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1.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 10: e49129, 2024 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38696246

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As income and health are closely related, retirement is considered undesirable for health. Many studies have shown the association between pension and health, but no research has considered the association between contribution-based public pensions or their types and health. OBJECTIVE: This study investigates the association between the type of contributory public pension and depressive symptoms among older adults. METHODS: We analyzed the data of 4541 older adults who participated in the South Korea Welfare Panel Study (2014-2020). Depressive symptoms were measured using the 11-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale. Public pensions in South Korea are classified into specific corporate pensions and national pensions. For subgroup analyses, pensioners were categorized according to the amount of pension received and the proportion of public pension over gross income. Analyses using generalized estimating equations were conducted for longitudinal data. RESULTS: Individuals receiving public pension, regardless of the pension type, demonstrated significantly decreased depressive symptoms (national pension: ß=-.734; P<.001; specific corporate pension: ß=-.775; P=.02). For both pension types, the higher the amount of benefits, the lower were the depression scores. However, this association was absent for those who received the smaller amount among the specific corporate pensioners. In low-income households, the decrease in the depressive symptoms based on the amount of public pension benefits was greater (fourth quartile of national pension: ß=-1.472; P<.001; second and third quartiles of specific corporate pension: ß=-3.646; P<.001). CONCLUSIONS: Our study shows that contributory public pension is significantly associated with lower depressive symptoms, and this association is prominent in low-income households. Thus, contributory public pensions may be good income sources for improving the mental health of older adults after retirement.


Assuntos
Depressão , Pensões , Humanos , Pensões/estatística & dados numéricos , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Feminino , Idoso , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Depressão/epidemiologia , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Aposentadoria/estatística & dados numéricos , Aposentadoria/psicologia , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais
2.
BMC Public Health ; 24(1): 1184, 2024 Apr 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38678184

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: With the rapid aging of the domestic population, China has a strong incentive to increase the statutory retirement age. How retirement affects the health of the elderly is crucial to this policymaking. The health consequences of retirement have been debated greatly. This study aims to investigate the effects of retirement on physical and mental health among Chinese elderly people. METHODS: The data we use in this study comes from four waves (2011, 2013, 2015, and 2018) of the Harmonized China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (Harmonized CHARLS), a prospective cohort. We use the nonparametric fuzzy regression discontinuity design to estimate the effects of retirement on physical and mental health. We test the robustness of our results with respect to different bandwidths, kernel functions, and polynomial orders. We also explore the heterogeneity across gender and education. RESULTS: Results show that retirement has an insignificant effect on a series of physical and mental health outcomes, with and without adjusting several sociodemographic variables. Heterogeneity exists regarding gender and education. Although stratified analyses indicate that the transition from working to retirement leaves minimal effects on males and females, the effects go in the opposite direction. This finding holds for low-educated and high-educated groups for health outcomes including depression and cognitive function. Most of the results are stable with respect to different bandwidths, kernel functions, and polynomial orders. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that it is possible to delay the statutory retirement age in China as retirement has insignificant effects on physical and mental health. However, further research is needed to assess the long-term effect of retirement on health.


Assuntos
Saúde Mental , Aposentadoria , Humanos , Aposentadoria/estatística & dados numéricos , Aposentadoria/psicologia , China/epidemiologia , Masculino , Feminino , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Longitudinais , Idoso , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Lógica Fuzzy , Nível de Saúde , Análise de Regressão
3.
J Affect Disord ; 356: 450-458, 2024 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38608763

