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1.
Cad Saude Publica ; 37(3): e00213519, 2021.
Artigo em Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33852664

RESUMO

Technology is a central element for patients in intensive care. The article aimed to explore the interpretations of interactions between humans and non-humans in the production of care for children with complex chronic conditions in the intensive care unit (ICU). Secondarily, the study discussed the secret as one of the dimensions of interactions associated with the intensive care setting. This was an ethnographic study with participant observation and field diary records, in dialogue with Actor-Network Theory, to discuss the role of technology in social interactions in the context of complex care in a pediatric ICU. Children, families, and professionals attributed new meanings and functionalities to the technology during prolonged stay in the ICU, redefining its role and assuming it as an important mediator in the social interactions between life inside and outside the hospital. Technological incorporation reconfigured the limits of life and the physical and symbolic spaces involving the care and stretched the limits between the public and private spheres during hospitalization. The secret in this setting was traversed by the technological mediation that added new ingredients to the relations of sociability. This new order, linked to interaction between humans and non-humans, challenges health institutions and their staff to rethink their values, procedures, and way of interacting in order to improve the patient's care, where technological incorporation is a definitive and innovative reality in what could be called the digitization of life and care.


Assuntos
Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Pediátrica , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Antropologia Cultural , Brasil , Criança , Doença Crônica , Hospitalização , Humanos
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33561092

RESUMO

Community care nurses educate adolescents about body image, but their interventions appear to be ineffective. Body dissatisfaction predicts unhealthy behaviors among adolescents. This study aimed to understand the meanings and factors that influence the concept of body image through a systematic review and meta-ethnography of qualitative studies from the perspective of adolescents. Ten studies published from 2009-2019 were identified by a search of relevant systematic databases between September and December 2019. The review followed the seven steps of meta-ethnography developed by Noblit and Hare, including a line-of-argument. The synthesis revealed six themes: self-perception of body image; opinions of friends and colleagues; opinions of family; specific features of the school environment; expectations perceived across the mass-media; and strategies, practices, and self-management of body image. An explanatory model was developed that showed adolescents' development of body image and the path towards its establishment. In conclusion, these results should be considered to implement strategies to promote a healthy body image in adolescents by community health and mental health nurses.


Assuntos
Antropologia Cultural , Imagem Corporal , Adolescente , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Autoimagem
3.
Nurse Educ Pract ; 51: 102960, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33529799

RESUMO

Discrimination towards individuals with disabilities is problematic within nursing. There have been calls to increase diversity in nursing and this includes embracing nurses with disabilities. Increasing diversity in nursing requires increasing diversity among nursing students; in this way, nurse educators are gatekeepers to the profession. Clinical education is a crucial element of nursing education, yet there have been very few studies related to the clinical education of nursing students with disabilities. There have been no studies of attitudes of acute care nurse preceptors toward students with disabilities in the United States. This gap is important as the majority of clinical experiences occur in the acute care environment. Utilizing a focused ethnography, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 20 acute care nurses with at least two years' experience precepting students. While positive feelings about nursing students with disabilities were shared, thoughts and behavioral intentions remained negative. Six themes emerged: safety, barriers, otherness, communicating to meet needs, disclosure, and student versus colleague. Attitudinal barriers are the primary barriers faced by individuals with disabilities in becoming and practicing as nurses. Nurses in practice and education must embrace more inclusive attitudes towards individuals with disabilities.


Assuntos
Pessoas com Deficiência , Bacharelado em Enfermagem , Educação em Enfermagem , Estudantes de Enfermagem , Antropologia Cultural , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos
4.
BMC Geriatr ; 21(1): 121, 2021 02 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33588768

