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3.
CMAJ Open ; 9(2): E556-E562, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34021013

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The mental health of postpartum women has worsened during the COVID-19 pandemic; however, the experiences that underlie this remain unexplored. The purpose of this study was to examine how people in Canada who gave birth during the pandemic were affected by policies aimed at limiting interpersonal contact to reduce SARS-CoV-2 transmission in hospital and during the early weeks postpartum. METHODS: We took a social constructionist approach and used a qualitative descriptive methodology. Sampling methods were purposive and involved a mix of convenience and snowball sampling via social media and email. Study inclusion was extended to anyone aged 18 years or more who was located in Canada and was pregnant or had given birth during the COVID-19 pandemic. Data were obtained via semistructured qualitative telephone interviews conducted between June 2020 and January 2021, and were analyzed through thematic analysis. RESULTS: Sixty-five interviews were conducted; data from 57 women who had already delivered were included in our analysis. We identified the following 4 themes: negative postpartum experience in hospital owing to the absence of a support person(s); poor postpartum mental health, especially in women with preexisting mental health conditions and those who had had medically complicated deliveries; asking for help despite public health regulations that prohibited doing so; and problems with breastfeeding owing to limited in-person follow-up care and lack of in-person breastfeeding support. INTERPRETATION: Policies that restrict the presence of support persons in hospital and at home during the postpartum period appear to be causing harm. Measures to mitigate the consequences of these policies could include encouraging pregnant people to plan for additional postpartum support, allowing a support person to remain for the entire hospital stay and offering additional breastfeeding support.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Saúde Mental , Pandemias , Isolamento de Pacientes/psicologia , Período Pós-Parto/psicologia , Adaptação Psicológica , Adulto , Aleitamento Materno/psicologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Canadá/epidemiologia , Feminino , Política de Saúde , Humanos , Apego ao Objeto , Gravidez , Pesquisa Qualitativa , SARS-CoV-2 , Apoio Social , Adulto Jovem
4.
Enferm Clin ; 31 Suppl 2: S467-S470, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33849227

RESUMO

The father's ability to form bonds both physically and emotionally with his baby is a condition that is very important for the development of a father's mental health. This study aims to identify postpartum bonding images in fathers and infants. This study used a cross-sectional design with consequtive sampling, which conducted to390 fathers who had babies aged three to six months. This research was conducted in the East Jakarta Sub-District Community Health Center from March to June 2019. The instruments used in this study were modified from the English-language Postpartum Bonding Questionaires (PBQ). The results of this study found that the images of the father's relationship with the baby, in which about 142 fathers (36.4%), had a bad bond. The study is expected to provide motivation for fathers to bond with babies from the wife's pregnancy to prevent the occurrence of paternal depression in the postpartum period.


Assuntos
Pai , Apego ao Objeto , Centros Comunitários de Saúde , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Período Pós-Parto , Gravidez
5.
Nutrients ; 13(4)2021 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33918430

RESUMO

It is important to clarify how the breastfeeding method affects women's mental health, and how women's mental health affects the breastfeeding method in the early postpartum period when major depression and other psychiatric problems are most likely to occur. This study aimed to examine this bidirectional relationship in the early postpartum period. Participants were 2020 postpartum women who completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and Mother-to-Infant Bonding Scale (MIBS). We obtained data for participants' breastfeeding method for four weeks after childbirth. We performed a path analysis with factors including breastfeeding method (exclusive breastfeeding or non-exclusive breastfeeding), parity (primipara or multipara), the two HADS subscales (anxiety and depression), and the two MIBS subscales (lack of affection and anger and rejection). The path analysis showed that breastfeeding method did not significantly affect depression, anxiety, and maternal-infant bonding in the early postpartum period. Women with higher anxiety tended to use both formula-feeding and breastfeeding. Our study suggests that exclusive breastfeeding is not associated with maternal-fetal bonding in early postpartum, considering depression, anxiety, and parity.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/psicologia , Aleitamento Materno/psicologia , Depressão Pós-Parto/psicologia , Relações Mãe-Filho/psicologia , Período Pós-Parto/psicologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Apego ao Objeto , Paridade , Gravidez , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica
6.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 21(1): 307, 2021 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33863310

