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1.
RECIIS (Online) ; 13(4): 725-735, out.-dez. 2019.
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1047528

RESUMO

O Exército Zapatista de Liberação Nacional (EZLN) e suas bases de apoio são formados predominantemente por indígenas que vivem na região de Chiapas, no México. O movimento constrói uma profunda experiência de autonomia, o que passa por diferentes dimensões da vida coletiva. Neste artigo, pretendemos, a partir de um trabalho de campo realizado na região, nos focar na saúde autônoma. A concepção de saúde está estritamente relacionada com a noção de terra, já que para ter saúde é preciso pertencer a um cosmos, permeado pelo respeito recíproco entre os mais diferentes seres, em uma luta constante para engrandecer o ch'ulel (espírito) e, com isso, caminhar rumo ao lekil kuxlejal (Bem Viver). Para colocar em prática esses princípios, o cuidado em saúde é protagonizado pelos promotores autônomos de saúde e pelas assembleias comunitárias.


The Zapatista Army of National Liberation (EZLN, in Spanish) and its bases are formed predominantly by indigenous languages living in the region of Chiapas, Mexico. The movement builds a profound experience of autonomy, which goes through different dimensions of collective life. In this article, we intend, from a fieldwork carried out in the region, to focus on autonomous health. The conception of health is closely related to the notion of land, since in order to have health it is necessary to belong to a cosmos, permeated by mutual respect between the most different beings, in a constant struggle to ennoble the ch'ulel (spirit) and thus to walk to the lekil kuxlejal (Good Living). To put these principles into practice, healthcare is carried out by autonomous health promoters and communal assemblies.


El Ejército Zapatista de Liberación Nacional (EZLN) y sus bases de apoyo son formados predominantemente por indígenas que viven en la región de Chiapas, México. El movimiento construye una experiencia profunda de autonomía, que atraviesa diferentes dimensiones de la vida colectiva. En este artículo, nos proponemos, a partir de un trabajo de campo realizado en la región, enfocar la salud autónoma. La concepción de salud guarda una estrecha relación con la noción de tierra, ya que para tener salud es necesario pertenecer a un cosmos, impregnado por el respeto mutuo entre los seres más diferentes, en una lucha constante para engrandecer el ch'ulel (espíritu) y, de este modo, caminar hasta el lekil kuxlejal (Buen Vivir, también llamado Vivir Bien). Para poner en práctica estos principios, la asistencia en salud se lleva a cabo por los promotores autónomos de salud y por las asambleas comunitarias.


Assuntos
Humanos , Colonialismo , Capitalismo , População Indígena , Antropologia Médica , Antropologia Cultural , Organização Comunitária , Racismo , Direitos dos Povos Indígenas , Cultura Indígena , Promoção da Saúde , México
2.
RECIIS (Online) ; 13(4): 768-783, out.-dez. 2019. ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1047541

RESUMO

Este artículo analiza el proceso alimentario y la alimentación infantil, concretamente la lactancia materna y ablactación, como vías para estudiar las desigualdades de género. El estudio se realizó entre familias zoques de un municipio con alta prevalencia de desnutrición infantil en el sureste de México. Se empleó el método etnográfico y las técnicas de la entrevista en profundidad y la observación participante para recuperar el punto de vista de los padres y las madres de 14 niños zoques. Los resultados demuestran que la desigualdad en el acceso a los alimentos que sufren las mujeres y las niñas y niños por razones económicas, culturales y de género, afecta su estado nutricional y tendrá repercusiones a largo plazo, por lo que es urgente crear programas o iniciativas con perspectiva de género que posibiliten que la sociedad zoque reconozca los derechos de las mujeres y éstas mejoren su estatus.


Este artigo analisa o processo alimentar e a nutrição infantil, especificamente amamentação e ablação, como formas de estudar as desigualdades de gênero. O estudo foi realizado entre famílias zoque em um município com alta prevalência de desnutrição infantil no sudeste do México. O método etnográfico e as técnicas da entrevista em profundidade e da observação participante foram utilizadas para recuperar o ponto de vista dos pais e mães de 14 crianças zoqueis. Os resultados mostram que a desigualdade no acesso à alimentação sofrida por mulheres, meninas e meninos por razões econômicas, culturais e de gênero afeta o estado nutricional e terá repercussões a longo prazo, por isso é urgente elaborar programas ou iniciativas com uma perspectiva de gênero que permite que a sociedade zoque reconheça os direitos das mulheres e melhore seu status.


