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1.
PLoS Biol ; 18(8): e3000830, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32810128

RESUMO

Plants are attacked by herbivores, which often specialize on different tissues, and in response, have evolved sophisticated resistance strategies that involve different types of chemical defenses frequently targeted to different tissues. Most known phytohormones have been implicated in regulating these defenses, with jasmonates (JAs) playing a pivotal role in complex regulatory networks of signaling interactions, often generically referred to as "cross talk." The newly identified class of phytohormones, strigolactones (SLs), known to regulate the shoot architecture, remain unstudied with regard to plant-herbivore interactions. We explored the role of SL signaling in resistance to a specialist weevil (Trichobaris mucorea) herbivore of the native tobacco, Nicotiana attenuata, that attacks the root-shoot junction (RSJ), the part of the plant most strongly influenced by alterations in SL signaling (increased branching). As SL signaling shares molecular components, such as the core F-box protein MORE AXILLARY GROWTH 2 (MAX2), with another new class of phytohormones, the karrikins (KARs), which promote seed germination and seedling growth, we generated transformed lines, individually silenced in the expression of NaMAX2, DWARF 14 (NaD14: the receptor for SL) and CAROTENOID CLEAVAGE DIOXYGENASE 7 (NaCCD7: a key enzyme in SL biosynthesis), and KARRIKIN INSENSITIVE 2 (NaKAI2: the KAR receptor). The mature stems of all transgenic lines impaired in the SL, but not the KAR signaling pathway, overaccumulated anthocyanins, as did the stems of plants attacked by the larvae of weevil, which burrow into the RSJs to feed on the pith of N. attenuata stems. T. mucorea larvae grew larger in the plants silenced in the SL pathway, but again, not in the KAI2-silenced plants. These phenotypes were associated with elevated JA and auxin (indole-3-acetic acid [IAA]) levels and significant changes in the accumulation of defensive compounds, including phenolamides and nicotine. The overaccumulation of phenolamides and anthocyanins in the SL pathway-silenced plants likely resulted from antagonism between the SL and JA pathway in N. attenuata. We show that the repressors of SL signaling, suppressor of max2-like (NaSMXL6/7), and JA signaling, jasmonate zim-domain (NaJAZs), physically interact, promoting NaJAZb degradation and releasing JASMONATE INSENSITIVE 1 (JIN1/MYC2) (NaMYC2), a critical transcription factor promoting JA responses. However, the increased performance of T. mucorea larvae resulted from lower pith nicotine levels, which were inhibited by increased IAA levels in SL pathway-silenced plants. This inference was confirmed by decapitation and auxin transport inhibitor treatments that decreased pith IAA and increased nicotine levels. In summary, SL signaling tunes specific sectors of specialized metabolism in stems, such as phenylpropanoid and nicotine biosynthesis, by tailoring the cross talk among phytohormones, including JA and IAA, to mediate herbivore resistance of stems. The metabolic consequences of the interplay of SL, JA, and IAA signaling revealed here could provide a mechanism for the commonly observed pattern of herbivore tolerance/resistance trade-offs.


Assuntos
Herbivoria/fisiologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Lactonas/metabolismo , Caules de Planta/metabolismo , Caules de Planta/parasitologia , Transdução de Sinais , Tabaco/metabolismo , Tabaco/parasitologia , Animais , Antocianinas/metabolismo , Ciclopentanos/metabolismo , Ácidos Indolacéticos/metabolismo , Larva , Metabolômica , Oxilipinas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Interferência de RNA , Gorgulhos/fisiologia
2.
Food Chem ; 333: 127439, 2020 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32653686

RESUMO

Anthocyanin is derived from a flavylium cation structure, and it promotes health in humans and functions in plants as protection against environmental stress. The rapid analysis of anthocyanin structure and content is a critical challenge for improving fruit quality. In this study, the tomato cultivar Indigo Rose, which is a popular purple cultivated tomato used for breeding, was taken as an example for anthocyanin analysis. A rapid analysis method was developed to minimize anthocyanin loss from the fresh fruit. Four new anthocyanins were discovered in the tomato, and the structures of a total of 12 anthocyanins were determined. Among these, petunidin-3-(trans-p-coumaroyl)-rutinoside-5-glucoside and malvidin-3-(trans-p-coumaroyl)-rutinoside-5-glucoside were the main anthocyanins in Indigo Rose. The structural modifications of these anthocyanins were mainly glycosylation and acylation, and there were also hydroxylation and methylation. Our findings provide new insight into the biosynthesis pathway in tomato fruit.


