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1.
Acta Neurobiol Exp (Wars) ; 84(1): 98-110, 2024 Mar 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38587319

RESUMO

Neuroinflammation is a process associated with degeneration and loss of neurons in different parts of the brain. The most important damage mechanisms in its formation are oxidative stress and inflammation. This study aimed to investigate the protective effects of cannabidiol (CBD) against neuroinflammation through various mechanisms. Thirty­two female rats were randomly divided into 4 groups as control, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), LPS + CBD and CBD groups. After six hours following LPS administration, rats were sacrificed, brain and cerebellum tissues were obtained. Tissues were stained with hematoxylin­eosin for histopathological analysis. Apelin and tyrosine hydroxylase synthesis were determined immunohistochemically. Total oxidant status and total antioxidant status levels were measured, and an oxidative stress index was calculated. Protein kinase B (AKT), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), cyclic­AMP response element­binding protein (CREB) and nuclear factor erythroid 2­related factor 2 (NRF2) mRNA expression levels were also determined. In the LPS group, hyperemia, degeneration, loss of neurons and gliosis were seen in all three tissues. Additionally, Purkinje cell loss in the cerebellum, as well as neuronal loss in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus, were found throughout the LPS group. The expressions of AKT, BDNF, CREB and NRF2, apelin and tyrosine hydroxylase synthesis all decreased significantly. CBD treatment reversed these changes and ameliorated oxidative stress parameters. CBD showed protective effects against neuroinflammation via regulating AKT, CREB, BDNF expressions, NRF2 signaling, apelin and tyrosine hydroxylase synthesis.


Assuntos
Canabidiol , Fármacos Neuroprotetores , Feminino , Ratos , Animais , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Canabidiol/farmacologia , Canabidiol/metabolismo , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/genética , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/farmacologia , Dopamina/farmacologia , Apelina/metabolismo , Apelina/farmacologia , Proteína de Ligação ao Elemento de Resposta ao AMP Cíclico , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/metabolismo , Doenças Neuroinflamatórias , Lipopolissacarídeos/toxicidade , Tirosina 3-Mono-Oxigenase/metabolismo , Tirosina 3-Mono-Oxigenase/farmacologia , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Expressão Gênica
2.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 28(4): 1439-1455, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38436178

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Adipose tissue is the largest endocrine organ in the human body, and as its mass changes, the serum levels of the molecules it secretes also change. Visceral adipose tissue index (VAI) is a simple surrogate marker of visceral adipose tissue dysfunction. This study evaluated the effects of changes in fat mass on adipocytokine behavior and VAI in patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) and extreme obesity (EO). PATIENTS AND METHODS: The study group consisted of three subgroups: Group 1, patients with EO who were candidates for obesity surgery with BMI≥50 kg/m2 (n=20). Group 2, newly diagnosed patients with AN (n=12). Group 3 controls with BMI 20-25 kg/m2 (n=20). The AN and EO groups were followed until at least a 10% weight change before and after the intervention. RESULTS: Prior to the intervention, EO patients exhibited the lowest levels of apelin, omentin, and adiponectin, while AN patients demonstrated the highest levels of these markers. Leptin and IL-6 were elevated in EO and reduced in AN patients. After treatment, all adipokines and VAI increased in AN patients, and omentin, adiponectin, and IL-6 increased in EO patients, while apelin, leptin, and VAI decreased. The change in each adipocytokine (∆) was positively correlated with the other adipocytokines (p<0.050) and negatively correlated with metabolic and VAI changes (p<0.050). The regression analysis determined that the following variables were associated with the change in adipose tissue mass: Δapelin (OR: 1.061; p=0.028) and Δadiponectin (OR: 1.057; p=0.036). CONCLUSIONS: In individuals with pathological adipocyte mass, the change in adipocytokine levels in response to weight change is not as expected. The fact that these changes are not seen in the early period of the weight intervention treatment indicates that these patients have compensatory physiological mechanisms to protect them. In addition, using VAI instead of BMI, whose reliability is increasingly questioned because it does not reflect body fat mass, can be considered an alternative. However, there may be modeling errors in the early stages of weight change and in AN and EO patients where metabolic parameters reach extreme values. Therefore, it should be tested in studies where larger patient groups are followed for a more extended period.