This paper analyzes the food process and infant nutrition, specifically breastfeeding and ablactation, as ways to study gender inequalities. The study was conducted among zoque families in a municipality with a high prevalence of child malnutrition in southeastern Mexico. The ethnographic method and the techniques of the in-depth interview and the participant observation were used to recover the point of view of the fathers and mothers of 14 zoque children. The results show that inequality in access to food suffered by women and girls and boys for economic, cultural and gender reasons, affects their nutritional status and will have long-term repercussions, so it is urgent to design programs or initiatives with a gender perspective that allows zoque society to recognize women's rights and improve their status.


Assuntos
Humanos , Aleitamento Materno , Alimentação , Nutrição da Criança , México , Mulheres , Produção de Alimentos , Criança , Processo Saúde-Doença , Populações Vulneráveis , Agricultura , Antropologia Médica , Antropologia Cultural
3.
4.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1074, 2019 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31395041

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Children's centres in the UK provide a setting for public health programmes; offering support to families living in the most disadvantaged areas where obesity prevalence is at its highest. Health, Exercise and Nutrition in the Really Young (HENRY) is an eight-week obesity prevention programme currently delivered in children's centres across the UK. However, low participant engagement in some local authorities threatens its potential reach and impact. This study aimed to explore the factors influencing participant engagement with HENRY to describe where local intervention may support engagement efforts. METHOD: A focused ethnography study was undertaken in five children's centres delivering HENRY across the UK. One hundred and ninety hours of field observations, 22 interviews with staff (commissioners, HENRY co-ordinators, managers and facilitators) and six focus groups (36 parents), took place over five consecutive days in each centre. The Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR) was used to guide the observations and analysis of the data. RESULTS: Three overarching themes described the factors influencing participant engagement with HENRY: local authority decision making around children's centre programmes; children's centre implementation of HENRY; and the participant experience of HENRY. The results indicate that factors influencing participant engagement with public health programmes begin at the commissioning body level, influencing children's centre implementation and subsequently the experience of participants. Local authority funding priorities and constraints influence availability of places and who these places are offered to, with funding often targeted towards those deemed most at need. This was perceived to have a detrimental effect on participant experience of the programme. CONCLUSION: In summary, participant engagement is affected by multiple factors, working at different levels of the children's centre and local authority hierarchy, most of which are at play even before participants decide whether or not they choose to enrol and maintain attendance. For programmes to achieve their optimal reach and impact, factors at the commissioning and local implementation level need to be addressed prior to addressing participant facing issues.


Assuntos
Creches/organização & administração , Participação da Comunidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Obesidade Pediátrica/prevenção & controle , Antropologia Cultural , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Reino Unido
5.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1167, 2019 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31455316

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Existing evidence identifies health benefits for children of additional daily physical activity (PA) on a range of cardiovascular and metabolic outcomes. The Daily Mile (TDM) is a popular scheme designed to increase children's PA within the school day. Emerging evidence indicates that participation in TDM can increase children's PA, reduce sedentarism and reduce skinfold measures. However, little is known about the potential effects of TDM as a public health intervention, and the benefits and disbenefits that might flow from wider implementation in 'real world' settings. METHODS: We aimed to identify how TDM is being implemented in a naturalistic setting, and what implications this has for its potential impact on population health. We undertook a rapid ethnographic assessment of uptake and implementation in Lewisham, south London. Data included interviews (n = 22) and focus groups (n = 11) with stakeholders; observations of implementation in 12 classes; and analysis of routine data sources to identify school level factors associated with uptake. RESULTS: Of the 69 primary schools in one borough, 33 (48%) had adopted TDM by September 2018. There were no significant differences between adopters and non-adopters in mean school population size (means 377 vs 397, P = 0.70), mean percentage of children eligible for free school meals (16.2 vs 14.3%, P = 0.39), or mean percentage of children from Black and Minority Ethnic populations (76.3 vs 78.2%, P = 0.41). Addressing obesity was a key incentive for adoption, although a range of health and educational benefits were also hypothesised to accrue from participation. Mapping TDM to the TIDierR-PHP checklist to describe the intervention in practice identified that considerable adaption happened at the level of borough, school, class and pupil. Population health effects are likely to be influenced by the interaction of intervention and context at each of these levels. CONCLUSIONS: Examining TDM in 'real world' settings surfaces adaptions and variations in implementation. This has implications for the likely effects of TDM, and points more broadly to an urgent need for more appropriate methods for evaluating public health impact and implementation in complex contexts.


