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1.
Front Public Health ; 12: 1395682, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38846616

RESUMO

Introduction: The death of a parent can have profound negative impacts on children, and a lack of adequate support can exacerbate negative life experiences. Aim: To explore the influences of various actors on the content and execution of a bereavement programme within a Swedish context, considering relational and contextual perspectives. Methods: An ethnographic field study involving six children, their parents, and eight volunteers. A theory-inspired thematic analysis was conducted, methodically inspired by Braun and Clarke, theoretically inspired by Bourdieu's concepts of position, power, and capital. Results: Confidentiality obligation was an essential element in the programme, however, the premisses varied depending on actors' positions. Volunteers and researchers had different outlets to express their experiences in the program. The programme offered the children an exclusive space for talking about and sharing experiences and feelings. Simultaneously, the programme restricted the children by not allowing them to share their experiences and feelings outside the physical space. The physical settings shaped the different conditions for interactions among the actors. The sessions adopted loss-oriented approaches, where communication between volunteers and children was guided by the volunteers. However, children created strategies for additional, voiceless communication with their peers or themselves. During breaks and mingles, shared interests or spaces connected children (and adults) more than their common experience of parental bereavement. Conclusion: The participants in the programme were significantly influenced by the structural framework of the programme, and their positions within the programme provided them with different conditions of possibility for (inter)acting. Children's daily activities and interests were both ways to cope with parental bereavement and connect them to other people.


Assuntos
Antropologia Cultural , Luto , Pais , Humanos , Suécia , Feminino , Masculino , Criança , Pais/psicologia , Adulto , Voluntários/psicologia , Apoio Social
2.
J Aging Stud ; 69: 101235, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38834249

RESUMO

Having the choice to stay living in one's home and community for as long as possible is a desire of people living with dementia. Yet, for many, this is not a reality due to a lack of appropriate support, unsuitable housing and built environments, social exclusion, and stigma. The global movement called Dementia Friendly Communities aims to address such barriers and bring about positive change. At the local place-based level, Dementia Friendly Community initiatives are typically planned and implemented by committees, yet little is known about how they operate to enact Dementia Friendly Community principles. Using micro-ethnography and a case study approach, two Australian - Queensland Dementia Friendly Community committees and their activities were studied to better understand implementation at the local level. This involved 16 semi-structured interviews, participant observation and field notes identifying goals, approaches, and tensions. While both committees showed the capacity to raise awareness of issues impacting people living with dementia, there were substantial differences in the implementation of the key Dementia Friendly Community principle of inclusion of people living with dementia and carers. Key differences were the way people living with dementia were positioned and the part they were expected to play in committees, whether they were empowered and valued or tokenistically included yet not listened to. Three aspects of practice are central to more meaningful inclusion: engagement, power-sharing, and leadership. Local action groups directed and led by people living with dementia and their carers, with the support of key local people and organizations, help to progress Dementia Friendly Communities locally.


Assuntos
Demência , Humanos , Queensland , Vida Independente , Cuidadores/psicologia , Feminino , Masculino , Idoso , Antropologia Cultural
3.
J Aging Stud ; 69: 101226, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38834246

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Supporting ageing in place, quality of life and activity engagement are public health priorities for people living with dementia, but little is known about the needs and experiences of community-dwelling people with rarer forms of dementia with lesser known symptoms. Posterior cortical atrophy (PCA) is a rare form of dementia usually caused by Alzheimer's disease but which is characterised by diminished visual processing (rather than a dominant memory problem), which poses challenges for maintaining independence and accessing appropriate support. METHODS: This study used a comparative qualitative design and focussed ethnographic methods to explore experiential differences in activity engagement for 10 people with the most common, memory-led presentation of Alzheimer's disease and 10 people with posterior cortical atrophy within their everyday home environments. RESULTS: While the data collection revealed much rich variation in individual and contextual factors, some tentative high-level differences in the experiences of everyday activities could be drawn out, seemingly attributable to the different diagnoses' differing dominant symptoms. These included people with posterior cortical atrophy being less likely to use environmental cues to initiate activities, and more likely to withhold from asking for support because of preserved insight into the impact of this on carers. This lack of initiation of activities could be misinterpreted as apathy. People with posterior cortical atrophy also were discouraged from engaging in activities by disorientation within the home, and difficulties localising, identifying and manipulating objects. People with the more common, memory-led presentation of Alzheimer's disease exhibited more memory-based difficulties with engaging with activities such as forgetting planned activities, where to locate the items required for an activity and the steps involved. Despite these distinct symptom-led challenges, all participants and their family members demonstrated resourcefulness and resilience in making creative adaptations to support continued engagement in everyday activities, supporting the widely reported management strategies of people with dementia of the Alzheimer's type more generally. CONCLUSIONS: These findings offer helpful insights into some the differing impacts dementia related visual and memory impairments can have on everyday activity engagement, which will be helpful for others navigating these challenges and the health and social care practitioners working with people affected by these conditions. The findings also highlight the vast individual variation in the multitude of individual and contextual factors involved in everyday activity engagement, and suggest important areas for future work utilising methods which are similarly high in ecological validity and accessibility as the home-based focussed ethnographic methods utilised here.