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prenatal depression and adult attachment are factors that affect the establishment of an intimate relationship between a mother and fetus. The study explored differences in prenatal depression and maternal-fetal attachment (MFA) scores between different types of adult attachment and the effects of maternal depression scores and attachment dimensions on maternal intimacy with the fetus. METHODS: The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), Experience of Close Relationship (ECR) scale, Maternal Antenatal Attachment Scale (MAAS) and a general data scale were used to investigate 260 primigravida. An exploratory analysis was performed to analyze the effects of the depression score and adult attachment on MFA. RESULTS: The results showed that pregnant women with insecure attachment exhibited an increased prevalence of prenatal depression, lower total MFA scores, and lower MFA quality compared with those women with secure adult attachment. The explorative analysis showed that the depression scores mediated the relationship between adult attachment avoidance and MFA quality. CONCLUSIONS: Primigravida who had insecure adult attachment exhibited an increased prevalence of prenatal depression and lower MFA. Maternal depression and adult attachment may affect the emotional bond between a mother and fetus. This finding should be seriously considered, and timely intervention needs to take personality traits into consideration.


Assuntos
Depressão/psicologia , Relações Materno-Fetais/psicologia , Apego ao Objeto , Terceiro Trimestre da Gravidez/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Feto , Número de Gestações , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/psicologia , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
7.
Rev Bras Enferm ; 74(suppl 4): e20200026, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33909808

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: to analyze skin-to-skin contact practice in full-term newborns after birth. METHOD: a cross-sectional study carried out in São Paulo-SP with 78 mother-child binomials. Data were obtained from medical records and by non-participant observation. Maternal, neonatal and care conditions, length of skin-to-skin contact and breastfeeding attachment were analyzed. RESULTS: skin-to-skin contact was performed in 94.9% of births, with a mean length of 29 minutes. Births with intact perineum took longer, neonates with Apgar 10, without upper airway aspiration, assisted by a nurse-midwife and with neonatal assistance by a resident in pediatrics. The variables that favor breastfeeding attachment were perineal integrity, newborn with good vitality, without upper airway aspiration and who received professional assistance for breastfeeding attachment. CONCLUSION: skin-to-skin contact was performed in almost all births, but with less time than recommended as best practice.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno , Método Canguru/métodos , Relações Mãe-Filho , Apego ao Objeto , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Mães , Parto , Gravidez , Pele
9.
J Psychol ; 155(4): 426-440, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33830877

RESUMO

The present study aimed to examine the psychological mechanism underlying the relationship between attachment style and intimate relationship satisfaction in women. For this purpose, a cross-sectional research design was employed in which 233 women (Mage = 28.16 years) who were currently in a romantic relationship completed a questionnaire that assessed attachment style, relationship satisfaction, self-esteem, and flexible goal adjustment (FGA). The results showed that both high attachment anxiety and high attachment avoidance were associated with low relationship satisfaction. Self-esteem mediated the relationship between attachment insecurity and relationship satisfaction. Moreover, the mediation effect of self-esteem was moderated by FGA, such that only in women with high FGA was self-esteem a significant mediator in the relationship between an insecure attachment style and relationship satisfaction. The results have implications for enhancing women's relationship satisfaction.


Assuntos
Objetivos , Satisfação Pessoal , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Apego ao Objeto , Parceiros Sexuais , Inquéritos e Questionários
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33800941

RESUMO

The article develops our understanding of social capital by analyzing social capital as an organizational phenomenon. The analysis is based on qualitative data consisting of interviews and documents obtained from six different kindergartens in Norway. Kindergartens are used as a "prism" through which we can understand how social capital is formed-and the mechanisms that shape the development of various forms of networks within welfare organizations. More specifically we look at drop-in kindergartens. The specific purpose of these kindergartens is to provide open and inclusive arenas that promote integration and community. We find that the kindergartens vary in the degree to which they succeed in building bridging forms of networks and communities. Using concepts from organizational theory and Wenger's (1998) theory of communities of practice, we find that formal organizational factors such as ownership, organizational goals, profiling, location, and educational content impact the formation of bridging forms of social capital. The composition of the user groups and the user groups' motivation for participating most clearly affect the conditions for community formation. The composition of the user groups is the result of a number of organizational factors and organizational mechanisms. Kindergartens that have a heterogeneous user group, and a user group with a community orientation (Morse 2006), are more successful at creating bridging types of social networks.


