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1.
Psychiatr Danub ; 32(2): 256-261, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32796795

RESUMO

The novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic has had a significant impact on the psychological health of individuals and societies. A theoretical framework is required in order to understand this impact and strategies to mitigate it. In this paper, individual and community responses to COVID-19 are discussed from the point of view of attachment theory, a psychological theory which examines the formation and disruption of attachment bonds across the life-span from an evolutionary perspective. The contributions of this perspective to individual psychological disorders such as anxiety, depression and post-traumatic stress, as well as to social responses such as interpersonal violence and stigmatization, are discussed in the light of findings from attachment research. Proposals for incorporating the knowledge derived from attachment theory into therapeutic strategies, as well as in developing community resilience in the face of COVID-19, are discussed based on the available evidence. It is hoped that this information will be of value to clinicians and researchers, as well as to those involved in planning health services and social policy.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Apego ao Objeto , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Teoria Psicológica , Estresse Psicológico , Humanos
2.
Nihon Koshu Eisei Zasshi ; 67(7): 452-460, 2020.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32741876

RESUMO

Objectives Many local governments and elementary and junior high schools in Japan have conducted a "greeting campaign". This has been done in order to activate communication among local residents, and to instill public spirit and sociability in students' minds. However, few studies have explored the significance of greeting campaigns. The present study investigates greeting in neighborhoods and its relationship with students' spontaneous greeting behavior. The study also seeks to understand the quantity of greeting in daily life and its association with a student's community attachment and helping behavior.Methods A self-completion questionnaire survey was conducted with 1,346 students studying in the fourth and higher grades at elementary schools, and 1,357 students in the first and second grade at junior high schools. There were 2,692 valid respondents. We performed the following analyses using the data of elementary school students and junior high school students separately. A partial correlation analysis was conducted wherein gender and grade were introduced as control variables. This analysis tested the correlation between the frequency of being greeted by surrounding people and the frequency of greeting by students, of their own accord. A path analysis that tested the relationship between students' greeting behavior, their attachment to residential areas, and helping behavior was also conducted.Results The results of the partial correlation analysis revealed that there was a positive correlation between the frequency of being greeted by surrounding people and the frequency of greeting by students, of their own accord, regardless of gender and grade. Moreover, the results of the path analysis revealed that the frequency of being greeted was positively associated with community attachment and that the frequency of students' spontaneous greeting behavior was positively associated not only with community attachment but also with helping behavior. The goodness of model fit was high for both the data of elementary school students as well as the data of junior high school students.Conclusion We found that exchanging greetings with surrounding people in daily life enhanced students' attachment to the community. In particular, we showed that students' spontaneous greeting behavior led to their helping behavior, which supports the significance of recommending greeting at home, school, or in the local community. Since there was a correlation between the frequency of being greeted and the frequency of greeting willingly, we consider that actions of surrounding adults become important to help students acquire spontaneous greeting behavior.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente , Comportamento Infantil , Comportamento de Ajuda , Apego ao Objeto , Características de Residência , Instituições Acadêmicas , Estudantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Criança , Aconselhamento , Humanos , Japão , Inquéritos e Questionários
3.
Psychiatr Hung ; 35(3): 307-321, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32643620

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The transdiagnostic model provides a framework for a flexible, evidence-based cognitivebehavioral treatment for eating disorders, emphasizing low self-esteem, perfectionism, mood intolerance and inter - personal difficulties. Although attachment has a strong influence on these factors there is no treatment which focuses concurrently on both the cognitive-behavioral and the attachment-related maintaining factors underlying eating disorder symptoms. Thus, the aim was to test a short, multilevel treatment for eating disorders which integrates cognitive-behavioral and attachment interventions. CASE PRESENTATION: A 20-year-old female displayed mild binge eating disorder, anxious avoidant attachment style, critical body checking and high success-perfectionism demand. Symptom-relevant aspects of attachment were incor - porated into the personalized case model, and attachment interventions were integrated to the transdiagnostic cognitive-behavioral treatment framework. The improvement of the patient's attachment security and reflective functioning, and the decrease of social avoidance in low moods were associated with cessation of symptoms at a one month follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: When attachment dysfunctions play a part in triggering or maintaining eating disorder symptoms a multi - level treatment targeting both attachment functioning and the cognitive-behavioral factors underlying symptoms.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Compulsão Alimentar/psicologia , Transtorno da Compulsão Alimentar/terapia , Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental , Apego ao Objeto , Feminino , Humanos , Perfeccionismo , Isolamento Social , Adulto Jovem
4.
Int Breastfeed J ; 15(1): 67, 2020 07 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32711567

