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1.
BMC Plant Biol ; 24(1): 258, 2024 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38594637

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Weed control is essential for agricultural floor management in vineyards and the inter-row mulching is an eco-friendly practice to inhibit weed growth via filtering out photosynthetically active radiation. Besides weed suppression, inter-row mulching can influence grapevine growth and the accumulation of metabolites in grape berries. However, the complex interaction of multiple factors in the field challenges the understanding of molecular mechanisms on the regulated metabolites. In the current study, black geotextile inter-row mulch (M) was applied for two vintages (2016-2017) from anthesis to harvest. Metabolomics and transcriptomics analysis were conducted in two vintages, aiming to provide insights into metabolic and molecular responses of Cabernet Sauvignon grapes to M in a semi-arid climate. RESULTS: Upregulation of genes related to photosynthesis and heat shock proteins confirmed that M weakened the total light exposure and grapes suffered heat stress, resulting in lower sugar-acid ratio at harvest. Key genes responsible for enhancements in phenylalanine, glutamine, ornithine, arginine, and C6 alcohol concentrations, and the downward trend in ε-viniferin, anthocyanins, flavonols, terpenes, and norisoprenoids in M grapes were identified. In addition, several modules significantly correlated with the metabolic biomarkers through weighted correlation network analysis, and the potential key transcription factors regulating the above metabolites including VviGATA11, VviHSFA6B, and VviWRKY03 were also identified. CONCLUSION: This study provides a valuable overview of metabolic and transcriptomic responses of M grapes in semi-arid climates, which could facilitate understanding the complex regulatory network of metabolites in response to microclimate changes.


Assuntos
Vitis , Vinho , Vitis/metabolismo , Transcriptoma , Antocianinas/metabolismo , Microclima , Fazendas , Frutas , Vinho/análise
2.
BMC Plant Biol ; 24(1): 274, 2024 Apr 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38605295

RESUMO

Temperature is one of the important environmental factors affecting plant growth, yield and quality. Moreover, appropriately low temperature is also beneficial for tuber coloration. The red potato variety Jianchuanhong, whose tuber color is susceptible to temperature, and the purple potato variety Huaxinyangyu, whose tuber color is stable, were used as experimental materials and subjected to 20 °C (control check), 15 °C and 10 °C treatments during the whole growth period. The effects of temperature treatment on the phenotype, the expression levels of structural genes related to anthocyanins and the correlations of each indicator were analyzed. The results showed that treatment at 10 °C significantly inhibited the potato plant height, and the chlorophyll content and photosynthetic parameters in the leaves were reduced, and the enzyme activities of SOD and POD were significantly increased, all indicating that the leaves were damaged. Treatment at 10 °C also affected the tuberization of Huaxinyangyu and reduced the tuberization and coloring of Jianchuanhong, while treatment at 15 °C significantly increased the stem diameter, root-to-shoot ratio, yield and content of secondary metabolites, especially anthocyanins. Similarly, the expression of structural genes were enhanced in two pigmented potatoes under low-temperature treatment conditions. In short, proper low temperature can not only increase yield but also enhance secondary metabolites production. Previous studies have not focused on the effects of appropriate low-temperature treatment during the whole growth period of potato on the changes in metabolites during tuber growth and development, these results can provide a theoretical basis and technical guidance for the selection of pigmented potatoes with better nutritional quality planting environment and the formulation of cultivation measures.


Assuntos
Solanum tuberosum , Temperatura , Solanum tuberosum/metabolismo , Antocianinas/metabolismo , Temperatura Baixa , Fotossíntese , Tubérculos/genética
3.
Nutr Diabetes ; 14(1): 7, 2024 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38429305