Assuntos
Antocianinas/análise , Antocianinas/química , Lycopersicon esculentum/química , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Acilação , Antocianinas/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Congelamento , Frutas/química , Glicosilação , Estrutura Molecular
3.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0231611, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32555603

RESUMO

Plants respond to changes in ultraviolet (UV) radiation both morphologically and physiologically. Among the variety of plant UV-responses, the synthesis of UV-absorbing flavonoids constitutes an effective non-enzymatic mechanism to mitigate photoinhibitory and photooxidative damage caused by UV stress, either reducing the penetration of incident UV radiation or acting as quenchers of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In this study, we designed a UV-exclusion experiment to investigate the effects of UV radiation in Silene littorea. We spectrophotometrically quantified concentrations of both anthocyanins and UV-absorbing phenolic compounds in petals, calyces, leaves and stems. Furthermore, we analyzed the UV effect on the photosynthetic activity in hours of maximum solar radiation and we tested the impact of UV radiation on male and female reproductive performance. We found that anthocyanin concentrations showed a significant decrease of about 20% with UV-exclusion in petals and stems, and a 30% decrease in calyces. The concentrations of UV-absorbing compounds under UV-exclusion decreased by approximately 25% in calyces and stems, and 12% in leaves. Photochemical efficiency of plants grown under UV decreased at maximum light stress, reaching an inhibition of 58% of photosynthetic activity, but their ability to recover after light-stress was not affected. In addition, exposure to UV radiation did not affect ovule production or seed set per flower, but decreased pollen production and total seed production per plant by 31% and 69%, respectively. Our results demonstrate that UV exposure produced opposing effects on the accumulation of plant phenolic compounds and reproduction. UV radiation increased the concentration of phenolic compounds, suggesting a photoprotective role of plant phenolics against UV light, yet overall reproduction was compromised.


Assuntos
Fenóis/análise , Silene/química , Raios Ultravioleta , Antocianinas/análise , Antocianinas/metabolismo , Fenóis/metabolismo , Fotossíntese/efeitos da radiação , Folhas de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/efeitos da radiação , Caules de Planta/química , Caules de Planta/metabolismo , Caules de Planta/efeitos da radiação , Estações do Ano , Sementes/química , Sementes/metabolismo , Silene/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Silene/efeitos da radiação
4.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 201: 110832, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32563158

RESUMO

Ozone (O3), an oxidizing toxic air pollutant, is ubiquitous in industrialized and developing countries. To understand the effects of O3 exposure on apple (Malus) and to explore its defense mechanisms, we exposed 'Hongjiu' crabapple to O3 and monitored its responses using physiological, transcriptomics, and metabolomics analyses. Exposure to 300 nL L-1 O3 for 3 h caused obvious damage to the leaves of Malus crabapple, affected chlorophyll and anthocyanin contents, and activated antioxidant enzymes. The gene encoding phospholipase A was highly responsive to O3 in Malus crabapple. McWRKY75 is a key transcription factor in the response to O3 stress, and its transcript levels were positively correlated with those of flavonoid-related structural genes (McC4H, McDFR, and McANR). The ethylene response factors McERF019 and McERF109-like were also up-regulated by O3. Exogenous methyl jasmonate (MeJA) decreased the damaging effects of O3 on crabapple and was most effective at 200 µmol L -1. Treatments with MeJA altered the metabolic pathways of crabapple under O3 stress. In particular, MeJA activated the flavonoid metabolic pathway in Malus, which improved its resistance to O3 stress.