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Policy makers and care providers see assistive technology and telecare as potential products to support people with dementia to live independently in their homes and communities. Previous research rarely examined how people with dementia and their caregivers actually use such technology. The study examined how and why people living with dementia and their caregivers used assistive technology and telecare in their own homes. METHODS: This study used an ethnographic design embedded within the NIHR-funded Assistive Technology and Telecare to maintain Independent Living At home for people with dementia (ATTILA) randomised controlled trial. We collected 208 h of observational data on situated practices of ten people with dementia and their ten caregivers. We used this data to construct extended cases to explain how technologies supported people with dementia in home and community settings. RESULTS: We identified three themes: placing technology in care, which illustrates how people with dementia and caregivers 'fit' technology into their homes and routines; replacing care with technology, which shows how caregivers replaced normal care practices with ones mediated through technologies; and technology displacing care and everyday life, which highlights how technologies disrupted the everyday lives of people with dementia. DISCUSSION: This study exemplifies unintended and unanticipated consequences for assistive technology and telecare uptake in 'real world' community-based dementia care. It underlines the need to identify and map the context of technological provision over time within the changing lives of people with dementia and their caregivers.


Assuntos
Demência , Equipamentos de Autoajuda , Telemedicina , Antropologia Cultural , Cuidadores , Demência/terapia , Humanos
6.
Hist Philos Life Sci ; 43(1): 28, 2021 Feb 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33620613

RESUMO

Prevention of age-related disorders is increasingly in focus of health policies, and it is hoped that early intervention on processes of deterioration can promote healthier and longer lives. New opportunities to slow down the aging process are emerging with new fields such as personalized nutrition. Data-intensive research has the potential to improve the precision of existing risk factors, e.g., to replace coarse-grained markers such as blood cholesterol with more detailed multivariate biomarkers. In this paper, we follow an attempt to develop a new aging biomarker. The vision among the project consortium, comprising both research and industrial partners, is that the new biomarker will be predictive of a range of age-related conditions, which may be preventable through personalized nutrition. We combine philosophical analysis and ethnographic fieldwork to explore the possibilities and challenges of managing aging through bodily signs that are not straightforwardly linked to symptomatic disease. We document how the improvement of measurement brings about new conceptual challenges of demarcating healthy and unhealthy states. Moreover, we highlight that the reframing of aging as risk has social and ethical implications, as it is generative of normative notions of what constitutes successful aging and good citizenship.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Antropologia Cultural , Biomarcadores/sangue , Saúde , Risco , Ética , Humanos
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33504078

RESUMO

Demographic evolution is resulting on an aged population increment in Spain. This growth has been more relevant in rural areas, where the population has traditionally lived under hard socio-economic conditions and leveraging the natural resources such as food from family orchards to survive. Studies that have investigated the possibilities and uses of these traditional family orchards today in relation to health-related quality of life in the elderly are scarce. Based on a previous ethnography, this mixed research aims to describe a protocol that will evaluate the effects of the use of traditional family orchards as a daily resource on fitness and quality of life of the elderly population in Las Hurdes (Spain). Body composition, fitness, mental health, health-related quality of life, and activity-related behaviors of participants will be assessed. The outcomes of this study might enable us to design further tailored physical exercise-based interventions using family orchards as an adequate resource to improve the health-related quality of life and fitness of the elderly in rural areas. In addition, the study detailed here might also be applied to other similar rural areas in Spain and worldwide.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico , Qualidade de Vida , Idoso , Antropologia Cultural , Composição Corporal , Humanos , População Rural , Espanha
8.
Rev. cienc. cuidad ; 18(1): 20-29, 2021.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1147582

RESUMO

Objetivo: Interpretar las creencias de susceptibilidad percibida en-tre la condición de embarazo y las enfermedades bucodentales por mujeres gestantes de la ciudad de Montería, en el Departamento de Córdoba, Colombia. Materiales y métodos: Estudio cualitativo con enfoque microetnográfico, cuyos resultados se obtuvieron mediante la observación y las entrevistas a profundidad que fueron aplicadas a 19 gestantes adscritas a un hogar comunitario de la comuna cuatro de la ciudad de Montería, Córdoba, en 2019, quienes fueron selec-cionadas por conveniencia. La información se recolectó durante el I semestre del 2019 y se organizó a partir de la dimensión del Mo-delo de creencias en salud: susceptibilidad percibida. El análisis se realizó bajo los parámetros de la técnica de análisis de contenido. Resultados: La creencia de susceptibilidad que predominó entre las gestantes fue que en el periodo de embarazo las enfermedades bu-cales son normales y que su origen obedecía a la succión del calcio a la madre por parte del bebé para su crecimiento. Conclusión: Las creencias que poseen las gestantes actúan como barreras frente a la adopción de comportamientos saludables y de su permanencia en programas de promoción de la salud oral y prevención de las enfer-medades bucodentales.


