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1.
Acta colomb. psicol ; 22(1): 129-140, ene.-jun. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-989078

RESUMO

Resumen La escala Massie-Campbell de Apego Durante Estrés (ADS; 1983), es una guía de observación de la interacción entre madres (o cuidadores) y sus hijos de 6 a 18 meses. Este estudio busca obtener evidencias de validez de constructo (convergente y divergente) y de criterio (sensibilidad, especificidad y valores predictivos) de dicho instrumento. Para ello, se evaluó el apego en 32 niños y niñas de ocho a diez meses de Lima, Perú, utilizando el ADS y el Attachment Q-set 3.0 (AQS), de Waters (1995), así como la sensibilidad de sus madres. Como resultado, se encontró que las clasificaciones del apego seguro e inseguro dadas a partir del ADS se encuentran relacionadas con los puntajes continuos de seguridad del apego del AQS (r = .41, p = .02) y con las clasificaciones dicotómicas (seguro vs. inseguro) obtenidas a partir del mismo [χ2 (1, N = 32) = 4.69, p = .03, d = .83]. Adicionalmente, no se hallaron diferencias significativas en la sensibilidad materna de las madres de los niños clasificados como seguros y la de los inseguros. Dado que la sensibilidad de la escala ADS no alcanzó niveles satisfactorios (33.3 %, IC 95 % = [15.48; 56.90]), de manera exploratoria se evaluó un punto de corte de cinco conductas seguras, el cual mejora su sensibilidad (47.6 %, IC 95 % = [26.4; 69.7]) y mantiene sus niveles satisfactorios de especificidad (90.9 %, IC 95 % = [57.1; 99.5]). En conclusión, el instrumento muestra adecuadas evidencias de validez de constructo convergente, pero no divergente; y, al ser considerado un instrumento de tamizaje, su sensibilidad, especificidad y valores predictivos necesitan seguir siendo estudiados con el fin de conseguir un punto de corte con mayor validez.


Resumo A Escala Massie-Campbell de Apego durante o Stress (ADS; 1983) é um guia de observação da interação entre mães (ou cuidadores) e seus filhos de 6 a 18 meses. Este estudo procura obter evidências de validade de constructo (convergente e divergente) e de critério (sensibilidade, especificidade e valores preditivos) desse instrumento. Para isso, foi avaliado o apego em 32 crianças de oito a dez meses, de Lima, Peru, utilizando o ADS e o Attachment Q-set 3.0 (AQS), de Waters (1995), bem como a sensibilidade de suas mães. Como resultados, constatou-se que as classificações do apego seguro e inseguro dadas a partir do ADS se encontram relacionadas com as pontuações contínuas de segurança do apego do AQS (r = .41, p = .02) e com as classificações dicotômicas (seguro versus inseguro) obtidas a partir deste [χ2 (1, N = 32) = 4.69, p = .03, d = .83]. Além disso, não foram encontradas diferenças significativas na sensibilidade materna das mães das crianças classificadas como seguras e a das inseguras. Tendo em vista que a sensibilidade da escala ADS não atingiu níveis satisfatórios (33.3 %, IC 95 % = [15.48; 56.90]), de maneira exploratória, foi avaliado um ponto de corte de cinco comportamentos seguros, o que melhora sua sensibilidade (47.6 %, IC 95 % = [26.4; 69.7]) e mantém seus níveis satisfatórios de especificidade (90.9 %, IC 95 % = [57.1; 99.5]). Em conclusão, o instrumento mostra adequadas evidências de validade de constructo convergente, mas não divergente; e, ao ser considerado um instrumento de rastreamento, sua sensibilidade, especificidade e valores preditivos precisam continuar sendo estudados a fim de conseguir um ponto de corte com maior validade.


