medscape, and Micromedex; 2) systematic review; 3) reviewed studies analysis; 4) evaluating drug interaction checkers potential to anticipate DDI-related adverse events.The systematic review was performed searching PubMed, Scopus, ScienceDirect, and Cochrane databases from 1 March 2022 to 11 November 2023. Observational studies, and clinical trials were included. Article without reporting direct association between DDIs and adverse events were excluded. The risk of bias was assessed by Newcastle-Ottawa scale. RESULTS: The most frequent DDIs involved nirmatrelvir/ritonavir (N/R) and fluvoxamine. Fifteen studies, including 150 patients and 35 DDI-related outcomes, were analyzed. The most frequent DDIs involved tacrolimus with N/R, resulting in creatinine increase.Eighty percent of reported DDI-related adverse events would have been identified by all drug-interaction checkers, while the remaining 20% by at least 2 of them. CONCLUSIONS: Drug interaction checkers are useful but show inconsistencies. Multiple sources are needed to tailor treatment in the context of COVID-19.


Assuntos
Antivirais , Tratamento Farmacológico da COVID-19 , Interações Medicamentosas , Humanos , Antivirais/efeitos adversos , Antivirais/administração & dosagem , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/epidemiologia
12.
Acta Med Okayama ; 78(2): 107-113, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38688828

RESUMO

Vertical transmission of hepatitis B virus (HBV), especially in Asia, is a key target in the global elimination of HBV. This study assessed the effects of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) in pregnant women for mother-to-infant transmission of HBV. A total of 122 pregnant women at our hospital met the inclusion criteria for high HBV DNA viral loads. They were randomly divided into TDF-treatment (n=70) and placebo (n=52) groups. Maternal liver function and serum HBV DNA load were tested before and after treatment. Clinical and laboratory data of infants were assayed at delivery and 7-months post-partum visit and compared between the two groups. There was no difference in clinical characteristics of participants between the two groups. There were no significant differences in liver function markers, including alanine aminotransferase, total bilirubin, blood creatinine, and blood urea nitrogen levels before and after TDF treatment. The serum HBV DNA viral load of the TDF-treated group became significantly lower than those of the control group and their own pre-medication levels. Infants showed no significant difference in body growth, including weight, height, head size, and five-min Apgar score. At 7 months after birth, 94.29% of infants in the TDF group and 86.54% of control-group infants had protective HBsAb levels ≥ 10 mIU/ml (p>0.05). The HBV infection rate of infants in the TDF-treated group was lower than that in the non-treated group. In high-HBV-DNA-load pregnant women, TDF administered from 28 weeks gestational age to delivery was associated with a lower risk of mother-to-infant transmission of HBV.


Assuntos
Antivirais , Hepatite B , Transmissão Vertical de Doenças Infecciosas , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez , Tenofovir , Carga Viral , Humanos , Feminino , Transmissão Vertical de Doenças Infecciosas/prevenção & controle , Gravidez , Tenofovir/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Hepatite B/transmissão , Hepatite B/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatite B/prevenção & controle , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Antivirais/efeitos adversos , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/tratamento farmacológico , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/virologia , Recém-Nascido , Carga Viral/efeitos dos fármacos , Vírus da Hepatite B/efeitos dos fármacos , DNA Viral/sangue
13.
J Clin Virol ; 172: 105678, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38688164

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Valganciclovir (valG), a cytomegalovirus (CMV) prophylactic agent, has dose-limiting side effects. The tolerability and effectiveness of valacyclovir (valA) as CMV prophylaxis is unknown. METHODS: We conducted a randomized, open-label, single-center trial of valA versus valG for all posttransplant CMV prophylaxis in adult and pediatric kidney recipients. Participants were randomly assigned to receive valA or valG. Primary endpoints were the incidence of CMV viremia and side-effect related drug reduction with secondary assessment of incidence of EBV viremia. RESULTS: Of the 137 sequential kidney transplant recipients enrolled, 26 % were positive and negative for CMV antibody in donor and recipient respectively. The incidence of CMV viremia (4 of 71 [6 %]; 8 of 67 [12 %] P = 0.23), time to viremia (P = 0.16) and area under CMV viral load time curve (P = 0.19) were not significantly different. ValG participants were significantly more likely to require side-effect related dose reduction (15/71 [21 %] versus 1/66 [2 %] P = 0.0003). Leukopenia was the most common reason for valG dose reduction and granulocyte-colony stimulating factor was utilized for leukopenia recovery more frequently (25 % in valG vs 5 % in valA: P = 0.0007). Incidence of EBV viremia was not significantly different. CONCLUSIONS: ValA has significantly less dose-limiting side effects than valG. In our study population, a significant increase in CMV viremia was not observed, in adults and children after kidney transplant, compared to valG. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT01329185.