Objective: To interpret the beliefs of perceived susceptibility between the condition of pregnancy and oral diseases by pregnant women in Monteria, Córdoba, Colombia. Material and method:Qualitative study with a micro-ethnographic approach. The results were gotten through obser-vation and in-depth interviews that were applied to 19 pregnant women of the commune four in Monteria, Córdoba in 2019, selected by convenience. The information was collected during the first semester of 2019, and it was organized based on the dimension of the Health Belief Model: perceived susceptibility; the analysis was performed under the parameters of the content analysis technique. Results:the prevailing belief among pregnant women was that oral diseases were cau-sed because the baby got all the calcium during pregnancy. Conclusion: The threats suffered by pregnant women act as barriers against the adoption of healthy behaviors, and their permanence in programs to promote oral health and prevent oral diseases.


Objetivo: Interpretar as crenças de susceptibilidade percebida durante a gravidez das doenças bucais e dentais por gestantes na cidade de Monteria, no estado de Córdoba, Colômbia Materiais e métodos: Estudo qualitativo com foco micro etnográfico, os resultados obtiveram-se mediante observação e as entrevistas a profundidade aplicadas em 19 mulheres grávidas de um lar comu-nitário da comuna quatro da cidade de Monteria, Córdoba em 2019. Organizou-se a partir da dimensão do modelo de crenças em saúde: susceptibilidade percebida. A análise realizou-se se-guindo os parâmetros da técnica de análise de conteúdo. Resultados: A crença de susceptibilidade que se observou durante a gravidez perante as doenças dentais e bucais são normais e que a sua origem obedeceu à sucção do cálcio da mãe para o neném em formação. Conclusão: As crenças que possuem as grávidas atuam como empecilhos frente a adoção de comportamentos saudáveis e de permanência em programas de promoção da saúde oral e das doenças bucais e dentais.


Assuntos
Medicina Bucal , Gestantes , Cultura , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Antropologia Cultural
9.
J Environ Manage ; 278(Pt 2): 111530, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33161299

RESUMO

The scrutiny of environmental cleanups within the United States has been a growing area of interest for social scientists. Scholars have used case studies and modeling to analyze struggles for environmental justice and the economics of stigma associated with Superfund sites. This research has primarily analyzed community perspectives on remediation and removal, such as local strategies for participating in cleanup decisions. There has been less work on analyzing organizational perspectives on the social and institutional dynamics at play during cleanups. Our study addresses this gap by analyzing insights gained through interviewing U.S. Environmental Protection Agency staff who do cleanup work in brownfields, Superfund, and emergency response. This ethnographic research excavates the sedimented layers of social histories of contaminated sites: local and regional contexts, institutional power and authority, and stakeholder relationships and networks. It interrogates how these sedimented social histories affect cleanup decisions, including the temporal and spatial boundaries of sites themselves. We find that the making of relationships is as important to cleanup strategies and outcomes as the scientific and technical aspects of cleanup are. This finding highlights the importance of tools and resources to excavate these social histories during environmental remediation, removal, and decontamination work.