Assuntos
Atividades Cotidianas , Doença de Alzheimer , Antropologia Cultural , Atrofia , Humanos , Doença de Alzheimer/psicologia , Feminino , Masculino , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Córtex Cerebral/patologia , Vida Independente
4.
Int J Equity Health ; 23(1): 114, 2024 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38831276

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The intensive care unit presents structural complexities, and the prevailing power imbalance between patients and staff can lead to health disparities. Hence, unveiling the underlying factors that give rise to and reinforce these disparities can contribute to their prevention. This study aims to shed light on the stereotypes linked to ageism and lookism, which perpetuate health disparities within the intensive care unit setting in Iran. METHODS: This critical ethnographic study employed Carsepkan's approach and was carried out in intensive care units in the west of Iran from 2022 to 2023. The data collection and analysis were conducted through three interconnected stages. In the initial stage, more than 300 h of observations were made at the research site. In the subsequent stage, a horizon analysis was performed. Conversations with 14 informants were conducted in the final stage to enrich the dataset further. Then the analysis process was carried out as in the previous step to uncover an implicit culture of health disparity. To verify the validity and reliability of the study, credibility, conformability, dependability, and transferability were all taken into account. FINDINGS: The ageism and lookism stereotypes emerged from seven main themes; youth-centric; negative ageism; age-friendliness; age-related priority; centered care for pediatric patients and families; appearance-centeredness; and a contradiction between belief and behavior. CONCLUSION: This critical study showed that ageism and lookism stereotypes permeated the intensive care unit's culture. These stereotypes have the potential to influence equality dynamics, as well as to foster and support health disparity in the intensive care unit.


Assuntos
Etarismo , Antropologia Cultural , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Estereotipagem , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico) , Etarismo/psicologia , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde
5.
Front Public Health ; 12: 1380922, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38745999

RESUMO

Background: Age-friendly environments intend to promote active ageing by facilitating social, mental, and physical participation. This could potentially delay the onset of chronic complex conditions, enabling people to live longer independently at home, and prevent loneliness. This study investigates a community-based living environment in Norway called Helgetun and aims to explore how it can facilitate active ageing. Method: We chose an ethnographic approach consisting of observation, informal conversations, and in-depth semi-structured interviews with 15 residents (11 female, 4 male, ages 62-84). We analysed the data using reflexive thematic analysis. Result: We developed three themes on facilitating active ageing in this living environment: maintaining self-identity, experiencing growth and development, and feeling a sense of belonging. These themes were related to physical activity levels, social engagement, and overall satisfaction with the living environment. Maintaining self-identity concerned getting a new role in life as well as access to meaningful activities. Experiencing growth and development involved being exposed to new activities, learning new skills, and experiencing mastery. Lastly, feeling a sense of belonging meant feeling safe and part of a group, as well as receiving social support and help. This feeling of social connectedness and safety was reflected in their experience with the COVID-19 pandemic, in which most felt relatively unaffected, suggesting that this way of living could increase reliance among this age group. Conclusion: Having a flexible structure, adapting to the core needs and individual resources of the residents, can facilitate active ageing in community-based living environments. Our findings contribute to the growing evidence that these environments increase social and physical engagement, whilst reducing social isolation and loneliness. These findings may be particularly relevant in a Norwegian context-where older adults are less dependent on family for care-and are meant as grounding points for policymakers to reflect upon designing future senior living.