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In an effort to prevent infants being infected with SARS-CoV-2, some governments, professional organisations, and health facilities are instituting policies that isolate newborns from their mothers and otherwise prevent or impede breastfeeding. WEIGHING OF RISKS IS NECESSARY IN POLICY DEVELOPMENT: Such policies are risky as was shown in the early response to the HIV pandemic where efforts to prevent mother to child transmission by replacing breastfeeding with infant formula feeding ultimately resulted in more infant deaths. In the COVID-19 pandemic, the risk of maternal SARS-CoV-2 transmission needs to be weighed against the protection skin-to-skin contact, maternal proximity, and breastfeeding affords infants. CONCLUSION: Policy makers and practitioners need to learn from the mistakes of the HIV pandemic and not undermine breastfeeding in the COVID-19 pandemic. It is clear that in order to maximise infant health and wellbeing, COVID-19 policies should support skin-to-skin contact, maternal proximity, and breastfeeding.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Política de Saúde , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Betacoronavirus , Aleitamento Materno , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Humanos , Relações Mãe-Filho , Apego ao Objeto , Isolamento de Pacientes , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Organização Mundial da Saúde
5.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 118(3): s69-s106, jun. 2020. tab, ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1117409

RESUMO

La relación de un niño con un animal doméstico, bajo circunstancias debidamente controladas, es beneficiosa para ambos. Las mascotas establecen vínculos de apego con los niños y la relación resulta positiva en aspectos afectivos, en refuerzo de la personalidad y promoción de autoestima, y en desarrollo cognitivo.Sin embargo, existen riesgos en la convivencia de niños y mascotas: mordeduras, lesiones diversas, transmisión de enfermedades. Los factores de riesgo pueden ser inherentes a los niños (edades, conductas inoportunas, falta de supervisión), al medioambiente (hogares pequeños, espacios inadecuados) o a los perros (razas no recomendables, conductas agresivas).En este consenso, se insiste en pautas para una tenencia responsable y una convivencia segura. Se recomiendan perros y gatos como mascotas, y se desaconsejan especies exóticas y animales no tradicionales. Se brindan pautas de tratamiento de mordeduras y se esbozan las principales zoonosis de las que pueden ser transmisores los animales de compañía.


The relationship of a child with a pet, under duly controlled circumstances, is beneficial for both. Pets establish emotional attachments to children, and the relationship turns out positive in terms of affective aspects, in reinforcement of the child ́s personality and promoting self-esteem, and in cognitive development, among many other advantages.Nevertheless, there are real risks in the coexistence of kids and pets: trauma, bites, several injuries and also disease transmission. Risk factors of injuries can be inherent in children (age, improper behavior, lack of supervision), in the environment (small houses, inadequate spaces), or in dogs (big or not recommended breeds, aggressive behaviors).This consensus insists on some guidelines for a responsible tenure and safe coexistence. Dogs and cats are recommended as pets, discouraging exotic species and non-traditional animals. Guidelines for bites treatment are provided and the main zoonoses of which pets can be carriers and transmitters are outlined


Assuntos
Humanos , Animais , Criança , Vínculo Homem-Animal de Estimação , Animais de Estimação , Mordeduras e Picadas/prevenção & controle , Zoonoses , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Terapia Assistida com Animais , Apego ao Objeto
6.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 118(3): s107-s117, jun. 2020. tab, ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1117412

RESUMO

El contacto piel a piel al nacer (COPAP) entre madres y recién nacidos a término sanos es fundamental en los estándares de la Iniciativa Hospital Amigo de la Madre y el Niño de Unicef. El COPAP inmediatamente después del nacimiento favorece la estabilidad cardiorrespiratoria, la prevalencia y duración de la lactancia materna y el vínculo madre-hijo, y disminuye el estrés materno. Existe preocupación por los casos de colapso súbito inesperado posnatal durante el COPAP con el bebé en decúbito prono sobre el torso desnudo materno. Si bien es infrecuente, evoluciona en el 50 % de los casos como evento grave de aparente amenaza a la vida y la otra mitad fallece (muerte súbita e inesperada neonatal temprana). Durante el COPAP y, al menos, las primeras 2 horas después del parto, el personal de Sala de Partos y recuperación debe observar y evaluar cualquier parámetro que implique una descompensación del bebé.


