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1.
Nutrients ; 14(21)2022 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36364942

RESUMO

Black corn has been attracting attention to investigate its biological properties due to its anthocyanin composition, mainly cyanidin-3-glucoside. Our study evaluated the effects of black corn extract (BCE) on intestinal morphology, gene expression, and the cecal microbiome. The BCE intra-amniotic administration was evaluated by an animal model in Gallus gallus. The eggs (n = 8 per group) were divided into: (1) no injection; (2) 18 MΩ H2O; (3) 5% black corn extract (BCE); and (4) 0.38% cyanidin-3-glucoside (C3G). A total of 1 mL of each component was injected intra-amniotic on day 17 of incubation. On day 21, the animals were euthanized after hatching, and the duodenum and cecum content were collected. The cecal microbiome changes were attributed to BCE administration, increasing the population of Bifidobacterium and Clostridium, and decreasing E. coli. The BCE did not change the gene expression of intestinal inflammation and functionality. The BCE administration maintained the villi height, Paneth cell number, and goblet cell diameter (in the villi and crypt), similar to the H2O injection but smaller than the C3G. Moreover, a positive correlation was observed between Bifidobacterium, Clostridium, E. coli, and villi GC diameter. The BCE promoted positive changes in the cecum microbiome and maintained intestinal morphology and functionality.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Zea mays , Animais , Galinhas/metabolismo , Zea mays/metabolismo , Antocianinas/farmacologia , Antocianinas/metabolismo , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Ceco/metabolismo , Bifidobacterium/metabolismo , Clostridium , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia
2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(21)2022 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36362035

RESUMO

Grapevine red blotch virus (GRBV) is a recently identified virus. Previous research indicates primarily a substantial impact on berry ripening in all varieties studied. The current study analyzed grapes' primary and secondary metabolism across grapevine genotypes and seasons to reveal both conserved and variable impacts to GRBV infection. Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Sauvignon (CS) grapevines grafted on two different rootstocks (110R and 420A) were analyzed in 2016 and 2017. Metabolite profiling revealed a considerable impact on amino acid and malate acid levels, volatile aroma compounds derived from the lipoxygenase pathway, and anthocyanins synthesized in the phenylpropanoid pathway. Conserved transcriptional responses to GRBV showed induction of auxin-mediated pathways and photosynthesis with inhibition of transcription and translation processes mainly at harvest. There was an induction of plant-pathogen interactions at pre-veraison, for all genotypes and seasons, except for CS 110R in 2017. Lastly, differential co-expression analysis revealed a transcriptional shift from metabolic synthesis and energy metabolism to transcription and translation processes associated with a virus-induced gene silencing transcript. This plant-derived defense response transcript was only significantly upregulated at veraison for all genotypes and seasons, suggesting a phenological association with disease expression and plant immune responses.


Assuntos
Geminiviridae , Viroses , Vitis , Vitis/metabolismo , Antocianinas/metabolismo , Geminiviridae/metabolismo , Frutas/metabolismo , Viroses/metabolismo
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(21)2022 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36362202

RESUMO

Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a cancer of the myeloid blood cells mainly treated with chemotherapy for cancer remission, but this non-selective treatment also induces numerous side effects. Investigations with bioactive compounds from plant-derived foods against cancer have increased in the last years because there is an urgent need to search for new anti-leukemic agents possessing higher efficacy and selectivity for AML cells and fewer negative side effects. In this study, we analyzed the anti-leukemic activity of several phytochemicals that are representative of the major classes of compounds present in cruciferous foods (glucosinolates, isothiocyanates, hydroxycinnamic acids, flavonols, and anthocyanins) in the human acute myeloid leukemia cell line HL-60. Our results revealed that among the different Brassica-derived compounds assayed, sulforaphane (SFN) (an aliphatic isothiocyanate) showed the most potent anti-leukemic activity with an IC50 value of 6 µM in dose-response MTT assays after 48 h of treatment. On the other hand, chlorogenic acid (a hydroxycinnamic acid) and cyanidin-3-glucoside (an anthocyanin) also displayed anti-leukemic potential, with IC50 values of 7 µM and 17 µM after 48 h of incubation, respectively. Importantly, these compounds did not show significant cell toxicity in macrophages-like differentiated cells at 10 and 25 µM, indicating that their cytotoxic effects were specific to AML cancer cells. Finally, we found that these three compounds were able to induce the NRF2/KEAP1 signaling pathway in a dose-dependent manner, highlighting SFN as the most potent NRF2 activator. Overall, the present evidence shed light on the potential for using foods and ingredients rich in anticancer bioactive phytochemicals from Brassica spp.