Assuntos
Recuperação e Remediação Ambiental , Antropologia Cultural , Instalações de Saúde , Humanos , Estados Unidos , United States Environmental Protection Agency
10.
Health Commun ; 36(1): 109-115, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33222539

RESUMO

Aotearoa New Zealand's public health crisis communication approach amidst the COVID-19 pandemic effectively mobilized the nation into swift lockdown, significantly reducing community transmission. This communication approach has been applauded around the world. How did communities situated amongst the "margins of the margins" in Aotearoa New Zealand navigate through the existing structural barriers to health during the pandemic? In this study, we use a culture-centered analysis to foreground the structural context of disenfranchisement amidst the COVID-19 lockdown. Drawing on in-depth interviews with participants in a larger ethnographic project on poverty and health across three communities in Aotearoa New Zealand, we attend to the ways in which health is negotiated amidst the COVID-19 outbreak and lockdown response at the "margins of the margins." The narratives point out that health communication interventions to prevent COVID-19 in the context of Aotearoa New Zealand furthered the marginalization of communities at the margins, and community voices were largely erased from the enactment of interventions. With the extant structures failing to recognize these aspects of everyday struggles of health at the margins, the health and access challenges were further magnified during COVID-19. Our attention to communication situated in relationship to structures builds a register for health communication scholarship in the context of COVID-19 that is committed to disrupting the behaviorally based hegemonic health communication literature and transforming the unequal terrains of health experiences.


Assuntos
/etnologia , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Pobreza/psicologia , Pobreza/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antropologia Cultural , Comunicação , Competência Cultural , Feminino , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Negociação , Nova Zelândia/epidemiologia , Grupo com Ancestrais Oceânicos , Pandemias , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Populações Vulneráveis , Adulto Jovem
11.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1145833

RESUMO

Objetivo: compreender o processo de construção do enfermeiro líder na perspectiva da etnoenfermagem. Método: Pesquisa qualitativa baseada nos pressupostos da etnoenfermagem, sendo desenvolvida em um hospital filantrópico no extremo sul do país, em um setor clínico assistencial com 22 profissionais da equipe de enfermagem. A coleta de dados foi realizada de julho a novembro de 2015 em nove fases da etnoenfermagem. Análise dos dados foi feita de forma simultânea e concomitante as fases de observação, conforme preconizado pela metodologia da etnoenfermagem. Resultados: emergiram três categorias que caracterizam a construção do enfermeiro líder, sendo elas a advocacia em saúde, relações interpessoais e exercício da autonomia. Conclusão: a compreensão do processo de construção do enfermeiro líder constitui-se um elemento importante no exercício da profissão, pois garante a valorização profissional e reconhecimento do enfermeiro como gestor do cuidado, ampliado a qualidade dos serviços através das ações promovidas pela liderança da equipe


Objective: the nurses construction process in the perspective of the ethnonursing. Methods: qualitative research for our services, and developed in a philanthropic hospital in the extreme south of the country, in a clinical care sector with 22 professionals of the nursing team. A data collection was carried out from July to November of 2015 in nine phases of ethnonursing. Analysis of the data to measure simultaneously and concomitantly as phases of observation, as recommended by the methodology of ethnonursing. Results: three categories emerged that characterize a construction of the leading nurse, being they an advocacy in health, interpersonal relationships and exercise of autonomy. Conclusion: an understanding of the nurses' construction process is an important element in the exercise of the profession, since it guarantees a professional appreciation and recognition of nurses as care manager, increasing the quality of services through the actions promoted by the team leadership


Objectivo: comprender el proceso de construcción del enfermero líder en la perspectiva de la etnoenfermería. Método: investigación cualitativa basada en los presupuestos de la etnoenfermería, siendo desarrollada en un hospital filantrópico en el extremo sur del país, en un sector clínico asistencial con 22 profesionales del equipo de enfermería. La recolección de datos se realizó de julio a noviembre de 2015 en nueve fases de la etnoenfermería. El análisis de los datos fue realizado de forma simultánea y concomitante con las fases de observación, según lo preconizado por la metodología de la etnoenfermería. Resultados: surgieron tres categorías que caracterizan la construcción del enfermero líder, siendo ellas la abogacía en salud, relaciones interpersonales y ejercicio de la autonomía. Conclusión: la comprensión del proceso de construcción del enfermero líder constituye un elemento importante en el ejercicio de la profesión, pues garantiza la valorización profesional y reconocimiento del enfermero como gestor del cuidado, ampliando la calidad de los servicios a través de las acciones promovidas por el liderazgo del equipo