Abstract The Massie-Campbell Attachment During Stress Scale (ADS, Massie & Campbell, 1983) is an observation guide of the interactions between mothers (or caretakers) and children from 6 to 18 months. This study sought the construct validity (convergent and discriminant) of ADS, as well as its criterion validity (sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values). To that end, child attachment was measured in a group of 32 children aged 8 to 10 months from Lima, Peru using ADS and Attachment Q-set 3.0 (AQS, Waters, 1995). Maternal sensitivity was assessed as well. It was found that ADS attachment classifications were related with AQS attachment security continuous scores (r = .41, p = .02) and with its dichotomous classifications [secure vs. insecure; χ2 (1, N = 32) = 4.69, p = 0.03, d = 0.83]. Additionally, no significant differences between the ADS's maternal sensitivity of mothers with children classified as secure and mothers with children classified as insecure were found. Since ADS´s sensitivity did not reach satisfactory levels (33.3 %, 95 % CI = [15.48, 56.90]), a cut-off point of 5 secure behaviors was used, which improved its sensitivity (47.6 %, 95 % CI = [26.4; 69.7]) while maintaining satisfactory levels of specificity (90.9 %, 95 % CI = [57.1; 99.5]). The instrument shows adequate convergent validity but lacks evidence of discriminant validity. Further exploration of ADS's sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values is recommended in order to obtain a cut-off point with greater validity, given that the instrument is considered a screening test.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Lactente , Adulto , Estresse Psicológico , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Relações Mãe-Filho , Apego ao Objeto
2.
Vínculo ; 16(1): 98-112, jan.-jun. 2019.
Artigo em Português | LILACS, Index Psicologia - Periódicos técnico-científicos | ID: biblio-1014770

RESUMO

Objetivou-se neste estudo analisar e refletir sobre o vínculo conjugal na atualidade, buscando compreender os sentidos inferidos a escolha e manutenção do casamento por aqueles que optaram por esta forma de conjugalidade. Trata-se de uma pesquisa qualitativa que se utilizou da entrevista semi dirigida como instrumento de coleta de dados. Os dados obtidos foram analisados em consonância com as discussões e reflexões teóricas sobre os relacionamentos amorosos na atualidade e os apontamentos da Psicanálise das Configurações Vinculares. Pode-se observar que cada sujeito infere um significado pessoal ao optar pelo casamento, este devendo ser pensado em sua dimensão psíquica e social. Além disso, o vínculo conjugal é configurado pela coexistência de elementos do passado com os reflexos das transformações relacionais, sendo uma representação das contradições e desafios da contemporaneidade.


This study aimed to analyse and reflect about the marriage bond in the present, seeking to understand the inferred meanings of choice and maintenance of marriage by those who have chosen for this form of conjugality. It is a qualitative research that used the semi-directed interview as a data collection instrument. The data obtained were analysed in accordance with the discussions and theoretical reflections on current loving relationships and notes of psychoanalysis of binding configurations. From the data analysis, it was observed... that each subject infers a personal meaning when opting for marriage, this having to be thought in its psychic and social dimension. Moreover, the conjugal bond is shaped by the coexistence of elements of the past with the reflections of the relational transformations, being a representation of the contradictions and challenges of the contemporaneity.


En este estudio se objetivó analizar y reflexionar sobre el vínculo conyugal en la actualidad, buscando comprender los sentidos inferidos a la elección y manutención de las bodas por aquellos que optaron por esta forma de unión conyugal. Se trata de una investigación cualitativa, utilizándose de la entrevista semidirigida como instrumento de colecta de datos. Los datos obtenidos fueron analizados en consonancia con las discusiones y reflexiones teóricas sobre las relaciones amorosas en la actualidad y los apuntes de la Psicoanálisis de las Configuraciones Vinculares. Se puede observar que cada sujeto infiere un significado personal al optar por el matrimonio, debiendo este ser pensado en su dimensión psíquica y social. Además, el lazo conyugal es configurado por la coexistencia de elementos del pasado con los reflejos de las transformaciones relacionales, siendo una representación de las contradicciones y desafíos de la contemporaneidad.


Assuntos
Psicanálise , Casamento , Amor , Apego ao Objeto
3.
Vínculo ; 16(1): 52-68, jan.-jun. 2019.
Artigo em Português | LILACS, Index Psicologia - Periódicos técnico-científicos | ID: biblio-1014766

RESUMO

O presente artigo tem como finalidade evidenciar o papel do vínculo no âmbito grupal enquanto possibilidade de transformação do sujeito. Utilizou-se como método de pesquisa o levantamento bibliográfico de artigos científicos, considerando como base de dados BVS/PEPsic e SciELO com os descritores "psicoterapia grupal", "grupos e psicanálise" e "vínculo e psicanálise" e, também, de autores que trouxeram significativas contribuições da psicologia aplicada aos grupos embasados na teoria psicanalítica. Empregou-se um caso clínico atendido no Grupo Psicoterapêutico do Setor de Saúde Mental do Departamento de Pediatria da Universidade Federal de São Paulo e, a partir deste, discutiu-se conexões teórico-clínicas entre as conjecturas do processo grupal, o estabelecimento de novos vínculos e a prática de trabalho desenvolvida neste serviço. Considerando o indivíduo como ser social constituído, dentre outros aspectos, por seus inter-relacionamentos, o contexto grupal proporciona um ambiente de troca mútua entre os membros, favorecendo a transferência, a identificação e o insight. Com isso, observou-se mudanças significativas nos pacientes inseridos neste âmbito.


