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1.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 472, 2022 03 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35264126

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Walking is a simple activity that could help to reduce the prevalence of chronic diseases in all populations. Furthermore, an inverse dose-response relationship exists between steps taken and risk of premature death and cardiovascular events in middle-aged and older adults. There is a lack of information on how to effectively engage older adults around retirement age in walking. This qualitative study explored attitudes towards walking in older people with regard to habits, intensity, preferences and strategies for increasing walking behaviour. METHODS: In-depth qualitative interviews were conducted with 26 older adults who were either close to retirement or recently retired. An inductive thematic analysis was conducted. RESULTS: Three themes were identified from the data; 1) Engagement and perceived value of walking; was focused on the meaning of walking for the participant and the attributes they associate with their walking practice. 2) Integration and connectivity of walking; was focused on how participants integrate walking in their daily lives and whether walking can be practiced as a viable means of connectivity. 3) Strategies to increase walking; was focused on what factors motivate participants in their walking practice and what strategies they perceived to be beneficial to increase walking distance and intensity at an individual level. DISCUSSION: The views of walking in people of retirement age were represented within 3 key themes. The factors contained in these themes that may influence future walking practice are discussed with regard to future strategies to promote walking in the retirement life change. CONCLUSION: It may be beneficial to promote qualitative aspects of walking practice and strive for regularity rather than intensity of walking to accrue the social, psychological and intellectual benefits reported by individuals in the retirement life change.


Assuntos
Qualidade de Vida , Aposentadoria , Idoso , Atitude , Hábitos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Aposentadoria/psicologia , Caminhada
2.
BMC Geriatr ; 22(1): 109, 2022 02 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35135473

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the past decades, China's rapid economic growth has been accompanied by rapid changes in lifestyle and an increasing prevalence of mental disorders. This study explored the changes and factors associated with depression among the elderly population of China from 2011 to 2018. METHOD: Data were obtained from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study. The total sample size consists of 21,484 individuals aged ≥60 years, and the sample sizes in 2011, 2013, 2015 and 2018 were 5081, 4853, 5207, 6343, respectively. Depressive symptoms were measured by the 10-item Short-Form developed by the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression. RESULT: We found that the tendency in depression rate of the Chinese elderly from 2011 (36.8%) to 2018 (44.5%). The results showed poor health (OR = 3.553), ADL damage (OR = 2.010), multiple chronic diseases (OR = 1.287), and western (OR = 1.777) are risk factors for depression. CONCLUSION: The rate of depression of the elderly people in China has risen dramatically. Therefore, additional steps to prevent, treat and care for the affected population are needed, Mental health prevention and treatment strategies should be incorporated into China's public health policies in a timely manner to mitigate the serious economic burden caused by the increase of depression.


Assuntos
Aposentadoria , Idoso , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Prevalência , Aposentadoria/psicologia
3.
Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord ; 36(1): 7-14, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34984994

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study examined the association between patterns of social engagement and conversion from cognitive impairment, no dementia (CIND) to dementia. It also tested whether social engagement is associated with conversion independently from physical and cognitive engagements. METHOD: Data from 2 waves (2010 and 2014) of the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) were used. The sample consisted of 1227 people who had CIND in 2010. To identify the heterogeneity of social engagement, latent class analysis was utilized. Multinomial logistic regression analysis was utilized to investigate the association between patterns of social engagement and probability of conversion to dementia and death or dropout. RESULTS: The result showed that patterns of social engagement that represent higher level and more variety of social engagement were associated with lower probabilities of conversion to dementia in 4 years but not with probabilities of death or dropout. The relationship held after controlling for physical and cognitive engagements. DISCUSSION: Findings implied that promoting social engagement may be protective against developing dementia even for the high-risk group of people with CIND. Future studies should investigate the mechanism behind the relationship between patterns of social engagement and lower probabilities of conversion to dementia.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva , Demência , Disfunção Cognitiva/psicologia , Humanos , Aposentadoria/psicologia , Participação Social
4.
J Appl Gerontol ; 41(3): 847-854, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35019755

RESUMO

Compared with gains, losses have received a substantial amount of research and public attention. The present study aims to shed light on the positive gains associated with older age from the perspective of older women. Five focus groups with 19 Israeli women over the age of 54 were conducted. Trailers of three different films were used to stimulate discussion about old age and aging and allow for reflections on societal norms in light of personal experiences. Focus group interviews were analyzed thematically. Respondents identified four contexts, characterized by reframing their experiences against societal norms. These included gender stereotypes, physical appearance, interpersonal relations, and employment. This study represents an opening to a different discourse around old age, which is characterized by gains and possibilities brought about by changes in reframing one's experiences, while distancing oneself and exerting free will vis à vis social norms.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Aposentadoria , Normas Sociais , Idoso , Envelhecimento/psicologia , Emprego , Feminino , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Aposentadoria/psicologia
5.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 943, 2022 01 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35042904