Assuntos
Brassica , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda , Humanos , Brassica/metabolismo , Antocianinas/farmacologia , Antocianinas/metabolismo , Proteína 1 Associada a ECH Semelhante a Kelch/metabolismo , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Células HL-60 , Isotiocianatos/farmacologia , Isotiocianatos/metabolismo , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/tratamento farmacológico
4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(21)2022 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36362258

RESUMO

The color of fruit peel is an economically important character of eggplant, and black-purple eggplant has received much attention for being rich in anthocyanin. However, the reason why different fruit peel colors form in eggplant is not well understood. In the present study, an integrative analysis of the metabolome and transcriptome profiles was performed in five eggplant varieties with different fruit colors. A total of 260 flavonoids were identified, and most of them showed significantly higher abundance in black-purple varieties than in other varieties. The transcriptome analysis indicated the activation of early phenylpropanoid biosynthesis genes (SmPAL, SmC4H, and Sm4CL) was more responsible for anthocyanin accumulation, while SmF3'5'H was the key factor for the formation of a purple color. Furthermore, two transcription factors, SmGL2 and SmGATA26, were identified as new hub genes associated with anthocyanin accumulation. The silencing of SmGL2 and SmGATA26 reduced anthocyanin accumulation in eggplant fruit peels, suggesting the possible involvement of SmGL2 and SmGATA26 in regulating anthocyanin biosynthesis. In addition, the pathway of plant hormone signal transduction was significantly enriched, indicating that phytohormones may cooperatively interact to modulate flavonoid biosynthesis. This study provides comprehensive information of flavonoid metabolites and new insights into the regulatory network of fruit coloration, which might be useful for the molecular breeding of eggplant.


Assuntos
Solanum melongena , Solanum melongena/genética , Solanum melongena/metabolismo , Frutas/genética , Frutas/metabolismo , Antocianinas/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Pigmentação/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Transcriptoma , Metaboloma , Flavonoides/metabolismo
5.
Molecules ; 27(21)2022 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36364072

RESUMO

This study aimed to assess dark sweet cherry (DSC) total polyphenols (WE) and anthocyanins (ACN) against metastatic breast cancer (BC). The WE and ACN anticancer activity and underlying mechanisms were assessed in vitro using 4T1 BC cells. A pilot study using a BALB/C mouse syngeneic model bearing 4T1 tumors assessed the anti-metastatic potential of ACN in vivo. ACN inhibited cell viability with higher potency than WE and reduced reactive oxygen species (ROS) (IC50 = 58.6 µg cyanidin 3-glucoside equivalent (C3G)/mL or 122 µM). ACN induced p38 stress-related intrinsic apoptosis, leading to caspase-3 cleavage and total PARP decrease. ACN suppressed ERK1/2 and Akt/mTOR signaling pathways, which are abnormally activated in BC and promote motility and invasion. This was consistent with suppression of VCAM-1 mRNA, Scr phosphorylation and 88.6% reduction of cells migrating to wounded area. The pilot in vivo results supported the ACN-mediated suppression of angiogenesis in tumors and lungs. ACN also lowered Cenpf mRNA in lungs, associated with lung metastasis lesions and poor survival. Results demonstrated the dual Akt-ERK inhibitory role of ACN and suppression of their downstream pro-invasive targets. These results encourage a larger scale in vivo study to confirm that ACN may help to fight BC invasion and metastasis.