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anthocyanins are a group of natural products widely found in plants. They have been found to alleviate the disorders of glucose metabolism in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), while the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. METHODS: HepG2 and L02 cells were incubated with 0.2 mM PA and 30 mM glucose for 24 h to induce IR, and cells treated with 5 mM glucose were used as the control. C57BL/6 J male mice and db/db male mice were fed with a chow diet and gavaged with pure water or cyanidin-3-O-glucoside (C3G) solution (150 mg/kg/day) for 6 weeks. RESULTS: In this study, the anthocyanin C3G, extracted from red bayberry, was found to alleviate disorders of glucose metabolism, which resulted in increased insulin sensitivity in hepatocytes, and achieved by enhancing the glucose consumption as well as glycogen synthesis in insulin resistance (IR) hepatpcytes. Subsequently, the expression of key proteins involved in IR was detected by western blotting analysis. Protein tyrosine phosphatase-1B (PTP1B), a negative regulator of insulin signaling, could reduce cellular sensitivity to insulin by inhibiting the phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate-2 (IRS-2). Results of this study showed that C3G inhibited the increase in PTP1B after high glucose and palmitic acid treatment. And this inhibition was accompanied by increased phosphorylation of IRS proteins. Furthermore, the effect of C3G on improving IR in vivo was validated by using a diabetic db/db mouse model. CONCLUSION: These findings demonstrated that C3G could alleviate IR in vitro and in vivo to increase insulin sensitivity, which may offer a new insight for regulating glucose metabolism during T2DM by using the natural dietary bioactive components. C3G promotes the phosphorylation of IRS-2 proteins by suppressing the expression of PTP1B, and then enhances the sensitivity of hepatocyte to insulin.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Resistência à Insulina , Camundongos , Animais , Insulina/metabolismo , Antocianinas/farmacologia , Antocianinas/uso terapêutico , Antocianinas/metabolismo , Resistência à Insulina/fisiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Glucosídeos/farmacologia , Glucosídeos/uso terapêutico , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Hepatócitos/metabolismo , Glucose/metabolismo
4.
BMC Genomics ; 25(1): 228, 2024 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38429694

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins play important roles in plant growth and development, as well as stresses responsiveness. Nowadays, it has been found that LEAs also have function in fruit ripening. However, the comprehensive analysis on a genome-wide basis of LEA family remains limited, and the role of LEA in fruit ripening has not been fully explored yet, especially in strawberry, an economic important plant and ideal material for studying fruit ripening. RESULTS: In this study, a total of 266 putative LEA proteins were identified and characterized in strawberry genome. Subcellular localization prediction indicated that they were mostly localized in chloroplast, cytoplasm and nucleus. Duplication events detection revealed that whole genome duplication or segmental was the main driver for the expansion of LEA family in strawberry. The phylogenetic analysis suggested that FaLEAs were classified into eight groups, among which, LEA2 was the largest subgroup with 179 members, followed by LEA3, dehydrin (DHN), LEA4 and SMP (seed maturation protein). The LEA1 and DHN groups were speculated to play dominant roles in strawberry fruit development and ripening, according to their larger proportion of members detected as differentially expressed genes during such process. Notably, the expression of FaLEA167 belonging to LEA1 group was altered by strawberry maturation, and inhibited by overexpression of negative regulators of ripening (a cytosolic/plastid glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, FaGAPC2 and a cytosolic pyruvate kinase, FaPKc2.2). Subsequently, overexpression of FaLEA167 significantly increased the percentage of fruit at green stage, while reduced the full red fruit proportion. In consistent, the anthocyanins content and the fruit skin color variable reflecting a range from greenness to redness (a* value) were significantly reduced. Whereas, FaLEA167 overexpression apparently up-regulated citric acid, soluble protein and malondialdehyde content, but had no obvious effects on total soluble solids, sugar, flavonoids, phenolics content and antioxidant capacity. CONCLUSIONS: These findings not only provided basic information of FaLEA family for further functional research, but also revealed the involvement of FaLEA167 in negatively regulating strawberry fruit ripening, giving new insights into understanding of FaLEA functions.


Assuntos
Fragaria , Antocianinas/metabolismo , Frutas , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas
5.
Physiol Plant ; 176(2): e14248, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38488424

RESUMO

The Chinese tallow tree (Triadica sebifera) is an economically important plant on account of its ornamental value and oil-producing seeds. Leaf colour is a key characteristic of T. sebifera, with yellow-, red- and purple-leaved varieties providing visually impressive displays during autumn. In this study, we performed metabolomic and transcriptomic analyses to gain a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying leaf colour development in purple-leaved T. sebifera at three stages during the autumnal colour transition, namely, green, hemi-purple, and purple leaves. We accordingly detected 370 flavonoid metabolites and 10 anthocyanins, among the latter of which, cyanidin-3-xyloside and peonidin-3-O-glucoside were identified as the predominant compounds in hemi-purple and purple leaves. Transcriptomic analysis revealed that structural genes associated with the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway, chlorophyll synthesis pathway and carotenoid synthesis pathway were significantly differential expressed at the three assessed colour stages. Additionally, transcription factors associated with the MYB-bHLH-WD40 complex, including 22 R2R3-MYBs, 79 bHLHs and 44 WD40 genes, were identified as candidate regulators of the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway. Moreover, on the basis of the identified differentially accumulated anthocyanins and key genes, we generated genetic and metabolic regulatory networks for anthocyanin biosynthesis in T. sebifera. These findings provide comprehensive information on the leaf transcriptome and three pigments of T. sebifera, thereby shedding new light on the mechanisms underlying the autumnal colouring of the leaves of this tree.