Assuntos
Exercício , Serviços de Saúde Escolar/organização & administração , Serviços de Saúde Escolar/estatística & dados numéricos , Antropologia Cultural , Criança , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Londres , Masculino , Obesidade Pediátrica/prevenção & controle , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Saúde Pública , Pesquisa Qualitativa
6.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 264: 1968-1969, 2019 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31438432

RESUMO

With the increase of foreign residents in Japan, most of them are suffering from inadequate health information. In reference to an ethnography, we conducted fieldwork using a participant observation and an interview with 36 foreign Muslim women. Our study clarified they especially needed health information on childcare because of a lack of such information in their native languages, and needed the support of Japanese Muslims because of problems in communication with healthcare personnel.


Assuntos
Disseminação de Informação , Islamismo , Antropologia Cultural , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Japão
7.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 265: 121-127, 2019 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31431587

RESUMO

Health care is in dramatic transformation due to the rapid development and massive implementation of (high- and low-tech) technologies. But not all transformations are as intended. Research in health transformation has disclosed new sources of risk and unpredictability, which require more research and organizational adjustment, i.e. learning. However, unintended consequences and effects occur at different levels of interaction and collaboration, requiring corresponding adjustment and learning strategies. - On the background of an ethnographic study of support-work in surgery in different Danish hospitals, this paper analyses cognitive-socio-technical health care practices as learning ecologies, giving special attention to the intentional and unintentional roles of technologies herein and their context dependency. The paper argues for an increased awareness of support at different contextual levels of use, presenting three examples from the study as learning cases. The three cases exemplify instances of disruption of the workflow and the collaboration among clinicians. They display how these instances are taken as challenges requiring learning at different levels in order to live up to the overall purpose, which is to reestablish safety - in the team and for the patient.


Assuntos
Assistência à Saúde , Fluxo de Trabalho , Antropologia Cultural , Humanos
8.
Environ Manage ; 64(3): 353-365, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31410503

RESUMO

Household air pollution (HAP) is considered to be one of the largest environmental health risks in the world, being responsible each year for ~4.3 million deaths globally and 420,000 in China. Tibetan regions of China are known for pristine ambient air but several recent studies have concluded that the indoor air quality in Tibetan homes is compromised. Tibet is changing rapidly and this study sought to holistically understand HAP in relation to these changes. We took 28 measurements of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and black carbon (BC) concentrations in a variety of Tibetan dwellings in the Golog Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture. A semi-structured interview and ethnographic participant-observation were also administered with residents to better understand household behaviors and awareness of HAP. The highest concentrations of PM2.5 and BC were found in the traditional yak hair tent, but nomads living in plastic tarp tents with improved stoves and stovepipes also had very compromised indoor air quality. All of the nomads in this study said they would prefer to use a fuel other than yak dung. More nomads expressed concern about their local glacier melting due to climate change than HAP, and indoor trash burning was seen at all sites. This study suggests that raising awareness of health and climate impacts due to HAP, in addition to having a better dialogue among the stakeholders and the residents in Tibet, is essential for obtaining better indoor air quality in the region.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Antropologia Cultural , China , Culinária , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Material Particulado , Tibet
9.
Recurso na Internet em Português | LIS - Localizador de Informação em Saúde, LIS-fiocruz-SI | ID: lis-LISBR1.1-46674

RESUMO

ETNOLOGIA- BRASIL INDÍGENA Os artefatos da exposição de Etnologia Indígena do Museu Nacional contam um pouco da ocupação do interior do país, em especial na Amazônia e no Brasil Central.


Assuntos
Exposição , Cultura Indígena , População Indígena , Antropologia Cultural
10.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 19(1): 528, 2019 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31358000