Assuntos
Prunus avium , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas , Camundongos , Humanos , Animais , Antocianinas/farmacologia , Antocianinas/metabolismo , Prunus avium/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases , Projetos Piloto , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Transdução de Sinais , Estresse Oxidativo , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo
6.
Genes (Basel) ; 13(11)2022 10 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36360231

RESUMO

Flavonoids and caffeine are the major secondary metabolites with beneficial bioactivity for human health in tea plants, and their biosynthesis pathway and regulatory networks have been well-deciphered. However, the accumulation traits of flavonoids and caffeine in different tea cultivars was insufficient in investigation. In this study, metabolomic and transcriptomic analyses were performed to investigate the differences of flavonoids and caffeine accumulation and regulation between Chinese varieties, including the 'BTSC' group with green leaf, the 'BTZY' group with purple foliage, and the 'MYC' group comprising Assam varieties with green leaf. The results showed that most of the flavonoids were down-regulated in the 'MYC' group; however, the total anthocyanin contents were higher than that of the 'BTSC' group while lower than that of the 'BTZY' group. An ANS (Anthocyanin synthase) was significantly up-regulated and supposed to play a key role for anthocyanin accumulation in the 'BTZY' group. In addition, the results showed that esterified catechins were accumulated in the 'BTSC' and 'BTZY' groups with high abundance. In addition, SCPL1A (Type 1A serine carboxypeptidase-like acyltransferases gene) and UGGT (UDP glucose: galloyl-1-O-ß-d-glucosyltransferase gene) potentially contributed to the up-accumulation of catechins esterified by gallic acid. Interestingly, the results found that much lower levels of caffeine accumulation were observed in the 'MYC' group. RT-qPCR analysis suggested that the expression deficiency of TCS1 (Tea caffeine synthase 1) was the key factor resulting in the insufficient accumulation of caffeine in the 'MYC' group. Multiple MYB/MYB-like elements were discovered in the promoter region of TCS1 and most of the MYB genes were found preferentially expressed in 'MYC' groups, indicating some of which potentially served as negative factor(s) for biosynthesis of caffeine in tea plants. The present study uncovers the characteristics of metabolite accumulation and the key regulatory network, which provide a research reference to the selection and breeding of tea varieties.


Assuntos
Camellia sinensis , Catequina , Humanos , Camellia sinensis/genética , Camellia sinensis/metabolismo , Cafeína/metabolismo , Flavonoides , Transcriptoma , Antocianinas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Melhoramento Vegetal , Catequina/metabolismo , Chá/genética , China
7.
J Agric Food Chem ; 70(41): 13431-13444, 2022 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36198089

RESUMO

Selenium (Se) biofortification in wheat reduces the risk of Se deficiency in humans. Se biofortification increases the concentration of Se and anthocyanins in wheat grains. However, it is unknown whether Se biofortification can enhance flavonoids other than anthocyanins and the mechanism underlying flavonoid accumulation in wheat grains. Here, foliar application of selenite solution in wheat was conducted 10 days after flowering. Metabolite profiling and transcriptome sequencing were performed in Se-treated grains. A significant increase in the total contents of Se, anthocyanins, and flavonoids was observed in Se-treated mature grains. Twenty-seven significantly increased flavonoids were identified in Se-treated immature grains. The significant accumulation of flavones (tricin, tricin derivatives, and chrysoeriol derivatives) was detected, and six anthocyanins, dihydroquercetin (the precursor for anthocyanin biosynthesis) and catechins were also increased. Integrated analysis of metabolites and transcriptome revealed that Se application enhanced the biosynthesis of flavones, dihydroquercetin, anthocyanins, and catechins by increasing the expression levels of seven key structural genes in flavonoid biosynthesis (two TaF3Hs, two TaDFRs, one TaF3'5'H, one TaOMT, and one TaANR). Our findings shed new light on the molecular mechanism underlying the enhancement in flavonoid accumulation by Se supplementation and pave the way for further enhancing the nutritional value of wheat grains.