The present study aims to highlight the role of the bond in the group scope as a possibility of transformation of the subject. It was used as a research method the bibliographic survey of scientific articles, considering as a database BVS/PEPsic and SciELO with the descriptors "group psychotherapy", "groups and psychoanalysis" and "bond and psychoanalysis" and also of authors who brought significant contributions of applied psychology to groups based on psychoanalytic theory. A clinical case was attended at the Psychotherapeutic Group of the Department of Mental Health of the Department of Pediatrics of the Federal University of São Paulo and from this theoretical-clinical connections were discussed between the conjectures of the group process, the establishment of new bonds and the work practice developed in this service. Considering the individual as a social being constituted, among other aspects, by his interrelationships, the group context provides an environment of mutual exchange between members, favoring transfer, identification and insight. With this, we observed significant changes in the patients inserted in this scope.


El presente artículo tiene como finalidad evidenciar el papel del vínculo en el ámbito grupal como posibilidad de transformación del sujeto. Se utilizó como método de investigación el levantamiento bibliográfico de artículos científicos, considerando como base de datos BVS/PEPsic y SciELO con los descriptores "psicoterapia grupal", "grupos y psicoanálisis" y "vínculo y psicoanálisis" y también de autores que han traído significativas contribuciones de la psicología aplicada a los grupos basadas en la teoría psicoanalítica. Se empleó un caso clínico atendido en el Grupo Psicoterapéutico del Sector de Salud Mental del Departamento de Pediatría de la Universidad Federal de São Paulo y a partir de éste se discutieron conexiones teórico-clínicas entre las conjecturas del proceso grupal, el establecimiento de nuevos vínculos y la práctica de trabajo desarrollada en este servicio. Considerando el individuo como ser social constituido, entre otros aspectos, por sus interrelaciones, el contexto grupal proporciona un ambiente de intercambio mutuo entre los miembros, favoreciendo la transferencia, la identificación y la visión. Con esto, se observaron cambios significativos en los pacientes insertados en este ámbito.


Assuntos
Psicanálise , Psicoterapia de Grupo , Psiquiatria Infantil , Apego ao Objeto
4.
Soins Pediatr Pueric ; 40(308): 44-46, 2019.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31171300

RESUMO

Neonatal intensive care is an emotionally charged unit. In addition to delivering specific care to the premature newborn, the role of the caregivers is to support the parents in their new role and to include them in the care. The creation of the bond between the parents and the premature infant in this context is specific. The children's nurse, through touch and the practice of skin-to-skin contact, can help them establish these first bonds.


Assuntos
Terapia Intensiva Neonatal , Apego ao Objeto , Relações Pais-Filho , Tato , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro/psicologia , Pais/psicologia
5.
Reprod Health ; 16(1): 42, 2019 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30953509

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Parental attachment was defined as: series of inner behaviors that would cause the infant to develop an intimate relation with his/her parents. This emotional relationship is formed long before birth during the pregnancy and has been associated with psychosocial outcomes for women and children. This relationship is known as one of the major components of the child's social and emotional development. Parents' relationship with their fetus could be strengthened using various strategies, but efforts to augment the maternal-fetal relationship have not always been successful. This study aims to conduct a comprehensive systematic review and a meta-analysis survey of the effects of attachment-based interventions on prenatal attachment. METHODS: A comprehensive search of relevant randomized and quasi-randomized controlled trials will be performed in EMBASE (via Scopus), ProQuest, Pubmed, Scopus, Ovid and Web of Science, The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, SID, MagIran, Irandoc, Barakat Knowledge Network System and Iranian registry of clinical trials website as Iranian databases using English and Persian keywords such as prenatal attachment, relationship, maternal attachment. Only randomized controlled clinical trials conducted between 2000 and 2016 will be included in this review. The study will be selected if their participants were expectant mothers, their partners or both. Our primary outcome will be the effect size of intervention. The quality of experimental studies will be evaluated using CONSORT checklist and Study Quality Guide by Cochrane Consumers and Communication Review Group. Two authors will independently assess the eligibility of the studies. Any disagreements will be resolved through a third reviewer. The risk of bias will be independently determined using the Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool. The quality of the papers will be assessed based on the CONSORT checklist. If possible quantitative data will be pooled in statistical meta-analyzing with random effect model. DISCUSSION: In this review the current state of knowledge on prenatal attachment is examined. Effectiveness of attachment-based interventions during pregnancy is analyzed. Finally, practice and research implications based on analysis of the current status of maternal-fetal attachment are identified. The expected findings will help healthcare providers to develop pregnant women and infants' health when offering prenatal care.