Assuntos
Antocianinas , Euphorbiaceae , Transcriptoma , Antocianinas/metabolismo , Clorofila , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Metaboloma , Carotenoides/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Cor
6.
BMC Plant Biol ; 24(1): 203, 2024 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38509491

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Quinoa leaves demonstrate a diverse array of colors, offering a potential enhancement to landscape aesthetics and the development of leisure-oriented sightseeing agriculture in semi-arid regions. This study utilized integrated transcriptomic and metabolomic analyses to investigate the mechanisms underlying anthocyanin synthesis in both emerald green and pink quinoa leaves. RESULTS: Integrated transcriptomic and metabolomic analyses indicated that both flavonoid biosynthesis pathway (ko00941) and anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway (ko00942) were significantly associated with anthocyanin biosynthesis. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and differentially accumulated metabolites (DAMs) were analyzed between the two germplasms during different developmental periods. Ten DEGs were verified using qRT-PCR, and the results were consistent with those of the transcriptomic sequencing. The elevated expression of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), chalcone synthase (CHS), 4-coumarate CoA ligase (4CL) and Hydroxycinnamoyltransferase (HCT), as well as the reduced expression of flavanone 3-hydroxylase (F3H) and Flavonol synthase (FLS), likely cause pink leaf formation. In addition, bHLH14, WRKY46, and TGA indirectly affected the activities of CHS and 4CL, collectively regulating the levels of cyanidin 3-O-(3'', 6''-O-dimalonyl) glucoside and naringenin. The diminished expression of PAL, 4CL, and HCT decreased the formation of cyanidin-3-O-(6"-O-malonyl-2"-O-glucuronyl) glucoside, leading to the emergence of emerald green leaves. Moreover, the lowered expression of TGA and WRKY46 indirectly regulated 4CL activity, serving as another important factor in maintaining the emerald green hue in leaves N1, N2, and N3. CONCLUSION: These findings establish a foundation for elucidating the molecular regulatory mechanisms governing anthocyanin biosynthesis in quinoa leaves, and also provide some theoretical basis for the development of leisure and sightseeing agriculture.


Assuntos
Antocianinas , Chenopodium quinoa , Antocianinas/metabolismo , Chenopodium quinoa/genética , Chenopodium quinoa/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Transcriptoma , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Glucosídeos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas
7.
Food Funct ; 15(7): 3420-3432, 2024 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38497922

RESUMO

The Mediterranean diet (MD), characterized by olive oil, olives, fruits, vegetables, and wine intake, is associated with a reduced risk of dementia. These foods are rich in bioactives with neuroprotective and antioxidant properties, including hydroxytyrosol (HT), tyrosol (TYRS), serotonin (SER) and protocatechuic acid (PCA), a phenolic acid metabolite of anthocyanins. It remains to be established if these molecules cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB), a complex interface that strictly controls the entrance of molecules into the brain. We aimed to assess the ability of tyrosine (TYR), HT, TYRS, PCA and SER to pass through the BBB without disrupting its properties. Using Human Brain Microvascular Endothelial Cells as an in vitro model of the BBB, we assessed its integrity by transendothelial electrical resistance, paracellular permeability and immunocytochemical assays of the adherens junction protein ß-catenin. The transport across the BBB was evaluated by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography high resolution mass spectrometry. Results show that tested bioactives did not impair BBB integrity regardless of the concentration evaluated. Additionally, all of them cross the BBB, with the following percentages: HT (∼70%), TYR (∼50%), TYRS (∼30%), SER (∼30%) and PCA (∼9%). These results provide a basis for the MD neuroprotective role.