Assuntos
Flavonas , Selênio , Humanos , Triticum/genética , Triticum/metabolismo , Pão , Selênio/metabolismo , Antocianinas/metabolismo , Ácido Selenioso/metabolismo , Flavonas/metabolismo
8.
J Agric Food Chem ; 70(40): 12852-12864, 2022 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36184825

RESUMO

Previous studies have demonstrated the penetration of anthocyanins through the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier (BCSF barrier) after intraruminal administration of chokeberry and red cabbage preparation to sheep. However, they have failed to explain which food anthocyanin forms are more capable of crossing the BCSF barrier. Thus, this study aim was to verify the ability of cyanidin 3-galactoside (Cy3gal, main chokeberry anthocyanin) and cyanidin 3-diglucoside-5-glucoside (Cy3diG5G, main red cabbage anthocyanin) to cross the BCSF barrier on the sheep model (n = 16) after intravenous administration (to exclude the influence of gastrointestinal processes) of preparations containing these compounds. The micro-HPLC-MS/MS analysis showed that, after intravenous administration, anthocyanins penetrated the BCSF barrier and that the penetration potential of Cy3gal derivatives (6.73%) was higher than that of Cy3diG5G derivatives (6.10%), suggesting the observed differences to be largely due to the type and number of substituents as well as the size of the molecule.


Assuntos
Antocianinas , Brassica , Animais , Antocianinas/metabolismo , Brassica/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Galactosídeos , Glucosídeos , Permeabilidade , Ovinos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(19)2022 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36233158

RESUMO

The taproot of purple carrot accumulated rich anthocyanin, but non-purple carrot did not. MYB transcription factors (TFs) condition anthocyanin biosynthesis in many plants. Currently, genome-wide identification and evolution analysis of R2R3-MYB gene family and their roles involved in conditioning anthocyanin biosynthesis in carrot is still limited. In this study, a total of 146 carrot R2R3-MYB TFs were identified based on the carrot transcriptome and genome database and were classified into 19 subfamilies on the basis of R2R3-MYB domain. These R2R3-MYB genes were unevenly distributed among nine chromosomes, and Ka/Ks analysis suggested that they evolved under a purified selection. The anthocyanin-related S6 subfamily, which contains 7 MYB TFs, was isolated from R2R3-MYB TFs. The anthocyanin content of rhizodermis, cortex, and secondary phloem in 'Black nebula' cultivar reached the highest among the 3 solid purple carrot cultivars at 110 days after sowing, which was approximately 4.20- and 3.72-fold higher than that in the 'Deep purple' and 'Ziwei' cultivars, respectively. The expression level of 7 MYB genes in purple carrot was higher than that in non-purple carrot. Among them, DcMYB113 (DCAR_008994) was specifically expressed in rhizodermis, cortex, and secondary phloem tissues of 'Purple haze' cultivar, with the highest expression level of 10,223.77 compared with the control 'DPP' cultivar at 70 days after sowing. DcMYB7 (DCAR_010745) was detected in purple root tissue of 'DPP' cultivar and its expression level in rhizodermis, cortex, and secondary phloem was 3.23-fold higher than that of secondary xylem at 110 days after sowing. Our results should be useful for determining the precise role of S6 subfamily R2R3-MYB TFs participating in anthocyanin biosynthesis in carrot.


Assuntos
Daucus carota , Antocianinas/metabolismo , Daucus carota/genética , Daucus carota/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genes myb , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(19)2022 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36233166

RESUMO

Anthocyanins are well-known antioxidants that are beneficial for plants and consumers. Dihydroflavonol-4-reductase (DFR) is a key gene of anthocyanin biosynthesis, controlled by multiple transcription factors. Its expression can be enhanced by mutations in the negative regulator of anthocyanin biosynthesis myeloblastosis family transcription factor-like 2 (MYBL2). The expression profiles of the DFR gene were examined in 43 purple and green varieties of Brassica oleracea L., Brassica napus L., Brassica juncea L., and Brassica rapa L. MYBL2 gene expression was significantly reduced in purple varieties of B. oleracea, and green varieties of B. juncea. The MYBL2 gene sequences were screened for mutations that can affect pigmentation. Expression of the DFR gene was cultivar-specific, but in general it correlated with anthocyanin content and was higher in purple plants. Two single nucleotide polymorphysms (SNPs) were found at the beginning of the DNA-binding domain of MYBL2 gene in all purple varieties of B. oleracea. This mutation, leading to an amino acid substitution and the formation of a mononucleotide repeat (A)8, significantly affects RNA structure. No other noteworthy mutations were found in the MYBL2 gene in green varieties of B. oleracea and other studied species. These results bring new insights into the regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis in genus Brassica and provide opportunities for generation of new purple varieties with precise mutations introduced via genetic engineering and CRISPR/Cas.