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In surgical teams, health professionals are highly interdependent and work under time pressure. It is of particular importance that teamwork is well-functioning in order to achieve quality treatment and patient safety. Relational coordination, defined as "communicating and relating for the purpose of task integration," has been found to contribute to quality treatment and patient safety. Relational coordination has also been found to contribute to psychological safety and the ability to learn from mistakes. Although extensive research has been carried out regarding relational coordination in many contexts including surgery, no study has explored how relational coordination works at the micro level. The purpose of this study was to explore communication and relationship dynamics in interdisciplinary surgical teams at the micro level in contexts of variable complexity using the theory of relational coordination. METHODS: An ethnographic study was conducted involving participant observations of 39 surgical teams and 15 semi-structured interviews during a 10-month period in 2014 in 2 orthopedic operating units in a university hospital in Denmark. A deductively directed content analysis was carried out based on the theory of relational coordination. RESULTS: Four different types of collaboration in interdisciplinary surgical teams in contexts of variable complexity were identified representing different communication and relationship patterns: 1) proactive and intuitive communication, 2) silent and ordinary communication, 3) inattentive and ambiguous communication, 4) contradictory and highly dynamic communication. The findings suggest a connection between communication and relationship dynamics in surgical teams and the level of complexity of the surgical procedures performed. CONCLUSION: The findings complement previous research on interdisciplinary teamwork in surgical teams and contribute to the theory of relational coordination. The findings offer a new typology of teams that goes beyond weak or strong relational coordination to capture four distinct patterns of relational coordination. In particular, the study highlights the central role of mutual respect and presents proposals for improving relational coordination in surgical teams.


Assuntos
Comunicação Interdisciplinar , Salas Cirúrgicas , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente , Antropologia Cultural , Comportamento Cooperativo , Dinamarca , Hospitais Universitários , Humanos , Salas Cirúrgicas/organização & administração , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios
11.
Sante Publique ; S1(HS): 25-32, 2019 May 13.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31210485

RESUMO

Using a socio-anthropological approach, this article develops practices and representations associated with forests and the therapeutic role that is regularly attributed to them. It is based on two ethnographic studies carried out over the long term in Lorraine. The first is a qualitative survey conducted from 2005 to 2012 among several dozen healers and fifteen or so of their clients. The second study took place in 2016 and focused on the analysis of the relations between farmers in the pays de Bitche area and their rural, forest and mountain environment. Because these informants describe it as natural and sacred, the forest is a space that they regularly spend time in to "recharge their batteries", "purify themselves", "relieve" or "heal" the disorders of the body or mind. In the light of excerpts from ethnographic narratives, this article points to the importance and persistence of the idea of a generous and healing nature in therapeutic, spiritual, energetic and symbolic terms.


Assuntos
Antropologia Cultural , Florestas , Fitoterapia , Terapias Espirituais , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários
12.
Med Educ Online ; 24(1): 1624133, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31146655

RESUMO

Background: Medical education researchers increasingly use qualitative methods, such as ethnography to understand shared practices and beliefs in groups. Focused ethnography (FE) is gaining popularity as a method that examines sub-cultures and familiar settings in a short time. However, the literature on how FE is conducted in medical education is limited. Aim: This paper provides 10 practical tips for conducting FE in medical education research. Methods: The tips were developed based on our expertise in ethnographic research and existing literature. Results: The 10 tips include: (1) Know the difference, (2) Build relationships before you start, (3) Have shared purpose and knowledge translation strategies with your stakeholders (4) Practice being reflexive, (5) Align research question with methodology, (6) Prepare your fieldwork, (7) Use a variety of methods for data collection, (8) Consider context on micro, meso, and macro levels, (9) Use triangulation, and (10) Provide a 'thick description', Conclusions: These 10 tips give practical guidance to medical educators in thinking about how and when to conduct FE.


Assuntos
Antropologia Cultural , Educação Médica , Projetos de Pesquisa , Guias como Assunto , Pesquisa Médica Translacional
13.
Rev. Fac. Cienc. Méd. Univ. Cuenca ; 37(1): 43-49, Junio 2019.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1004968

RESUMO

Este artículo muestra desde las voces de las mujeres, la relación entre clase y consumo de alimentos. Identifica el consumo actual de la quinua fundamentalmente por los estratos altos de la sociedad cuencana y casi desconocida por campesinos y estratos urbanos más pobres, resultado de procesos relacionados con la distinción o el estigma.Objetivo: entender las prácticas de diferenciación social en la ciudad de Cuenca a partir de la alimentación, usando como caso de estudio el con-sumo de la quinua Metodología: investigación etnográfica multisituada con siete familias; cuatro del área urbana y tres del área rural del cantón Cuenca, realizada entre octubre de 2016 a junio de 2017.Resultados: los relatos de las mujeres en torno a la alimentación y el con-sumo de quinua, permiten visibilizar los elementos simbólicos que giran en torno a la comida y su praxis en el contexto histórico y sociocultural particular de Cuenca.Conclusiones: el consumo de alimentos está marcado por el habitus de clase. La quinua es un ejemplo de ello, desapareció de la mesa familiar por la depreciación simbólica heredada desde la colonia, y hoy regresa como símbolo comunicador de distinción social.