Assuntos
Anorexia Nervosa , Obesidade Mórbida , Humanos , Leptina , Adipocinas , Apelina , Adiponectina , Interleucina-6 , Estudos Prospectivos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Adipócitos
3.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 15: 1336543, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38516409

RESUMO

The prevalence of osteoporosis has been on the rise globally. With ageing populations, research has sought therapeutic solutions in novel areas. One such area is that of the adipokines. Current literature points to an important role for these chemical mediators in relation to bone metabolism. Well-established adipokines have been broadly reported upon. These include adiponectin and leptin. However, other novel adipokines such as visfatin, nesfatin-1, meteorin-like protein (Metrnl), apelin and lipocalin-2 are starting to be addressed pre-clinically and clinically. Adipokines hold pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory properties that influence the pathophysiology of various bone diseases. Omentin-1 and vaspin, two novel adipokines, share cardioprotective effects and play essential roles in bone metabolism. Studies have reported bone-protective effects of omentin-1, whilst others report negative associations between omentin-1 and bone mineral density. Lipocalin-2 is linked to poor bone microarchitecture in mice and is even suggested to mediate osteoporosis development from prolonged disuse. Nesfatin-1, an anorexigenic adipokine, has been known to preserve bone density. Animal studies have demonstrated that nesfatin-1 treatment limits bone loss and increases bone strength, suggesting exogenous use as a potential treatment for osteopenic disorders. Pre-clinical studies have shown adipokine apelin to have a role in bone metabolism, mediated by the enhancement of osteoblast genesis and the inhibition of programmed cell death. Although many investigations have reported conflicting findings, sufficient literature supports the notion that adipokines have a significant influence on the metabolism of bone. This review aims at highlighting the role of novel adipokines in osteoporosis while also discussing their potential for treating osteoporosis.


Assuntos
Osteoporose , Serpinas , Animais , Camundongos , Adipocinas/metabolismo , Apelina/metabolismo , Lipocalina-2 , Adiponectina/metabolismo , Osteoporose/tratamento farmacológico
4.
Sci Transl Med ; 16(739): eabn8529, 2024 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38507466

RESUMO

Impaired skeletal muscle stem cell (MuSC) function has long been suspected to contribute to the pathogenesis of muscular dystrophy (MD). Here, we showed that defects in the endothelial cell (EC) compartment of the vascular stem cell niche in mouse models of Duchenne MD, laminin α2-related MD, and collagen VI-related myopathy were associated with inefficient mobilization of MuSCs after tissue damage. Using chemoinformatic analysis, we identified the 13-amino acid form of the peptide hormone apelin (AP-13) as a candidate for systemic stimulation of skeletal muscle ECs. Systemic administration of AP-13 using osmotic pumps generated a pro-proliferative EC-rich niche that supported MuSC function through angiocrine factors and markedly improved tissue regeneration and muscle strength in all three dystrophic mouse models. Moreover, EC-specific knockout of the apelin receptor led to regenerative defects that phenocopied key pathological features of MD, including vascular defects, fibrosis, muscle fiber necrosis, impaired MuSC function, and reduced force generation. Together, these studies provide in vivo proof of concept that enhancing endogenous skeletal muscle repair by targeting the vascular niche is a viable therapeutic avenue for MD and characterized AP-13 as a candidate for further study for the systemic treatment of MuSC dysfunction.


Assuntos
Distrofia Muscular de Duchenne , Nicho de Células-Tronco , Camundongos , Animais , Apelina/metabolismo , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Distrofia Muscular de Duchenne/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais
5.
Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Basis Dis ; 1870(4): 167125, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38508477

RESUMO

Scarring, a prevalent issue in clinical settings, is characterized by the excessive generation of extracellular matrix within the skin tissue. Among the numerous regulatory factors implicated in fibrosis across various organs, the apelin/APJ axis has emerged as a potential regulator of fibrosis. Given the shared attribute of heightened extracellular matrix production between organ fibrosis and scarring, we hypothesize that the apelin/APJ axis also plays a regulatory role in scar development. In this study, we examined the expression of apelin and APJ in scar tissue, normal skin, and fibroblasts derived from these tissues. We investigated the impact of the hypoxic microenvironment in scars on apelin/APJ expression to identify the transcription factors influencing apelin/APJ expression. Through overexpressing or knocking down apelin/APJ expression, we observed their effects on fibroblast secretion of extracellular matrix proteins. We further validated these effects in animal experiments while exploring the underlying mechanisms. Our findings demonstrated that the apelin/APJ axis is expressed in fibroblasts from keloid, hypertrophic scar, and normal skin. The regulation of apelin/APJ expression by the hypoxic environment in scars plays a significant role in hypertrophic scar and keloid development. This regulation promotes extracellular matrix secretion through upregulation of TGF-ß1 expression via the PI3K/Akt/CREB1 pathway.