Assuntos
Antocianinas , Brassica , Antocianinas/metabolismo , Brassica/genética , Brassica/metabolismo , DNA/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Mutação , Nucleotídeos/metabolismo , Pigmentação/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , RNA/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(19)2022 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36233274

RESUMO

MBW complexes, consisting of MYB, basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH), and WD40 proteins, regulate multiple traits in plants, including anthocyanin and proanthocyanidin (PA) biosynthesis and the determination of epidermal cell fate. Here, a WD40 gene from Raphanus sativus, designated TRANSPARENT TESTA GLABRA 1 (RsTTG1), was cloned and functionally characterized. Heterologous expression of RsTTG1 in the Arabidopsis thaliana mutant ttg1-22 background restored accumulation of anthocyanin and PA in the mutant and rescued trichome development. In radish, RsTTG1 was abundantly expressed in all root and leaf tissues, independently of anthocyanin accumulation, while its MBW partners RsMYB1 and TRANSPARENT TESTA 8 (RsTT8) were expressed at higher levels in pigment-accumulating tissues. In yeast two-hybrid analysis, the full-length RsTTG1 protein interacted with RsTT8. Moreover, transient protoplast co-expression assays demonstrated that RsTTG1, which localized to both the cytoplasm and nucleus, moves from the cytoplasm to the nucleus in the presence of RsTT8. When co-expressed with RsMYB1 and RsTT8, RsTTG1 stably activated the promoters of the anthocyanin biosynthesis genes CHALCONE SYNTHASE (RsCHS) and DIHYDROFLAVONOL 4-REDUCTASE (RsDFR). Transient expression of RsTTG1 in tobacco leaves exhibited an increase in anthocyanin accumulation due to activation of the expression of anthocyanin biosynthesis genes when simultaneously expressed with RsMYB1 and RsTT8. These results indicate that RsTTG1 is a vital regulator of pigmentation and trichome development as a functional homolog of AtTTG1.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis , Proantocianidinas , Raphanus , Antocianinas/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/genética , Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Oxirredutases/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Proantocianidinas/metabolismo , Raphanus/genética , Raphanus/metabolismo
12.
Molecules ; 27(19)2022 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36235198

RESUMO

This study investigated the effect of different storage temperatures (35-55 °C) on the bioactive substances and antioxidant properties of Hyeronima macrocarpa berries loaded on nanocellulose. NC was extracted from banana pseudo-stems and presented an interesting surface and porosity properties. The acidified ethanol extract showed better anthocyanin extraction (1317 mg C3G eq./100 g FW) and was used for the preparation of the powdered product, which presented an intense and uniform magenta color, with CIELAB parameters of L* = 59.16, a* = 35.61, and b* = 7.08. The powder exhibited significant stability at storage temperatures of 35 and 45 °C, in which there was no significant loss of anthocyanins or a decrease in antioxidant capacity. In addition, the color was stable for up to 4 months without adding any preservative agent. The anthocyanin-rich extract of H. macrocarpa reached an estimated shelf-life of 315 days (stored at 35 °C), as a result of the impregnation process between the extract and NC, with the ability to protect the bioactives from degradation, due to NC surface properties.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Frutas , Antocianinas/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Etanol/metabolismo , Frutas/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Pós/metabolismo , Corantes de Rosanilina
13.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 17874, 2022 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36284128

RESUMO

Chrysanthemum morifolium is one of the most popular ornamental plants globally. Owing to its large and complex genome (around 10 Gb, segmental hexaploid), it has been difficult to obtain comprehensive transcriptome, which will promote to perform new breeding technique, such as genome editing, in C. morifolium. In this study, we used single-molecule real-time (SMRT) sequencing and RNA-seq technologies, combined them with an error-correcting process, and obtained high-coverage ray-floret transcriptome. The SMRT-seq data increased the ratio of long mRNAs containing complete open-reading frames, and the combined dataset provided a more complete transcriptomic data than those produced from either SMRT-seq or RNA-seq-derived transcripts. We finally obtained 'Sei Arabella' transcripts containing 928,645 non-redundant mRNA, which showed 96.6% Benchmarking Universal Single-Copy Orthologs (BUSCO) score. We also validated the reliability of the dataset by analyzing a mapping rate, annotation and transcript expression. Using the dataset, we searched anthocyanin biosynthesis gene orthologs and performed a qRT-PCR experiment to assess the usability of the dataset. The assessment of the dataset and the following analysis indicated that our dataset is reliable and useful for molecular biology. The combination of sequencing methods provided genetic information and a way to analyze the complicated C. morifolium transcriptome.