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Both depression and insomnia are found to be more prevalent in cancer patients compared to the general population. This study compared the network structures of depression and insomnia among cancer patients versus cancer-free participants (controls hereafter). METHOD: The 8-item Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CESD-8) and the 4-item Jenkins Sleep Scale (JSS-4) were used to measure depressive and insomnia symptoms, respectively. Propensity score matching (PSM) was used to construct the control group using data from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS). In total, a sample consisting of 2216 cancer patients and 2216 controls was constructed. Central (influential) and bridge symptoms were estimated using the expected influence (EI) and bridge expected influence (bridge EI), respectively. Network stability was assessed using the case-dropping bootstrap method. RESULT: The prevalence of depression (CESD-8 total score ≥ 4) in cancer patients was significantly higher compared to the control group (28.56 % vs. 24.73 %; P = 0.004). Cancer patients also had more severe depressive symptoms relative to controls, but there was no significant group difference for insomnia symptoms. The network structures of depressive and insomnia symptoms were comparable between cancer patients and controls. "Felt sadness" (EI: 6.866 in cancer patients; EI: 5.861 in controls), "Felt unhappy" (EI: 6.371 in cancer patients; EI: 5.720 in controls) and "Felt depressed" (EI: 6.003 in cancer patients; EI: 5.880 in controls) emerged as the key central symptoms, and "Felt tired in morning" (bridge EI: 1.870 in cancer patients; EI: 1.266 in controls) and "Everything was an effort" (bridge EI: 1.046 in cancer patients; EI: 0.921 in controls) were the key bridge symptoms across both groups. CONCLUSION: Although cancer patients had more frequent and severe depressive symptoms compared to controls, no significant difference was observed in the network structure or strength of the depressive and insomnia symptoms. Consequently, psychosocial interventions for treating depression and insomnia in the general population could be equally applicable for cancer patients who experience depression and insomnia.


Assuntos
Depressão , Neoplasias , Pontuação de Propensão , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono , Humanos , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/epidemiologia , Masculino , Feminino , Neoplasias/complicações , Neoplasias/psicologia , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Prevalência , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Aposentadoria/psicologia
4.
Adv Life Course Res ; 60: 100595, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38428379

RESUMO

The aim of this paper is to explore how divorce is linked to pathways to retirement in West Germany and to understand whether and how patterns are gendered. Using German pension insurance data, I employ sequence and cluster analysis to map and group pathways to retirement of women and men who retired in 2018. Pathways to retirement are defined based on monthly pension insurance histories from age 50 to 65. I find nine distinct pathways to retirement, ranging from unemployment to stable low to high income pathways and to an early retirement pathway through the reduced-earnings-capacity pension, the latter representing 9.3% of the sample. Based on multinomial logistic regression models, I analyse how marital status, distinguishing between divorced and (re)married, was related to different pathways to retirement. The results show that divorced people were more likely than married people to retire through indirect and unstable pathways to retirement characterised by early exit from the labour market and receipt of reduced-earnings-capacity pensions and/or unemployment benefits. Whereas the relationship between divorce and pathways to retirement seemed to be overall unfavourable for men, the results for women are more ambiguous. Divorced women were also more likely to retire through a stable high-income pathway than married women. Nevertheless, the results suggest that divorce is associated with an early retirement pathway through the reduced-earnings-capacity pension for both women and men.


Assuntos
Divórcio , Aposentadoria , Humanos , Aposentadoria/estatística & dados numéricos , Aposentadoria/psicologia , Aposentadoria/economia , Divórcio/psicologia , Divórcio/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Pensões/estatística & dados numéricos , Alemanha Ocidental , Renda/estatística & dados numéricos , Estado Civil/estatística & dados numéricos , Alemanha , Fatores Sexuais
5.
PLoS One ; 19(3): e0297155, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38507357

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Many people with chronic pain cannot work, while working despite chronic pain is linked to absenteeism and presenteeism and a host of other deleterious effects. This disproportionately affects older adults, who are closer to retirement, while the exact relationship between pain and work cessation as well as retirement among older adults is not known. We explore longitudinally the relationship between chronic pain and the risk of ceasing work and entering retirement. METHODS: Data from 1156 individuals 50 years or older living in England taking part in the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing were used in this study. Cox proportional hazards regression analyses were used to examine the nature of the relationship between musculoskeletal pain and work cessation as well as retirement longitudinally over the course of fourteen years. RESULTS: Suffering from frequent musculoskeletal pain was associated with an increased risk of ceasing work and retiring at an earlier age, as did work dissatisfaction, higher perceived social status, female gender, and not receiving the recognition they felt they deserved in their job. Severity of depressive symptoms, psychosocial job demands, decision authority, and social support did not influence the age at which participants reported work cessation or retirement. CONCLUSIONS: Frequent musculoskeletal pain may increase the risk of earlier work exit and earlier retirement. Further research should establish the mechanisms and decision making involved in leaving the workforce in people with frequent musculoskeletal pain.