Assuntos
Relações Materno-Fetais , Apego ao Objeto , Gestantes/psicologia , Cuidado Pré-Natal/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Gravidez , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
6.
BMC Psychol ; 7(1): 22, 2019 Apr 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30971319

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The denial of pregnancy is the non-recognition of the state of the current pregnancy by a pregnant woman. It lasts for a few months or for the whole pregnancy, with generally few physical transformations. In this study, we will consider the denial of pregnancy as a late declaration of pregnancy (beyond 20 weeks of gestation) as well as a lack of objective perceptions of this pregnancy. The main objective of this study is to explore the relationship between pregnancy denial and the development of the infant (attachment pattern of the infant, early interactions of mother-infant dyads, and early development of the infant). METHODS: The design is a case-control prospective study, which will compare two groups of mother-infant dyads: a "case" group with maternal denials of pregnancy and a "control" group without denials of pregnancy. A total of 140 dyads (mother + infant) will be included in this study (70 cases and 70 controls) and followed for 18 months. The setting is a national recruitment setting with 10 centers distributed all over France. The follow-up of the "cases" and the "controls" will be identical and will occur over 5 visits. It will include measures of the infant attachment pattern, the quality of early mother-infant interaction and infant development. DISCUSSION: This study aims to examine the pathogenesis of pregnancy denial as well as its consequences on early infant development and early mother-infant interaction. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinical Trial Number: NCT02867579 on the date of 16 August 2016 (retrospectively registered).


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil , Negação (Psicologia) , Relações Mãe-Filho , Complicações na Gravidez/psicologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Protocolos Clínicos , Feminino , Seguimentos , França , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Apego ao Objeto , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos
7.
BMC Psychol ; 7(1): 23, 2019 Apr 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30975192

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The quality of an expectant mother's bonding to the fetus has been shown to be associated with important developmental outcomes. Previous studies suggest that bonding quality is predicted by, for example, social support, psychological well-being, and depression. However, little is known regarding the role of maternal cognition in maternal-fetal bonding. Early maladaptive schemas (EMSs) are negative and stable assumptions about oneself and one's relationships with others that are developed during childhood and adolescence. In the present study, we examined the associations between EMSs and the quality of the bonding to the fetus in expectant mothers. METHODS: The present investigation is part of a larger study in which 220 pregnant women (approximately 12% of the pregnant women in the region) and 130 of their partners were recruited from October 2015 until December 2017. The sample for the current study comprised 165 pregnant women (mean age 30.8 years, SD 4.1 years). The participants completed the Young Schema Questionnaire Short Form 3 (YSQ-S3) between gestational weeks 24 and 37 and the Maternal Antenatal Attachment Scale (MAAS) and the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) between gestational weeks 31 and 41. RESULTS: All EMS domains correlated significantly and negatively with scores for quality of maternal-fetal bonding on the MAAS. Only the Disconnection and Rejection domain correlated significantly and negatively with MAAS scores for intensity of preoccupation with the fetus. The Disconnection and Rejection domain was a significant independent predictor of the quality of maternal-fetal bonding. Symptoms of depression mediated the effect of the EMS domains on the quality of maternal-fetal bonding. The EMS domains Disconnection and Rejection, Impaired Autonomy and Performance, and Impaired Limits showed significant direct effects on bonding quality. CONCLUSIONS: EMSs are related to expectant mothers' self-reported bonding to their fetuses. This association was mediated by the mothers' symptoms of depression. The results may have implications for the early identification of pregnant women at risk of bonding difficulties and encourage more studies on cognitive schemas and mechanisms for maternal-fetal bonding.


Assuntos
Cognição , Transtorno Depressivo/psicologia , Relações Materno-Fetais , Complicações na Gravidez/psicologia , Autoimagem , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Apego ao Objeto , Gravidez , Autorrelato , Inquéritos e Questionários
8.
Estud. pesqui. psicol. (Impr.) ; 19(1): 238-260, jan.-abr. 2019. ilus, tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS, Index Psicologia - Periódicos técnico-científicos | ID: biblio-999543