RESUMO

Previous research has established links between chronic pain and impaired cognitive ability, as well as between chronic pain and anxiety, in osteoarthritis. Furthermore, there is evidence linking risk of osteoarthritis to lower educational attainment. However, the inter-play of these factors with key social factors (e.g., social deprivation) at the early stages of osteoarthritis are not understood. Here, we used data from waves 4, 5, 6 and 7 of the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE) (n = 971) and selected a subsample of respondents who initially did not report a diagnosis of osteoarthritis until wave 6. We used path models to test how social deprivation, education and anxiety, before diagnosis (waves 4 and 5), affect the relationship between cognitive ability, pain and limitations in activities of daily living following diagnosis (waves 6 and 7). We show that high social deprivation before diagnosis predicts greater limitations in activities of daily living after diagnosis, with this effect partly mediated by impaired cognitive ability. We also find that higher educational attainment before diagnosis may protect against limitations in activities of daily living after diagnosis via better cognitive ability and lower anxiety. Therefore, improving cognitive ability and managing anxiety may mitigate the associations of social deprivation and low educational attainment with limitations in activities of daily living.


Assuntos
Osteoartrite/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Atividades Cotidianas , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Envelhecimento , Dor Crônica , Escolaridade , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Psicologia , Aposentadoria/psicologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
6.
J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci ; 77(4): 759-768, 2022 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34626107

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: A growing literature examines the effect of retirement on cognitive function, but pays little attention to how this relationship may depend upon the nature of retirement. Of particular importance is the growing prevalence of gradual retirement characterized by continued employment-either with a new employer or with the same employer-after retiring from a career job. METHODS: We use data from men and women aged 50 or older in the Japanese Study of Aging and Retirement to examine the effects of full retirement, partial retirement with the same employer, and partial retirement with a new employer on cognitive function. Our analyses consider the moderating role of career job complexity and exploit distinctive features of the Japanese public pension and mandatory retirement systems to estimate the causal effect of retirement type on cognition. RESULTS: Results indicate that partial retirement with the same employer has a significant and adverse effect on cognitive function (relative to those not yet retired). In contrast, those who experienced either full retirement or partial retirement with a new employer were, on average, no different from those still in their career job. Partial retirement with a new employer has a beneficial effect on cognition among those who had a high-complexity career job. DISCUSSION: Results are consistent with the idea that novel work exposures and experiences have a beneficial effect on cognition. They also suggest that ongoing policy efforts to promote partial retirement with the same employer may have unexpected adverse implications for cognitive health.


Assuntos
Pensões , Aposentadoria , Cognição , Emprego , Feminino , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Aposentadoria/psicologia
7.
Death Stud ; 46(1): 245-249, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32048553

RESUMO

Basing our argument on Terror Management Theory, we posit that retirement is an age-related transition, which could result in greater death saliency and anxiety, leading to increased depressive symptoms. An indirect-effect model was tested on a convenience sample of 574 Israeli Jewish older workers (mean age = 57), finding that the link between retirement anxiety and depressive symptoms is mediated through death anxiety. Anxious anticipation of retirement could imply that the individual perceives it as an "end," resulting in greater death saliency and death anxiety, which are related to poorer mental health. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.


Assuntos
Depressão , Aposentadoria , Adulto , Ansiedade , Transtornos de Ansiedade/psicologia , Depressão/psicologia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Aposentadoria/psicologia
8.
J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci ; 77(3): 615-625, 2022 03 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34173825