Assuntos
Antropologia Cultural , COVID-19 , Vida Independente , Humanos , Noruega , Masculino , Feminino , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , COVID-19/psicologia , Envelhecimento/psicologia , Exercício Físico/psicologia , Apoio Social , Solidão/psicologia , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Entrevistas como Assunto
6.
J Ethnobiol Ethnomed ; 20(1): 53, 2024 May 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38762450

RESUMO

While ethnobiology is a discipline that focuses on the local, it has an outstanding, but not yet fully realized potential to address global issues. Part of this unrealized potential is that universalistic approaches often do not fully recognize culturally grounded perspectives and there are multiple challenges with scaling up place-based research. However, scalability is paramount to ensure that the intimate and context-specific diversity of human-environmental relationships and understandings are recognized in global-scale planning and policy development. Here, we identify four pathways to enable the scalability of place-based ethnobiological research from the ground up: local-to-global dialogues, aggregation of published data, multi-sited studies, and geospatial analyses. We also discuss some major challenges and consideration to encourage continuous reflexivity in these endeavours and to ensure that scalability does not contribute to unnecessarily decontextualizing, co-opting, or overwriting the epistemologies of Indigenous Peoples and local communities. As ethnobiology navigates multiple scales of time and space and seeks to increase its breadth, this study shows that the use of deliberately global approaches, when carefully nested within rich field-based and ecological and ethnographically grounded data, can contribute to: (1) upscaling case-specific insights to unveil global patterns and dynamics in the biocultural contexts of Indigenous Peoples and local communities; (2) bringing ethnobiological knowledge into resolutions that can influence global environmental research and policy agendas; and (3) enriching ethnobiology's field-based ethos with a deliberate global analytical focus.


Assuntos
Antropologia Cultural , Humanos
7.
Int J Equity Health ; 23(1): 103, 2024 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38778351

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: While healthcare policy has fostered implementation strategies to improve inclusion and access of under-served groups to clinical care, systemic and structural elements still disproportionately prevent service users from accessing research opportunities embedded within clinical settings. This contributes to the widening of health inequalities, as the absence of representativeness prevents the applicability and effectiveness of evidence-based interventions in under-served clinical populations. The present study aims to identify the individual (micro), organisational (meso) and structural (macro) barriers to clinical research access in patients with comorbid alcohol use disorder and alcohol-related liver disease. METHODS: A focused ethnography approach was employed to explore the challenges experienced by patients in the access to and implementation of research processes within clinical settings. Data were collected through an iterative-inductive approach, using field notes and patient interview transcripts. The framework method was utilised for data analysis, and themes were identified at the micro, meso and macro levels. RESULTS: At the micro-level, alcohol-related barriers included encephalopathy and acute withdrawal symptoms. Alcohol-unrelated barriers also shaped the engagement of service users in research. At the meso-level, staff and resource pressures, as well as familiarity with clinical and research facilities were noted as influencing intervention delivery and study retention. At the wider, macro-level, circumstances including the 'cost of living crisis' and national industrial action within healthcare settings had an impact on research processes. The findings emphasise a 'domino effect' across all levels, demonstrating an interplay between individual, organisational and structural elements influencing access to clinical research. CONCLUSIONS: A combination of individual, organisational and structural barriers, exacerbated by the COVID-19 pandemic, and the socioeconomic landscape in which the study was conducted further contributed to the unequal access of under-served groups to clinical research participation. For patients with comorbid alcohol use disorder and alcohol-related liver disease, limited access to research further contributes towards a gap in effective evidence-based treatment, exacerbating health inequalities in this clinical population.


Assuntos
Antropologia Cultural , Acessibilidade aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Comorbidade , Alcoolismo/terapia , Alcoolismo/complicações , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pesquisa Biomédica
8.
Soc Sci Med ; 350: 116922, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38713977

RESUMO

High quality primary care is a foundational element of effective health services. Internationally, primary care physicians (general practitioners (GPs), family doctors) are experiencing significant workload pressures. How non-patient-facing work contributes to these pressures and what constitutes this work is poorly understood and often unrecognised and undervalued by patients, policy makers, and even clinicians engaged in it. This paper examines non-patient-facing work ethnographically, informed by practice theory, the Listening Guide, and empirical ethics. Ethnographic observations (104 h), in-depth interviews (n = 16; 8 with GPs and 8 with other primary care staff) and reflexive workshops were conducted in two general practices in England. Our analysis shows that 'hidden work' was integral to direct patient care, involving diverse clinical practices such as: interpreting test results; crafting referrals; and accepting interruptions from clinical colleagues. We suggest the term 'hidden care work' more accurately reflects the care-ful nature of this work, which was laden with ambiguity and clinical uncertainty. Completing hidden care work outside of expected working hours was normalised, creating feelings of inefficiency, and exacerbating workload pressure. Pushing tasks forward into an imagined future (when conditions might allow its completion) commonly led to overspill into GPs' own time. GPs experienced tension between their desire to provide safe, continuous, 'caring' care and the desire to work a manageable day, in a context of increasing demand and burgeoning complexity.