Assuntos
Capital Social , Escolaridade , Noruega , Apego ao Objeto , Rede Social , Apoio Social
11.
Biol Psychol ; 161: 108082, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33753190

RESUMO

The present study investigated whether the presence of a romantic partner in daily life is associated with attenuated sympathetic nervous system responses. Additionally, romantic attachment style was tested as a moderator. For one day, 106 heterosexual young adult dating couples wore ambulatory sensors that monitored electrodermal activity (EDA) - an index of sympathetic arousal. Couples reported whether they were together or apart for every hour of the data collection day. Men and women exhibited lower EDA during hours in which their partner was present compared to hours in which they were absent. Additionally, romantic attachment style moderated this association; those who had low anxious attachment showed a stronger attenuating effect of partner presence compared to those with higher anxious attachment. Similarly, those who had low avoidant attachment showed heightened effects of partner presence compared to those with higher avoidant attachment. Romantic partner presence may facilitate everyday health-promoting physiological processes.


Assuntos
Relações Interpessoais , Apego ao Objeto , Ansiedade , Feminino , Heterossexualidade , Humanos , Masculino , Parceiros Sexuais , Adulto Jovem
12.
J Marital Fam Ther ; 47(2): 440-454, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33749898

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic has transformed so many aspects of our lives. For psychotherapists, telehealth is likely a permanent part of the future mental health landscape. For family therapists using a manualized treatment, this brings unique challenges and creative opportunities. In this article, we describe the adaptation of attachment-based family therapy (ABFT) in the context of telehealth and COVID-19. ABFT is an empirically supported treatment model designed for adolescents and young adults struggling with depression, anxiety, trauma, and suicide. ABFT is a semi-structured, process-oriented, and trauma-informed family therapy model which presents its own unique challenges and benefits in telehealth environments. We present our adaptations based on years of telehealth clinical experience and address how this model supports the impact of COVID-19 on families.


Assuntos
Terapia de Casal/métodos , Terapia Familiar/métodos , Apego ao Objeto , Telerreabilitação/métodos , Adolescente , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Psicológicos , Relações Profissional-Família , Adulto Jovem
13.
J Psychosom Res ; 144: 110424, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33756149

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate risk factors for childbirth-related post-traumatic stress disorder (CR-PTSD) measured 1-month after first childbirth, and the association between CR-PTSD and maternal-infant bonding. METHODS: In this prospective cohort study 3006 nulliparous women living in Pennsylvania, USA, were asked about CR-PTSD at 1-month postpartum, and maternal-infant bonding at 1, 6 and 12-months postpartum. Multivariable logistic regression models identified risk factors for CR-PTSD and associations between CR-PTSD and maternal-infant bonding at 1, 6 and 12-months postpartum, controlling for confounding variables - including postpartum depression, stress and social support. RESULTS: Nearly half (47.5%) of the women reported that during labor and delivery they were afraid that they or their baby might be hurt or die, and 225 women (7.5%) reported experiencing one or more CR-PTSD symptoms at 1-month postpartum. Depression, stress and low social support during pregnancy were associated with CR-PTSD, as well as labor induction, delivery complications, poor pain control, and unplanned cesarean delivery. Women with CR-PTSD reported a less positive childbirth experience, less shared decision-making, and were more likely to score in the bottom third on maternal-infant bonding at 1-month postpartum (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 2.5, 95% CI 1.8-3.3, p < 0.001); at 6-months postpartum (aOR 2.1, 95% CI 1.5-2.8, p < 0.001); and at 12-months postpartum (aOR 2.2, 95% CI 1.6-3.0, p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: In this large-scale prospective cohort study we found that CR-PTSD was consistently associated with lower levels of maternal-infant bonding over the course of the first year after first childbirth.


Assuntos
Relações Mãe-Filho/psicologia , Apego ao Objeto , Parto/psicologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
14.
BMC Psychiatry ; 21(1): 169, 2021 03 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33771132