Assuntos
Dor Crônica , Dor Musculoesquelética , Humanos , Feminino , Idoso , Aposentadoria/psicologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Dor Musculoesquelética/epidemiologia , Dor Crônica/epidemiologia , Envelhecimento
6.
Gerontologist ; 64(6)2024 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38373097

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Suicide rates typically increase during recessions. However, few studies have explored how recessions affect risk among older adults nearing retirement. This study used a large suicide mortality registry to characterize and quantify suicide related to retirement during the Great Recession (GR). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Data come from the National Violent Death Reporting System (NVDRS, 2004-2017; N = 53,298 suicide deaths age ≥50). We analyzed the text narratives (i.e., descriptions of the most salient circumstances to each suicide) of these decedents using natural language processing (NLP) to identify cases that were "retirement-related" (RR, e.g., anticipating, being unable to, or recently retiring). We used time-series analysis to quantify variation in RR over the GR, and compared these trends to retirees (i.e., decedents whose occupation was "retired") and all decedents aged ≥50. We used content and network analysis to characterize themes represented in the narratives. RESULTS: There were 878 RR cases (1.6% of suicides aged ≥50) identified by the NLP model; only 52% of these cases were among retirees. RR cases were younger (62 vs 75 years) and more educated (41.5% vs 24.5% college degree) than retirees. The rate of RR suicide was positively associated with indicators of the GR (e.g., short-term unemployment R2 = 0.70, p = .024), but economic indicators were not correlated with the suicide rate among retirees or older adults in general. Economic issues were more central to the narratives of RR cases during the GR compared to other periods. DISCUSSION AND IMPLICATIONS: Recessions shape suicide risk related to retirement transitions.


Assuntos
Recessão Econômica , Aposentadoria , Suicídio , Humanos , Aposentadoria/psicologia , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Suicídio/psicologia , Suicídio/tendências , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Sistema de Registros , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais
7.
J Affect Disord ; 352: 454-459, 2024 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38403136

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The effective age of retirement in South Korea is higher than the average of Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries. Early retirement in Asia may affect mental health differently compared to western countries. Thus, we examined the association between retirement age and depressive symptoms among South Korean retirees. METHODS: We used data from the 2011, 2013, 2015, 2017, and 2019 Korean Retirement and Income Panel Study, including a total of 2998, 3152, 3203, 3154, and 3055 participants, respectively. We excluded those younger than 50 years, non-retirees, those without information on the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression (CES-D) scale, and those with other missing values. We used a generalized estimating equation model to identify the association between retirement age and depressive symptoms measured using the CES-D. RESULTS: Participants who retired at age < 50 years had significantly higher CES-D scores (ß = 1.764, P = 0.0003) compared to those who retired at age ≥ 70 years. The negative effects of early retirement on depressive symptoms were greater among male participants, heads of households, young involuntary retirees, those who retired within the past 20 years, and those who had no difficulties in activities of daily living. LIMITATIONS: Since we evaluated the association between retirement age and depressive symptoms in one direction, there is a possibility of reverse causality. CONCLUSION: Our findings highlight the importance of managing depressive symptoms in early retirees, especially young involuntary retirees and those burdened with family care.


Assuntos
Depressão , Aposentadoria , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Aposentadoria/psicologia , Depressão/diagnóstico , Atividades Cotidianas , Renda , Saúde Mental
9.
J Affect Disord ; 351: 518-526, 2024 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38307133

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous research has shown that depressive symptoms in older adults was associated with functional disability, including basic activities of daily living (BADLs) and instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs). However, little is known about the impact of different patterns of functional disability and new-onset functional disability on subsequent depressive symptoms. OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of various patterns of functional disability and new-onset functional disability on depressive symptoms among Chinese older adults aged 60 years and above. METHOD: The study included 3242 older adults from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS), which was conducted from 2011 to 2018. Cox proportional hazards models were used to investigate the associations between patterns of functional disability and depressive symptoms. The associations were also examined in the population with new-onset functional disability. RESULT: During 15,321 person-years of follow-up, 946 depressive symptoms occurred. The hazard ratios (HRs) of depressive symptoms were 1.29 (95 % confidence intervals [CI]: 1.05-1.58) for IADLs disability, 1.22 (95 % CI: 0.75-1.55) for BADLs disability, and 1.78 (95 % CI: 1.41-2.22) for both IADLs and BADLs disabilities. In the analysis of new-onset functional disability, the HRs were 1.50 (95 % CI: 1.06-2.13) for onset IADLs disability, 1.28 (95 % CI: 0.85-1.91) for onset BADLs disability, and 1.69 (95 % CI: 1.03-2.76) for both onset BADLs and IADLs disabilities. LIMITATIONS: Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale, which has limitations in diagnosing clinical depression. CONCLUSION: Functional disability increases the risk of depressive symptoms, particularly impaired IADLs function. Psychological care for older adults with functional disability should be strengthened.