Early skin-to-skin contact (SSC) between mothers and healthy term newborns is a key part of the Unicef Baby Friendly Initiative Standards. SSC immediately after birth provides cardio-respiratory stability, improves prevalence and duration of breastfeeding, improves maternal-infant bonding and decreases maternal stress. There is a concern about cases of sudden unexpected postnatal collapse during a period of SSC with the infant prone on the mother ́s chest. Said collapse includes both severe apparent life-threatening event and sudden unexpected early neonatal death in the first week of life. Even if considered rare, consequences are serious with death in half of the cases and remaining disability in majority of the cases reported. For these reasons during SSC and for at least the first 2 hours after delivery, health care personnel in the delivery and recovery room should observe and assess for any sign of decompensation in the infant


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Recém-Nascido , Lactente , Morte Súbita do Lactente/prevenção & controle , Método Canguru , Apego ao Objeto , Tato/fisiologia , Aleitamento Materno , Relações Mãe-Filho
7.
Z Psychosom Med Psychother ; 66(2): 178-192, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32552587

RESUMO

Level of personality functioning and attachment style as predictors of the successful referral to outpatient psychotherapy Objectives: Outpatient psychotherapy is a key element in the effective treatment of mental health problems. First results suggest that interpersonal problems lead to difficulties in receiving outpatient psychotherapeutic treatment. The relationship between these difficulties, attachment style, and the level of personality functioning is still unclear. Methods: We invited 1011 patients of a psychosomatic-psychotherapeutic university outpatient clinic to participate in the study. The clinical diagnoses according to ICD-10, as well as symptoms of depression (PHQ-D), and quality of life (SF-36) were recorded. Hypothesized predictors for the successful referral to outpatient therapy were patient age, availability of local outpatient treatment, number of ICD-10 diagnoses, the motivation for psychotherapy (FPTM), fear of stigmatization (Stig-9), level of personality functioning (OPD-SQ), and attachment style (ECR-RD). Results: We were able to catamnestically reassess n = 300 patients (67.3 % of patients initially referred to outpatient therapy). A smaller number of clinical diagnoses, greater availability of psychotherapeutic care and higher therapy motivation, as well as a lower level of personality functioning predicted the successful referral to outpatient psychotherapy, while the combination of impaired personality functioning and avoidant attachment style was a negative predictor. Conclusions: Contrary to expectations, patients with a lower level of personality functioning are more successful in receiving outpatient psychotherapy. However, patients with a combination of impaired personality functioning and a high degree of attachment avoidance run the risk of not asserting their need for treatment.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Apego ao Objeto , Pacientes Ambulatoriais/psicologia , Personalidade , Psicoterapia , Qualidade de Vida , Encaminhamento e Consulta/normas , Humanos , Prognóstico , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
J Psychiatr Res ; 128: 1-4, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32474140