Assuntos
Antivirais , Infecções por Citomegalovirus , Ganciclovir , Transplante de Rim , Transplantados , Valaciclovir , Valganciclovir , Humanos , Valaciclovir/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/prevenção & controle , Valganciclovir/uso terapêutico , Valganciclovir/administração & dosagem , Transplante de Rim/efeitos adversos , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Antivirais/administração & dosagem , Antivirais/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Criança , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adolescente , Ganciclovir/análogos & derivados , Ganciclovir/uso terapêutico , Ganciclovir/administração & dosagem , Ganciclovir/efeitos adversos , Viremia/prevenção & controle , Carga Viral , Adulto Jovem , Valina/análogos & derivados , Valina/uso terapêutico , Valina/administração & dosagem , Citomegalovirus/imunologia , Citomegalovirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Pré-Escolar , Aciclovir/uso terapêutico , Aciclovir/análogos & derivados , Aciclovir/administração & dosagem , Aciclovir/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Resultado do Tratamento , Incidência
14.
Int J Infect Dis ; 143: 107021, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38561040

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Evaluate and compare the efficacy and safety of molnupiravir and favipiravir in outpatients with mild to moderate COVID-19 and at risk of severe COVID-19. METHODS: In an open-label, parallel-group, multicenter trial in Thailand, participants with moderate COVID-19 and at least one factor associated with severe COVID-19 were randomly assigned 1:1 to receive oral molnupiravir or oral favipiravir (standard of care). Phone calls for remote symptom assessment were made on Days 6, 15, and 29. Participants with worsening symptoms were instructed to return to the hospital. The primary endpoint was pulmonary involvement by Day 29, as evidenced by ≥2 of the following: dyspnea, oxygen saturation <92% or imaging. RESULTS: Nine hundred seventy-seven participants (487 molnupiravir, 490 favipiravir) were enrolled from 8 July 2022 to 19 January 2023. 98% had received ≥1 dose of COVID-19 vaccine and 83% ≥3 doses. By Day 29, pulmonary involvement occurred in 0% (0/483) in molnupiravir arm versus 1% (5/482) in favipiravir arm (-1.0%; Newcombe 95.2% CI: -2.4% to -0.0%; P = 0.021); all-cause death in 0% (0/483) and <1% (1/482); COVID-19 related hospitalization in <1% (1/483) and 1% (3/482); treatment-related adverse event in 1% (5/483) and 1% (4/486); and serious adverse event in 1% (4/483) and 1% (4/486). CONCLUSIONS: Favipiravir and molnupiravir had a similar efficacy and safety profile. Whether either of the two reduced the risk of complications during the omicron era in this population with a low risk of pulmonary involvement and a high vaccine coverage remains unclear. There were no differences in any of the safety endpoints. THAI CLINICAL TRIALS REGISTRY ID: TCTR20230111009.