RESUMO

As relações afetivas na infância repercutem no estilo de apego do indivíduo no decorrer do seu ciclo vital. Assim, o objetivo deste artigo é analisar o perfil de estudos nacionais e internacionais acerca da relação entre o apego dos membros do casal desenvolvido na infância e o relacionamento conjugal e parental. Para tanto, foi realizada uma revisão de literatura integrativa nas bases de dados PsycInfo, Scielo e CAPES, por meio de descritores preestabelecidos, em português, inglês e espanhol, entre 2013 a 2017. Foram selecionados 32 artigos completos indexados, os quais foram submetidos a análises metodológicas e semânticas, derivando-se três categorias temáticas. Identificou-se a predominância de estudos longitudinais e quantitativos, cujas publicações concentram-se, em grande parte, na América do Norte. Constatou-se também, que pessoas com características de apego inseguro apresentam maior tendência de desenvolver conflito conjugal e baixa qualidade do relacionamento amoroso. Não foi encontrada nenhuma pesquisa que integrasse em um único estudo, a relação estabelecida entre o apego dos membros do casal na infância e suas repercussões sobre os vínculos conjugal e parental. Verifica-se a lacuna de estudos que discutam a teoria do apego em uma perspectiva transgeracional e seus efeitos sobre a vida adulta.(AU)


The affective relationships in infancy have repercussions on the attachment style of the individual during the course of the life cycle. Thus, the aim of this article is to analyze the profile of national and international studies on child attachment and the relationship between parents and children. For this purpose, an integrative literature review was carried out in PsycInfo, Scielo and CAPES databases, with the use of pre-established descriptors in Portuguese, English and Spanish between 2013 to 2017. It was selected 32 complete indexed articles, which were submitted to methodological and semantic analyzes, deriving three thematic categories. The predominance of longitudinal and quantitative studies, whose publications are largely concentrated in North America, has been identified. It was also found that people with characteristics of insecure attachment have a greater tendency to develop conjugal conflict and low quality of the love relationship. No research was found that integrated in a single study, the relationship established between the couple's attachment in childhood and its repercussions on the marital and parental bonds. There is a gap in studies that discuss attachment theory in a transgenerational perspective and its effects on adult life.(AU)


Las relaciones afectivas en la infancia repercuten en el estilo de apego del individuo en el transcurso de su ciclo vital. Así, el objetivo de este artículo es analizar el perfil de estudios nacionales e internacionales acerca de la relación entre el apego de los miembros del matrimonio desarrollado en la infancia y la relación conyugal y parental. Por lo tanto, una revisión integradora de la literatura se realizó en las bases de datos PsycINFO, Scielo y capas, a través de descriptores preestablecidos en portugués, Inglés y Español, entre 2013 y 2017. Se seleccionaron 32 artículos completos indexados, que fueron sometidos a análisis metodológicos y semánticos, derivando tres categorías temáticas. Se identificó el predominio de estudios longitudinales y cuantitativos, cuyas publicaciones se concentran, en gran parte en América del Norte. Se constató también, que personas con características de apego inseguro presentan mayor tendencia a desarrollar conflicto conyugal y baja calidad de la relación amorosa. No se encontró ninguna investigación que incluyera en un solo estudio, la relación establecida entre el apego de los miembros de la pareja en la infancia y sus repercusiones sobre los vínculos conyugal y parental. Se verifica la brecha de estudios que discutan la teoría del apego en una perspectiva transgeneracional y sus efectos sobre la vida adulta.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Relações Familiares , Apego ao Objeto , Casamento/psicologia , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Afeto
9.
Ágora (Rio J. Online) ; 22(1): 75-86, jan.-abr. 2019. graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS, Index Psicologia - Periódicos técnico-científicos | ID: biblio-986219

RESUMO

RESUMO: O presente artigo tem por objetivo promover uma investigação acerca das contribuições de Ronald Fairbairn e Harry Guntrip a respeito da esquizoidia a partir da ótica da teoria das relações objetais. Com esta finalidade, faremos uma exposição sobre a constituição da subjetividade segundo esses autores e discutiremos as falhas no percurso desenvolvimental que proporcionam o surgimento das tendências e características esquizoides, considerando as divergências teóricas presentes entre as obras de Fairbairn e Guntrip.


ABSTRACT: This article aims to conduct a research about the contributions of Ronald Fairbairn and Harry Guntrip on schizoidism from the perspective of object relations theory. To this end, we will hold an exhibition on the constitution of subjectivity according to these authors and discuss the flaws in the developmental pathway that allows the emergence of schizoid characteristics, noting the existing theoretical differences in Fairbairn and Guntrip's works.