RESUMO

Prenatal COVID-19 infection is anticipated by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control to affect fetal development similarly to other common respiratory coronaviruses through effects of the maternal inflammatory response on the fetus and placenta. Plasma choline levels were measured at 16 weeks gestation in 43 mothers who had contracted common respiratory viruses during the first 6-16 weeks of pregnancy and 53 mothers who had not. When their infants reached 3 months of age, mothers completed the Infant Behavior Questionnaire-Revised (IBQ-R), which assesses their infants' level of activity (Surgency), their fearfulness and sadness (Negativity), and their ability to maintain attention and bond to their parents and caretakers (Regulation). Infants of mothers who had contracted a moderately severe respiratory virus infection and had higher gestational choline serum levels (≥7.5 mM consistent with U.S. Food and Drug Administration dietary recommendations) had significantly increased development of their ability to maintain attention and to bond with their parents (Regulation), compared to infants whose mothers had contracted an infection but had lower choline levels (<7.5 mM). For infants of mothers with choline levels ≥7.5 µM, there was no effect of viral infection on infant IBQ-R Regulation, compared to infants of mothers who were not infected. Higher choline levels obtained through diet or supplements may protect fetal development and support infant early behavioral development even if the mother contracts a viral infection in early gestation when the brain is first being formed.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Encéfalo , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Colina , Desenvolvimento Fetal , Comportamento do Lactente , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez , Adulto , Atenção , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Desenvolvimento Infantil/efeitos dos fármacos , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Colina/administração & dosagem , Colina/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Feminino , Desenvolvimento Fetal/efeitos dos fármacos , Desenvolvimento Fetal/fisiologia , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Lactente , Comportamento do Lactente/fisiologia , Comportamento do Lactente/psicologia , Masculino , Nootrópicos/administração & dosagem , Nootrópicos/sangue , Apego ao Objeto , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/sangue , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/sangue , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/virologia , Cuidado Pré-Natal/métodos
9.
BMC Psychol ; 8(1): 58, 2020 Jun 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32513300

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The quality of maternal-infant bonding is related to important child outcomes. The literature has assumed that the ability to form relationships is a relatively stable trait, and research studies have suggested that a mother's attachment style in close adult relationships is related to mother-infant bonding. The transition to parenthood is also often stressful, and the adult attachment style may relate to parenting stress in the first year after birth. Such stress could possibly have a negative relationship with the mother-infant bond. In the present study, we examined the associations between maternal adult attachment styles and the quality of mother-infant bonding and whether this relationship is mediated by parenting stress. METHODS: The present study sample comprised 168 women (mean age 31.0 years, SD 4.23 years). Between weeks 31 and 41 of gestation, the anxious and avoidant adult attachment dimensions were measured with the Experiences in Close Relationships questionnaire (ECR). Between 5 and 15 weeks after birth mother-infant bonding and parenting stress were measured with the Maternal Postnatal Attachment Scale (MPAS) and the Parenting Stress Index-Parent Domain (PSI-PD), respectively. RESULTS: Both attachment-related avoidance and attachment-related anxiety correlated significantly and negatively with mother-infant bonding. However, a regression analysis showed that only attachment-related avoidance was a significant predictor of mother-infant bonding when controlling for demographic variables and maternal mental health history. The relationship between the adult attachment style and bonding was mediated by parenting stress. Higher scores on attachment avoidance and anxiety were related to increased stress, which was related to decreased quality of bonding. The overall parent domain and the subscale of competence in the parent-related stress dimension mediated between attachment avoidance and bonding, and the overall parent domain and the subscales of competence and role restriction mediated between attachment anxiety and bonding. There was no direct relationship between the adult attachment style and mother-infant bonding when parenting stress was included as a mediator. CONCLUSIONS: This study illustrates that maternal adult attachment style relates to mother-infant bonding. This relationship was mediated by parenting stress. The results may have implications for the early identification of mothers at risk of having bonding difficulties.


Assuntos
Relações Mãe-Filho/psicologia , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Adulto , Ansiedade/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Mães/psicologia , Apego ao Objeto , Análise de Regressão , Estresse Psicológico , Inquéritos e Questionários
13.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0231674, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32287311

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Fibromyalgia (FM) is a chronic pain syndrome, and alexithymia, which is a condition that is characterised by deficits in emotional self-awareness, is highly prevalent among individuals with FM. Insecure attachment styles and inadequate parental care appear to play an important role in the onset and maintenance of both alexithymia and chronic pain. Therefore, the present study aimed to examine the associations between attachment styles, parental bonding, and alexithymia among patients with FM and healthy controls (HC). METHODS: All participants completed a battery of tests that assessed alexithymia, attachment styles, and parental bonding. Two logistic regression models were tested to examine whether these variables predict (a) group membership (i.e. patients with FM vs. HC) and (b) the likelihood of having alexithymia (i.e. among patients with FM and HC). RESULTS: Alexithymia (i.e. difficulty identifying and describing feelings subscales of the 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale) significantly predicted group membership (i.e. the likelihood of having FM). On the other hand, educational level and dismissive attachment (i.e. the discomfort with closeness and relationships as secondary subscales of the Attachment Style Questionnaire) were the only significant predictors of the likelihood of having alexithymia. CONCLUSIONS: These findings highlight both the relevance of alexithymic traits to the definition of FM and centrality of an insecure attachment style to the manifestation of alexithymia.