Assuntos
Acetatos/farmacologia , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Ciclopentanos/farmacologia , Malus , Oxilipinas/farmacologia , Ozônio/toxicidade , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/farmacologia , Transcriptoma/efeitos dos fármacos , Antocianinas/genética , Antocianinas/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Clorofila/metabolismo , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Malus/efeitos dos fármacos , Malus/genética , Malus/metabolismo , Metabolômica , Folhas de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
5.
Food Chem ; 331: 127336, 2020 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32569969

RESUMO

This study investigated the functional properties and structural changes associated with the complexation of rice protein (RP) with anthocyanins (ACN). Furthermore, fractions (i.e., albumin, globulin, prolamin and glutelin) isolated from RP complexed with anthocyanins were examined. The interactions with ACN altered the structure of RP, leading to an increase in the ß-sheet and spectral shift of the amide Ⅱ band. Additionally, fluorescence spectroscopy suggested that the hydrophobic and hydrogen bonds were the dominant forces in the formation of RP-ACN complexes. It was interesting to find that the RP-ACN particles exhibited the best functional properties at pH 3, likely due to the specific conformational changes upon interaction. In addition, the combination of RP and ACN increased the antioxidant ability of RP. Overall, this research suggested that RP-ACN particles at pH 3 can be designed to form and stabilize mesostructures such as foams and emulsion, which can lead to health benefits.


Assuntos
Antocianinas/química , Oryza/química , Proteínas de Vegetais Comestíveis/química , Albuminas/química , Antocianinas/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/química , Emulsificantes/química , Globulinas/química , Glutens/química , Ligação de Hidrogênio , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Proteínas de Vegetais Comestíveis/metabolismo , Prolaminas/química , Conformação Proteica , Espectrometria de Fluorescência , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier
6.
Food Chem ; 331: 127203, 2020 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32574943

RESUMO

Effects of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) (50, 100, 150, 200 and 250 MPa) pretreatment on water mobility and distribution, drying duration, microstructure, color, cell wall fraction and tissue structure of strawberry slices were investigated. HHP significantly increased water mobility of the strawberry slices, resulting in the reduction of drying duration by 9-24%. As the pretreatment pressure was increased, redness value and anthocyanin content continuously increased, soluble pectin (SBP) content increased and then decreased, while the contents of protopectin (PTP) and cellulose decreased. After the HHP pretreatment, chromoplasts and moisture was distributed more uniformly in the strawberry slices. Microscopy images showed the formation of microscopic holes or channels in the matrix and the breakdown of tissue structure by HHP. Results suggested HHP pretreatment disrupted the integrity of the fresh strawberry which enhanced the drying efficiency and migration of the chromoplasts during the vacuum-freeze drying process.


Assuntos
Fragaria/química , Liofilização , Antocianinas/química , Antocianinas/metabolismo , Celulose/química , Cor , Fragaria/metabolismo , Pressão Hidrostática , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Pectinas/química , Pectinas/metabolismo , Água/química
7.
Food Chem ; 326: 126966, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32416419

RESUMO

Phenolic compounds and ascorbic acid were analyzed in one yellow and four purple-flesh potato cultivars grown at 13 °C and 18 °C and harvested at different stages of tuber development, using HPLC-DAD and UHPLC-MS. The expression of genes in the phenylpropanoid pathway was studied at transcription level using qPCR. Petunidin-3-p-coumaroylrutinoside-5-glucoside was the most abundant anthocyanin in 'Blue Congo', 'Blaue Schweden', and 'Synkeä Sakari', whereas malvidin-3-p-coumaroylrutinoside-5-glucoside dominated in 'Blaue Veltlin'. In mature tubers, the purple cultivar 'Synkeä Sakari' showed the highest content of anthocyanins (2.4 mg/g freeze-dried sample), and 'Blaue Veltlin' had the highest content of phenolic acids (5.5 mg/g). Cultivar was the main variable affecting the biosynthesis of the studied metabolites, whereas the temperatures studied did not show different impact. The content of the main phenolic acids and anthocyanins in the potato cultivars correlated positively with the expression levels of the genes involved in the phenylpropanoid pathway.