Assuntos
Liderança , Antropologia Cultural/métodos , Equipe de Enfermagem , Hospitais Filantrópicos , Gestão da Qualidade , Autonomia Pessoal , Advocacia em Saúde , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Relações Interpessoais
12.
Cult. cuid ; 23(58): 2-6, sept.-dic. 2020.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-197132

RESUMO

Ante la situación compleja y complicada en la que nos ha situado el SARS-CoV-2 proponemos un modelo de análisis antropológico, que pueda visibilizar la situación de syndemia en la que estamos inmersos. Para ello analizamos la realidad a través del complejo cronotopo y los módulos de la cultura


Faced with the complex and complicated situation in which SARS-CoV-2 has placed us, we propose an anthropological analysis model that can make visible the syndemic situation in which we are immersed. For this, we analyze reality through the complex chronotope and the modules of culture


Diante da complexa e complicada situação em que o SARS-CoV-2 nos colocou, propomos um modelo de análise antropológica que permite visualizar a situação sindêmica em que estamos imersos. Para isso, analisamos a realidade por meio do cronotopo complexo e dos módulos da cultura


Assuntos
Humanos , Antropologia Cultural , Sindemia , Infecções por Coronavirus , Fatores Culturais , Cronologia como Assunto , Fatores de Tempo
14.
Cad Saude Publica ; 36(12): e00095320, 2020.
Artigo em Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33331550

RESUMO

Performance autoethnography is qualitative research methodology that aims to problematize resistances between the "self" (auto-) and the collective (ethno-) in the act of writing (-graphy). The article thus aims to discuss the theoretical and practical construction of performance autoethnography and its applicability as a qualitative research and analytical method in the field of Collective Health through a performance autoethnography writing. By problematizing the epistemic and ontological basis of performance autoethnography, pointing to possibilities for its development and inclusion in studies in the field of Collective Health, the article presents performance autoethnography as a strategy to expand the possibilities for social justice, democratization, and pluralisms in and from research practices. Performance autoethnography, oriented by the episteme "postcolonial", explores decolonializing approaches that provoke and create conditions for the transformation of the academic view itself and the knowledge that prioritizes certain representations of "the other" and thus mainly problematizes how subaltern and marginalized histories relate to what are considered hegemonic systems.


Assuntos
Antropologia Cultural , Justiça Social , Brasil , Humanos , Pesquisa Qualitativa
15.
Rech Soins Infirm ; (142): 53-76, 2020 12.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33319718

RESUMO

Introduction and background : The last decade has seen a steady and rising use of coercion in mental health care, as well as an increase in the number of forms it takes. The application of these measures frequently relies on the work of nurses, but few studies have analyzed the human rights issues raised by these practices.Aim : To produce a qualitative synthesis of how human rights are integrated into the practice of nurses who use coercion in mental health care.Methodology : A systematic review of qualitative scientific literature published between 2008 and 2018 was conducted and supplemented by a meta-ethnographic analysis.Results : The analysis of the forty-six selected studies revealed four distinct themes : coercion in mental health care as a socio-legal object, issues of recognition of human rights in mental health care, role conflict experienced by nurses, and the conceptualization of coercion as a necessary evil or a critical incident.Discussion and conclusion : Further research is needed to understand the specifics of the continuum of support and control that characterizes the coercive work of psychiatric nurses.


Assuntos
Coerção , Direitos Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/enfermagem , Cuidados de Enfermagem , Enfermagem Psiquiátrica , Antropologia Cultural , Humanos , Saúde Mental , Serviços de Saúde Mental
16.
Sex., salud soc. (Rio J.) ; (36): 291-316, dez. 2020. graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1156952

RESUMO

Resumo Este artigo parte da interlocução com a associação Mães pela Diversidade do estado de Goiás, Brasil, para analisar a performance do "ativismo materno" que combate violências cometidas contra filhos e filhas lésbicas, gays, bissexuais, travestis, transexuais, intersexos, queers e outras expressões de gênero (LGBTIQ+). Por meio de registros etnográficos verbais e desenhados, proponho refletir sobre os modos como emoções são dramatizadas para a confecção de lutas que, dentre outras coisas, visam à busca por justiça, denúncia de violação de direitos humanos e construção de uma malha de apoio mútuo.