Assuntos
Antropologia Cultural , Clínicos Gerais , Carga de Trabalho , Humanos , Clínicos Gerais/psicologia , Inglaterra , Carga de Trabalho/psicologia , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Feminino , Masculino
9.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0302857, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38713715

RESUMO

In their classic accounts, anthropological ethnographers developed causal arguments for how specific sociocultural structures and processes shaped human thought, behavior, and experience in particular settings. Despite this history, many contemporary ethnographers avoid establishing in their work direct causal relationships between key variables in the way that, for example, quantitative research relying on experimental or longitudinal data might. As a result, ethnographers in anthropology and other fields have not advanced understandings of how to derive causal explanations from their data, which contrasts with a vibrant "causal revolution" unfolding in the broader social and behavioral sciences. Given this gap in understanding, we aim in the current article to clarify the potential ethnography has for illuminating causal processes related to the cultural influence on human knowledge and practice. We do so by drawing on our ongoing mixed methods ethnographic study of games, play, and avatar identities. In our ethnographic illustrations, we clarify points often left unsaid in both classic anthropological ethnographies and in more contemporary interdisciplinary theorizing on qualitative research methodologies. More specifically, we argue that for ethnographic studies to illuminate causal processes, it is helpful, first, to state the implicit strengths and logic of ethnography and, second, to connect ethnographic practice more fully to now well-developed interdisciplinary approaches to causal inference. In relation to the first point, we highlight the abductive inferential logic of ethnography. Regarding the second point, we connect the ethnographic logic of abduction to what Judea Pearl has called the ladder of causality, where moving from association to intervention to what he calls counterfactual reasoning produces stronger evidence for causal processes. Further, we show how graphical modeling approaches to causal explanation can help ethnographers clarify their thinking. Overall, we offer an alternative vision of ethnography, which contrasts, but nevertheless remains consistent with, currently more dominant interpretive approaches.


Assuntos
Antropologia Cultural , Humanos , Antropologia Cultural/métodos , Lógica , Modelos Teóricos , Causalidade
10.
Glob Health Action ; 17(1): 2341521, 2024 Dec 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38693861

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is an abnormal glucose metabolism diagnosed during pregnancy that can have serious adverse consequences for mother and child. GDM is an exceptional health condition, as its management serves not only as treatment but also as prevention, reducing the risk of future diabetes in mother and child. OBJECTIVES: This qualitative study aimed to explore how pregnant women experience and respond to GDM, focusing particularly on the role of the family environment in shaping women's experiences. METHODS: The research was carried out in Vietnam's Thái Bình province in April-May 2023. We conducted in-depth ethnographic interviews with 21 women with GDM, visiting them in their homes. Our theoretical starting point was phenomenological anthropology, and the data were analysed using a thematic analysis approach. RESULTS: At the centre of women's experiences was the contrast between GDM as a biomedical and a social condition. Whereas GDM was biomedically diagnosed and managed in the healthcare system, it was often deemed insignificant or non-existent by family members. This made GDM a biomedically present but socially absent health condition. This paradox posed challenges to women's GDM self-care, placing them in pioneering social positions. CONCLUSIONS: The biomedical presence yet social absence of GDM turned women into pioneers at biomedical, digital, epidemiological, and family frontiers. This article calls for appreciation of pregnant women's pioneering roles and for health systems action to involve women and families in the development of GDM policies and programmes at a time of sweeping global health changes.


Main findings: Vietnamese women's experiences of gestational diabetes were affected by social splits between clinic and home; between biomedical and family worlds.Added knowledge: Gestational diabetes places pregnant women in Northern Vietnam in pioneering roles on biomedical, digital, epidemiological, and family frontiers.Global health impact for policy and action: Pregnant women should be involved in the development of policies and programmes addressing gestational diabetes, with particular attention to the connections between clinical and family worlds.


Assuntos
Antropologia Cultural , Diabetes Gestacional , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Humanos , Diabetes Gestacional/psicologia , Diabetes Gestacional/epidemiologia , Feminino , Gravidez , Vietnã , Adulto , Gestantes/psicologia , Entrevistas como Assunto , Adulto Jovem , Autocuidado/psicologia
11.
BMJ Open ; 14(5): e082345, 2024 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38802278