Assuntos
Ácido Ascórbico/metabolismo , Fenóis/metabolismo , Tubérculos/química , Solanum tuberosum/química , Solanum tuberosum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Antocianinas/metabolismo , Ácido Ascórbico/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Glucosídeos/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas , Fenóis/análise , Pigmentação , Tubérculos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Tubérculos/metabolismo , Solanum tuberosum/genética , Solanum tuberosum/metabolismo , Temperatura
8.
Food Chem ; 326: 126977, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32447161

RESUMO

Changes in sensorial, chemical and microbiological qualities of kefirs fortified with black carrot (KBCJ), black mulberry (KBMJ), pomegranate (KPJ), and strawberry (KSJ) juices at different concentrations (10, 25 and 50%, w/w) were monitored throughout storage at 4 °C for 12 weeks. The most preferred kefirs by the sensorial panel were KSJ and KPJ, followed by KBMJ and KBCJ. KBMJ was associated with the highest anthocyanin stability, followed by KPJ, KSJ, and KBCJ. Lactic acid [r = (-0.688)-(-0.970)], glucose [r = (-0.563)-(-0.793)] and microorganisms [r = (-0.633)-(-0.961)] in kefirs had significant effect on anthocyanin stability and colour (p < 0.05). Copigmentation between lactic acid and anthocyanins were observed. Fortification with 25% juices led to an increase (1.8-4.8 times) in antioxidant activity (AA). Shelf-lives of samples, except for KPJ, ended after 12 weeks of storage, due to low sensorial scores. Additions of SJ, PJ and BMJ at 25% concentration are recommended for the production of more palatable kefir with high AA.


Assuntos
Antocianinas/química , Armazenamento de Alimentos/métodos , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais/análise , Kefir/análise , Antocianinas/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/química , Temperatura Baixa , Cor , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Cinética , Ácido Láctico/química
9.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2456, 2020 05 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32415123

RESUMO

Anthocyanin pigments furnish a powerful visual output of the stress and metabolic status of Arabidopsis thaliana plants. Essential for pigment accumulation is TRANSPARENT TESTA19 (TT19), a glutathione S-transferase proposed to bind and stabilize anthocyanins, participating in their vacuolar sequestration, a function conserved across the flowering plants. Here, we report the identification of genetic suppressors that result in anthocyanin accumulation in the absence of TT19. We show that mutations in RDR6, SGS3, or DCL4 suppress the anthocyanin defect of tt19 by pushing carbon towards flavonoid biosynthesis. This effect is not unique to tt19 and extends to at least one other anthocyanin pathway gene mutant. This synergy between mutations in components of the RDR6-SGS3-DCL4 siRNA system and the flavonoid pathway reveals genetic/epigenetic mechanisms regulating metabolic fluxes.


Assuntos
Antocianinas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Carbono/metabolismo , RNA Replicase/metabolismo , RNA Interferente Pequeno/metabolismo , Ribonuclease III/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Sequência de Bases , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genes Supressores , Genótipo , Glutationa Transferase/genética , Mutação/genética , Fenótipo , Pigmentação/genética , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Açúcares/metabolismo
10.
J Food Sci ; 85(6): 1717-1724, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32406950

RESUMO

This study evaluated the influence of different fluidized-bed drying temperatures (20, 60, and 100 °C) on the cooking properties, in vitro starch digestibility, and phenolic bioaccessibility of black rice. The results indicated that the formation of fissures in the grains dried at or above 60 °C reduced the physical integrity of the grains after cooking, increasing the starch digestion and the rehydration ratio, and reduced the cooking time, the hardness and adhesiveness. Due to the higher digestibility of grains dried at higher temperatures, an increase in the bioaccessibility of ferulic acid, which was previously associated with the polysaccharides, was observed. Caffeic acid was the only phenolic compound whose levels decreased when the drying temperature increased. At high temperatures and in the gastric phase, cyanidin chalcones were formed due to the deglycosylation of cyanidin-3-O-glucoside. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: The results of this study provide information to the food industry about the effects of different fluidized-bed drying temperatures on the rice structure after cooking and that, consequently, affect the availability of bioactive compounds after digestion and the glycemic index of black rice.