Assuntos
Barreira Hematoencefálica , Células Endoteliais , Humanos , Barreira Hematoencefálica/metabolismo , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Antocianinas/metabolismo , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Transporte Biológico
8.
Arch Toxicol ; 98(5): 1323-1367, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38483584

RESUMO

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) are well recognized for playing a dual role, since they can be either deleterious or beneficial to biological systems. An imbalance between ROS production and elimination is termed oxidative stress, a critical factor and common denominator of many chronic diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular diseases, metabolic diseases, neurological disorders (Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases), and other disorders. To counteract the harmful effects of ROS, organisms have evolved a complex, three-line antioxidant defense system. The first-line defense mechanism is the most efficient and involves antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx). This line of defense plays an irreplaceable role in the dismutation of superoxide radicals (O2•-) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). The removal of superoxide radicals by SOD prevents the formation of the much more damaging peroxynitrite ONOO- (O2•- + NO• → ONOO-) and maintains the physiologically relevant level of nitric oxide (NO•), an important molecule in neurotransmission, inflammation, and vasodilation. The second-line antioxidant defense pathway involves exogenous diet-derived small-molecule antioxidants. The third-line antioxidant defense is ensured by the repair or removal of oxidized proteins and other biomolecules by a variety of enzyme systems. This review briefly discusses the endogenous (mitochondria, NADPH, xanthine oxidase (XO), Fenton reaction) and exogenous (e.g., smoking, radiation, drugs, pollution) sources of ROS (superoxide radical, hydrogen peroxide, hydroxyl radical, peroxyl radical, hypochlorous acid, peroxynitrite). Attention has been given to the first-line antioxidant defense system provided by SOD, CAT, and GPx. The chemical and molecular mechanisms of antioxidant enzymes, enzyme-related diseases (cancer, cardiovascular, lung, metabolic, and neurological diseases), and the role of enzymes (e.g., GPx4) in cellular processes such as ferroptosis are discussed. Potential therapeutic applications of enzyme mimics and recent progress in metal-based (copper, iron, cobalt, molybdenum, cerium) and nonmetal (carbon)-based nanomaterials with enzyme-like activities (nanozymes) are also discussed. Moreover, attention has been given to the mechanisms of action of low-molecular-weight antioxidants (vitamin C (ascorbate), vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol), carotenoids (e.g., ß-carotene, lycopene, lutein), flavonoids (e.g., quercetin, anthocyanins, epicatechin), and glutathione (GSH)), the activation of transcription factors such as Nrf2, and the protection against chronic diseases. Given that there is a discrepancy between preclinical and clinical studies, approaches that may result in greater pharmacological and clinical success of low-molecular-weight antioxidant therapies are also subject to discussion.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Neoplasias , Humanos , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Superóxidos , Ácido Peroxinitroso/farmacologia , Antocianinas/metabolismo , Antocianinas/farmacologia , Estresse Oxidativo , Óxido Nítrico , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Doença Crônica
9.
J Agric Food Chem ; 72(13): 7497-7510, 2024 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38520401

RESUMO

The kinetics, thermodynamics, and degradation of malvidin mono- and diglucosides were studied following a holistic approach by extending to the basic medium. In acidic conditions, the reversible kinetics of the flavylium cation toward the equilibrium is controlled by the hydration and cis-trans isomerization steps, while in the basic medium, the OH- nucleophilic addition to the anionic quinoidal bases is the slowest step. There is a pH range (transition pHs), between the acidic and basic paradigms, that includes physiological pH (7.4), where degradation reactions occur faster, preventing the system from reaching the equilibrium. The transition pH of the diglucoside is narrower, and in contrast with the monoglucoside, there is no evidence for the formation of colored oligomers among the degradation products. Noteworthy, OH- addition in position 4 to form B42-, a kinetic product that decreases the overall equilibration rate, was observed only for the diglucoside.


Assuntos
Antocianinas , Glucosídeos , Antocianinas/metabolismo , Termodinâmica
10.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 209: 108520, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38522131

RESUMO

In Arabidopsis, the plastidial isoform of phosphoglucose isomerase, PGI1, mediates growth and photosynthesis, likely due to its involvement in the vascular production of cytokinins (CK). To examine this hypothesis, we characterized pgi1-2 knockout plants impaired in PGI1 and pgi1-2 plants specifically expressing PGI1 in root tips and vascular tissues. Moreover, to investigate whether the phenotype of pgi1-2 plants is due to impairments in the plastidial oxidative pentose phosphate pathway (OPPP) or the glycolytic pathway, we characterized pgl3-1 plants with reduced OPPP and pfk4pfk5 knockout plants impaired in plastidial glycolysis. Compared with wild-type (WT) leaves, pgi1-2 leaves exhibited weaker expression of photosynthesis- and 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol 4-P (MEP) pathway-related proteins, and stronger expression of oxidative stress protection-related enzymes. Consistently, pgi1-2 leaves accumulated lower levels of chlorophyll, and higher levels of tocopherols, flavonols and anthocyanins than the WT. Vascular- and root tip-specific PGI1 expression countered the reduced photosynthesis, low MEP pathway-derived CK content, dwarf phenotype and the metabolic characteristics of pgi1-2 plants, reverting them to WT-like levels. Moreover, pgl3-1, but not pfk4pfk5 plants phenocopied pgi1-2. Histochemical analyses of plants expressing GUS under the control of promoter regions of genes encoding plastidial OPPP enzymes exhibited strong GUS activity in root tips and vascular tissues. Overall, our findings show that root tip and vascular PGI1-mediated plastidial OPPP activity affects photosynthesis and growth through mechanisms involving long-distance modulation of the leaf proteome by MEP pathway-derived CKs.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis , Via de Pentose Fosfato , Antocianinas/metabolismo , Fotossíntese , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Citocininas/metabolismo
11.
BMC Plant Biol ; 24(1): 210, 2024 Mar 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38519909