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Diet and physical activity are crucial for people with chronic kidney disease (CKD) to maintain good health. Digital health interventions can increase access to lifestyle services. However, consumers' perspectives are unclear, which may reduce the capacity to develop interventions that align with specific needs and preferences. Therefore, this review aims to synthesise the preferences of people with CKD regarding digital health interventions that promote healthy lifestyle. DESIGN: Qualitative systematic review with meta-ethnography. DATA SOURCES: Databases Scopus, CENTRAL, MEDLINE, CINAHL and SPORTDiscus were searched between 2000 and 2023. ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: Primary research papers that used qualitative exploration methods to explore the preferences of adults with CKD (≥18 years) regarding digital health interventions that promoted diet, physical activity or a combination of these health behaviours. DATA EXTRACTION AND SYNTHESIS: Two independent reviewers screened title, abstract and full text. Discrepancies were resolved by a third reviewer. Consumers' quotes were extracted verbatim and synthesised into higher-order themes and subthemes. RESULTS: Database search yielded 5761 records. One record was identified following communication with a primary author. 15 papers were included. These papers comprised 197 consumers (mean age 51.0±7.2), including 83 people with CKD 1-5; 61 kidney transplant recipients; 53 people on dialysis. Sex was reported in 182 people, including 53% male. Five themes were generated regarding consumers' preferences for digital lifestyle interventions. These included simple instruction and engaging design; individualised interventions; virtual communities of care; education and action plans; and timely reminders and automated behavioural monitoring. CONCLUSION: Digital health interventions were considered an important mechanism to access lifestyle services. Consumers' preferences are important to ensure future interventions are tailored to specific needs and goals. Future research may consider applying the conceptual framework of consumers' preferences in this review to develop and evaluate the effect of a digital lifestyle intervention on health outcomes. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42023411511.


Assuntos
Estilo de Vida Saudável , Insuficiência Renal Crônica , Humanos , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/terapia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/psicologia , Preferência do Paciente , Antropologia Cultural , Exercício Físico/psicologia , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Telemedicina , Saúde Digital
12.
J Interprof Care ; 38(4): 612-620, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38717795

RESUMO

Communicating effectively, including the ability to negotiate, has been claimed to be key competencies in interprofessional practice. However, these day-to-day contributions to interprofessional teamwork are not yet sufficiently understood. The aim of this article is to explore the day-to-day interprofessional negotiations in biopsychosocial pain rehabilitation. A qualitative design with an ethnographic approach was applied to the overall study. Participant observation of interprofessional encounters and clinical encounters in a pain rehabilitation ward was undertaken in 2016 for a period of 19 weeks. Intermittent interviews with 12 professionals were conducted. Data were analyzed in an abductive process using thematic analysis. We present the results as two themes: 1) Silent conflicting interests in the office, and 2) Silent dissatisfaction with meetings. The study showed that the team members had opportunities to negotiate in interprofessional offices and meetings, while they perceived insufficient time for discussion, and their individual work being interrupted by each other in the offices. They did not discuss their dissatisfaction, but silently bargained on how to spend time together. Professionals can contribute to teamwork through silent bargains that can promote a low level of conflict and thereby preserve a good workflow.


Assuntos
Relações Interprofissionais , Negociação , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Humanos , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente/organização & administração , Masculino , Feminino , Antropologia Cultural , Comportamento Cooperativo , Adulto , Entrevistas como Assunto , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Manejo da Dor , Comunicação , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Processos Grupais
13.
Front Public Health ; 12: 1349558, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38721547

RESUMO

Background: Fruits and vegetables (F&V) play a vital role in promoting health and preventing diseases. Numerous studies have demonstrated the association between F&V consumption and reduced risks of cardiovascular disease, cancer, and mortality. Despite the high priority of public health in promoting F&V intake, Chinese immigrants in Canada often fall below national guidelines in their consumption. Understanding the factors influencing F&V intake in this community is crucial for developing effective interventions. Methods: This study used an applied ethnographic research approach to gain insight into the enablers and barriers that influence F&V intake among Chinese-Canadian adults in Richmond, BC. Semi-structured interviews and 'photovoice' group sessions were conducted to gather qualitative data from community participants and health care providers (HCPs). Results: The research identified four key themes: (1) Cultural differences around how vegetables are perceived, consumed and prepared; (2) Motivators and strategies for increasing vegetable and fruit intake; (3) Lack of culturally relevant dietary education and resources; and (4) Importance of value in vegetable/fruit-related decisions. Participants showed a strong preference for the traditional Eastern diet, with cost of food and lack of knowledge about Western vegetables acting as barriers to dietary diversity. The study also highlighted the need for culturally tailored educational resources to effectively promote F&V consumption. Conclusion: By adopting a multi-modal approach, incorporating both interviews and 'photovoice' sessions, this research provided comprehensive insights into the participants' perspectives and experiences related to F&V intake. Understanding these factors can guide the development of culturally appropriate interventions to increase F&V consumption among Chinese-Canadian adults in Richmond, BC, and potentially improve their overall health and well-being. Future studies should consider the heterogeneity within the Chinese immigrant population and target a more balanced representation of age groups to further enhance our understanding of F&V intake patterns in this community.