Resumen Este artículo parte del diálogo con la asociación Mães pela Diversidade (Madres por la Diversidad) de Goiás para analizar la actuación del activismo materno que combate la violencia contra hijos e hijas lesbianas, gays, bisexuales, travestis, intersexuales, queer y otras expresiones de género (LGBTIQ+). A través de registros verbales y dibujos etnográficos, yo pretendo reflexionar sobre las formas en que se dramatizan las emociones para la creación de luchas que apuntan, entre otras cosas: la búsqueda de la justicia, la denuncia de violaciones de derechos humanos y la construcción de una malla de apoyo mutuo.


Abstract This article is based on the author's dialogue with the association Mães pela Diversidade (Mothers for Diversity), an NGO located in the Brazilian state of Goiás, to analyze the performance of "maternal activism" opposed to violence against lesbian, gay, bisexual, travesti, transgender, intersex, queer and other non-straight gender expressions (LGBTIQ+). Through verbal and drawn ethnographic records, I propose to reflect on the ways emotions are dramatized in social and political struggles that claim for justice, denounce the violation of human rights, and building a network of mutual support.


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Violência , Emoções , Sexismo , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Ativismo Político , Mães , Brasil , Luto , Vítimas de Crime , Estado , Violações dos Direitos Humanos , Homofobia , Diversidade de Gênero , Antropologia Cultural
17.
Sex., salud soc. (Rio J.) ; (36): 206-230, dez. 2020.
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1156949

RESUMO

Resumo Com base no trabalho de campo realizado em um complexo de favelas do Rio de Janeiro, analiso as condições de precariedade produzidas por ausências ativas masculinas, quer seja exercida pelas administrações de Estado ou por ausências masculinas na vida de mães e mulheres pobres. A partir das discussões antropológicas sobre gênero e Estado, o campo destas ausências é analisado enquanto um conjunto de forças sistemáticas e cotidianas. Essas forças se revelam de diferentes formas: seja por não receber "ajuda nenhuma do pai da criança", por não conseguir "uma vaga na creche", por "ter que se virar" para cuidar dos filhos sozinha e por ter que lidar com a política de invasões, tiroteios e extermínio exercida nos territórios de favelas. A ausência ativa de Estado também se materializa na ação das casas destinadas a "tomar conta" de crianças e das creches públicas, espaços voltados ao atendimento das famílias pobres. Na tentativa de refletir sobre este campo múltiplo de "faltas", procuro relacionar de que modo estas ausências estão associadas a dinâmicas de "violência" que incidem sobre comportamentos femininos apontados como "nervosos", "agressivos" ou "negligentes".


Resumen A partir del trabajo de campo realizado en un complejo de favelas de Río de Janeiro, analizo las precarias condiciones que producen las ausencias activas masculinas, ya sean ejercidas por las administraciones estatales o por ausencias masculinas en la vida de madres y mujeres pobres. A partir de las discusiones antropológicas sobre género y Estado, se analiza el campo de estas ausencias como un conjunto de fuerzas sistemáticas y cotidianas. Estas fuerzas se manifiestan de diferentes formas: ya sea por no recibir "ninguna ayuda del padre del niño", por no poder "conseguir una plaza en la guardería", se por la política de invasiones, fusilamientos y exterminio ejercida en los territorios de favelas. La ausencia activa del Estado también se materializa en la acción de las casas para "cuidar" a los niños y en las guarderías públicas, espacios destinados a atender a las familias pobres. En un intento de reflexionar sobre este campo múltiple de "ausencias", trato de relatar cómo estas ausencias se asocian con dinámicas de "violencia", que afectan los comportamientos femeninos identificados como "nerviosos", "agresivos" o "negligentes".