Assuntos
Humanos , Psicologia Clínica , Transtorno da Personalidade Esquizoide , Apego ao Objeto
10.
Ágora (Rio J. Online) ; 22(1): 51-62, jan.-abr. 2019.
Artigo em Português | LILACS, Index Psicologia - Periódicos técnico-científicos | ID: biblio-986227

RESUMO

RESUMO: Este artigo apresenta um exame da proposição de Lacan (1962-1963/2005) sobre a relação entre a maturação do objeto a na puberdade e a efetiva assimilação do conceito. Mesmo que pouco elaborada na conjuntura teórica em que aparece, essa formulação é de grande importância por permitir conceber a função essencial do pensamento lógico na adolescência. Para compreender essa função, investigamos o contexto teórico em que essa conexão é proposta e rastreamos a relação entre conceito e objeto na obra desse autor. Esse percurso nos leva a constatar a originalidade e a relevância dessa assertiva lacaniana para a abordagem da adolescência.


Abstract: This article presents an examination of Lacan's proposition on the relationship between the maturation of the object a at puberty and the actual assimilation of the concept. Although it is not elaborated in the theoretical conjuncture in which it appears, this formulation is of great importance because it allows us to conceive the essential function of logical thinking in adolescence. To understand this function, we investigate the theoretical context in which this connection is proposed and trace the relationship between concept and object in the author's work. This path leads us to note the originality and relevance of this Lacanian assertion for approaching adolescence.


Assuntos
Humanos , Adolescente , Puberdade , Comportamento do Adolescente , Apego ao Objeto
11.
Trends Psychiatry Psychother ; 41(1): 43-50, 2019 Jan-Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30994785

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Long-term psychodynamic psychotherapy (LTPP) emphasizes the centrality of intrapsychic and unconscious conflicts and their relation to development. Although there is evidence supporting the efficacy of LTPP in mental disorders, little research has been published on the efficacy of LTPP for depressive and anxiety disorders. OBJECTIVE: To examine whether patients with anxiety and depressive disorders demonstrate improvement in their attachment styles, defense styles, psychiatric symptoms, anxiety/depressive symptoms, and alexithymia with LTPP. METHODS: In this retrospective, descriptive study, the psychological outcomes of patients who were treated at the psychoanalytic clinic of Babol University of Medical Sciences were assessed. Fourteen patients diagnosed with depressive or anxiety disorder participated in the study of LTPP using the self-psychology approach. The Beck Depression Inventory II, Beck Anxiety Inventory, Adult Attachment Scale, 40-item Defense Style Questionnaire, and the 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale were administered at pre-treatment, post-treatment, and 6-month follow-up. Generalized estimating equations were used to analyze changes in psychological outcomes after each of the three assessments. RESULTS: The mean scores of depression and anxiety and secure attachment improved significantly after LTPP with self-psychology approach from baseline to post-treatment and follow-up. Also, the mean scores of neurotic and immature defenses, difficulty in identifying feelings, difficulty in describing feelings, externally oriented thinking, and total alexithymia scores decreased significantly from baseline to post-treatment and follow-up. CONCLUSION: Symptoms of anxiety disorders, depressive disorders, insecure attachment styles, alexithymia, and neurotic/immature defense styles improved after the LTPP with self-psychology approach. Moreover, the improvements persisted at the 6-month follow-up.


Assuntos
Sintomas Afetivos/terapia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/terapia , Mecanismos de Defesa , Transtorno Depressivo/terapia , Apego ao Objeto , Avaliação de Resultados (Cuidados de Saúde) , Psicoterapia Psicodinâmica/métodos , Adulto , Sintomas Afetivos/fisiopatologia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/fisiopatologia , Transtorno Depressivo/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico) , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
12.
Trends Psychiatry Psychother ; 41(1): 69-77, 2019 Jan-Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30994786

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To describe the process of translating and adapting the Relationship Scales Questionnaire (RSQ) from English into Brazilian Portuguese and to present the results of its test-retest reliability using the version developed for interview application. METHODOLOGY: The process was based on the guidelines of the International Society for Pharmaeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR), which propose 10 steps for the translation and cross-cultural adaptation of self-administered instruments. The original authors of the RSQ have agreed to the translation. The interview version was applied to a sample of 43 healthy elders (≥60 years old) enrolled in a primary health care program in the city of Porto Alegre, state of Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil, and then reapplied. The scores of the two applications were compared using the paired sample t-test. RESULTS: Only 6 of the 30 items required the adaptation of words or expressions to maintain its conceptual and semantic equivalence. The self-administered form of the RSQ posed difficulties for elders due to visual deficiencies and lower education level, both common in this age group, demonstrating a need for the development of a version of the RSQ in a structured interview format. Only the measure for secure attachment presented significant differences after the application of the retest, indicating reliability of the version being proposed. CONCLUSION: Translation of the RSQ is the first step towards the validation of an attachment evaluation instrument for use in the elderly population in Brazil, allowing for future studies on this topic.