Assuntos
Depressão , Aposentadoria , Humanos , Idoso , Aposentadoria/psicologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Depressão/psicologia , Atividades Cotidianas/psicologia , China/epidemiologia
10.
Acta Psychol (Amst) ; 243: 104158, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38277731

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There has been a long-standing debate on whether depressive symptoms are associated with dementia. The aim of this study was to examine whether depressive symptoms were associated with a high risk for dementia in Chinese adults. METHODS: A total of 13,426 Chinese adults (≥45 years old) from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS) baseline were selected for analysis. Depressive symptoms were assessed by the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CESD-10). Dementia was assessed by the Community Screening Instrument for Dementia (CSI-D). When using linear regression for sensitivity analysis, there is still a correlation between depressive symptoms and dementia. RESULTS: Of the 13,426 respondents, the mean (SD) age was 60 (10) years old. The prevalence of depressive symptoms and dementia among participants was 38 % (n = 945) and 18.3 % (n = 2457), respectively. After fully adjusted for demographic factors, health behavior and psychological factors, living and working conditions factors, social network factors, and social policy factors, the cross-sectional analyses showed that depressive symptoms had an increased risk of dementia (OR = 1.390, 95%CI: 1.253-1.543), compared with those without depressive symptoms. In addition, sensitivity analyses of the association between depressive symptoms and dementia were unchanged when reanalyzing using linear regression. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, depression symptoms may be associated with dementia. Regardless of whether depressive symptoms acts as a dementia risk factor or an early symptom, monitoring depressive symptoms is crucial to watch for potential dementia onset.


Assuntos
Demência , Aposentadoria , Idoso , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Humanos , Aposentadoria/psicologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Depressão/epidemiologia , Vida Independente , Estudos Transversais , Demência/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia
11.
Geriatr Gerontol Int ; 24(2): 218-224, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38211966

RESUMO

AIM: While prior investigations into the influence of internet engagement on depressive symptoms in middle-aged and older individuals have largely been favorable, concerns persist. Some research posits that internet use may detract from direct interpersonal interactions, elevating depression risks. Here, we scrutinize these contrasting views, endeavoring to delineate the relationship between internet use, social participation, and the ensuing depressive manifestations. METHODS: We analyzed nationally representative data from three consecutive waves (2013-T1, 2015-T2, 2018-T3) of the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study survey. Measures of social participation encompassed formal social participation (i.e., attending clubs for mahjong, chess, sports, or other activities; participation in community organizations, volunteering, or enrolling in training courses) and informal social participation (i.e., interactions with friends or extending assistance to relatives, friends, or neighbors). Structural equation modeling was used to evaluate a focused longitudinal mediation model. RESULTS: Our dataset comprised 13 671 individuals aged 45 years or older. Baseline internet use was associated with a decrease in depressive symptoms by T3 ( c ' = -0.143, SE = 0.055). The longitudinal association between internet use and the alleviation of depressive symptoms was partially mediated by enhanced formal social participation (indirect effect a 1 × b 1 = -0.023, SE = 0.011). CONCLUSIONS: For developing nations such as China, grappling with a rapidly aging demographic and scarce mental health infrastructure, pioneering initiatives that merge digital and formal social participation might be a valuable component in a multifaceted approach to alleviate late-life depression. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2024; 24: 218-224.


Assuntos
Depressão , Uso da Internet , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Depressão/epidemiologia , Depressão/psicologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Aposentadoria/psicologia , Participação Social/psicologia , China/epidemiologia
12.
J Women Aging ; 36(3): 197-209, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38193149