Assuntos
Cicatriz Hipertrófica , Queloide , Animais , Apelina/genética , Apelina/metabolismo , Queloide/metabolismo , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases , Receptores de Apelina/genética , Receptores de Apelina/metabolismo , Fibrose
6.
Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Basis Dis ; 1870(4): 167099, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38428686

RESUMO

The abnormal proliferation, migration, and inflammation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) play crucial roles in the development of neointimal hyperplasia and restenosis. Exposure to inflammatory cytokines such as platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) induces the transformation of contractile VSMCs into abnormal synthetic VSMCs. Isoxanthohumol (IXN) has significant anti-inflammatory, antiproliferative, and antimigratory effects. This study aimed to explore the therapeutic impact and regulatory mechanism of IXN in treating neointimal hyperplasia. The present findings indicate that IXN effectively hinders the abnormal proliferation, migration, and inflammation of VSMCs triggered by PDGF or TNF-α. This inhibition is primarily achieved through the modulation of the apelin/AKT or AKT pathway, respectively. In an in vivo model, IXN effectively reduced neointimal hyperplasia in denuded femoral arteries. These results suggest that IXN holds promise as a potential and innovative therapeutic candidate for the treatment of restenosis.


Assuntos
Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa , Xantonas , Humanos , Hiperplasia/tratamento farmacológico , Proliferação de Células , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/farmacologia , Apelina , Movimento Celular , Becaplermina/farmacologia , Neointima/tratamento farmacológico , Neointima/metabolismo , Inflamação
7.
PLoS One ; 19(2): e0297550, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38359069

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Delayed diagnosis and inadequate treatment of infectious and inflammatory diseases, such as Brucella, lead to high rates of mortality and morbidity. The aim of our study was to investigate the association between serum levels of apelin, presepsin, and irisin with inflammation, laboratory parameters, and blood culture in patients with brucella. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This prospective case-control study involves 30 patients with brucellosis and 30 healthy, matched control subjects. Thirty patients who were diagnosed with brucellosis were aged ≥ 18 years. Blood samples were taken from the patients on the first day they were diagnosed with brucellosis. The values of irisin, presepsin, and apelin were studied. In addition, blood samples were also taken from 30 healthy individuals for the control group. Irisin, presepsin, and apelin values that were measured in the patients on the first day were compared with those values measured in the control group. RESULTS: The sex and age statuses of the subjects are matched among the groups. The levels of irisin were significantly higher in patients with brucellosis compared to the control group (p<0.045). There was no significant difference between the two groups in terms of apelin and presepsin levels (p values 0.087 and 0.162, respectively). There was a positive correlation between irisin levels and elevated ALT levels, as well as positive blood cultures. CONCLUSIONS: It appears that the measurement of irisin levels may be beneficial in patients with brucellosis. Irisin can be used as a diagnostic marker for brucella infection and may greatly clinicians to predict the severity disease and treatment response.


Assuntos
Brucella , Brucelose , Humanos , Apelina , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Fibronectinas , Brucelose/diagnóstico , Biomarcadores , Fragmentos de Peptídeos , Receptores de Lipopolissacarídeos
8.
BMC Psychol ; 12(1): 64, 2024 Feb 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38336859