Assuntos
Relações Interpessoais , Apego ao Objeto , Psicometria/normas , Autorrelato/normas , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Brasil , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Psicometria/instrumentação , Psicometria/métodos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Tradução
13.
Acta Psychol (Amst) ; 196: 26-32, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30974399

RESUMO

This study aims at assessing and comparing two different methods for learning new vocabulary words in a foreign language. Learning vocabulary with images as non-verbal aids was compared to learning vocabulary with real objects. The Rwandan children who participated in this study learnt French as a third language. They took part in training sessions to learn different French words either seeing the corresponding image or holding the corresponding object. The training program was implemented in a Rwandan primary school with children of different ages (from five to 10 years old). The results showed that the words associated to objects that were held by the children during learning were better memorized than the words associated with images. The global memory performance was lower for the youngest children; however, learning with objects proved to be superior over learning with images for all ages. Taken together, the findings underscore that learning vocabulary with real objects is particularly efficient and support the idea that the embodied theory of language is a key element to effectively master a foreign language.


Assuntos
Memória/fisiologia , Multilinguismo , Apego ao Objeto , Tato/fisiologia , Aprendizagem Verbal/fisiologia , Vocabulário , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Masculino
14.
Psychiatr Danub ; 31(1): 32-36, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30948687

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Attachment parameters have an effect on later relationship patterns and the development of parameters of self-concept and personality. In the current study the role of attachment parameters on personality dimensions was investigated, especially with respect to personality disorders. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: 134 psychiatric inpatients were examined on attachment and personality parameters using the schedule FEB as a questionnaire on the parental attachment and the SKI as a self-concept inventory. RESULTS: Regression and correlation analyses suggest positive influences of parental care and negative influences of parental overprotection on the development of ego-strength in adulthood. Patients with personality disorders reported to have experienced less maternal care during their childhood and showed a trend towards a reduced ego-strength in adulthood compared to patients with others mental disorders. CONCLUSIONS: Relationships of attachment parameters in childhood with personality dimension are explorable. This approach seems meaningful for a better understanding of the development of personality disorders. Clinicians should be familiar with attachment patterns when treating people with mental disorders in order to adequately include appropriate personality dimensions in the therapy.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil , Apego ao Objeto , Transtornos da Personalidade , Adulto , Criança , Humanos , Personalidade , Transtornos da Personalidade/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
15.
J Behav Addict ; 8(1): 63-78, 2019 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30931577

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Recent research used attachment theory and the metacognitive tenet as frameworks to explain problematic Facebook use (PFU). This study aims to test, in a single model, the role of different attachment styles and metacognitions in PFU among adolescents. METHODS: Two separate studies were conducted in order to establish the link between security (Study 1) and insecurity (Study 2), metacognitions, and PFU. A total of 369 and 442 Italian adolescents (age: 14-20 years old) participated in Study 1 and Study 2, respectively. RESULTS: Path analyses revealed the relative importance of different attachment dimensions with mother and father in predicting PFU and the mediating role of metacognitions between attachment styles and PFU. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: In conclusion, since attachment styles and PFU may significantly affect adolescents' development and well-being, the results of this study may provide some practical indications for researchers and practitioners.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo/psicologia , Metacognição , Apego ao Objeto , Relações Pais-Filho , Mídias Sociais , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Comportamento Problema/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
16.
Psychoanal Rev ; 106(2): 149-173, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30977711

RESUMO

Classical attachment theory has yielded rich explanations for behavior by classifying attachment into "styles" such as avoidant and ambivalent. Modern attachment theory has deepened our understanding of these formations by integrating knowledge about affect regulation and cognitive narratives. In looking at how attachment manifests in the phenomenal, sensation-evoking world, we draw on the work of postmodern performance theorist Judith Butler and others to get a clarified picture not just of one's style of attaching but of the specific ways that attachment behaviors are rehearsed, repeated, and refined over time. We look at attachment at the level of lived experience, rather than merely that of signification, to gain insights on how to interpret and work with attachment-laden behaviors in the therapeutic relationship.