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Different metabolic compounds give pepper leaves and fruits their diverse colors. Anthocyanin accumulation is the main cause of the purple color of pepper leaves. The light environment is a critical factor affecting anthocyanin biosynthesis. It is essential that we understand how to use light to regulate anthocyanin biosynthesis in plants. RESULT: Pepper leaves were significantly blue-purple only in continuous blue light or white light (with a blue light component) irradiation treatments, and the anthocyanin content of pepper leaves increased significantly after continuous blue light irradiation. This green-to-purple phenotype change in pepper leaves was due to the expression of different genes. We found that the anthocyanin synthesis precursor-related genes PAL and 4CL, as well as the structural genes F3H, DFR, ANS, BZ1, and F3'5'H in the anthocyanin synthesis pathway, had high expression under continuous blue light irradiation. Similarly, the expression of transcription factors MYB1R1-like, MYB48, MYB4-like isoform X1, bHLH143-like, and bHLH92-like isoform X3, and circadian rhythm-related genes LHY and COP1, were significantly increased after continuous blue light irradiation. A correlation network analysis revealed that these transcription factors and circadian rhythm-related genes were positively correlated with structural genes in the anthocyanin synthesis pathway. Metabolomic analysis showed that delphinidin-3-O-glucoside and delphinidin-3-O-rutinoside were significantly higher under continuous blue light irradiation relative to other light treatments. We selected 12 genes involved in anthocyanin synthesis in pepper leaves for qRT-PCR analysis, and the accuracy of the RNA-seq results was confirmed. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we found that blue light and 24-hour irradiation together induced the expression of key genes and the accumulation of metabolites in the anthocyanin synthesis pathway, thus promoting anthocyanin biosynthesis in pepper leaves. These results provide a basis for future study of the mechanisms of light quality and photoperiod in anthocyanin synthesis and metabolism, and our study may serve as a valuable reference for screening light ratios that regulate anthocyanin biosynthesis in plants.


Assuntos
Capsicum , Transcriptoma , Antocianinas/metabolismo , Capsicum/genética , Capsicum/metabolismo , Metaboloma , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Isoformas de Proteínas/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas
12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(4)2024 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38396734

RESUMO

Dioscorea alata L. (Dioscoreaceae) is a widely cultivated tuber crop with variations in tuber color, offering potential value as health-promoting foods. This study focused on the comparison of D. alata tubers possessing two distinct colors, white and purple, to explore the underlying mechanisms of color variation. Flavonoids, a group of polyphenols known to influence plant color and exhibit antioxidant properties, were of particular interest. The total phenol and total flavonoid analyses revealed that purple tubers (PTs) have a significantly higher content of these metabolites than white tubers (WTs) and a higher antioxidant activity than WTs, suggesting potential health benefits of PT D. alata. The transcriptome analysis identified 108 differentially expressed genes associated with the flavonoid synthesis pathway, with 57 genes up-regulated in PTs, including CHS, CHI, DFR, FLS, F3H, F3'5'H, LAR, ANS, and ANR. The metabolomics analysis demonstrated that 424 metabolites, including 104 flavonoids and 8 tannins, accumulated differentially in PTs and WTs. Notably, five of the top ten up-regulated metabolites were flavonoids, including 6-hydroxykaempferol-7-O-glucoside, pinocembrin-7-O-(6″-O-malonyl)glucoside, 6-hydroxykaempferol-3,7,6-O-triglycoside, 6-hydroxykaempferol-7-O-triglycoside, and cyanidin-3-O-(6″-O-feruloyl)sophoroside-5-O-glucoside, with the latter being a precursor to anthocyanin synthesis. Integrating transcriptome and metabolomics data revealed that the 57 genes regulated 20 metabolites within the flavonoid synthesis pathway, potentially influencing the tubers' color variation. The high polyphenol content and antioxidant activity of PTs indicate their suitability as nutritious and health-promoting food sources. Taken together, the findings of this study provide insights into the molecular basis of tuber color variation in D. alata and underscore the potential applications of purple tubers in the food industry and human health promotion. The findings contribute to the understanding of flavonoid biosynthesis and pigment accumulation in D. alata tubers, opening avenues for future research on enhancing the nutritional quality of D. alata cultivars.