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Exiting the labor force earlier or later than planned is common, with predictable economic consequences. However, the mental health ramifications of such off-time events are not known but are important to promoting well-being in retirement. METHODS: Using the Health and Retirement Study (1992-2016), we created 6 groups based on the alignment of expectations about full-time work at age 62 (reported at ages 51-61) with realized labor force status after reaching age 62 (N = 10,421). Negative binomial models estimated the adjusted association between unmet expectations about work and depressive symptoms. RESULTS: Unexpectedly not working was associated with higher depressive symptoms than working as expected after adjusting for sociodemographic, economic, and health factors at the time of expectations (incidence rate ratio = 1.35, 95% confidence interval: 1.17-1.56). Additionally, adjusting for health declines and marriage dissolution between expectations and age 62 partially attenuated the association, but unexpectedly not working remained significantly associated with a 1.16 increase in the incidence rate of depressive symptoms. Unexpectedly working at 62 was not associated with depressive symptoms. Race/ethnicity interacted with expectation alignment (F(15,42) = 2.44, p = .0118) in that Hispanic respondents experienced an increase in depressive symptoms when working after unmet and unsure expectations compared to met expectations, whereas White respondents did not. DISCUSSION: Unlike working longer than expected, unexpectedly not working at age 62 was associated with depressive symptoms, even after accounting for health declines. Public and employer policies should assist workers in remaining in the labor force as long as planned and offer mental health supports for unexpected work exits.


Assuntos
Depressão , Motivação , Depressão/psicologia , Emprego/psicologia , Humanos , Saúde Mental , Aposentadoria/psicologia
9.
J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci ; 77(1): 135-148, 2022 01 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34396418

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Mental health is determined by social, biological, and cultural factors and is sensitive to life transitions. We examine how psychosocial working conditions, social living environment, and cumulative risk factors are associated with mental health changes during the retirement transition. METHOD: We use data from the Finnish Retirement and Aging study on public sector employees (n = 3,338) retiring between 2014 and 2019 in Finland. Psychological distress was measured with the General Health Questionnaire annually before and after retirement and psychosocial working conditions, social living environment, and accumulation of risk factors at the study wave prior to retirement. RESULTS: Psychological distress decreased during the retirement transition, but the magnitude of the change was dependent on the contexts individuals retire from. Psychological distress was higher among those from poorer psychosocial working conditions (high job demands, low decision authority, job strain), poorer social living environment (low neighborhood social cohesion, small social network), and more cumulative risk factors (work/social/both). During the retirement transition, greatest reductions in psychological distress were observed among those with poorer conditions (work: absolute and relative changes, p [Group × Time interactions] < .05; social living environment and cumulative risk factors: absolute changes, p [Group × Time interactions] < .05). DISCUSSION: Psychosocial work-related stressors lead to quick recovery during the retirement transition but the social and cumulative stressors have longer-term prevailing effects on psychological distress. More studies are urged incorporating exposures across multiple levels or contexts to clarify the determinants of mental health during the retirement transition and more generally at older ages.


Assuntos
Emprego/psicologia , Angústia Psicológica , Aposentadoria/psicologia , Meio Social , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Idoso , Emprego/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Finlândia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Aposentadoria/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Risco , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Local de Trabalho/psicologia
10.
J Aging Health ; 34(1): 3-13, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34027689

RESUMO

Objective: To examine whether the trajectory of facets of loneliness-emotional and social-varied by cognitive impairment status in older adulthood. Methods: Data came from the Health and Retirement Study 2008-2018 waves (N = 15,352). Cognitive impairment was assessed using standard cutoffs for cognitive impairment no dementia (CIND) and dementia. The 11-item UCLA loneliness scale was used to measure emotional and social loneliness. Results: Using multilevel modeling, we found that CIND and dementia status were associated with higher overall, emotional, and social loneliness, controlling for physical health, social contact, and depressive symptoms. The trajectory of loneliness did not vary by cognitive status. There were modest variations by sociodemographic factors. Discussion: Persons with CIND and dementia experience heightened emotional and social loneliness, but cognitive impairment does not contribute to the worsening of loneliness. Older adults' social integration may be maintained early in cognitive impairment.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva , Solidão , Idoso , Disfunção Cognitiva/psicologia , Humanos , Solidão/psicologia , Aposentadoria/psicologia
11.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0261251, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34965266

RESUMO

This research examined the influence of cognitive interdependence-a mental state reflecting a collective representation of the self-in-relationship-on the anticipation for and experiences with the transition into retirement. Among soon-to-be retirees (Study 1), greater cognitive interdependence was associated with seeing partners as more instrumental to one's goals both pre- and post-retirement, anticipating greater goal alignment post-retirement, and having directly involved partners in retirement planning to a greater extent than those relatively lower in cognitive interdependence. Among recent retirees (Study 2), retrospective cognitive interdependence was associated with post-retirement goal alignment and goal instrumentality, and the extent to which they believed they had directly involved their partners in retirement planning. However, it was post-retirement goal alignment that was associated with greater ease of retirement and subjective well-being. Finally, soon-to-be retirees relatively high in cognitive interdependence responded to concerns about their retirement (i.e., goal discordance and high retirement ambivalence) by wanting to involve their partners in their retirement plans to a greater extent (Study 3). These studies highlight the importance of romantic partners across the lifespan, and how partners might influence retirement planning, the transition to retirement, and well-being among recent retirees.