Assuntos
Sintomas Afetivos/psicologia , Fibromialgia/psicologia , Apego ao Objeto , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Adulto , Sintomas Afetivos/epidemiologia , Idoso , Feminino , Fibromialgia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Comportamento Materno/psicologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
14.
BMC Psychol ; 8(1): 33, 2020 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32299500

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The prevalence in the Lebanese general population of cigarette and waterpipe smoking, alcohol drinking and internet use seems to be increasing lately. So far, no study was done relating the above to attachment styles in Lebanese adolescents. Consequently, the objective of our study was to assess the relationship between attachment styles (secure, preoccupied, fearful, and dismissing) and addictions (cigarettes, water pipes, alcohol, and internet) among this population. METHODS: It is a cross-sectional study that took place between January and May 2019. Two thousand questionnaires were distributed out of which 1810 (90.5%) were completed and collected back. A proportionate random sample of schools from all Lebanese Mohafazat was used as recruitment method. RESULTS: A secure attachment style was significantly associated with lower addiction to alcohol, cigarette, and waterpipe, whereas insecure attachment styles (preoccupied, dismissing and fearful) were significantly associated with higher addiction to cigarette, waterpipe, alcohol, and internet. CONCLUSION: Lebanese adolescents with insecure attachment had higher rates of addiction to cigarette, waterpipe, alcohol, and internet. They should be closely monitored in order to reduce the risk of future substance use disorder and/or behavioral addiction development.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo/psicologia , Adolescente , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/psicologia , Comportamento Aditivo/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Internet , Líbano/epidemiologia , Masculino , Apego ao Objeto , Prevalência , Instituições Acadêmicas , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Produtos do Tabaco , Fumar Cachimbo de Água
15.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 484, 2020 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32293368

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study evaluated whether parent-child attachment and self-esteem may mediate the relationship between parental marital conflict and increases in features of internet gaming disorder (IGD) in children at 1 year. METHODS: The baseline and one-year follow-up data for 268 pre-teens aged between 9 and 10 from the Internet User Cohort for Unbiased Recognition of Gaming Disorder in Early Adolescence (iCURE) study were collected. The students were children at low risk for IGD in the initial self-reported assessment, anyone living with both parents, current game user at baseline, and those who completed a 12-month follow-up assessment. The Internet Game Use-Elicited Symptom Screen (IGUESS) was used to identify increases in IGD features at 12 months. To examine a potential mediation effect, structural equation modeling was performed. RESULTS: The direct effect was statistically significant, and parental marital conflict at baseline significantly predicted the increases in IGD features in children at the 12-month follow-up after adjusting for gender, sex, socioeconomic status, and baseline IGUESS score (ß = 0.206, P = 0.003). The indirect effect showed that attachment to fathers through self-esteem was a significant mediating effect (ß = 0.078, P = 0.045). Parental marital conflicts were associated with increases in IGD features in children through poor father-child attachment, and in turn, the lower levels of self-esteem in the children. CONCLUSIONS: Parents, especially fathers, should make an effort to bond with their children to reduce the risk of their children's developing the IGD features.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo , Comportamento Infantil , Conflito Familiar , Relações Pai-Filho , Internet , Autoimagem , Jogos de Vídeo , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Pai , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Apego ao Objeto , Pais , Risco , Autorrelato
16.
Brain Behav Immun ; 87: 75-79, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32325098