Assuntos
Chrysanthemum , Chrysanthemum/genética , Chrysanthemum/metabolismo , Transcriptoma , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Antocianinas/metabolismo , Flores/genética , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Melhoramento Vegetal , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala
14.
Physiol Plant ; 174(5): e13756, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36281844

RESUMO

Solanum melongena is a widely consumed vegetable crop comprising health-benefiting phenolic compounds. It has a complex network of biosynthetic enzymes involved in synthesizing nutraceuticals, including anthocyanins. The present study was conducted to investigate the activities of key enzymes involved in biosynthesis and accumulation of anthocyanins in developing genotypes, such as phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), tyrosine ammonia lyase (TAL), and anthocyanidin synthase (ANS). As inadequate information is available in this context, fruit and leaf tissues were analyzed for enzyme activities and anthocyanin accumulation. The study included characterization of extracted anthocyanin followed by expression studies for gateway enzyme (ANS) involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis. Delphinidin was a major anthocyanidin present in fruit tissues (1.46-110.49 mg/100 g) of S. melongena. Anthocyanin accumulation is backed up by the correlation between biochemical analysis and expression studies. The study has shown variation for PAL, TAL and ANS enzymes in different tissues at developmental stages. Enzyme activities had a strong positive correlation with anthocyanin biosynthesis.


Assuntos
Antocianinas , Solanum melongena , Antocianinas/metabolismo , Fenilalanina Amônia-Liase/genética , Fenilalanina Amônia-Liase/metabolismo , Solanum melongena/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genótipo , Fenilalanina/genética , Fenilalanina/metabolismo , Tirosina/genética , Tirosina/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo
15.
BMC Plant Biol ; 22(1): 498, 2022 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36280828

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acer rubrum L. (red maple) is a popular tree with attractive colored leaves, strong physiological adaptability, and a high ornamental value. Changes in leaf color can be an adaptive response to changes in environmental factors, and also a stress response to external disturbances. In this study, we evaluated the effect of girdling on the color expression of A. rubrum leaves. We studied the phenotypic characteristics, physiological and biochemical characteristics, and the transcriptomic and metabolomic profiles of leaves on girdled and non-girdled branches of A. rubrum. RESULTS: Phenotypic studies showed that girdling resulted in earlier formation of red leaves, and a more intense red color in the leaves. Compared with the control branches, the girdled branches produced leaves with significantly different color parameters a*. Physiological and biochemical studies showed that girdling of branches resulted in uneven accumulation of chlorophyll, carotenoids, anthocyanins, and other pigments in leaves above the band. In the transcriptomic and metabolomic analyses, 28,432 unigenes including 1095 up-regulated genes and 708 down-regulated genes were identified, and the differentially expressed genes were mapped to various KEGG (kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes) pathways. Six genes encoding key transcription factors related to anthocyanin metabolism were among differentially expressed genes between leaves on girdled and non-girdled branches. CONCLUSIONS: Girdling significantly affected the growth and photosynthesis of red maple, and affected the metabolic pathways, biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, and carbon metabolisms in the leaves. This resulted in pigment accumulation in the leaves above the girdling site, leading to marked red color expression in those leaves. A transcriptome analysis revealed six genes encoding anthocyanin-related transcription factors that were up-regulated in the leaves above the girdling site. These transcription factors are known to be involved in the regulation of phenylpropanoid biosynthesis, anthocyanin biosynthesis, and flavonoid biosynthesis. These results suggest that leaf reddening is a complex environmental adaptation strategy to maintain normal metabolism in response to environmental changes. Overall, the results of these comprehensive phenotype, physiological, biochemical, transcriptomic, and metabolomic analyses provide a deeper and more reliable understanding of the coevolution of red maple leaves in response to environmental changes.