Assuntos
Cognição , Aposentadoria/psicologia , Cônjuges , Idoso , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Teóricos , Estatística como Assunto
12.
JAMA ; 326(20): 2011, 2021 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34812860
13.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 6645271, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34660795

RESUMO

Increasing statutory retirement ages around the world are forcing employees to prolong their working lives. We study the different ways in which mid- and late-career workers respond to such changes. We distinguish between negative emotions about working longer, cognitive engagement with prolonged employment, and proactive behavior to facilitate longer working lives. We analyze data from 1,351 employees aged 40-66 from the Netherlands. We estimate a structural equation model to identify in which ways experiences of age discrimination, accessibility of accommodative HR facilities, and social norms in the workers' social networks are related to the three different types of responses. Results show that when employees do not experience age discrimination, when their employer offers easily accessible accommodative HR facilities, and the social norms support prolonged employment, employees have fewer negative emotional reactions and are more likely to behaviorally respond to facilitate longer working lives. When these contexts are misaligned, the reverse is generally found. We also find socioeconomic differences in the ways employees respond to the prospect of prolonged employment. This study shows the importance of supportive contexts at different levels-societally, in organizations, and in individuals' own lives-for policy changes such as increasing statutory retirement ages to be effective. Different responses between different socioeconomic groups may lead to growing long-term inequality.


Assuntos
Comportamento/fisiologia , Cognição/fisiologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Emprego/psicologia , Aposentadoria/psicologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Teóricos , Normas Sociais
15.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 2720885, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34504896

RESUMO

The retirement transition is a major life change affecting people's lifestyles and behaviors, including those in relation to physical activity (PA), which is a key component of active ageing. Previous research analyzing the effect of retirement on PA levels has shown mixed results, and few studies investigated this issue in a gender perspective, thus, highlighting a need of knowledge in this respect. Aims of this study focused on the experience of PA during the retirement transition were to understand typologies of PA and possible changes in these typologies, to identify behavioural types relative to PA practice and levels, and to distinguish the main drivers and barriers for practicing PA associated with the different behavioural types. A further goal of the study was to investigate the abovementioned aims considering differences between women and men. Analyses were carried out within a three-year qualitative longitudinal study (2014-2016), which explored the individual experience of PA during the transition from work to retirement of 24 women and 16 men in Italy, with interviews carried out one year before and one and two years after retirement. Results show that preferred PA for both women and men was walking, along the transition to retirement. Over time, several participants replaced physically demanding activities with lighter ones. Six behavioural types were identified, describing individuals who incremented, started, or maintained the same level of PA, people who decreased PA levels or stopped it, and individuals who had a fluctuant behavior towards PA, or who had never practiced it. In general, poor health represented the main barrier to PA. For men, the main driver to PA was its effects on body shape, while for women, socialization/networking. In order to stimulate a more effective promotion of PA during the retirement transition, policy implications were discussed in light of the results obtained.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico/psicologia , Aposentadoria/psicologia , Idoso , Envelhecimento , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Acontecimentos que Mudam a Vida , Estilo de Vida , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Atividade Motora , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Caminhada
16.
World Neurosurg ; 155: e716-e726, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34500095

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Concerns about the changing demographics in the United States and the aging of the neurosurgical workforce exist. Both the importance and inherent risk of surgical responsibilities suggest that thought be given to whether workloads should change later in surgeons' careers. We sought to assess current neurosurgeons' expectations concerning their late-stage careers. METHODS: A survey was sent to 3317 U.S. board-certified neurosurgeons. It was designed to assess surgeons' perceptions of call and operative responsibilities in the later stages of their careers. Statistical analyses were completed in R version 3.6.1, with an alpha set to 0.05. RESULTS: Six-hundred and fifty-nine neurosurgeons completed the questionnaire. Seventy-seven percent believed that the call burden should decrease later in practice, and 66% planned to decrease their own call burden later in their career. The most common age range for planned retirement was 65 to 69 years (36%), followed by 70+ years (33%). Most (67%) believed that there should not be a mandatory age to stop operating. More recent year of residency completion was negatively associated with the belief that call burden should decrease at older age groups and positively associated with support for a mandatory age to stop operating as well as an earlier retirement age. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that neurosurgeons have differing views on how workloads should change later in their careers. Younger neurosurgeons support an earlier decrease in workload or even a policy-mandated stop to operating after a certain age. These results may give insight into future trends and turnover in neurosurgery and provide a valuable tool to help practices anticipate workforce changes.