This article shows from the voices of women, the re-lationship between social class and food consump-tion. It identifies how the quinoa is today consumed fundamentally by the upper strata of the society in Cuenca and it is almost unknown by peasants and poorer urban strata, the result of processes related to distinction or stigma.Objective: understand the practices of social diffe-rentiation in Cuenca from the alimentation, using as a case study, the consumption of quinoa.Methodology: it is a multisite ethnographic re-search with seven families; four of the urban area and three of the rural area of Cuenca, it was carried out between October 2016 and June 2017.Results: the stories of the women around the fee-ding and the consumption of quinoa allow visuali-zing the symbolic elements that revolve around the food and its praxis in the particular historical and sociocultural context of Cuenca.Conclusions: food consumption is marked by class habitus. The quinoa is an example of this, it disappeared from the family table because of the symbolic depreciation inherited from the colony, and today it returns as a communicating symbol of social distinction.


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Classe Social , Chenopodium album , Consumo de Alimentos , Zona Rural , Área Urbana , Estigma Social , Antropologia Cultural
14.
Saúde Soc ; 28(2): 201-214, abr.-jun. 2019.
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1014577

RESUMO

Resumo As Delegacias Especializadas de Atendimento à Mulher (Deam) compõem a rede intersetorial de serviços de atendimento à violência contra as mulheres. A proposta deste estudo foi buscar aproximação à realidade de uma Deam, com mulheres em situação de violência e policiais que trabalhavam na unidade. O método é qualitativo, consistindo em pesquisa etnográfica numa delegacia do interior do estado de São Paulo. Nas relações entre usuárias e policiais, o contato que mantinham entre si revelou que as mulheres se opunham à violência, ainda que, por vezes, suas relações fossem antagônicas e conflitivas. Nas diferentes linguagens entre as imprescindibilidades das vítimas e policiais, enquanto as agentes enquadravam os relatos nas normas do direito e da justiça, as usuárias queriam atendimento integral de segurança pública e saúde. De um lado, a violência era relacional, envolvia as linguagens do parentesco e se imiscuía no cotidiano; de outro, era um registro, um direito ou uma ação a ser tomada. A experiência etnográfica mostrou os limites de uma Deam, desenhou suas dificuldades em atender as demandas e revelou as angústias de cada voz, mas também surgiu como lócus de resolução de conflitos e negociações, não se limitando às interpretações criminais. Dessa forma, a Deam se mostrou como um lugar para as mulheres falarem de si e de suas expectativas.


Abstract The Women Police Stations (Deam) comprise the intersectoral network of services for violence victims. This study aimed to approximate to the reality of a Deam, with women suffering violence and police officers who worked at the unit. Its method is qualitative, consisting of an ethnographic research in a police station in the countryside of São Paulo. The contact between users and police officers showed the women opposed violence, even if, at times, their relationships were antagonistic or troubled. In the different languages between the indispensabilities of victims and officers, while the officers conformed the reports to the law and justice provisions, the users sought integral care regarding public security and health. On the one hand, violence was relational, involved the languages of the kinship and mixed with the daily life; on the other hand, it was a record, a right, an action to be taken. The ethnographic experience showed the limits of a Deam, delineated its difficulties in meeting demands and revealed the anguishes of each voice, but it emerged as a locus for resolution of conflicts and negotiations as well, not being limited to interpreting crimes. Thus, Deam proved to be a place where women talked about themselves and their expectations.


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Segurança , Saúde da Mulher , Colaboração Intersetorial , Mulheres Maltratadas , Violência contra a Mulher , Antropologia Cultural
15.
Saúde Soc ; 28(2): 38-52, abr.-jun. 2019.
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1014581