RESUMO

Financial wellbeing in retirement is contingent on realizations of financial expectations developed earlier in life and may differ substantially by gender. People's standard of living in retirement is tied to stability in work and income trajectories during working years along with retirement benefits and savings. Women have a greater overall income disadvantage relative to men, including reduced life course labor force exposure that may restrict retirement savings and benefits. Using the Canadian Longitudinal and International Study of Adults (LISA) and 20 years of linked tax record data (N = 2,353), we explore the association between instability in work and income histories and lower perceived retirement standard of living (PRSOL), net of retirement benefits, for women and men in Canada. Results show that for women, life course effects shaping PRSOL are driven by cumulative disability exposure and bouts of social assistance. For men, PRSOL is influenced more by cumulative unemployment. Although retirement benefits do not offset histories of work and income instability for either gender, income assistance is protective for women in retirement while personal investments are protective for men. Overall, our findings suggest that despite Canada's relatively generous pension program in later life, life course instability in work and income have persisting, gendered effects on financial wellbeing in retirement that underscore financial and health disadvantage for women across the life course.


Assuntos
Renda , Aposentadoria , Humanos , Aposentadoria/economia , Aposentadoria/psicologia , Feminino , Masculino , Canadá , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Renda/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Longitudinais , Idoso , Fatores Sexuais , Pensões/estatística & dados numéricos , Emprego/estatística & dados numéricos , Emprego/psicologia
13.
Curr Opin Psychol ; 55: 101749, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38043149

RESUMO

As societies in many developed countries grapple with the rapid aging trend of the population, the research field of retirement has gained increasing attention. Considering the extensive scope of psychological research on retirement, in this article we focus on providing a review of recent advancements, especially those that have not been covered in existing reviews. We structure our review around four primary empirical themes in alignment with the temporal process model of retirement: retirement planning, retirement decision-making, bridge employment, as well as retirement transition and adjustment. We conclude this review with a discussion on potential future research directions.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Aposentadoria , Humanos , Aposentadoria/psicologia , Envelhecimento/psicologia , Emprego/psicologia
14.
J Women Aging ; 36(1): 14-32, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37310726

RESUMO

AIMS: The overarching goal of the present study was to examine the contribution of various sources of empowerment to mental health during retirement with an added emphasis on gender differences. The empowerment sources that were examined corresponded with three distinct ecological systems: (1) Chronosystem-resource gains from the pre- to post-retirement period and satisfaction with the prior working period; (2) Microsystem-marital power dynamics (measured by the division of household labor and decision-making in the marital relationship) and the presence of a confidant; (3) Ontogenetic system-a sense of meaning in one's life during the retirement period and an assessment of absolute resources. METHOD: The research sample consisted of 160 Israeli retirees (78 women and 82 men) who had retired within the previous eight years. Data were collected by the Panels Research Institute in Israel using the institute's database of members. Participants completed an online questionnaire accessible via a website link. Statistical processing was performed using ANOVA and hierarchical regression analysis. RESULTS: The results indicated that retirees' reports of resource gains after retirement, their sense of meaning in life, their satisfaction with their working period prior to retirement, and their perceived level of absolute resources were all associated with mental health. Additionally, the more participants (both men and women) rated that the husband was involved in household labor, the better retirees reported their mental health to be. Gender differences were found in regard to some empowerment sources during retirement: retired women reported lower levels of mental health and prior work satisfaction compared to retired men, and men's assessments of their participation in household labor and decision-making were higher than women's assessments of their husbands' involvement. The proportion of men who reported that their wives were their confidants was higher than the proportion of women who reported that their husbands were their confidants. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS: Overall, men experienced more sources of empowerment than women during retirement, but findings suggest that men's emotional dependence on their wives is greater than women's emotional dependence on their husbands. Based on the study's findings, recommendations are offered to professionals who work with retirees.


Assuntos
Saúde Mental , Aposentadoria , Masculino , Humanos , Feminino , Aposentadoria/psicologia , Cônjuges/psicologia , Casamento/psicologia , Características da Família
15.
Stress Health ; 40(2): e3309, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37621258

RESUMO

The delayed retirement initiative has become increasingly emphasised to cope with the population ageing. Based on the social-ecological model, this study explores the interplay of late retirement, health care, economic insecurity, and electronic social contact on mental health of older workers. Using data from the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (wave 8), results show that the late retirement, health care quality, and electronic social contact are all negatively associated with the mental health problems among older workers. Besides, the influence of health care quality and electronic social contact on mental health problems are buffered by the economic insecurity respectively. It is concluded that more targeted policy response is in need to achieve better health outcomes among older workers.