Assuntos
Dessecação/métodos , Oryza/química , Fenóis/química , Amido/química , Antocianinas/química , Antocianinas/metabolismo , Culinária , Digestão , Manipulação de Alimentos , Glucosídeos/química , Glucosídeos/metabolismo , Índice Glicêmico , Humanos , Modelos Biológicos , Oryza/metabolismo , Fenóis/metabolismo , Amido/metabolismo , Temperatura
11.
Gene ; 752: 144788, 2020 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32439375

RESUMO

Primulina genus is an ideal wild ornamental flower and emerging model for studying biosynthesis, diversity, and evolution of flower pigment. However, the molecular mechanism underlying anthocyanin biosynthesis and regulation in Primulina remains unknown. Here, changes in anthocyanin content and the expression profiles of anthocyanin biosynthetic structural genes were examined in developing Primulina swinglei flowers and three other organs. Seventy-three R2R3-MYB transcription factor genes were identified from transcriptome of P. swinglei flowers, two of which, PsMYB1 and PsMYB2, are candidate regulators of anthocyanin biosynthesis according to clustering analysis. Furthermore, transient over-expression studies using tobacco leaves showed distinct pigment accumulation following co-infection with PsMYB1 and MrbHLH1 (a previously confirmed anthocyanin regulator from Morella rubra). Additionally, dual luciferase assays showed that PsMYB1 trans-activated the PsANS promoter, with the addition of MrbHLH1 resulting in a 5-fold increase in the intensity of this interaction. PsMYB1 did not, however, have any effect on the PsF3H promoter. The expression profile and dual luciferase assays showed that PsMYB2 plays no roles in anthocyanin regulation. Therefore, PsMYB1 is proposed to be the transcription factor gene regulating anthocyanin biosynthesis in P. swinglei.


Assuntos
Antocianinas/biossíntese , Antocianinas/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos/genética , Antocianinas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Flores/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Genes de Plantas/genética , Lamiales/genética , Magnoliopsida/genética , Pigmentação/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Tabaco/genética , Transativadores/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Transcriptoma/genética
12.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0232626, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32374762

RESUMO

The aim of this study is to determine the involvement of the flavonol-anthocyanin pathway on plant adaptation to biotic stress using the B.amyloliquefaciens QV15 to trigger blackberry metabolism and identify target genes to improve plant fitness and fruit quality. To achieve this goal, field-grown blackberries were root-inoculated with QV15 along its growth cycle. At fruiting, a transcriptomic analysis by RNA-Seq was performed on leaves and fruits of treated and non-treated field-grown blackberries after a sustained mildew outbreak; expression of the regulating and core genes of the Flavonol-Anthocyanin pathway were analysed by qPCR and metabolomic profiles by UHPLC/ESI-qTOF-MS; plant protection was found to be up to 88%. Overexpression of step-controlling genes in leaves and fruits, associated to lower concentration of flavonols and anthocyanins in QV15-treated plants, together with a higher protection suggest a phytoanticipin role for flavonols in blackberry; kempferol-3-O-rutinoside concentration was strikingly high. Overexpression of RuF3H (Flavonol-3-hidroxylase) suggests a pivotal role in the coordination of committing steps in this pathway, controlling carbon flux towards the different sinks. Furthermore, this C demand is supported by an activation of the photosynthetic machinery, and boosted by a coordinated control of ROS into a sub-lethal range, and associated to enhanced protection to biotic stress.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica , Antocianinas/metabolismo , Bacillus amyloliquefaciens/fisiologia , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/fisiologia , Rubus/enzimologia , Rubus/microbiologia , Estresse Fisiológico , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/genética , Frutas/enzimologia , Frutas/genética , Frutas/microbiologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genes de Plantas/genética , Folhas de Planta/enzimologia , Folhas de Planta/microbiologia , Rubus/genética
13.
Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao ; 36(4): 678-692, 2020 Apr 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32347062