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adolescence is the period in which physical and emotional changes occur through hormones, the individual acquires gender characteristics and prepares for the adult role psychologically and physically. Dysfunctional attitudes are beliefs and attitudes that can lead to depression by causing negative thoughts about oneself, others, and the future.Dysfunctional attitudes negatively affect children's mental health. Hormones have a significant impact on human behavior and cognitive functions. However, little is known about the role and influence of hormones on dysfunctional attitudes. Apelin is a hormone responsible for controlling emotions by regulating emotional behavior. The level of dysfunctional attitudes is one of the important issues in nursing practice in terms of protecting and improving children's mental health. However, little is known about the role and impact of hormones on dysfunctional attitudes.This study aimed to examine adolescents' dysfunctional attitudes and salivary apelin hormone levels in terms of sociodemographic variables. METHODS: The study was conducted in a relational screening model with 151 adolescents aged 9-14 years who were reported to be clinically healthy in Türkiye. Apelin hormone levels were analyzed by ELISA technique in the saliva samples of the participants. In the evaluation of dysfunctional attitudes, the relationship between the score obtained from the dysfunctional attitude scale and salivary hormone levels was evaluated. RESULTS: In the study, a negative, strong and statistically significant correlation was found between the average salivary apelin hormone level and dysfunctional attitudes of adolescents (p =.000). Mean salivary hormone levels of apelin in adolescent girls and boys were 0.696 (SD 0.052) ng/ml, respectively; while 0.671 (SD 0.047) ng/ml was determined (p =.002), dysfunctional attitudes scale scores were 52.95 (SD 14.43); it was determined as 59.04 (SD 14.22) (p =.006). On the other hand, the highest average salivary apelin hormone level (p =.038). and the lowest level of dysfunctional attitudes were determined in adolescent girls aged 13-14 years (p =.028). CONCLUSIONS: In our study, we found that while the salivary apelin hormone levels of adolescents decreased, their dysfunctional attitudes increased. We found that adolescents' dysfunctional attitudes decreased with age. In contrast, apelin hormone levels increased with age.


Assuntos
Atitude , Emoções , Adulto , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Humanos , Adolescente , Apelina , Turquia , Hormônios
10.
BMC Endocr Disord ; 24(1): 6, 2024 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38178017

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diabetic nephropathy and hepatopathy are health problems described by specific renal and hepatic structure and function disturbances. The protective effects of the stem cell secretome have been shown in several kidney and liver diseases. The current study aims to evaluate the capability of conditioned media derived from human Wharton's jelly mesenchymal stem cells (hWJ-MSCs-CM) to alleviate diabetic complications. METHODS: Twenty Sprague Dawley rats were made diabetic through injection of STZ (60 mg/kg, i.p.). At week 8, diabetic rats were divided into two groups: treated [DM + hWJ-MSCs-CM (500 µl/rat for three weeks, i.p.)] and not treated (DM). At the 11th week, three groups (control, DM, and DM + hWJ-MSCs-CM) were kept in metabolic cages, and urine was collected for 24 h. The serum samples were maintained for measuring fasting blood glucose (FBG) and kidney and liver functional analysis. The left kidney and liver parts were kept at -80 °C to assess apelin and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-ß) expression. The right kidney, pancreas, and liver parts were used for histopathologic evaluation. RESULTS: DM was detected by higher FBG, microalbuminuria, increased albumin/creatinine ratio, and pancreas, renal, and hepatic structural disturbances. Diabetic hepatopathy was determined by increasing liver enzymes and decreasing total bilirubin. The TGF-ß gene expression was significantly upregulated in the diabetic kidney and liver tissues. Apelin gene expression was significantly downregulated in the diabetic liver tissue but did not change in kidney tissue. Administration of hWJ-MSCs-CM improved renal and hepatic functional and structural disturbances. Moreover, CM therapy significantly decreased TGF-ß expression and enhanced apelin expression in the kidney and liver tissues. CONCLUSION: Human WJ-MSCs-CM may have protective effects on diabetic renal and hepatic complications. These effects may happen through the regulation of TGF-ß and apelin signaling pathways.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Experimental , Nefropatias Diabéticas , Hepatopatias , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais , Geleia de Wharton , Animais , Humanos , Masculino , Ratos , Apelina , Meios de Cultivo Condicionados/farmacologia , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/patologia , Nefropatias Diabéticas/etiologia , Nefropatias Diabéticas/terapia , Nefropatias Diabéticas/metabolismo , Hepatopatias/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/metabolismo , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Transdução de Sinais , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/metabolismo , Geleia de Wharton/citologia
11.
Epigenetics ; 19(1): 2293409, 2024 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38232183