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Numerous bio-psychosocial factors play a role in the etiology of psychiatric disorders. In this regard, the relationship between parents and their children is significantly involved in developing the offspring mental health. However, there is no clear-cut answer as to which parental bonding style is more strongly associated with psychiatric diseases of patients. This study aimed to compare parental bonding styles in patients with schizophrenia, depression, and bipolar disorder in Bushehr province, Iran in 2018. METHODS: In this cross-sectional comparative study, 130 patients with schizophrenia, depression, and bipolar disorder who referred to four outpatients psychiatric centers in Bushehr were selected using quota sampling. The patients were assessed and compared in terms of parental bonding styles. Data were collected using a valid and reliable parental bonding instrument (PBI). Data were analyzed using SPSS software (ver. 22), Chi-square and Kruskal-Wallis tests at a significant level of 0.05. RESULTS: Results showed that the optimal parental bonding style (low control, high care) in bipolar disorder (43.05%), major depression (47.7%), and schizophrenia (38.5%) was the most prevalent style of parental bonding; however, 62.30% of the above patients suffered from inefficient paternal bonding styles and 51.53% from inefficient maternal bonding styles. Furthermore, the patients' maternal bonding styles were significantly different (p = 0.007) while their paternal bonding styles did not show any significant differences (p = 0.848). CONCLUSIONS: Most of the patients with psychiatric disorders were affected by ineffective parenting styles. The results also confirmed that despite the several bio-psycho-social factors involved in the development of psychiatric disorders, the crucial roles of parents, especially mothers, should not be ignored. It was further suggested that parents and parental bonding were important and fundamental factors for mental health promotion.


Assuntos
Transtorno Bipolar , Esquizofrenia , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico) , Apego ao Objeto , Relações Pais-Filho , Poder Familiar , Pais
15.
Neonatal Netw ; 40(2): 117-120, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33731379

RESUMO

During the 2009 H1N1 pandemic, containment strategies aimed at limiting the spread of the virus were implemented but not to the extent as the current COVID-19 pandemic. Research is ongoing regarding disease symptomatology, transmission, and treatment for COVID-19. There are limited data regarding the effects of social distancing practices and restrictive hospital-visitation policies on the parent-infant dyad. The purpose of this commentary is to explore the implications of isolation practices on the parent-infant dyad during a pandemic.


Assuntos
COVID-19/psicologia , Apego ao Objeto , Relações Pais-Filho , Isolamento Social/psicologia , Conscientização , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Lactente , Autoimagem
16.
Prax Kinderpsychol Kinderpsychiatr ; 70(3): 239-254, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33641643

RESUMO

Promoting Secure Attachment Relationships in Foster Families with the Attachment and Biobehavioral Catch-Up (ABC) Intervention Due to a history of early adversity, foster children often show difficulties in the development of new attachment relationships. The Attachment and Biobehavioral Catch-Up Intervention (ABC) aims to promote sensitive caregiving and the development of secure attachment relationships in foster families by addressing the critical needs of foster children. The ABC intervention was implemented in Germany for the first time. The efficacy of the intervention was tested in a sample of N = 34 foster families with foster children between the ages of 6 to 24 months. Foster parents reported on parenting stress and on attachment behaviors of the child in a diary. Parenting quality was assessed in a semi-structured play situation and attachment quality was assessed with the Strange Situation Procedure. Foster parents showed higher levels of sensitivity post training (p < .001), they reported an increase in secure attachment behaviors in their foster children (p < .05), and the distribution of attachment relationships classified as secure (59 %) and disorganized (12 %) was comparable to distributions found in biological, middle class samples. Although these results still need further validation by larger control group studies, they give a first indication that the ABC program might be an effective tool to support the development of secure attachment relationships in foster families in Germany.


Assuntos
Cuidados no Lar de Adoção , Apego ao Objeto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Alemanha , Humanos , Lactente , Poder Familiar , Pais
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33669739

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to examine the relationship among aggressiveness, parenting practices, and attachment security in adolescents, assessing maternal and paternal effects separately. Two different subsamples of adolescents between 12 and 16 years old participated in the study (n = 157): 67 adopted adolescents (61.2% girls) and 90 non-adopted adolescents (56.7% girls). Partial and full mediation models were analyzed in multi-group structural equation models (using maximum likelihood estimates), allocating non-adoptive and adoptive adolescents into two different groups. Results showed that whereas acceptance/involvement of each parent predicted attachment security towards the corresponding parental figure, only the father's coercion/imposition predicted aggressiveness, and only attachment security to the mother was a (negative) predictor of adolescent's aggressiveness. The partial mediation model provided the most parsimonious explanation for the data, showing no differences between adopted and non-adopted subsamples and supporting a good model fit for both boys and girls in a multi-group invariance analysis. The implications of these results are discussed in light of the protective effects of care relationships in early adolescence (vs. late adolescence) as well as the differential role of parent figures.