Abstract Based on the fieldwork carried out in a complex of favelas in Rio de Janeiro, I analyze the precarious conditions produced by active male absences, whether exercised by state administrations or by male absences in the lives of poor mothers and women. Based on the anthropological discussions about gender and State, these absences are analyzed as a set of systematic and daily forces. These forces are revealed in different ways: be it for not receiving "any help from the child's father", for not obtaining "a place in the daycare center", for "hav ing to manage" to take care of the children alone and for having to deal with a State policy of invasions, shootings and extermination exercised in the favelas territories. The active absence of the State also materializes in the action of the houses that "take in" children and in public daycare centers, spaces aimed at serving poor families. To reflect on this multiple fields of "absences", they are associated with dynamics of "violence", which affect female behaviors identified as "nervous", "aggressive" or "negligent".


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Paternidade , Áreas de Pobreza , Cuidado da Criança , Estado , Relações Pai-Filho , Mães , Pais , Brasil , Família , Poder Familiar , Relações Interpessoais , Antropologia Cultural , Relações Mãe-Filho
18.
Rev Bras Enferm ; 73(Suppl 2): e20200489, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33206817

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: to analyze how homeless people live, in times of COVID-19 pandemic, in the city of Rio de Janeiro. METHOD: an ethnographic research that used interviews and observations and articles published in newspapers and magazines of great circulation, using domain analysis. RESULTS: the results tell how the COVID-19 pandemic emerged for the homeless population. Isolation led to emptying the streets and reducing passers-by, damaging their ways of living and their survival tactics. Hunger, thirst, absence of places for bathing and for fulfilling physiological needs became part of their daily lives. FINAL CONSIDERATIONS: given the impossibility of having a place to shelter, acquiring food and water and the limitations in carrying out preventive measures, care actions offered by managers to limit the virus to spread, even in this population, are ineffective.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pessoas em Situação de Rua/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Quarentena , Adulto , Antropologia Cultural , Banhos , Brasil/epidemiologia , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Humanos , Pandemias , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Abastecimento de Água
19.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0238506, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33002026

RESUMO

The aim of the study is to investigate how time and uncertainties of clinical action and decision-making plays out in the practical work of early neurorehabilitation in order to present new analytical ways to understand the underlying logics and dynamic social processes that take place during professional treatment of patients with severe acquired brain injury. Drawing on ethnographic fieldwork in a Danish neuro-intensive step-down unit (NISU) specialising in early neurorehabilitation, we found that negotiation of futures takes place in the modern ICU in the present by strategically building upon past experiences. We have argued that the clinical programme therefore cannot be understood only from a "here and now perspective", since the early neurorehabilitation practice is embedded in overlapping temporalities of the past, the present, and desired futures. The study discusses the underlying logics-often hidden or unnoticed-that impact clinical practice of early neurorehabilitation, in what we have termed a logic of clinical reenactment, a logic of future negotiation and a logic of paradox.


Assuntos
Lesões Encefálicas/reabilitação , Reabilitação Neurológica/métodos , Antropologia Cultural , Lesões Encefálicas/fisiopatologia , Lesões Encefálicas/psicologia , Tomada de Decisões , Dinamarca , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reabilitação Neurológica/ética , Fatores de Tempo , Incerteza
20.
Invest. educ. enferm ; 38(3): [e08], Octubre 20 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1128921

RESUMO

Objective. To understand the meaning of the experience of the indigenous when receiving care in a low-complexity hospital. Methods. Qualitative study with ethnographic approach conducted in a hospital of Antioquia, Colombia. The study had 12 indigenous participants who underwent semi-structured interviews. Observation was carried out in hospitalization wards, emergency, and outpatient services of the institution during 40 hours. The analysis process was performed descriptively. The methodological rigor was maintained by applying criteria of confirmability, credibility, transferability, and consistency. The study was approved by the Ethics Committee and authorized by the indigenous authorities to enter the field. Results. Five themes emerged: the context of caring for the indigenous, the need to consult the hospital, changes experienced by the indigenous in the hospital, experiences in relation with treatments, and relations established within the hospital. The meaning is constructed from a dichotomous perspective based on the favorable or unfavorable aspects of the situations and experiences, which for the indigenous is like "changing home". Conclusion. The meaning of the experience of receiving care in hospital for the indigenous is constructed from the context in which they live and receive health services, the changes they live in the dimension of space by virtue of their traveling from their vital space to another space that, due to their physical characteristics, results strange and different, even not healing. Upon the difficulties, the indigenous develop strategies and actions to overcome limitations, whether through adaptation and learning