Assuntos
Amidas , Antivirais , Tratamento Farmacológico da COVID-19 , Citidina/análogos & derivados , Pirazinas , SARS-CoV-2 , Humanos , Amidas/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Pirazinas/uso terapêutico , Pirazinas/efeitos adversos , Pirazinas/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Tailândia , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Antivirais/efeitos adversos , Antivirais/administração & dosagem , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto , Citidina/uso terapêutico , Citidina/efeitos adversos , Citidina/administração & dosagem , Hidroxilaminas/uso terapêutico , Hidroxilaminas/efeitos adversos , Hidroxilaminas/administração & dosagem , Idoso , Resultado do Tratamento , COVID-19 , Pacientes Ambulatoriais
15.
World J Gastroenterol ; 30(9): 1253-1256, 2024 Mar 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38577192

RESUMO

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) reactivation (HBVr) represents a severe and potentially life-threatening condition, and preventive measures are available through blood test screening or prophylactic therapy administration. The assessment of HBVr traditionally considers factors such as HBV profile, including hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and antibody to hepatitis B core antigen, along with type of medication (chemotherapy; immunomodulants). Nevertheless, consideration of possible patient's underlying tumor and the specific malignancy type (solid or hematologic) plays a crucial role and needs to be assessed for decision-making process.


Assuntos
Hepatite B , Neoplasias , Humanos , Vírus da Hepatite B , Ativação Viral , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatite B/diagnóstico , Hepatite B/tratamento farmacológico , Antivirais/efeitos adversos
16.
Immun Inflamm Dis ; 12(4): e1262, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38652021

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to compare the effectiveness and safety of molnupiravir and sotrovimab in the treatment of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: Cochrane Library, Web of Science, PubMed, medRxiv, and Google Scholar were systematically searched to identify relevant evidence up to December 2023. The risk of bias was assessed using the risk of bias in nonrandomized studies of interventions tool. Data were analyzed using Comprehensive Meta-Analysis (CMA). RESULTS: Our search identified and included 13 studies involving 16166 patients. The meta-analysis revealed a significant difference between the molnupiravir and sotrovimab groups in terms of the mortality rate (odds ratio [OR] = 2.07, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.16, 3.70). However, no significant difference was observed between the two groups in terms of hospitalization rate (OR = 0.71, 95% CI: 0.47, 1.06), death or hospitalization rate (OR = 1.51, 95% CI: 0.81, 2.83), and intensive care unit admission (OR = 0.59, 95% CI: 0.07, 4.84). In terms of safety, molnupiravir was associated with a higher incidence of adverse events (OR = 1.67, 95% CI: 1.21, 2.30). CONCLUSION: The current findings indicate that sotrovimab may be more effective than molnupiravir in reducing the mortality rate in COVID-19 patients. However, no statistical difference was observed between the two treatments for other effectiveness outcomes. The certainty of evidence for these findings was rated as low or moderate. Further research is required to provide a better comparison of these interventions in treating COVID-19 patients.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados , Anticorpos Neutralizantes , Antivirais , Tratamento Farmacológico da COVID-19 , Citidina , Citidina/análogos & derivados , Hidroxilaminas , SARS-CoV-2 , Humanos , Hidroxilaminas/uso terapêutico , Citidina/uso terapêutico , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Antivirais/efeitos adversos , SARS-CoV-2/efeitos dos fármacos , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/efeitos adversos , COVID-19/mortalidade , COVID-19/virologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos
17.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 5682, 2024 03 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38453980