RESUMO

Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) regulate the progression of type 2 diabetes mellitus complicated with obstructive sleep apnoea (T2DM-OSA). However, the role of the lncRNA nuclear paraspeckle assembly transcript 1 (NEAT1) in T2DM-OSA remains unknown. This study aimed to reveal the function of NEAT1 in T2DM-OSA and the underlying mechanism. KKAy mice were exposed to intermittent hypoxia (IH) or intermittent normoxia to generate a T2DM-OSA mouse model. HMEC-1 cells were treated with high glucose (HG) and IH to construct a T2DM-OSA cell model. RNA expression was detected by qRT-PCR. The protein expression of Apelin, NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), haem oxygenase-1 (HO-1), and up-frameshift suppressor 1 (UPF1) was assessed using western blot. Cell injury was evaluated using flow cytometry, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and oxidative stress kit assays. RIP, RNA pull-down, and actinomycin D assays were performed to determine the associations between NEAT1, UPF1, and Apelin. NEAT1 expression was upregulated in the aortic vascular tissues of mice with T2DM exposed to IH and HMEC-1 cells stimulated with HG and IH, whereas Apelin expression was downregulated. The absence of NEAT1 protected HMEC-1 cells from HG- and IH-induced damage. Furthermore, NEAT1 destabilized Apelin mRNA by recruiting UPF1. Apelin overexpression decreased HG- and IH-induced injury to HMEC-1 cells by activating the Nrf2/HO-1 pathway. Moreover, NEAT1 knockdown reduced HG- and IH-induced injury to HMEC-1 cells through Apelin. NEAT1 silencing reduced HMEC-1 cell injury through the Apelin/Nrf2/HO-1 signalling pathway in T2DM-OSA.Abbreviations: LncRNAs, long non-coding RNAs; T2DM, type 2 diabetes mellitus; OSA, obstructive sleep apnoea; NEAT1, nuclear paraspeckle assembly transcript 1; IH, intermittent hypoxia; HMEC-1, human microvascular endothelial cells; HG, high glucose; Nrf2, NF-E2-related factor 2; UPF1, up-frameshift suppressor 1; HO-1, haem oxygenase-1; qRT-PCR, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction; ELISA, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; GAPDH, glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase; TNF-α, tumour necrosis factor-α; CCK-8, Cell Counting Kit-8; IL-1ß, interleukin-1ß; ROS, reactive oxygen species; MDA, malondialdehyde; SOD, superoxide dismutase; RIP, RNA immunoprecipitation; SD, standard deviations; GSH, glutathione; AIS, acute ischaemic stroke; HMGB1, high mobility group box-1 protein; TLR4, toll-like receptor 4.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , RNA Helicases , RNA Longo não Codificante , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Animais , Humanos , Camundongos , Apelina/genética , Apelina/metabolismo , Isquemia Encefálica/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Metilação de DNA , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Glucose , Heme Oxigenase (Desciclizante)/metabolismo , Hipóxia , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/genética , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , RNA Longo não Codificante/metabolismo , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/complicações , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/genética , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/metabolismo , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações , Transativadores/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
12.
EMBO Mol Med ; 16(2): 386-415, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38177539

RESUMO

Secondary lymphedema (LD) corresponds to a severe lymphatic dysfunction leading to the accumulation of fluid and fibrotic adipose tissue in a limb. Here, we identified apelin (APLN) as a powerful molecule for regenerating lymphatic function in LD. We identified the loss of APLN expression in the lymphedematous arm compared to the normal arm in patients. The role of APLN in LD was confirmed in APLN knockout mice, in which LD is increased and associated with fibrosis and dermal backflow. This was reversed by intradermal injection of APLN-lentivectors. Mechanistically, APLN stimulates lymphatic endothelial cell gene expression and induces the binding of E2F8 transcription factor to the promoter of CCBE1 that controls VEGF-C processing. In addition, APLN induces Akt and eNOS pathways to stimulate lymphatic collector pumping. Our results show that APLN represents a novel partner for VEGF-C to restore lymphatic function in both initial and collecting vessels. As LD appears after cancer treatment, we validated the APLN-VEGF-C combination using a novel class of nonintegrative RNA delivery LentiFlash® vector that will be evaluated for phase I/IIa clinical trial.