RESUMO

Resumo Após 10 anos de atividades na graduação em Saúde Coletiva, da mudança do perfil dos estudantes nas universidades públicas e da aprovação recente das Diretrizes Curriculares Nacionais (DCN), cabe refletir sobre o modo como o ensino das ciências sociais e humanas em saúde (CSHS) tem sido realizado e quais são os desafios, dilemas e possibilidades existentes. Este ensaio apresenta reflexões sobre os desafios do ensino da antropologia no bacharelado em Saúde Coletiva da Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul e levanta questões sobre as DCN, apenas com a pretensão de colocar em debate o cotidiano e a prática da formação de sanitaristas. As reflexões partem da vivência nos encontros com estudantes do primeiro semestre, que demandam já de inicio compor o conjunto híbrido de saberes e práticas e se situar entre o polo reflexivo e o prático, entre o aplicado e o teórico, desenvolvendo estratégias que permitam sair do aplicado em direção ao implicado na produção do pensamento social em saúde e de suas práticas. Partem também das atividades indissociáveis entre ensino-pesquisa-extensão, trabalhadas nesses encontros em sala de aula e em territórios de aprendizagem, onde a construção do conhecimento é feita na intersubjetividade das relações, à qual ninguém chega desprovido de saberes e experiências.


Abstract After 10 years of activity in the field of graduation in Public Health, changes in the profile of university students in public universities and the public inclusion policies and recent approval of curricular guidelines, it is necessary to reflect on how teaching Social and Human Sciences in Health has been accomplished in undergraduate courses, addressing the dilemmas and possibilities of existence. This essay analyzes the challenge of teaching Anthropology in the Public Health Bachelor course of the Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), raising questions about the curricular guidelines putting into debate daily life and practice of forming sanitarians. The analyses depart from daily experience in classrooms with first semester students, who demand from the beginning to compose the hybrid set of knowledge and practices in order to situate themselves between the reflexive and the practical poles as well as between praxis and theory. This allows for developing strategies that move towards a posture implied in the production of social thought in health and its practices. The analyses also cover the inseparable activities of teaching, research and extension that take place in daily classes, and their different learning fields, wherein the construction of knowledge is based on the intersubjectivity of relations, thus indicating that no one becomes devoid of knowledge and experience.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Universidades , Saúde Pública , Guias como Assunto , Educação Superior , Antropologia Cultural
16.
Saúde Soc ; 28(2): 160-173, abr.-jun. 2019.
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1014596

RESUMO

Resumo Compreender determinados grupos sociais por meio da lógica dos rituais revela, em parte, o pensar, o agir e o sentir dos sujeitos em dado contexto socioeconômico e cultural. Assim, objetiva-se analisar e discutir de que formas as masculinidades são exercidas na musculação, considerando os rituais de iniciação à dor nas práticas corporais. Pautado pela perspectiva antropológica do interacionismo simbólico, este trabalho etnográfico realizou-se numa academia de pequeno porte localizada num bairro de baixo poder aquisitivo da zona oeste do Rio de Janeiro durante um ano. Os dados indicaram que a pluralidade e a dinâmica da construção identitária entre homens determinam como a diversidade de masculinidades interfere nos modos de conceber ou cuidar do corpo, assim como no engajamento nos exercícios físicos. Esses elementos empíricos contribuem para pensar não somente na intervenção de professores de Educação Física, como também nas práticas de outros profissionais de saúde com seus públicos masculinos.


Abstract Understanding some social groups through the logic of their rituals reveals, in part, the way of thinking, acting and feeling of the subjects in a specific socioeconomic and cultural context. Thus, this study aimed to analyze and discuss how masculinity is exercised in bodybuilding, considering rituals of initiation into pain in body practices. Based on the anthropological perspective of symbolic interactionism, this ethnographic study was performed in a small fitness center located in a low-income neighborhood in the western of the city of Rio de Janeiro for one year. The data showed the plurality and the dynamics of identity constructions between men determine how the diversity of masculinities interferes in the modes of conceiving or taking care of their own body as well as in the engagement in physical exercises. These empirical elements contribute to thinking not only about the intervention of the physical education professionals, but also about the practices of other health professionals with their male public.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Educação Física e Treinamento , Comportamento Ritualístico , Academias de Ginástica , Saúde do Homem , Masculinidade , Antropologia Cultural
17.
Eur. j. anat ; 23(supl.1): 67-72, jun. 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-183850