Assuntos
Frutas , Verduras , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Canadá , China/etnologia , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Dieta , Entrevistas como Assunto , Idoso , Comportamento Alimentar/etnologia , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Antropologia Cultural , População do Leste Asiático
14.
Med Anthropol ; 43(4): 295-309, 2024 05 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38753500

RESUMO

Medical anthropologists working in interdisciplinary teams often articulate expertise with respect to ethnography. Yet increasingly, health scientists utilize ethnographic methods. Through a comparative review of health ethnographies, and autoethnographic observations from interdisciplinary research, we find that anthropological ethnographies and health science ethnographies are founded on different epistemic sensibilities. Differences center on temporalities of research, writing processes, sites of social intervention, uses of theory, and analytic processes. Understanding what distinguishes anthropological ethnography from health science ethnography enables medical anthropologists - who sometimes straddle these two ethnographic modes - to better articulate their epistemic positionality and facilitate interdisciplinary research collaborations.


Assuntos
Antropologia Médica , Humanos , Antropologia Cultural , Conhecimento
15.
Salud Colect ; 20: e4601, 2024 Apr 02.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38753982

RESUMO

The purpose of this research is to identify predominant problematizations in Colombian feminist Instagram accounts regarding gender-based violence during the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic. Employing a qualitative approach, a digital ethnography based on the principles of netnography was conducted as an alternative to detail the social worlds constructed from online groups. Fifty pieces of content from @lainsumisa and twenty pieces of content from @feministasenconstrucción, published between March 2020 and March 2021, were selected based on observations made within the online fieldwork framework. These were analyzed using discourse analysis techniques. The findings discuss the following emerging categories: unpaid household work, romanticized harassment, fatphobia, and the violation of Black and racialized women's rights. In this context, cyberactivism is presented as an opportunity for the emergence of collectives and support networks for women advocating for gender equality and their rights, towards questioning patriarchal ideas that jeopardize their well-being.


El propósito de esta investigación es identificar las problematizaciones predominantes en cuentas feministas colombianas de Instagram, sobre las violencias basadas en género durante el primer año de la pandemia de covid-19. Desde un enfoque cualitativo, se realizó una etnografía digital basada en los preceptos de la netnografía, como alternativa para detallar los mundos sociales construidos a partir de los grupos en línea. A partir de las observaciones realizadas en el marco del trabajo de campo en línea se seleccionaron 50 contenidos de @lainsumisa y 20 contenidos de @feministasenconstrucción, publicados entre marzo de 2020 y marzo de 2021, los cuales se analizaron mediante técnicas de análisis del discurso. Entre los hallazgos se discuten las siguientes categorías emergentes: el trabajo no remunerado en el hogar, el acoso romantizado, la gordofobia y la vulneración a las mujeres negras y racializadas. Al respecto, se plantea el ciberactivismo como una oportunidad para el surgimiento de colectivos y redes de apoyo para las mujeres que luchan por la equidad de género y por sus derechos, hacia el cuestionamiento de ideas patriarcales que atentan contra su bienestar.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Violência de Gênero , Mídias Sociais , Humanos , Colômbia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Feminino , Direitos da Mulher , Pandemias , Feminismo , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Masculino , Antropologia Cultural
16.
Salud Colect ; 20: e4541, 2024 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38733976

RESUMO

Following the authorization the use of COVID-19 vaccines in babies age six months through children four years old in the United States, some individuals (parents, pediatricians, and communicators) framed COVID-19 vaccination as an issue of access, while many others expressed hesitancy and some resisted recommendations from the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. In this context, this study aimed to explore: 1) divergent reactions to the authorization of COVID-19 vaccine use in children aged six months to four years; and 2) opposing logics underlying attitudes towards pro-vaccination, anti-vaccination, and vaccine hesitancy regarding COVID-19 vaccines. To achieve this, a digital ethnography was conducted, involving monitoring of 5,700 reactions to a series of eight infographics published on social media by the John Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, and participant observation in an online focus group over a one-year period, from December 2021 to December 2022, consisting of 18 mothers. The findings suggest that healthcare professionals should consider different notions of "risk" when interacting with patients, especially those who are hesitant to vaccinate.