RESUMO

Sofosbuvir is one of the crucial drugs used in the treatment of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) in adults and children with compensated liver disease, including cirrhosis. It may be used alone or with other drugs. Ribavirin is an antiviral medication used to treat HCV infection. It is not effective when used alone and must be used in combination with other medications, such as sofosbuvir. This study pertains to a comprehensive assessment of the deleterious effects of sofosbuvir (an antiviral drug against chronic HCV) or sofosbuvir combined with ribavirin (an antiviral drug against RNA and DNA viruses) on several biological activities of the body, including hematological, hormonal, biochemical, histological, and immunohistochemical examinations during a long-standing period on male healthy rats. In addition, fertility assessments were performed, including sperm collections and semen parameter investigations. This study was conducted on 21 male rats divided into three equal groups. Group I (control group) received distilled water; group II (sofosbuvir group) received sofosbuvir (4 mg/kg); and group III (sofosbuvir + ribavirin) received sofosbuvir (4 mg/kg) plus ribavirin (30 ml/kg). All groups received the specific drug for six months. Blood and tissue samples were collected for hematological, hormonal, biochemical, histological, and immunohistochemical examinations. In addition, sperm collection and assessments of semen parameters were performed. Results revealed that sofosbuvir causes a highly significant decrease in the mean of most hematological, immunological, hormonal, and biochemical parameters, except for a few numbers of parameters such as neutrophils, monocytes, basophils, cortisol, GOT, and lipase, which exhibit a significant increase. The same occurred in the sofosbuvir + ribavirin group, but at much higher levels, as most hematological, immunological, hormonal, and biochemical parameters exhibit a highly significant decrease except for monocytes, triglyceride, and lipase, which exhibit a significant increase. When compared to the sofosbuvir group alone, the sofosbuvir + ribavirin group demonstrated a highly significant decline in the mean of most hematological, immunological, hormonal, and biochemical parameters except lymphocytes and triglycerides, which exhibit a substantial increase. For the reproductive parameters, both groups exhibit a significant decrease in the total sperm motility percentage. Finally, it can be concluded that sofosbuvir causes acute pancreatitis and combined immunodeficiency. Ribavirin is associated with hormonal deficiency, which indicates the occurrence of hypopituitarism. Moreover, sofosbuvir and ribavirin synergistically affect myelosuppression and cause iron-deficiency anemia. However, sofosbuvir, or its combination with ribavirin, is associated with a reduced risk of hepatocellular carcinoma. Besides, adding ribavirin to be combined with sofosbuvir improved the immunodeficiency caused by sofosbuvir; this confirms that using ribavirin with sofosbuvir reduces the side effects of both alone.


Assuntos
Hepatite C Crônica , Pancreatite , Humanos , Adulto , Criança , Masculino , Animais , Ratos , Antivirais/efeitos adversos , Sofosbuvir/efeitos adversos , Ribavirina/uso terapêutico , Hepatite C Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Hepacivirus/genética , Doença Aguda , Resultado do Tratamento , Quimioterapia Combinada , Pancreatite/induzido quimicamente , Sêmen , Motilidade dos Espermatozoides , Cirrose Hepática/complicações , Lipase/genética , Genótipo
18.
BMC Infect Dis ; 24(1): 301, 2024 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38468199

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Globally, 80 million people are suffering from chronic Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Sofosbuvir ribavirin-based anti-HCV therapy is associated with anemia and other adverse effects. Polymorphisms of Inosine triphosphatase (ITPA) gene may cause functional impairment in the Inosine triphosphate pyrophosphatase enzyme, resulting in enhanced sustained viral response (SVR) and protection from ribavirin-associated anemia in patients on therapy. The study objective was to investigate the effect of Inosine triphosphatase gene polymorphism on SVR achievement, hemoglobin decline and ribavirin dose reduction in patients on therapy. METHODS: This prospective cohort study was of 170 hepatitis C infected patients received 6-month sofosbuvir ribavirin therapy. Patient viral load, reduction in ribavirin amount, liver function test, and complete blood count were noted monthly. Inosine triphosphatase variants rs1127354 and rs7270101 were assessed through the restriction fragment length polymorphism and confirmed using Sanger sequencing. The impact of polymorphism on cumulative reduction of ribavirin, and anti-HCV therapy outcome were studied. RESULTS: A total of 74.3% of patients had ITPA rs1127354 CC genotype, 25.7% were CA and AA 0%. The frequency of ITPA genotype rs7270101-AA was 95%, AC 5%, and CC was 0%. ITPA rs1127354-CA had a notably positive impact on SVR achievement with a zero-relapse rate. ITPA rs1127354-CA genotype was significantly (P ˂0.05) protective against ≥ 2 g/dl Hb reduction from baseline to 1st, 2nd and 6th months of therapy. During treatment, Hb reduction ≥ 10 g/dl was frequently observed in rs1127354-CC genotype and rs7270101-AA genotype patients. Ribavirin dose reduction was significantly (P ˂0.05) high in rs1127354-CC genotype as compared to genotype CA whereas no significant difference was observed in ribavirin dose reduction in rs7270101 AA and non-AA genotype. Patient baseline characteristics such as age, body mass index, rs1127354-CC genotype, and baseline Hb were significantly associated with significant Hb reduction. CONCLUSION: Pretreatment evaluation of ITPA polymorphism can be a diagnostic tool to find out patients at risk of anemia and improve treatment adherence. ITPA genotype rs1127354-CA contributes to improved compliance with ribavirin dose and protects against hemoglobin decline in HCV patients while taking ribavirin-based therapy. However, ITPA rs1127354, rs7270101 polymorphism have no significant impact on SVR achievement.