Assuntos
Apego ao Objeto , Teoria Psicanalítica , Afeto , Humanos
17.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 19(1): 125, 2019 Apr 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30975095

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bonding refers to emotions and cognitions towards one's infant. Breastfeeding is believed to facilitate bonding, yet only a handful of studies have empirically tested this assertion. This study aimed to confirm whether a positive association between breastfeeding and bonding exists and whether breastfeeding may be protective against the negative consequences of mood and sleep disturbances on bonding. METHOD: A cross-sectional survey was administered to a convenience sample of Israeli mothers of infants ages 1-9 months. The main outcome measures were breastfeeding history, bonding (Postpartum Bonding Questionnaire, PBQ), mood (Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale, EPDS) and sleep (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, PSQI). RESULTS: Two hundred seventy-one mothers (21-46 years) completed the survey. 65.7% reported current breastfeeding, 22.1% past breastfeeding, 12.2% never nursed. The PBQ correlated with both the EPDS and PSQI. Breastfeeding was associated with greater daytime fatigue, but not with any other sleep problem, and was not associated with bonding. This negative result was confirmed with Bayesian analysis demonstrating that the probability for the null hypothesis was 4.5 times greater than the hypothesized effect. Further, hierarchical regression revealed a positive relationship between bonding, daytime fatigue and depression symptoms only among women who were currently breastfeeding. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that among healthy mothers, breastfeeding may not be a central factor in mother-infant bonding, nor is it protective against the negative impact of mood symptoms and bonding difficulties. Theoretical and methodological bases of these findings are discussed.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno/psicologia , Relações Mãe-Filho/psicologia , Mães/psicologia , Apego ao Objeto , Período Pós-Parto/psicologia , Adulto , Afeto , Teorema de Bayes , Estudos Transversais , Emoções , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Sono , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
18.
Psychodyn Psychiatry ; 47(1): 39-51, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30840555

RESUMO

Belonging is fundamental to health and well-being. Complex relational trauma disrupts attachments, negatively impacting developing neurobiology and has significant implications for attachment behaviors, mental health, and treatment planning. We have developed a dynamic relational (DR) model of psychotherapy that aims to restore a healthy sense of belonging, targeting levels of activation and integration of large scale neural networks in the service of increasing the emotional capacities (attunement, processing, regulation, and expression) required to work through attachment trauma and establish healthy relationships. Our DR model provides an organizing framework through which to understand both the phenomenology observed in complex trauma and the mechanisms of therapeutic change. Our approach informs the weighting and timing of interventions to actively address capacity deficits, ego-syntonic symptoms, and unconscious resistance. The implications of this model also relate to the pathogenesis of mental disorder, and suggest prevention and early intervention efforts focus on modulation of subcortical (autonomic) responses and the encouragement of balanced cortical integration to enhance cognitive flexibility/psychological resilience. Ultimately, interventions based on our systematic model may modulate the genetic diathesis and comorbidities of relational trauma and increase psychological resilience.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Relações Interpessoais , Apego ao Objeto , Trauma Psicológico/terapia , Psicoterapia/métodos , Adulto , Humanos , Modelos Biológicos , Neurobiologia , Trauma Psicológico/fisiopatologia , Trauma Psicológico/psicologia
19.
Psychiatry Res ; 274: 352-357, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30851598

RESUMO

Subjective social status (SSS) is associated with major depression, but its association with depressive symptoms remains unknown. In this study, we hypothesized that SSS mediates the effects of the quality of parenting (care and overprotection) on self-esteem and depressive symptoms in adulthood in non-clinical self-selected adult volunteers, and this hypothesis was verified by covariance structure analysis. The following questionnaire surveys were conducted on 404 Japanese non-clinical adult volunteers: Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), SSS, Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI), and Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES). We conducted covariance structure analysis to elucidate the mediating effects of SSS on the effects of PBI on RSES and PHQ-9. In our models, self-esteem, but not the quality of parenting or SSS, directly deteriorated depressive symptoms. Poor quality of parenting in childhood indirectly exacerbated depressive symptoms through the mediating effects of SSS and self-esteem. This study showed that SSS is a mediator in the effects of the quality of parenting in childhood on adulthood depressive symptoms and self-esteem, and that self-esteem further mediates the effects of SSS. Our results may hence contribute to the elucidation of the association between SSS and depression.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo/psicologia , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Autoimagem , Classe Social , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Apego ao Objeto , Questionário de Saúde do Paciente , Meio Social , Inquéritos e Questionários
20.
Soins Pediatr Pueric ; 40(307): 12-15, 2019 Mar - Apr.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30910066

RESUMO

Early interactions are established in accordance to their own rhythms the tempo of which is set by the parent-infant dyad. The adjustment is made by the adult partner, who must be able to ensure this mutual interactive rhythm. It is in fact these initial interactions which form the foundations of a secure attachment.


Assuntos
Apego ao Objeto , Relações Pais-Filho , Adulto , Humanos , Lactente
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