Assuntos
Dioscorea , Transcriptoma , Humanos , Dioscorea/genética , Dioscorea/metabolismo , Antioxidantes , Antocianinas/metabolismo , Flavonoides , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Metabolômica , Glucosídeos , Cor , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas
13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(4)2024 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38396758

RESUMO

The C3HC4 RING finger gene (RING-HC) family is a zinc finger protein crucial to plant growth. However, there have been no studies on the RING-HC gene family in potato. In this study, 77 putative StRING-HCs were identified in the potato genome and grouped into three clusters based on phylogenetic relationships, the chromosome distribution, gene structure, conserved motif, gene duplication events, and synteny relationships, and cis-acting elements were systematically analyzed. By analyzing RNA-seq data of potato cultivars, the candidate StRING-HC genes that might participate in tissue development, abiotic stress, especially drought stress, and anthocyanin biosynthesis were further determined. Finally, a StRING-HC gene (Soltu.DM.09G017280 annotated as StRNF4-like), which was highly expressed in pigmented potato tubers was focused on. StRNF4-like localized in the nucleus, and Y2H assays showed that it could interact with the anthocyanin-regulating transcription factors (TFs) StbHLH1 of potato tubers, which is localized in the nucleus and membrane. Transient assays showed that StRNF4-like repressed anthocyanin accumulation in the leaves of Nicotiana tabacum and Nicotiana benthamiana by directly suppressing the activity of the dihydroflavonol reductase (DFR) promoter activated by StAN1 and StbHLH1. The results suggest that StRNF4-like might repress anthocyanin accumulation in potato tubers by interacting with StbHLH1. Our comprehensive analysis of the potato StRING-HCs family contributes valuable knowledge to the understanding of their functions in potato development, abiotic stress, hormone signaling, and anthocyanin biosynthesis.


Assuntos
Antocianinas , Solanum tuberosum , Antocianinas/metabolismo , Solanum tuberosum/genética , Solanum tuberosum/metabolismo , Filogenia , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo
14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(4)2024 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38396773

RESUMO

Basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors extensively affect various physiological processes in plant metabolism, growth, and abiotic stress. However, the regulation mechanism of bHLH transcription factors in balancing anthocyanin biosynthesis and abiotic stress in sweet potato (Ipomoea batata (L.) Lam.) remains unclear. Previously, transcriptome analysis revealed the genes that were differentially expressed among the purple-fleshed sweet potato cultivar 'Jingshu 6' and its anthocyanin-rich mutant 'JS6-5'. Here, we selected one of these potential genes, IbMYC2, which belongs to the bHLH transcription factor family, for subsequent analyses. The expression of IbMYC2 in the JS6-5 storage roots is almost four-fold higher than Jingshu 6 and significantly induced by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), methyl jasmonate (MeJA), NaCl, and polyethylene glycol (PEG)6000. Overexpression of IbMYC2 significantly enhances anthocyanin production and exhibits a certain antioxidant capacity, thereby improving salt and drought tolerance. In contrast, reducing IbMYC2 expression increases its susceptibility. Our data showed that IbMYC2 could elevate the expression of anthocyanin synthesis pathway genes by binding to IbCHI and IbDFR promoters. Additionally, overexpressing IbMYC2 activates genes encoding reactive oxygen species (ROS)-scavenging and proline synthesis enzymes under salt and drought conditions. Taken together, these results demonstrate that the IbMYC2 gene exercises a significant impact on crop quality and stress resistance.