RESUMO

Santiago Ramón y Cajal is well-known for his work on histology and pathological anatomy, but his scientific restlessness led him to become involved in many other fields, on which his influence also left its mark. His reputation as a histologist has concealed the other disciplines in which he took an active part, particularly after he received the Nobel Prize for Medicine that he shared with Golgi in 1906. Ramón y Cajal was a true humanist who excelled in many fields, today considered as very different disciplines. In some cases, the role he played in the development of these other disciplines has not been studied in all its depth, although his foray into the field of photography has indeed been analysed, for example. More recently, his work as a psychologist has also been published, since Ramón y Cajal came to refute the psychoanalytic theory that Freud was spreading at that time. Less attention has been paid to his involvement in the development of other disciplines that at that time were also included in the field of Natural Sciences, such as Paleontology, Prehistory and Anthropology, and especially as a result of his position as director of the different institutions that he came to preside, especially after receiving the Nobel Prize in Medicine. This, then, is the objective of our contribution. Although he was most notable for his management as president of the Junta para la Ampliación de Estudios (Committee for Extension of Studies and Scientific Research- JAE), we should not forget that he was also president of the Spanish Society of Natural History, director of the Laboratory for Biological Research, and honorary president of the Spanish Society of Anthropology, Ethnography and Prehistory. In all these institutions he played an outstanding role


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Assuntos
Biologia/história , Antropologia/história , Arqueologia/história , Psicologia/história , Paleontologia/história , Sociedades/história , Antropologia Cultural/história
18.
Nat Prod Res ; 33(7): 925, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31081385
19.
Nurse Educ Today ; 79: 161-167, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31132728

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Following major organizations' recommendations, healthcare professionals' education has been reformed in the last decade into competency-based education (CBE) to better prepare them with core competencies. This change was intended to prepare new graduates for the reality of health systems and future challenges. Few studies have focused on how new graduate nurses (NGNs) from these reformed programs use the competencies they have developed. OBJECTIVE: To describe the competencies of NGNs from a Canadian competency-based baccalaureate program, as perceived by various actors in acute-care settings. METHODS: A focused ethnography was conducted on three acute-care wards of an academic hospital. Participants (n = 19) from four subgroups (NGNs, preceptors, clinical nurse specialists, and nurse managers) participated in individual semi-structured interviews or focus groups. Data were also collected through observation and fieldnotes; an ethnographic analysis framework was used. RESULTS: Three themes were identified to describe the deployment of NGNs' competencies: NGNs' appropriation of their new role, fragmentation of practice into tasks, and development of practice; NGNs' collaboration within the interprofessional team, management of the dyad with licensed practical nurses, and ability to integrate patients and families into the team; and NGNs' scientific practice, increased scientific curiosity, and use of credible sources. Analysis of these themes' elements in light of the competency framework of the program showed that NGNs deploy seven of the eight competencies developed during their training. CONCLUSION: This study's results can be applied by nursing educators and hospital decision makers to ensure NGNs are able to use their competencies and to smoothen the transition period between the academic and clinical settings.


Assuntos
Antropologia Cultural , Competência Clínica/normas , Educação Baseada em Competências/normas , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros , Adulto , Canadá , Cuidados Críticos , Bacharelado em Enfermagem , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pesquisa em Educação de Enfermagem , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente , Adulto Jovem
20.
Hum Nat ; 30(2): 155-175, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30953274

RESUMO

There is a well-entrenched schism on the frequency (how often), intensity (deaths per 100,000/year), and evolutionary significance of warfare among hunter-gatherers compared with large-scale societies. To simplify, Rousseauians argue that warfare among prehistoric and contemporary hunter-gatherers was nearly absent and, if present, was a late cultural invention. In contrast, so-called Hobbesians argue that violence was relatively common but variable among hunter-gatherers. To defend their views, Rousseauians resort to a variety of tactics to diminish the apparent frequency and intensity of hunter-gatherer warfare. These tactics include redefining war, censoring ethnographic accounts of warfare in comparative analyses, misconstruing archaeological evidence, and claiming that outside contact inflates the intensity of warfare among hunter-gatherers. These tactics are subject to critical analysis and are mostly found to be wanting. Furthermore, Hobbesians with empirical data have already established that the frequency and intensity of hunter-gatherer warfare is greater compared with large-scale societies even though horticultural societies engage in warfare more intensively than hunter-gatherers. In the end I argue that although war is a primitive trait we may share with chimpanzees and/or our last common ancestor, the ability of hunter-gatherer bands to live peaceably with their neighbors, even though war may occur, is a derived trait that fundamentally distinguishes us socially and politically from chimpanzee societies. It is a point often lost in these debates.


Assuntos
Antropologia Cultural , Conflitos Armados , Evolução Biológica , Comportamento Social , Violência , Guerra , Humanos
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