Assuntos
Linfedema , Fator C de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular , Camundongos , Animais , Humanos , Apelina/genética , Fator C de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/genética , RNA Mensageiro , Linfedema/genética , Linfedema/terapia , Camundongos Knockout
13.
Biochim Biophys Acta Biomembr ; 1866(3): 184289, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38278504

RESUMO

The apelinergic system encompasses two peptide ligand families, apelin and apela, along with the apelin receptor (AR or APJ), a class A G-protein-coupled receptor. This system has diverse physiological effects, including modulating heart contraction, vasodilation/constriction, glucose regulation, and vascular development, with involvement in a variety of pathological conditions. Apelin peptides have been previously shown to interact with and become structured upon binding to anionic micelles, consistent with a membrane-catalyzed mechanism of ligand-receptor binding. To overcome the challenges of observing nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy signals of a dilute peptide in biological environments, 19F NMR spectroscopy, including diffusion ordered spectroscopy (DOSY) and saturation transfer difference (STD) experiments, was used herein to explore the membrane-interactive behaviour of apelin. NMR-optimized apelin-17 analogues with 4-trifluoromethyl-phenylalanine at various positions were designed and tested for bioactivity through ERK activation in stably-AR transfected HEK 293 T cells. Far-UV circular dichroism (CD) spectropolarimetry and 19F NMR spectroscopy were used to compare the membrane interactions of these analogues with unlabelled apelin-17 in both zwitterionic/neutral and net-negative bicelle conditions. Each analogue binds to bicelles with relatively weak affinity (i.e., in fast exchange on the NMR timescale), with preferential interactions observed at the cationic residue-rich N-terminal and mid-length regions of the peptide leaving the C-terminal end unencumbered for receptor recognition, enabling a membrane-anchored fly-casting mechanism of peptide search for the receptor. In all, this study provides further insight into the membrane-interactive behaviour of an important bioactive peptide, demonstrating interactions and biophysical behaviour that cannot be neglected in therapeutic design.


Assuntos
Hormônios Peptídicos , Humanos , Apelina/metabolismo , Ligantes , Células HEK293 , Hormônios Peptídicos/química , Catálise
14.
Mol Biol Rep ; 51(1): 74, 2024 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38175266

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mechanical Ventilation (MV) is an essential mechanism of life support in the clinic. It may also lead to ventilator-induced acute lung injury (VILI) due to local alveolar overstretching and/or repeated alveolar collapse. However, the pathogenesis of VILI is not completely understood, and its occurrence and development may be related to physiological processes such as the inflammatory response, oxidative stress, and apoptosis. Some studies have found that the the apelin/APJ axis is an endogenous antagonistic mechanism activated during acute respiratory distress syndrome(ARDS), that can counteract the injury response and prevent uncontrolled lung injury. To indicate that apelin-13 plays a protective role in VILI, an animal model of VILI was established in this study to explore whether apelin-13 can alleviate VILI in rats by inhibiting inflammation, apoptosis and oxidative stress. METHODS: SD rats were divided into four groups: control, high tidal volume, high tidal volume + normal saline and high tidal volume + apelin-13. After tracheotomy, the rats in control maintained spontaneous breathing, and the other rats were connected to the small animal ventilator for 4 h to establish the rat VILI model. The mRNA expression of apelin was measured by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction(qRT-PCR), immunofluorescence and Western blotting(WB) were used to detect the expression level of APJ, and WB was used to detect the expression of the apoptotic proteins Bax and bcl-2. The degree of lung injury was evaluated by pathological staining of lung tissue,W/D ratio, and BALF total protein concentration. The expression of inflammatory factors(IL-1ß, IL-6, TNF-α) in alveolar lavage fluid was measured using ELISA. The activities of MPO and cat and the content of MDA, an oxidative product, in lung tissue were measured to evaluate the degree of oxidative stress in the lung. RESULTS: After treatment with apelin-13, the apelin/APJ axis in the lung tissue of VILI model rats was activated, and the effect was further enhanced. The pathological damage of lung tissue was alleviated, the expression of the antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2 and the proapoptotic protein Bax was reversed, and the levels of the inflammatory cytokines IL-1ß, IL-6, TNF-α levels were all decreased. MPO activity and MDA content decreased, while CAT activity increased. CONCLUSION: The apelin/apj axis is activated in VILI. Overexpression of apelin-13 further plays a protective role in VILI, mainly by including reducing pathological damage, the inflammatory response, apoptosis and antioxidant stress in lung tissue, thus delaying the occurrence and development of VILI.