RESUMO

As water-soluble, natural pigments, anthocyanins are responsible for the red, purple and blue colors of many flowers, which attract pollinators to spread pollen. The colors of flowers are also essential for plants to survive in the nature and become one of the most significant characteristics of ornamental plants. In the booming floriculture industry, to produce various flower colors could increase the richness of natural colors, but it is still difficult to breed flowers with coveted blue color. The diversity of flower color is mainly determined by the types and contents of anthocyanins and their derivatives. The synthesis of delphinidin pigments is the key factor for breeding blue flowers. However, there are no structural genes in many plants to biosynthesize delphinidin pigments. Blue flowers are successfully created by genetic engineering in recent years. In this paper, using common ornamental plants as examples, we review the mechanism of plant flower coloration from the aspects of the key factors affecting the synthesis of delphinidin pigment and the production strategies of blue flowers based on the regulation of anthocyanin metabolism. Different strategies of molecular breeding could provide opportunities to improve colors of other floriculture plants and to develop anthocyanin-rich economic crops, such as colored cotton with blue fibers.


Assuntos
Antocianinas , Flores , Pigmentação , Antocianinas/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Engenharia Genética , Pigmentação/genética
14.
Arch Biochem Biophys ; 686: 108365, 2020 06 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32315651

RESUMO

Pelargonidin is a natural compound that exists widely in fruits, and exerts antioxidant, anti-atherosclerotic, anti-inflammatory, anti-hyperglycemic, and anti-diabetic activities. However, there have not been any studies concerning its anti-obesity potential to date. Therefore, we evaluated the anti-obesity potential of pelargonidin via inhibition of adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells. The cellular oil droplet content was decreased to 68.14%, 56.75%, and 48.39% and triglyceride accumulation decreased to 74.53%, 61.54%, and 47.86% after incubation with 5 µM, 10 µM, and 20 µM pelargonidin, respectively, when compared with DMSO group. Furthermore, pelargonidin treatment led to decrease in glucose consumption. Western blot assay illustrated that the expression of PPAR-γ was suppressed to 63.25%, 47.52%, and 21.23% after incubation with 5 µM, 10 µM, and 20 µM pelargonidin when compared with DMSO group. Then, we measured the expression of some target proteins of PPAR-γ, and found that pelargonidin decreased the expressions of HMGCR, LPL, Glut4, and A-FABP. Besides, the result of Luciferase Reporter Assay indicated that pelargonidin inhibited PPAR-γ transcription activity. These results indicated that pelargonidin exerts anti-adipogenic activity in 3T3-L1 cells through inhibition of PPAR-γ signaling pathway, and pelargonidin could be used as a potential anti-obesity agent.


Assuntos
Adipogenia/efeitos dos fármacos , Antocianinas/farmacologia , Fármacos Antiobesidade/farmacologia , PPAR gama/metabolismo , Células 3T3-L1 , Animais , Antocianinas/metabolismo , Fármacos Antiobesidade/metabolismo , Regulação para Baixo/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas de Ligação a Ácido Graxo/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a Ácido Graxo/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Glucose/metabolismo , Transportador de Glucose Tipo 4/genética , Transportador de Glucose Tipo 4/metabolismo , Lipase Lipoproteica/genética , Lipase Lipoproteica/metabolismo , Camundongos , Triglicerídeos/genética , Triglicerídeos/metabolismo
15.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0226537, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32302307