Luego de que se autorizara en EEUU el uso de la vacuna contra el covid-19 en bebés de seis meses a niños y niñas de cuatro años, algunas personas (padres, madres, pediatras y comunicadores) plantearon la vacunación contra el covid-19 como una cuestión de acceso; sin embargo, muchas otras se mostraron reacias y otras se resistieron a las recomendaciones de los Centers for Disease Control and Prevention de EEUU. En este contexto, este estudio se propuso explorar: 1) reacciones divergentes ante la autorización de uso de la vacuna contra el covid-19 en niños y niñas de seis meses a cuatro años; y 2) lógicas contrapuestas que subyacen a las actitudes provacunación, antivacunación y vacilación ante las vacunas contra el covid-19. Para ello, se realizó una etnografía digital, con monitoreo de 5.700 reacciones a una serie de ocho infografías publicadas en las redes sociales por la John Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, y observación participante en un grupo focal en línea a lo largo de un año, desde diciembre de 2021 hasta diciembre de 2022, conformado por 18 madres. Los resultados indican que el personal médico debe considerar diferentes nociones de "riesgo" al interactuar con los pacientes, especialmente aquellos que dudan en vacunarse.


Assuntos
Antropologia Cultural , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Hesitação Vacinal , Humanos , Vacinas contra COVID-19/administração & dosagem , Estados Unidos , Lactente , Hesitação Vacinal/psicologia , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Grupos Focais , Masculino , Vacinação , Adulto
17.
Narra J ; 4(1): e667, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38798854

RESUMO

A significant number of postpartum mothers are at risk of experiencing perinatal mental health (PMH) due to various factors. The aim of this study was to investigate risk factors for PMH issues and explore the current implementation of early screening for PMH in Mataram, West Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia. A mixed-method study, cross-sectional and ethnographic approach, was conducted at Babakan Public Health Center, Mataram, West Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia, from July to August 2023. A cross-sectional study involved 33 postpartum mothers and analyzed seven potential risk factors: age, parity, age at marriage, type of childbirth, type of family, history of adolescent mental disorder, and history of mental disorder during pregnancy. An ethnographic approach, using in-depth interviews, was utilized to gain insights regarding the implementation of PMH screening, included seven healthcare workers: six midwives and one nurse. Among the seven risk factors analyzed, only a history of adolescent mental disorder acted as risk for high PMH with an odds ratio (OR) 1.17 and p=0.03. In-depth interviews revealed a consistent lack of understanding among all healthcare workers regarding PMH screening implementation: absence of early screening, lack of knowledge regarding PMH and how to identify them, reliance solely on subjective assessments for early screening, and a lack of standardized adequate PMH management. In conclusion, the history of adolescent mental disorder could lead to the development of PMH in postpartum mothers. Current screening implementation is still lacking among healthcare workers and public health centers. Therefore, integrating various stakeholders in early PMH screening is crucial to prevent future PMH in mothers and babies.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais , Humanos , Indonésia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Estudos Transversais , Adulto , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Transtornos Mentais/diagnóstico , Saúde Mental , Adolescente , Mães/psicologia , Período Pós-Parto , Antropologia Cultural , Entrevistas como Assunto
18.
Int J Qual Stud Health Well-being ; 19(1): 2356928, 2024 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38773959

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Informal caregivers (ICs) in Africa perform a long list of tasks to support hospitalization care. However, available studies are weak in accounting for the experiences of everyday role-routines of hospital-based informal caregiving (HIC) in under-resourced settings. This article explored the experiences of role-routines among informal caregivers in a Nigerian tertiary health facility. METHODS: The ethnographic exploratory study relied on primary data collected from 75 participants, including 21 ICs, 15 inpatients, 36 hospital staff, and 3 ad-hoc/paid carers in a tertiary health facility in Southwestern Nigeria. RESULTS: ICs perform several essential roles for hospitalized relatives, with each role characterized by a range of tasks. An integrative narrative of everyday routines of HIC as experienced by ICs showed critical complexities and complications involved in seemingly simple tasks of assisting hospitalized relatives with hygiene maintenance, medical investigations, blood donation, resource mobilization, errand-running, patient- and self-care and others. The role-routines are burdensome and ICs' experiences of them revealed the undercurrents of how health systems dysfunctions condition family members to support hospitalization care in Nigeria. CONCLUSION: The intensity and repetitive nature of role-routines is suggestive of "routinization of suffering". We recommend the closing of gaps driving hospital-based informal caregiving in Africa's under-resourced settings.