Assuntos
Lesão Pulmonar Aguda , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório , Animais , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Apelina/farmacologia , Interleucina-6 , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa , Proteína X Associada a bcl-2/genética , Ventiladores Mecânicos
15.
J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol ; 238: 106463, 2024 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38246202

RESUMO

The expression of adipokines is well-known in the ovary and uterus. Recently we have shown that apelin and its receptor, APJ are developmentally regulated in the ovary and uterus of mice with elevation at postnatal day 14 (PND14). However, its role in the ovary and uterus of PND14 has not been investigated. Thus, we aimed to unravel the role of the apelin system (by APJ antagonist, ML221) on ovarian steroid secretion, proliferation, and apoptosis along with its role in uterine apoptosis in PND14 mice by in vitro approaches. The treatment of ML221 decreased estrogen, testosterone, and androstenedione secretion while increasing the progesterone secretion from the infantile ovary. These results suggest that apelin signaling would be important for ovarian estrogen synthesis in infantile mice (PND14). The abundance of 3ß-HSD, 17ß-HSD, aromatase, and active caspase3 increased in the infantile ovary after ML221 treatment. The expression of ERs and BCL2 were also down-regulated by ML221 treatment. The decreased BCL2 and increased active caspase3 by ML221 suggest the suppressive role of apelin on ovarian apoptosis. The APJ antagonist treatment also down-regulated the ER expression in the uterus along with increased active caspase3 and decreased BCL2 expression. In conclusion, apelin signaling inhibits the ovarian and uterine apoptosis via estrogen signaling in the ovary and uterus.


Assuntos
Nitrobenzoatos , Ovário , Piranos , Útero , Animais , Feminino , Camundongos , Apelina/metabolismo , Apoptose , Estrogênios/metabolismo , Ovário/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/metabolismo , Útero/metabolismo
16.
Neuroendocrinology ; 114(3): 234-249, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37899035

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Apelin is an endogenous peptide, whose expression has been shown in the hypothalamus, pituitary, and ovary; furthermore, it is also called a neuropeptide, binding to apelin receptor (APJ) for various functions. It has been suggested that the hypothalamus, pituitary, and ovarian (HPO) axis is tightly regulated and factors and functions of the HPO axis can be modulated during the estrous cycle to influence reproductive status. To the best of our knowledge, the status of apelin and its receptor, APJ has not been investigated in the HPO axis during the estrous cycle. METHODS: To explore the expression of apelin and APJ in the HPO axis of mice during the estrous cycle, mice were divided into four groups: proestrus (Pro), estrus (Est), metestrus (Met), and diestrus (Di), and apelin and APJ were checked. Further, to explore the role of apelin in gonadotropin secretion, an in vitro study of the pituitary was performed at the Pro and Est stages. RESULT: The expression apelin and APJ in the hypothalamus showed elevation during the estrous cycle of postovulatory phases, Met, and Di. The immunolocalization of apelin and APJ in the anterior pituitary showed more abundance in the Est and Di. Our in vitro results showed that gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist stimulated luteinizing hormone secretion was suppressed by the apelin 13 peptide from the pituitary of Pro and Est phases. This suggests an inhibitory role of apelin on gonadotropin secretion. The ovary also showed conspicuous changes in the presence of apelin and APJ during the estrous cycle. The expression of apelin and APJ coincides with folliculogenesis and corpus luteum formation and the expression of the apelin system in the different cell types of the ovary suggests its cell-specific role. Previous studies also showed that apelin has a stimulatory role in ovarian steroid secretion, proliferation, and corpus luteum. CONCLUSION: Overall our results showed that the apelin system changes along the HPO axis during the estrous cycle and might have an inhibitory at level of hypothalamus and pituitary and a stimulatory role at ovarian level.


Assuntos
Ovário , Doenças da Hipófise , Animais , Feminino , Camundongos , Apelina/metabolismo , Receptores de Apelina/metabolismo , Ciclo Estral , Gonadotropinas/metabolismo , Ovário/metabolismo
17.
Adv Ther ; 41(1): 292-314, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37935870