RESUMO

Enzymes of the chalcone synthase (CHS) family participate in the synthesis of multiple secondary metabolites in plants, fungi and bacteria. CHS showed a significant correlation with the accumulation patterns of anthocyanin. The peel color, which is primarily determined by the content of anthocyanin, is an economically important trait for eggplants that is affected by heat stress. A total of 7 CHS (SmCHS1-7) putative genes were identified in a genome-wide analysis of eggplants (S. melongena L.). The SmCHS genes were distributed on 7 scaffolds and were classified into 3 clusters. Phylogenetic relationship analysis showed that 73 CHS genes from 7 Solanaceae species were classified into 10 groups. SmCHS5, SmCHS6 and SmCHS7 were continuously down-regulated under 38°C and 45°C treatment, while SmCHS4 was up-regulated under 38°C but showed little change at 45°C in peel. Expression profiles of key anthocyanin biosynthesis gene families showed that the PAL, 4CL and AN11 genes were primarily expressed in all five tissues. The CHI, F3H, F3'5'H, DFR, 3GT and bHLH1 genes were expressed in flower and peel. Under heat stress, the expression level of 52 key genes were reduced. In contrast, the expression patterns of eight key genes similar to SmCHS4 were up-regulated at a treatment of 38°C for 3 hour. Comparative analysis of putative CHS protein evolutionary relationships, cis-regulatory elements, and regulatory networks indicated that SmCHS gene family has a conserved gene structure and functional diversification. SmCHS showed two or more expression patterns, these results of this study may facilitate further research to understand the regulatory mechanism governing peel color in eggplants.


Assuntos
Aciltransferases/genética , Flavonoides/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Solanum melongena/genética , Aciltransferases/metabolismo , Antocianinas/genética , Antocianinas/metabolismo , Vias Biossintéticas , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Resposta ao Choque Térmico , Família Multigênica , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Solanum melongena/fisiologia , Transcriptoma
16.
Food Chem ; 318: 126449, 2020 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32146306

RESUMO

Mulberry and chokeberry are rich sources of anthocyanins. In this study, the effect of the anthocyanin composition on the anthocyanin profile changes during in vitro digestion (mimicking the physiological conditions) was investigated by UHPLC-(ESI)-qTOF and UHPLC-(ESI)-QqQ. The antioxidant activity before and after in vitro digestion was elucidated. Cyanidin-3-O-glucoside and cyanidin-3-O-galactoside were dominant in mulberry and chokeberry, respectively. Moreover, the loss of cyanidin-3-O-galactoside in the chokeberry extract after digestion was greater than that of cyanidin-3-O-glucoside in the mulberry extract. After digestion, phenolic acids including protocatechuic acid and various cyanidin conjugates were newly formed because of decomposition and changes in the cyanidin-glycosides. The phenolic acid and cyanidin conjugate levels varied depending on the cyanidin glycoside sources in the colonic fraction. Finally, antioxidant activity before and after digestion was higher in the chokeberry extract than in the mulberry extract. Moreover, this activity continuously decreased until intestinal digestion but increased in the colonic fraction.


Assuntos
Antocianinas/química , Morus/química , Photinia/química , Antocianinas/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Análise por Conglomerados , Digestão , Frutas/química , Frutas/metabolismo , Suco Gástrico/química , Suco Gástrico/metabolismo , Humanos , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Morus/metabolismo , Fenóis/análise , Photinia/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/química , Análise de Componente Principal
17.
Food Chem ; 319: 126360, 2020 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32151896

RESUMO

Sweet cherry is a valuable non-climacteric fruit with elevated phytonutrients, whose fruit quality attributes are prone to rapid deterioration after harvest, especially peel damage and water loss of stem. Here the metabolic and transcriptional response of exogenous melatonin was assessed in two commercial cultivars of sweet cherry (Santina and Royal Rainier) during cold storage. Gene expression profiling revealed that cuticle composition and water movement may underlie the effect of melatonin in delaying weight loss. An effect of melatonin on total soluble solids and lower respiration rate was observed in both cultivars. Melatonin induces overexpression of genes related to anthocyanin biosynthesis, which correlates with increased anthocyanin levels and changes in skin color (Chroma). Our results indicate that along with modulating antioxidant metabolism, melatonin improves fruit quality traits by triggering a range of metabolic and gene expression changes, which ultimately contribute to extend sweet cherry postharvest storability.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Melatonina/farmacologia , Prunus avium/efeitos dos fármacos , Antocianinas/metabolismo , Frutas/metabolismo , Prunus avium/metabolismo
18.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0230154, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32150567