RESUMO

The outbreak of COVID-19 is severely affecting mental health worldwide, although individual response may vary. This study aims to investigate the psychological distress perceived by the Italian general population during the early phase of the COVID-19 pandemic, and to analyze affective temperament and adult attachment styles as potential mediators. Through an online survey, we collected sociodemographic and lockdown-related information and evaluated distress, temperament, and attachment using the Kessler 10 Psychological Distress Scale (K10), the Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris and San Diego-Autoquestionnaire short version (TEMPS-A) and the Attachment Style Questionnaire (ASQ). In our sample (n = 500), 62% of the individuals reported no likelihood of psychological distress, whereas 19.4% and 18.6% displayed mild and moderate-to-severe likelihood. Cyclothymic (OR: 1.24; p < 0.001), depressive (OR: 1.52; p < 0.001) and anxious (OR: 1.58; p = 0.002) temperaments, and the ASQ "Need for approval" (OR: 1.08; p = 0.01) were risk factors for moderate-to-severe psychological distress compared to no distress, while the ASQ "Confidence" (OR: 0.89; p = 0.002) and "Discomfort with closeness" were protective (OR: 0.92; p = 0.001). Cyclothymic (OR: 1.17; p = 0.008) and depressive (OR: 1.32; p = 0.003) temperaments resulted as risk factors in subjects with moderate-to-severe psychological distress compared to mild distress, while the ASQ "Confidence" (OR: 0.92; p = 0.039) and "Discomfort with closeness" (OR: 0.94; p = 0.023) were protective. Our data indicated that a relevant rate of individuals may have experienced psychological distress following the COVID-19 outbreak. Specific affective temperament and attachment features predict the extent of mental health burden. To the best of our knowledge, these are the first data available on the psychological impact of the early phase of the COVID-19 pandemic on a sizeable sample of the Italian population. Moreover, our study is the first to investigate temperament and attachment characteristics in the psychological response to the ongoing pandemic. Our results provide further insight into developing targeted intervention strategies.


Assuntos
Afeto , Ansiedade/psicologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Transtorno Ciclotímico/psicologia , Depressão/psicologia , Apego ao Objeto , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Angústia Psicológica , Temperamento , Adolescente , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , Surtos de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
17.
Pap. psicol ; 41(1): 16-26, ene.-abr. 2020. ilus, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-190928

RESUMO

En la actualidad existe una amplia concienciación para personalizar los tratamientos psicológicos en función de las características individuales del paciente y de la singularidad de su contexto vital. Utilizar el mismo tratamiento para cada paciente y para cada trastorno es una práctica clínica contraindicada y una conducta poco ética. En el presente trabajo se revisan siete factores importantes en este ámbito: el grado de reactancia con respecto al cambio, la fase del cambio en la que se encuentra el cliente, la cultura, el estilo de afrontamiento, el estilo de apego, las preferencias terapéuticas y los sentimientos religiosos y espirituales. Los resultados de diversos estudios metanalíticos sugieren que dichos factores influyen sensiblemente en la eficacia de los tratamientos psicológicos, y que su aplicación deja un amplio margen de mejora para la eficacia de los tratamientos psicológicos


Today therapists are more aware of the importance of personalizing psychological treatments according to patients' individual characteristics and the singularity of their life contexts. Using the same treatment for every patient and every disorder is not advisable and it is a poor ethical behavior. In this study, seven important personalizing factors are reviewed: patient reactance level, stage of change phase, culture, coping style, attachment style, therapeutic preferences, and religious and spiritual dimension. Meta-analytic studies suggest that these factors notably affect the efficacy of psychological treatments, and that their application will allow for further improvement in psychotherapy efficacy


Assuntos
Humanos , Psicoterapia Centrada na Pessoa/tendências , Prática Clínica Baseada em Evidências/métodos , Resultado do Tratamento , Adaptação Psicológica , Psicoterapia Centrada na Pessoa/métodos , Psicoterapia/métodos , Apego ao Objeto
18.
Pap. psicol ; 41(1): 66-73, ene.-abr. 2020.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-190933