Assuntos
Acer , Acer/genética , Acer/metabolismo , Transcriptoma , Antocianinas/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Clorofila/metabolismo , Carotenoides/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Carbono/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Cor
16.
PLoS One ; 17(10): e0271012, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36264987

RESUMO

The R2R3-MYB transcription factor is one of the largest transcription factor families in plants. R2R3-MYBs play a variety of functions in plants, such as cell fate determination, organ and tissue differentiations, primary and secondary metabolisms, stress and defense responses and other physiological processes. The Japanese morning glory (Ipomoea nil) has been widely used as a model plant for flowering and morphological studies. In the present study, 127 R2R3-MYB genes were identified in the Japanese morning glory genome. Information, including gene structure, protein motif, chromosomal location and gene expression, were assigned to the InR2R3-MYBs. Phylogenetic tree analysis revealed that the 127 InR2R3-MYBs were classified into 29 subfamilies (C1-C29). Herein, physiological functions of the InR2R3-MYBs are discussed based on the functions of their Arabidopsis orthologues. InR2R3-MYBs in C9, C15, C16 or C28 may regulate cell division, flavonol biosynthesis, anthocyanin biosynthesis or response to abiotic stress, respectively. C16 harbors the known anthocyanin biosynthesis regulator, InMYB1 (INIL00g10723), and putative anthocyanin biosynthesis regulators, InMYB2 (INIL05g09650) and InMYB3 (INIL05g09651). In addition, INIL05g09649, INIL11g40874 and INIL11g40875 in C16 were suggested as novel anthocyanin biosynthesis regulators. We organized the R2R3-MYB transcription factors in the morning glory genome and assigned information to gene and protein structures and presuming their functions. Our study is expected to facilitate future research on R2R3-MYB transcription factors in Japanese morning glory.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis , Ipomoea nil , Ipomoea nil/genética , Ipomoea nil/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Antocianinas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Genes myb , Filogenia , Arabidopsis/genética , Flavonóis/metabolismo
17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(20)2022 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36292977

RESUMO

The kiwifruit (Actinidia arguta var. purpurea) produces oval shaped fruits containing a slightly green or mauve outer exocarp and a purple-flesh endocarp with rows of tiny black seeds. The flesh color of the fruit results from a range of anthocyanin compounds, and is an important trait for kiwifruit consumers. To elucidate the molecular mechanisms involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis of the sarcocarp during A. arguta fruit development, de novo assembly and transcriptomic profile analyses were performed. Based on significant Gene Ontology (GO) biological terms, differentially expressed genes were identified in flavonoid biosynthetic and metabolic processes, pigment biosynthesis, carbohydrate metabolic processes, and amino acid metabolic processes. The genes closely related to anthocyanin biosynthesis, such as phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), chalcone synthase (CHS), and anthocyanidin synthase (ANS), displayed significant up-regulation during fruit development according to the transcriptomic data, which was further confirmed by qRT-PCR. Meanwhile, a series of transcription factor genes were identified among the DEGs. Through a correlation analysis. AaMYB1 was found to be significantly correlated with key genes of anthocyanin biosynthesis, especially with CHS. Through a transient expression assay, AaMYB1 induced anthocyanin accumulation in tobacco leaves. These data provide an important basis for exploring the related mechanisms of sarcocarp anthocyanin biosynthesis in A. arguta. This study will provide a strong foundation for functional studies on A. arguta and will facilitate improved breeding of A. arguta fruit.


Assuntos
Actinidia , Actinidia/genética , Actinidia/metabolismo , Antocianinas/metabolismo , Transcriptoma , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Fenilalanina Amônia-Liase/genética , Fenilalanina Amônia-Liase/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Melhoramento Vegetal , Frutas/genética , Frutas/metabolismo , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Aminoácidos/metabolismo
18.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(20)2022 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36293036