RESUMO

To gain better insight into the regulatory networks of anthocyanin biosynthesis, an integrated analysis of the metabolome and transcriptome in purple and green leaves of Tetrastigma hemsleyanum was conducted. Transcript and metabolite profiles were archived by RNA-sequencing data analysis and LC-ESI-MS/MS, respectively. There were 209 metabolites and 4211 transcripts that were differentially expressed between purple and green leaves. Correlation tests of anthocyanin contents and transcriptional changes showed 141 significant correlations (Pearson correlation coefficient >0.8) between 16 compounds and 14 transcripts involved in the anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway. Some novel genes and metabolites were discovered as potential candidate targets for the improvement of anthocyanin content and superior cultivars.


Assuntos
Antocianinas/metabolismo , Metaboloma/genética , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Transcriptoma/genética , Vitaceae/genética , Antocianinas/genética , Cor , Biologia Computacional , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genes de Plantas , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Vitaceae/química , Vitaceae/metabolismo
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32035250

RESUMO

Ornamental crabapple is an important woody ornamental plant with flower colors ranging from white to pink to red, and the degree of redness is directly related to the anthocyanin content. To explore the molecular mechanism leading to the variation in flower color in ornamental crabapple, transcriptome sequencing using the Illumina and PacBio Sequel platforms revealed the difference in gene expression between the petals of plants with white and red flowers in the half-sib family. In total, the analysis identified 603 differentially expressed genes (DEGs), including 449 upregulated and 154 downregulated genes. GO and KEGG enrichment analyses of the DEGs showed that the oxidation-reduction process and catalytic activity were more active in red petals, and most of the DEGs were involved in secondary metabolite synthesis and plant hormone signaling. Among the 603 DEGs, 10 were enriched as structural genes. Transcription factors related to anthocyanin synthesis and five genes related to anthocyanin transport and degradation were highly expressed in red petals. In addition, this study found that five AUX gene signals were differentially expressed in the two petal types. The discovery of these DEGs indicates that plant endogenous hormones also exert a regulatory effect on flower color.


Assuntos
Flores , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genes de Plantas , Malus , Pigmentação , Transcriptoma , Antocianinas/genética , Antocianinas/metabolismo , Flores/genética , Flores/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Genes de Plantas/genética , Malus/genética , Malus/metabolismo , Pigmentação/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32066082

RESUMO

Anthocyanins contribute greatly to the organoleptic and biochemical properties of grapes and wines. Although there are broadly documented factors involved in grape anthocyanin synthesis, the present work focused on fungal endophytes and their possible role in grape coloration. Our results showed that exposure to endophytic fungi within a dual culture system differentially affected total anthocyanin concentrations and PAL activities in grape cells. Grape cells dual cultured with fungal strains XH-2, R2-21 and B2-17 showed significant differences of their anthocyanin concentrations were subjected to further analysis of their anthocyanidin compositions. Compared to the no-fungus controls, grape cells exposed to fungal strains XH-2 and R2-21 exhibited quantitative promotion of their total anthocyanidin concentrations by 74% and 28%, respectively, whereas treatment with the fungus B2-17 reduced the anthocyanidin content by 19%. A total of 14 species of anthocyanidins were detected from the grape cells in these experiments. Most interestingly, exposure to any of these fungal strains differentially modified the compositional patterns of grape cellular anthocyanidins. The obvious upregulation of the transcription of VvMYB in grape cells treated with fungal strains XH-2 and R2-21 implies that the increased anthocyanin levels in these grape cells may be due to the activated transcriptional factors. In addition, the exposure of grape cells to extracts of these fungi initiated similar responses of anthocyanin contents and PAL activities to exposure to the living fungi and appeared obvious dosage effects. The influence of fungal endophytes on the coloration of grape berries was also examined in this study.


Assuntos
Antocianinas , Fungos , Vitis , Antocianinas/química , Antocianinas/metabolismo , Frutas/química , Frutas/metabolismo , Frutas/microbiologia , Fungos/fisiologia , Vitis/química , Vitis/metabolismo , Vitis/microbiologia , Vinho
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