Assuntos
Anemia , Hepatite C Crônica , Hepatite C , Humanos , Ribavirina/efeitos adversos , Sofosbuvir/efeitos adversos , Hepatite C Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatite C Crônica/genética , Antivirais/efeitos adversos , Inosina Trifosfatase , Hepacivirus/genética , Estudos Prospectivos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Pirofosfatases/genética , Pirofosfatases/uso terapêutico , Anemia/induzido quimicamente , Anemia/genética , Hepatite C/tratamento farmacológico , Genótipo , Hemoglobinas/genética , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther ; 22(4): 139-151, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38459735

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The introduction of direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) has significantly transformed the therapeutic landscape for chronic C hepatitis virus (HCV) infection. However, there is still room for further improvement in optimizing therapy efficacy and minimizing adverse effects. AREAS COVERED: This review is devoted to the rationale for adopting a personalized approach to HCV therapy. Specifically, we explore the role of host-related factors, such as sex or the presence of comorbidities. We thoroughly examine the implications of commonly encountered comorbidities, including HIV infection, chronic renal disease, liver cirrhosis, and other chronic viral hepatitis infections. Additionally, we discuss the prevalent drug-to-drug interactions between DAAs and other medications, while providing guidance on their management. Finally, we investigate viral-related issues that can influence treatment outcomes, such as viral genotype, quasi-species, and the presence of resistance-associated mutations. EXPERT OPINION: Despite pivotal trials demonstrating efficacy rates exceeding 90% for currently available DAA regimens, there are still opportunities to optimize therapy outcomes and tailor treatment to each patient. This can be achieved through a meticulous evaluation of the patient's specific clinical conditions and comorbidities, a vigilant approach to manage potential drug interactions, and diligent patient follow-up.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Hepatite C Crônica , Hepatite C , Humanos , Antivirais/efeitos adversos , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatite C Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatite C/tratamento farmacológico , Hepacivirus/genética
20.
Antimicrob Agents Chemother ; 68(5): e0161523, 2024 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38526047

RESUMO

AT-752 is a novel guanosine nucleotide prodrug inhibitor of the dengue virus (DENV) polymerase with sub-micromolar, pan-serotype antiviral activity. This phase 1, double-blind, placebo-controlled, first-in-human study evaluated the safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics of ascending single and multiple oral doses of AT-752 in healthy subjects. AT-752 was well tolerated when administered as a single dose up to 1,500 mg or when administered as multiple doses up to 750 mg three times daily (TID). No serious adverse events occurred, and the majority of treatment-emergent adverse events were mild in severity and resolved by the end of the study. In those receiving single ascending doses of AT-752, no pharmacokinetic sensitivity was observed in Asian subjects, and no food effect was observed. Plasma exposure of the guanosine nucleoside metabolite AT-273, the surrogate of the active triphosphate metabolite of the drug, increased with increasing dose levels of AT-752 and exhibited a long half-life of approximately 15-25 h. Administration of AT-752 750 mg TID led to a rapid increase in plasma levels of AT-273 exceeding the target in vitro 90% effective concentration (EC90) of 0.64 µM in inhibiting DENV replication, and maintained this level over the treatment period. The favorable safety and pharmacokinetic results support the evaluation of AT-752 as an antiviral for the treatment of dengue in future clinical studies.Registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT04722627).


Assuntos
Antivirais , Vírus da Dengue , Nucleotídeos de Guanina , Pró-Fármacos , Humanos , Antivirais/farmacocinética , Antivirais/efeitos adversos , Antivirais/farmacologia , Pró-Fármacos/farmacocinética , Pró-Fármacos/farmacologia , Pró-Fármacos/efeitos adversos , Vírus da Dengue/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Adulto , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dengue/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto Jovem , Meia-Vida
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