Assuntos
Antocianinas , Ipomoea batatas , Antocianinas/metabolismo , Cloreto de Sódio/farmacologia , Ipomoea batatas/genética , Ipomoea batatas/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Secas , Resistência à Seca , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/metabolismo
15.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(4)2024 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38397114

RESUMO

Lilium is a genus of important ornamental plants with many colouring pattern variations. Lilium auratum is the parent of Oriental hybrid lilies. A typical feature of L. auratum is the presence of red-orange special raised spots named papillae on the interior tepals. Unlike the usual raised spots, the papillae are slightly rounded or connected into sheets and usually have hairy tips. To elucidate the potential genes regulating papillae development in L. auratum, we performed high-throughput sequencing of its tepals at different stages. Genes involved in the flavonoid biosynthesis pathway were significantly enriched during the colouration of the papillae, and CHS, F3H, F3'H, FLS, DFR, ANS, and UFGT were significantly upregulated. To identify the key genes involved in the papillae development of L. auratum, we performed weighted gene coexpression network analysis (WGCNA) and further analysed four modules. In total, 51, 24, 1, and 6 hub genes were identified in four WGCNA modules, MEbrown, MEyellow, MEpurple, and MEred, respectively. Then, the coexpression networks were constructed, and important genes involved in trichome development and coexpressed with anthocyanin biosynthesis genes, such as TT8, TTG1, and GEM, were identified. These results indicated that the papillae are essentially trichomes that accumulate anthocyanins. Finally, we randomly selected 12 hub genes for qRT-PCR analysis to verify the accuracy of our RNA-Seq analysis. Our results provide new insights into the papillae development in L. auratum flowers.


Assuntos
Lilium , Lilium/metabolismo , Antocianinas/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Flores/genética , Flores/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Transcriptoma , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo
16.
BMC Plant Biol ; 24(1): 156, 2024 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38424529

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: bHLH transcription factors play significant roles in regulating plant growth and development, stress response, and anthocyanin biosynthesis. Sweetpotato is a pivotal food and industry crop, but little information is available on sweetpotato bHLH genes. RESULTS: Herein, 227 putative IbbHLH genes were defined on sweetpotato chromosomes, and fragment duplications were identified as the dominant driving force for IbbHLH expansion. These IbbHLHs were divided into 26 subfamilies through phylogenetic analysis, as supported by further analysis of exon-intron structure and conserved motif composition. The syntenic analysis between IbbHLHs and their orthologs from other plants depicted evolutionary relationships of IbbHLHs. Based on the transcriptome data under salt stress, the expression of 12 IbbHLHs was screened for validation by qRT-PCR, and differential and significant transcriptions under abiotic stress were detected. Moreover, IbbHLH123 and IbbHLH215, which were remarkably upregulated by stress treatments, had obvious transactivation activity in yeasts. Protein interaction detections and yeast two-hybrid assays suggested an intricate interaction correlation between IbbHLHs. Besides, transcriptome screening revealed that multiple IbbHLHs may be closely related to anthocyanin biosynthesis based on the phenotype (purple vs. white tissues), which was confirmed by subsequent qRT-PCR analysis. CONCLUSIONS: These results shed light on the promising functions of sweetpotato IbbHLHs in abiotic stress response and anthocyanin biosynthesis.


Assuntos
Antocianinas , Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos , Antocianinas/metabolismo , Filogenia , Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/genética , Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Transcriptoma , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo
17.
Plant Cell Rep ; 43(3): 74, 2024 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38379014

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: HanMYB1 was found to play positive roles in the modulation of anthocyanins metabolism based on the integrative analysis of different color cultivars and the related molecular genetic analyses. As a high value ornamental and edible crop with various colors, sunflowers (Helianthus annuus L.) provide an ideal system to understand the formation of flower color. Anthocyanins are major pigments in higher plants, which is associated with development of flower colors and ability of oxidation resistance. Here, we performed an integrative analysis of the transcriptome and flavonoid metabolome in five sunflower cultivars with different flower colors. According to differentially expressed genes and differentially accumulated flavonoids, these cultivars could be grouped into yellow and red. The results showed that more anthocyanins were accumulated in the red group flowers, especially the chrysanthemin. Some anthocyanins biosynthesis-related genes like UFGT (UDP-glycose flavonoid glycosyltransferase) also expressed more in the red group flowers. A MYB transcriptional factor, HanMYB1, was found to play vital positive roles in the modulation of anthocyanins metabolism by the integrative analysis. Overexpressed HanMYB1 in tobacco could deepen the flower color, increase the accumulation of anthocyanins and directly active the express of UFGT genes. Our findings indicated that the MYB transcriptional factors provide new insight into the dynamic regulation of the anthocyanin biosynthesis in facilitating sunflower color formation and anthocyanin accumulation.