Assuntos
Cuidadores , Humanos , Nigéria , Cuidadores/psicologia , Feminino , Masculino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Família , Hospitalização , Idoso , Doadores de Sangue/psicologia , Antropologia Cultural , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Adulto Jovem
19.
Health Expect ; 27(3): e14062, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38704822

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: People being investigated for cancer face a wealth of complex information. Non-specific symptom pathways (NSS) were implemented in the United Kingdom in 2017 to address the needs of patients experiencing symptoms such as weight loss, fatigue or general practitioner 'gut feeling', who did not have streamlined pathways for cancer investigation. This study aimed to explore the health literacy skills needed by patients being investigated for cancer in NSS pathways. METHODS: This study employed ethnographic methods across four hospitals in England, including interviews, patient shadowing and clinical care observations, to examine NSS pathways for cancer diagnosis. We recruited 27 patients who were shadowed and interviewed during their care. We also interviewed 27 professionals. The analysis focused on patient communication and understanding, drawing on the concepts of personal and organisational health literacy. RESULTS: Our analysis derived six themes highlighting the considerable informational demands of the NSS pathway. Patients were required to understand complex blood tests and investigations in primary care and often did not understand why they were referred. The NSS pathway itself was difficult to understand with only a minority of patients appreciating that multiple organs were being investigated for cancer. The process of progressing through the pathway was also difficult to understand, particularly around who was making decisions and what would happen next. The results of investigations were complex, often including incidental findings. Patients whose persistent symptoms were not explained were often unsure of what to do following discharge. CONCLUSION: We have identified several potential missed opportunities for organisations to support patient understanding of NSS pathways which could lead to inappropriate help-seeking post-discharge. Patients' difficulties in comprehending previous investigations and findings could result in delays, overtesting or inadequately targeted investigations, hindering the effective use of their medical history. Third, patients' limited understanding of their investigations and results may impede their ability to engage in patient safety by reporting potential care errors. PATIENT OR PUBLIC CONTRIBUTION: Patient, public, clinical and policy representatives contributed to developing the research objectives through a series of meetings and individual conversations in preparation for the study. We have held several events in which patients and the public have had an opportunity to give feedback about our results, such as local interest groups in North London and academic conferences. A clinical contributor (J.-A. M.) was involved in data analysis and writing the manuscript.


Assuntos
Antropologia Cultural , Letramento em Saúde , Neoplasias , Humanos , Neoplasias/terapia , Feminino , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inglaterra , Idoso , Adulto , Entrevistas como Assunto , Comunicação , Pesquisa Qualitativa
20.
J Med Internet Res ; 26: e51695, 2024 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38819900

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Informal carers play an important role in the everyday care of patients and the delivery of health care services. They aid patients in transportation to and from appointments, and they provide assistance during the appointments (eg, answering questions on the patient's behalf). Video consultations are often seen as a way of providing patients with easier access to care. However, few studies have considered how this affects the role of informal carers and how they are needed to make video consultations safe and feasible. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to identify how informal carers, usually friends or family who provide unpaid assistance, support patients and clinicians during video consultations. METHODS: We conducted an in-depth analysis of the communication in a sample of video consultations drawn from 7 clinical settings across 4 National Health Service Trusts in the United Kingdom. The data set consisted of 52 video consultation recordings (of patients with diabetes, gestational diabetes, cancer, heart failure, orthopedic problems, long-term pain, and neuromuscular rehabilitation) and interviews with all participants involved in these consultations. Using Linguistic Ethnography, which embeds detailed analysis of verbal and nonverbal communication in the context of the interaction, we examined the interactional, technological, and clinical work carers did to facilitate video consultations and help patients and clinicians overcome challenges of the remote and video-mediated context. RESULTS: Most patients (40/52, 77%) participated in the video consultation without support from an informal carer. Only 23% (12/52) of the consultations involved an informal carer. In addition to facilitating the clinical interaction (eg, answering questions on behalf of the patient), we identified 3 types of work that informal carers did: facilitating the use of technology; addressing problems when the patient could not hear or understand the clinician; and assisting with physical examinations, acting as the eyes, ears, and hands of the clinician. Carers often stayed in the background, monitoring the consultation to identify situations where they might be needed. In doing so, copresent carers reassured patients and helped them conduct the activities that make up a consultation. However, carers did not necessarily help patients solve all the challenges of a video consultation (eg, aiming the camera while laying hands on the patient during an examination). We compared cases where an informal carer was copresent with cases where the patient was alone, which showed that carers provided an important safety net, particularly for patients who were frail and experienced mobility difficulties. CONCLUSIONS: Informal carers play a critical role in making video consultations safe and feasible, particularly for patients with limited technological experience or complex needs. Guidance and research on video consulting need to consider the availability and work done by informal carers and how they can be supported in providing patients access to digital health care services.


Assuntos
Antropologia Cultural , Cuidadores , Insuficiência Cardíaca , Neoplasias , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Humanos , Cuidadores/psicologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/psicologia , Feminino , Neoplasias/psicologia , Antropologia Cultural/métodos , Masculino , Reino Unido , Gravação em Vídeo , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Linguística , Idoso
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