Assuntos
Saúde Mental , Aposentadoria , Humanos , Aposentadoria/psicologia , Envelhecimento , Europa (Continente) , Atenção à Saúde
16.
Dev Psychol ; 60(1): 75-93, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37768600

RESUMO

Despite the value of sense of purpose during older adulthood, this construct often declines with age. With some older adults reconsidering the relevance of purpose later in life, the measurement of purpose may suffer from variance issues with age. The current study investigated whether sense of purpose functions similarly across ages and evaluated if the predictive power of purpose on mental, physical, cognitive, and financial outcomes changes when accounting for a less age-affected measurement structure. Utilizing data from two nationwide panel studies (Health and Retirement Study: n = 14,481; Midlife in the United States: n = 4,030), the current study conducted local structural equation modeling and found two factors for the positively and negatively valenced purpose items in the Purpose in Life subscale (Ryff, 1989), deemed the purposeful and purposeless factor. These factors become less associated with each other at higher ages. When reproducing past findings with this two-factor structure, the current study found that the purposeful and purposeless factors predicted these outcomes in the same direction as would be suggested by past research, but the magnitude of these effects differed for some outcomes. The discussion focuses on the implications of what this means for our understanding of sense of purpose across the lifespan. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2024 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Aposentadoria , Humanos , Estados Unidos , Idoso , Envelhecimento/psicologia , Aposentadoria/psicologia , Longevidade
17.
Br J Soc Psychol ; 63(2): 591-613, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37905751

RESUMO

Positive experiences of groups (e.g., the extent to which groups are important and supportive) tend to be associated with better retirement adjustment outcomes. However, group experiences are not always positive, and we know little about their varied contribution to adjustment outcomes. We addressed this gap by exploring the nature of social group memberships - in terms of varying positive and negative experiences of groups - to better understand how social group memberships shape retirement adjustment, life satisfaction and mental health. A latent profile analysis (using data from 489 retirees and their membership of 1887 groups) identified four profiles of social group memberships: optimal (63%), slightly straining (13%), low-supportive (18%) and ambivalent (6%). Subsequent regression analysis showed that these different profiles of group membership were differentially associated with retirement adjustment outcomes: belonging to more optimal groups was associated with better perceived adjustment, higher life satisfaction and better mental health, while belonging to slightly straining and ambivalent groups contributed to poorer adjustment, lower life satisfaction and greater depression. These findings have implications for theory and practice, not least because they advance our understanding of the diversity of people's group memberships and their contribution to retirement and health outcomes.


Assuntos
Saúde Mental , Aposentadoria , Humanos , Aposentadoria/psicologia , Satisfação Pessoal , Afeto , Processos Grupais
18.
J Appl Gerontol ; 43(5): 588-600, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37991327

RESUMO

Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries have increased the age for full retirement benefits to alleviate financial pressures. Older age is linked to higher rates of cognitive impairment. Therefore, it is crucial for public policymakers to understand the relationship between retirement timing and cognition. The purpose of this scoping review was to review the retirement timing and cognition literature and to assess possible modifying factors. A search across three databases yielded a total of 10 studies. Five studies revealed mixed findings regarding the relationship between retirement timing and cognitive decline, with reported positive, negative, and null associations. In contrast, five studies found that later retirement age reduced the risk of dementia. More cross-sectional and longitudinal studies are needed to investigate modifiable factors such as job characteristics and leisure activities to clarify the mechanisms underlying the relationship between retirement timing and cognition.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva , Aposentadoria , Humanos , Aposentadoria/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Cognição , Disfunção Cognitiva/psicologia , Atividades de Lazer/psicologia , Estudos Longitudinais
20.
Health Econ ; 33(1): 12-20, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37858318

RESUMO

Using representative data from China, we examine the causal effects of parental retirement on the health of adult children. To do so, we adopt a fuzzy regression discontinuity design and exploit the mandatory retirement ages in China as cut-off points. We find no evidence that parental retirement has significant effects on the mental health, healthcare utilization, or risky health behaviors of adult children. However, paternal retirement and maternal retirement have different effects on adult children's Self-reported health (SRH). Paternal retirement has a significantly negative effect only on the SRH of sons, while maternal retirement does not induce such effects. Potential mechanisms of intergenerational transfer through which parental retirement might affect adult children's health are also explored.


Assuntos
Saúde da Criança , Aposentadoria , Adulto , Criança , Humanos , Aposentadoria/psicologia , Pais/psicologia , Saúde Mental , China/epidemiologia
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