Assuntos
Antocianinas , Helianthus , Antocianinas/metabolismo , Transcriptoma/genética , Helianthus/genética , Helianthus/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Metaboloma , Flores , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Cor , Pigmentação/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica
18.
J Agric Food Chem ; 72(6): 3231-3243, 2024 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38303105

RESUMO

The color of the seed coat has great diversity and is regarded as a biomarker of metabolic variations. Here we isolated a soybean variant (BLK) from a population of recombinant inbred lines with a black seed coat, while its sibling plants have yellow seed coats (YL). The BLK and YL plants showed no obvious differences in vegetative growth and seed weight. However, the BLK seeds had higher anthocyanins and flavonoids level and showed tolerance to various abiotic stresses including herbicide, oxidation, salt, and alkalinity during germination. Integrated metabolomic and transcriptomic analyses revealed that the upregulation of biosynthetic genes probably contributed to the overaccumulation of flavonoids in BLK seeds. The transient expression of those biosynthetic genes in soybean root hairs increased the levels of total flavonoids or anthocyanins. Our study revealed the molecular basis of flavonoid accumulation in soybean seeds, leveraging genetic engineering for both nutritious and stress-tolerant soybean germplasm.


Assuntos
Flavonoides , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Antocianinas/metabolismo , Multiômica , Pigmentação , Sementes/genética , Sementes/metabolismo
19.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(3)2024 Jan 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38338816

RESUMO

The phenylpropanoid and flavonoid pathways exhibit intricate regulation, not only influenced by environmental factors and a complex network of transcription factors but also by post-transcriptional regulation, such as silencing by microRNAs and miRNA-encoded micropeptides (miPEPs). VviMYBC2-L1 serves as a transcriptional repressor for flavonoids, playing a crucial role in coordinating the synthesis of anthocyanin and proanthocyanidin. It works in tandem with their respective transcriptional activators, VviMYBA1/2 and VviMYBPA1, to maintain an equilibrium of flavonoids. We have discovered a miPEP encoded by miR166c that appears to target VviMYBC2-L1. We conducted experiments to test the hypothesis that silencing this transcriptional repressor through miPEP166c would stimulate the synthesis of anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins. Our transcriptional analyses by qPCR revealed that the application of exogenous miPEP166c to Gamay Fréaux grape berry cells resulted in a significant upregulation in flavonoid transcriptional activators (VviMYBA1/2 and VviMYBPA1) and structural flavonoid genes (VviLDOX and VviDFR), as well as genes involved in the synthesis of proanthocyanidins (VviLAR1 and VviANR) and anthocyanins (VviUFGT1). These findings were supported by the increased enzyme activities of the key enzymes UFGT, LAR, and ANR, which were 2-fold, 14-fold, and 3-fold higher, respectively, in the miPEP166c-treated cells. Ultimately, these changes led to an elevated total content of anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins.


Assuntos
Proantocianidinas , Vitis , Antocianinas/metabolismo , Proantocianidinas/metabolismo , Vitis/genética , Vitis/metabolismo , Frutas/metabolismo , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo
20.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(3)2024 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38339012

RESUMO

Phyllostachys nigra has green young culms (S1) and purple black mature culms (S4). Anthocyanins are the principal pigment responsible for color presentation in ornamental plants. We employ a multi-omics approach to investigate the regulatory mechanisms of anthocyanins in Ph. nigra. Firstly, we found that the pigments of the culm of Ph. nigra accumulated only in one to four layers of cells below the epidermis. The levels of total anthocyanins and total flavonoids gradually increased during the process of bamboo culm color formation. Metabolomics analysis indicated that the predominant pigment metabolites observed were petunidin 3-O-glucoside and malvidin O-hexoside, exhibiting a significant increase of up to 9.36-fold and 13.23-fold, respectively, during pigmentation of Ph. nigra culm. Transcriptomics sequencing has revealed that genes involved in flavonoid biosynthesis, phenylpropanoid biosynthesis, and starch and sucrose metabolism pathways were significantly enriched, leading to color formation. A total of 62 differentially expressed structural genes associated with anthocyanin synthesis were identified. Notably, PnANS2, PnUFGT2, PnCHI2, and PnCHS1 showed significant correlations with anthocyanin metabolites. Additionally, certain transcription factors such as PnMYB6 and PnMYB1 showed significant positive or negative correlations with anthocyanins. With the accumulation of sucrose, the expression of PnMYB6 is enhanced, which in turn triggers the expression of anthocyanin biosynthesis genes. Based on these findings, we propose that these key genes primarily regulate the anthocyanin synthesis pathway in the culm and contribute to the accumulation of anthocyanin, ultimately resulting in the purple-black coloration of Ph. nigra.


Assuntos
Antocianinas , Transcriptoma , Antocianinas/metabolismo , Metaboloma , Flavonoides/genética , Sacarose , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Cor
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