Assuntos
Apego ao Objeto , Poder Familiar , Adolescente , Adoção , Agressão , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mães , Relações Pais-Filho
18.
Depress Anxiety ; 38(4): 390-399, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33615587

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Peripartum depression (PND) impairs mother-infant boding and perceived social support, yet limited research has examined if women at-risk for PND (AR-PND) also experience impairment. We examined if pregnant women AR-PND, women with PND, and healthy comparison women (HCW) differed in their mother-infant bonding and social support. As PND is highly comorbid with anxiety, we also examined if peripartum anxiety impacted postpartum diagnosis of PND. METHODS: A total of 144 pregnant women AR-PND or euthymic were assessed twice antepartum and twice postpartum. We utilized regression models to examine the impact of PND risk group status and diagnostic status on mother-infant bonding and perceived social support postpartum. We conducted a sensitivity analysis using a generalized estimating equations model to determine if anxiety (Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale, HAM-A) across all four time points was associated with the postpartum diagnosis of PND. RESULTS: Women AR-PND experienced significantly worse mother-infant bonding compared to HCW (p = .03). Women diagnosed with PND experienced significantly worse mother-infant bonding and social support compared to HCW (p = .001, p = .002, respectively) and to those who were at-risk for but did not develop PND (p = .02, p = .008, respectively). HAM-A severity at each visit was associated with PND diagnosis status, where each increase in HAM-A was associated with 15% increased odds of being diagnosed with PND postpartum. CONCLUSIONS: Both women AR-PND and those with PND experience worse mother-infant bonding. Peripartum anxiety should also be assessed as it represents a marker for later PND.


Assuntos
Depressão Pós-Parto , Mães , Adulto , Depressão , Depressão Pós-Parto/diagnóstico , Depressão Pós-Parto/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Relações Mãe-Filho , Apego ao Objeto , Período Periparto , Período Pós-Parto , Gravidez , Apoio Social
19.
Nurs Open ; 8(2): 636-645, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33570267

RESUMO

AIM: To investigate the relationship between maternal bonding and infant temperament during the first year of infant's life. Moreover, it also wanted to explore which perinatal factors could influence the quality of maternal attachment. METHOD: A cross-sectional study design was used to collect data from a sample of 277 mothers during the period of May-October 2018. The participants were asked to complete a three-part survey that was developed to collect data on maternal attachment and infant temperament. Data was collected between March 2019-June 2019. RESULTS: The analysis of the data revealed that there was a significant relationship between infant temperament and maternal attachment [F(2, 95) = 6.783, p-value = .001]. It also revealed that the factors that most influenced maternal attachment were infant temperament and planned pregnancy, which together explained 54% of the variance in maternal attachment (R2  =  7.5). CONCLUSION: Maternal attachment in Jordanian mothers can be explained by two significant factors: infant temperament and planning for pregnancy.


Assuntos
Cesárea , Relações Mãe-Filho , Temperamento , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Apego ao Objeto , Gravidez
20.
Health Qual Life Outcomes ; 19(1): 57, 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33588858

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Attachment and support from family and friends are core to the experiences of ageing for older adults. The purpose of this study is to examine the relationships between attachment styles and hope, religiosity, and life satisfaction and provide new knowledge that may assist future planning for a rapidly ageing global population. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, 504 Iranian older adult participants from Qazvin province were recruited between December 2015 and April 2016. They completed a questionnaire that included the Revised Adult Attachment Scale, the Life Satisfaction Index-Z, and the Herth Hope Index. RESULTS: Participants in the study had a mean age of 66.20 years (SD: 5.76) and most of them were women (57.5%). A mediation model testing the direct relationships between attachment, hope, religiosity, and life satisfaction showed a positive relationship between close attachment and religiosity (ß = .226, p < .001) and a negative relationship between anxiety attachment and religiosity (ß = - .229, p < .001). Religiosity was positively related to hope (ß = .384, p < .01) and hope was related to life satisfaction (ß = .448, p < .001). Religiosity and hope mediated the relationship between close attachment (ß = .119, p < .001) and anxiety attachment (ß = - .056, p < .01) with life satisfaction. More specifically, while religiosity and hope fully mediated the relationship between close attachment and life satisfaction, they partially mediated the attachment anxiety-life satisfaction link. CONCLUSIONS: Findings of the study provide insight into only a narrow perspective of life satisfaction and attachment given the many and varied variables that influence these constructs. Future research is needed whereby other related variables are introduced into the model to be examined further.


Assuntos
Esperança , Apego ao Objeto , Satisfação Pessoal , Qualidade de Vida , Religião , Idoso , Envelhecimento/psicologia , Ansiedade , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico) , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Espiritualidade , Inquéritos e Questionários
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