Assuntos
Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Relação entre Gerações , Neurocirurgiões/psicologia , Percepção , Aposentadoria/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Competência Clínica , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neurocirurgiões/tendências , Aposentadoria/tendências , Carga de Trabalho/psicologia
17.
J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci ; 76(Suppl 2): S125-S134, 2021 09 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34515771

RESUMO

As people age, they experience typical age-graded challenges and opportunities, for example, their own retirement, changes in their social networks, or a decline in health condition. The extent to which people successfully process, respond to, and act on these challenges and opportunities is highly important for their health, at the core of which the WHO sees the possibility of "doing what one has reason to value." In this article, we posit that individuals can play an active role in determining whether they can, in response to these age-graded influences, continue doing what they have reason to value, and that they can do so by deploying the self-regulatory processes of goal setting (including reengagement in new goals after disengaging from a previous goal), goal pursuit, and goal disengagement. We discuss the role of these self-regulatory processes in three important goal domains: work/retirement, interpersonal relationships, and health. Across these domains, we consider typical challenges and opportunities including the increased availability of daily time in old age, the long past that lies behind older adults, and their limited future time perspective. Finally, we derive open research questions that may be studied to better understand how the very old may self-regulate their response to age-graded influences.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Envelhecimento Saudável , Relações Interpessoais , Aposentadoria/psicologia , Autocontrole/psicologia , Logro , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Pesquisa Comportamental , Objetivos , Nível de Saúde , Envelhecimento Saudável/fisiologia , Envelhecimento Saudável/psicologia , Humanos , Psicologia do Desenvolvimento
18.
J Aging Stud ; 58: 100954, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34425986

RESUMO

Choosing to continue working after retirement eligibility can attract both negative and positive sentiments from the general public. Studies examining the motivations of older workers have so far been conducted in times of relative social and economic stability. However, little is known about what it means for older workers to work during a lockdown or pandemic situation. The present longitudinal study aimed to explore experiences of retirement-aged workers in Slovenia in relation to their motives for prolonged work activity amid the COVID-19 pandemic, using the theory of gerotranscendence as a theoretical framework. Nine workers were interviewed before and after the start of the pandemic. The qualitative analysis was based on 18 interviews and observations, juxtaposing two analytical methods in order to illustrate common themes across the data as well as tensions in specific situations within a narrative context. Four main themes are presented: Unchanged plans, Motive developments, Psychological preparation for retirement and Views of society. In addition, a narrative analysis is presented with a focus on self-transcending elements in some of the participants' narratives. The findings suggest that during a pandemic, older workers' individual experiences might be constructed more positively compared to other groups, especially if they develop agentic identity and pursue meaningful activities. We discuss an innovative approach to gerotranscendence, complementing this theory with concepts from occupational science to develop a clearer distinction from the now dated disengagement theory and examine the life trajectories of older workers in novel situations such as a pandemic.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Emprego , Motivação , Pandemias , Idoso , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Emprego/psicologia , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Aposentadoria/psicologia , Eslovênia/epidemiologia
20.
Am J Epidemiol ; 190(10): 2220-2230, 2021 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33913467

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to collect evidence of the relationship between retirement and depression through meta-analysis and further analyze the heterogeneity of results. The quality of the studies was rated based on 10 predefined criteria. We searched for articles published between 1980 and 2020, and a total of 25 longitudinal studies were included in the meta-analysis. The meta-analysis results showed that retirement was associated with more depressive symptoms (d = 0.044, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.008, 0.080). The association of more depressive symptoms with involuntary retirement (d = 0.180, 95% CI: 0.061, 0.299) was stronger than with voluntary retirement (d = 0.086, 95% CI: -0.018, 0.190) and regulatory retirement (d = 0.009, 95% CI: -0.079, 0.097). Retirement was significantly associated with more depressive symptoms in Eastern developed countries (d = 0.126, 95% CI: 0.041, 0.210), and the association was stronger than that in Western developed countries (d = 0.016, 95% CI: -0.023, 0.055). We found that the transition to retirement was associated with higher risk of depression, and this association varied by the type of retirement and country. Further empirical studies are needed to explore the mechanism of retirement and depression and whether such an association is linked with socioeconomic position.


Assuntos
Depressão/epidemiologia , Aposentadoria/psicologia , Idoso , Depressão/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
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