RESUMO

La Teoría del Apego ha hecho contribuciones muy útiles para la intervención psicológica, y exponemos las más relevantes. Partiendo de que la psicoterapia conlleva inevitablemente la activación del sistema de apego, abordamos sus distintas presentaciones en función del estilo de apego, y planteamos algunas recomendaciones para su manejo (responder a necesidades subyacentes, desplegar actitud terapéutica en dos fases, considerar trabajo metacomunicacional, y ser cautos al activar el apego). Exponemos la influencia del apego en la capacidad para relacionarse con las experiencias internas (como fuente de amena-za o como vivencias no accesibles). Consideramos los tres tipos de seguridad buscada tras la activación del apego (física, emocional y cognitiva) y las distintas demandas que imponen en la relación terapéutica. Abordamos las implicaciones de la Teo-ría del Apego en los procesos de auto-regulación. Finalmente, revisamos brevemente algunas contribuciones adicionales a nivel conceptual, de evaluación y de tratamiento


Attachment theory has provided us with very useful resources for psychological intervention. The most relevant of these resources are presented here. Considering that psychotherapy inevitably involves the activation of the attachment system, some advice is provided in managing this (addressing underlying needs, deploying a two-stage therapeutic stance, including meta-communication dialogues, and being cautious when activating attachment). The influence of attachment on the ability to relate to inner experience (either as a threat or an experience that is difficult to reach) is presented. Three kinds of security related to attachment (physical, emotional, and cognitive) are taken into account, as well as their different demands on therapeutic relationships. Implications of attachment theory on self-regulation processes are presented. Finally, some additional contributions about conceptualization, assessment, and treatment are revised


Assuntos
Humanos , Apego ao Objeto , Psicologia Clínica , Teoria Psicológica , Psicoterapia/métodos
19.
Orv Hetil ; 161(13): 510-518, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Húngaro | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32202150

RESUMO

Introduction: Many studies have investigated attachment styles in adults diagnosed with breast cancer: previous results indicate the importance of considering the associations between attachment style and relationship functioning in order to support better quality of life and optimal healing process in patients. Aim and method: In this study we intend to assess the attachment style (anxiety and avoidance) of Hungarian women diagnosed with breast cancer (n = 135) and to compare it with a group of women not diagnosed with cancer (n = 137). We examined attachment style in relation to self-rated health as well as relational and sexual satisfaction. Results: In the diagnosed group, we found higher level of avoidant attachment as well as poorer self-rated health, and lower relationship and sexual satisfaction. Both higher avoidance and anxiety predicted lower relationship satisfaction, while sexual satisfaction was predicted by having a breast cancer diagnosis and better self-rated health. Conclusion: Our results indicate that the attachment pattern of women diagnosed with cancer can play a role in their relationships and sexual satisfaction, along with their subjective health status. Monitoring and supporting physical, mental and relational characteristics may contribute to the attainment of better quality of life. Orv Hetil. 2020; 161(13): 510-518.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/psicologia , Apego ao Objeto , Satisfação Pessoal , Qualidade de Vida , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Hungria , Relações Interpessoais , Inquéritos e Questionários
20.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 1119, 2020 02 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32111822

RESUMO

The roots of psychopathology frequently take shape during infancy in the context of parent-infant interactions and adversity. Yet, neurobiological mechanisms linking these processes during infancy remain elusive. Here, using responses to attachment figures among infants who experienced adversity as a benchmark, we assessed rat pup cortical local field potentials (LFPs) and behaviors exposed to adversity in response to maternal rough and nurturing handling by examining its impact on pup separation-reunion with the mother. We show that during adversity, pup cortical LFP dynamic range decreased during nurturing maternal behaviors, but was minimally impacted by rough handling. During reunion, adversity-experiencing pups showed aberrant interactions with mother and blunted cortical LFP. Blocking pup stress hormone during either adversity or reunion restored typical behavior, LFP power, and cross-frequency coupling. This translational approach suggests adversity-rearing produces a stress-induced aberrant neurobehavioral processing of the mother, which can be used as an early biomarker of later-life pathology.


Assuntos
Animais Recém-Nascidos , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Comportamento Materno/fisiologia , Apego ao Objeto , Estresse Psicológico/fisiopatologia , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos/fisiologia , Animais Recém-Nascidos/psicologia , Ansiedade de Separação/sangue , Ansiedade de Separação/fisiopatologia , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Corticosterona/antagonistas & inibidores , Corticosterona/sangue , Feminino , Masculino , Relações Mãe-Filho , Mães , Ratos , Estresse Psicológico/sangue
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