RESUMO

Quercus aliena is an economically important tree species and one of the dominant native oak species in China. Although its leaves typically turn yellow in autumn, we observed natural variants with red leaves. It is important to understand the mechanisms involved in leaf color variation in this species. Therefore, we compared a Q. aliena tree with yellow leaves and three variants with red leaves at different stages of senescence in order to determine the causes of natural variation. We found that the accumulation of anthocyanins such as cyanidin 3-O-glucoside and cyanidin 3-O-sambubiglycoside had a significant effect on leaf coloration. Gene expression analysis showed upregulation of almost all genes encoding enzymes involved in anthocyanin synthesis in the red-leaved variants during the early and main discoloration stages of senescence. These findings are consistent with the accumulation of anthocyanin in red variants. Furthermore, the variants showed significantly higher expression of transcription factors associated with anthocyanin synthesis, such as those encoded by genes QaMYB1 and QaMYB3. Our findings provide new insights into the physiological and molecular mechanisms involved in autumn leaf coloration in Q. aliena, as well as provide genetic resources for further development and cultivation of valuable ornamental variants of this species.


Assuntos
Antocianinas , Quercus , Antocianinas/metabolismo , Quercus/genética , Quercus/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
19.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(20)2022 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36293253

RESUMO

Anthocyanins are an important group of water-soluble and non-toxic natural pigments with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties that can be found in flowers, vegetables, and fruits. Anthocyanin biosynthesis is regulated by several different types of transcription factors, including the WD40-repeat protein Transparent Testa Glabra 1 (TTG1), the bHLH transcription factor Transparent Testa 8 (TT8), Glabra3 (GL3), Enhancer of GL3 (EGL3), and the R2R3 MYB transcription factor Production of Anthocyanin Pigment 1 (PAP1), PAP2, MYB113, and MYB114, which are able to form MYB-bHLH-WD40 (MBW) complexes to regulate the expression of late biosynthesis genes (LBGs) in the anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway. Nasturtium (Tropaeolum majus) is an edible flower plant that offers many health benefits, as it contains numerous medicinally important ingredients, including anthocyanins. By a comparative examination of the possible anthocyanin biosynthesis regulator genes in nasturtium varieties with different anthocyanin contents, we found that TmPAP2, an R2R3 MYB transcription factor gene, is highly expressed in "Empress of India", a nasturtium variety with high anthocyanin content, while the expression of TmPAP2 in Arabidopsis led to the overproduction of anthocyanins. Protoplast transfection shows that TmPAP2 functions as a transcription activator; consistent with this finding, some of the biosynthesis genes in the general phenylpropanoid pathway and anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway were highly expressed in "Empress of India" and the 35S:TmPAP2 transgenic Arabidopsis plants. However, protoplast transfection indicates that TmPAP2 may not be able to form an MBW complex with TmGL3 and TmTTG1. These results suggest that TmPAP2 may function alone as a key regulator of anthocyanin biosynthesis in nasturtiums.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis , Arabidopsis , Tropaeolum , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Antocianinas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Tropaeolum/genética , Tropaeolum/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/genética , Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/metabolismo , Água/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo
20.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(20)2022 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36293343

RESUMO

WRKY transcription factors play a nonnegligible role in plant growth and development, but little is known about the involvement of WRKY transcription factors in the regulation of fruit ripening. In this study, FaWRKY71 was identified to be closely related to fruit maturation in octoploid strawberry. FaWRKY71 protein localized in the nucleus and responded to cold, salt, low phosphate, ABA, and light quality in strawberry seedlings. The temporal and spatial pattern expression analysis indicated that FaWRKY71 was expressed in all the detected tissues, especially in the full red fruits. In addition, FaWRKY71 gave rise to the accumulation of anthocyanin content by promoting the expression of structural genes FaF3'H, FaLAR, FaANR, and transport factors FaTT19 and FaTT12 in the flavonoid pathway, and softening the texture of strawberry via up-regulating the abundance of FaPG19 and FaPG21. Furthermore, FaWRKY71 was a positive regulator that mediated resistance against reactive oxygen species by enhancing the enzyme activities of SOD, POD, and CAT, reducing the amount of MDA. Altogether, this study provides new and comprehensive insight into the regulatory mechanisms facilitating fruit ripening in strawberry.


Assuntos
Fragaria , Fragaria/metabolismo , Frutas/metabolismo , Antocianinas/genética , Antocianinas/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Fosfatos/metabolismo , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
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