Objetivo. Comprender el significado de la experiencia de los indígenas al recibir atención en un hospital de baja complejidad. Métodos. Estudio cualitativo con enfoque etnográfico desarrollado en un hospital de Antioquia, Colombia. Participaron doce indígenas a quienes se les realizaron entrevistas semiestructuradas. Se hizo observación en salas de hospitalización, urgencias y servicios ambulatorios de la institución durante 40 horas. El proceso de análisis se hizo de manera descriptiva. El rigor metodológico se mantuvo con la aplicación de los criterios de confirmabilidad, credibilidad, transferibilidad y consistencia. Se contó con aval del Comité de Ética de Investigación de la Facultad de Enfermería de la Universidad de Antioquia y autorización de las autoridades indígenas para entrar al campo. Resultados. Emergieron cinco temas: el contexto de la atención de los indígenas, la necesidad de consultar al hospital, los cambios experimentados por los indígenas en el hospital, las experiencias en relación con los tratamientos y las relaciones establecidas dentro del hospital. El significado se construye desde una perspectiva dicotómica con base en los aspectos favorables o desfavorables de las situaciones y experiencias, que para los indígenas es como "cambiar de casa". Conclusión. Para los indígenas, el significado de la experiencia de recibir atención en el hospital se construye a partir del contexto en el que viven y reciben los servicios de salud, los cambios que viven en la dimensión del espacio en virtud de que transitan desde su espacio vital a otro que, por sus características físicas, resulta extraño y diferente, incluso no curativo. Ante las dificultades, los indígenas desarrollan estrategias y acciones para superar las limitaciones, bien sea mediante la adaptación y el aprendizaje.


Objetivo. Compreender o significado da experiência indígena ao receber atendimento em um hospital de baixa complexidade. Métodos. Estudo qualitativo com abordagem etnográfica desenvolvido em um hospital de Antioquia, Colômbia. Participaram 12 indígenas, nos quais foram realizadas entrevistas semiestruturadas. A observação foi realizada no hospital, no pronto-socorro e serviços ambulatoriais da instituição por 40 horas. O processo de análise foi feito de forma descritiva. O rigor metodológico foi mantido com a aplicação dos critérios de confirmabilidade, credibilidade, transferibilidade e consistência. Teve o aval do Comitê de Ética e autorização das autoridades indígenas para o ingresso em campo. Resultados. Emergiram cinco temas: o contexto do cuidado aos indígenas, a necessidade de consulta hospitalar, as mudanças vivenciadas pelos indígenas no hospital, as experiências em relação aos tratamentos e as relações estabelecidas no hospital. O sentido é construído a partir de uma perspectiva dicotômica a partir dos aspectos favoráveis ou desfavoráveis das situações e vivências, o que para os indígenas é como "trocar de casa". Conclusão. O sentido da experiência de receber cuidado no hospital para indígenas é construído a partir do contexto em que vivem e recebem os serviços de saúde, das mudanças que vivenciam na dimensão do espaço em virtude da passagem de seu espaço de moradia para outro espaço que, pelas suas características físicas, é estranho e diferente, nem mesmo curativo. Diante das dificuldades, os indígenas desenvolvem estratégias e ações para superar as limitações, seja por meio da adaptação e do aprendizado.


Assuntos
Humanos , Enfermagem Transcultural , Saúde de Populações Indígenas , Hospitalização , Antropologia Cultural , Cuidados de Enfermagem
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