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) have a favorable impact on the kidney function in patients with heart failure (HF), while there is no clear evidence of what factors predict this effect. The aim of the study was to identify plausible predictors for kidney function outcome among patients with HF and investigate their association with SGLT2i. METHODS: We prospectively enrolled 480 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) treated with diet and metformin and concomitant chronic HF and followed them for 52 weeks. In the study, we determined kidney outcome as a composite of ≥ 40% reduced estimated glomerular filtration rate from baseline, newly diagnosed end-stage kidney disease or kidney replacement therapy. The relevant medical information and measurement of the biomarkers (N-terminal natriuretic pro-peptide, irisin, apelin, adropin, C-reactive protein, tumor necrosis factor-alpha) were collected at baseline and at the end of the study. RESULTS: The composite kidney outcome was detected in 88 (18.3%) patients of the entire population. All patients received guideline-recommended optimal therapy, which was adjusted to phenotype/severity of HF, cardiovascular risk and comorbidity profiles, and fasting glycemia. Levels of irisin, adropin and apelin significantly increased in patients without clinical endpoint, whereas in those with composite endpoint the biomarker levels exhibited a decrease with borderline statistical significance (p = 0.05). We noticed that irisin ≤ 4.50 ng/ml at baseline and a ≤ 15% increase in irisin serum levels added more valuable predictive information than the reference variable. However, the combination of irisin ≤ 4.50 ng/ml at baseline and ≤ 15% increase in irisin serum levels (area under curve = 0.91; 95% confidence interval = 0.87-0.95) improved the discriminative value of each biomarker alone. CONCLUSION: We suggest that low levels of irisin and its inadequate increase during administration of SGLT2i are promising predictors for unfavorable kidney outcome among patients with T2DM and concomitant HF.


Assuntos
Compostos Benzidrílicos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Glucosídeos , Insuficiência Cardíaca , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose , Humanos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose/uso terapêutico , Fibronectinas/uso terapêutico , Apelina/uso terapêutico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/complicações , Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Doença Crônica , Rim , Biomarcadores
18.
Eur J Pharmacol ; 963: 176292, 2024 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38128867

RESUMO

Excessive or uncontrolled mitophagy may result in a drastic shortage of healthy mitochondrial for ATP supply after reperfusion, leading to irreversible myocardial damage. Melatonin, a hormone produced by the pineal gland, has been proven to ameliorate myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury via regulating mitophagy. However, its underlying mechanism has not been fully elucidated. The present study focused on the role of mitophagy in the cardioprotective effects of melatonin by using the myocardial I/R rat model. The rats were pretreated with or without the apelin inhibitor ML221, the sirtuin 3 (SIRT3) inhibitor 3-TYP and then subjected to I/R injury, with melatonin administrated 10 min before reperfusion. The effects of melatonin on myocardial infarct size, biomarkers of myocardial injury, oxidative stress, and mitochondrial function were detected, and the expression of apelin, SIRT3, and mitophagy-related proteins were also measured. Excessive mitophagy was activated after I/R injury and was correlated with oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. Melatonin pretreatment ameliorated myocardial injury by decreasing oxidative stress, restoring mitochondrial function, and inhibiting excessive mitophagy. However, ML221 or 3-TYP disrupted these beneficial effects of melatonin on I/R injury. Taken together, these results suggest that melatonin pretreatment ameliorates myocardial I/R injury through regulating the apelin/SIRT3 pathway to inhibit excessive mitophagy.


Assuntos
Melatonina , Traumatismo por Reperfusão Miocárdica , Traumatismo por Reperfusão , Sirtuína 3 , Ratos , Animais , Traumatismo por Reperfusão Miocárdica/tratamento farmacológico , Traumatismo por Reperfusão Miocárdica/prevenção & controle , Traumatismo por Reperfusão Miocárdica/metabolismo , Sirtuína 3/metabolismo , Melatonina/farmacologia , Melatonina/uso terapêutico , Melatonina/metabolismo , Mitofagia , Apelina
20.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 14: 1285788, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38089606

RESUMO

Apelin, a novel endogenous ligand of the G-protein-coupled receptor APJ, is encoded by the APLN gene and can be hydrolyzed into multiple subtypes, with Apelin-13 being one of the most active subtypes of the Apelin family. Recent studies have revealed that Apelin-13 functions as an adipokine that participates in the regulation of different biological processes, such as oxidative stress, inflammation, apoptosis, and energy metabolism, thereby playing an important role in the prevention and treatment of various metabolic diseases. However, the results of recent studies on the association between Apelin-13 and various metabolic states remain controversial. Furthermore, Apelin-13 is regulated or influenced by various forms of exercise and could therefore be categorized as a new type of exercise-sensitive factor that attenuates metabolic diseases. Thus, in this review, our purpose was to focus on the relationship between Apelin-13 and related metabolic diseases and the regulation of response movements, with particular reference to the establishment of a theoretical basis for improving and treating metabolic diseases.


Assuntos
Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intercelular , Doenças Metabólicas , Humanos , Apelina/metabolismo , Receptores de Apelina/metabolismo , Doenças Metabólicas/tratamento farmacológico
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