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1.
Texto & contexto enferm ; 29: e20180471, Jan.-Dec. 2020. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1059140

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Objective: to analyze the knowledge of the elderly assisted by the Unified Health System (Sistema Único de Saúde, SUS) about HIV/AIDS infection in a health unit, before and after an educational intervention. Method: a quasi-experimental study analyzing the changes related to the knowledge about HIV/AIDS of 60 elderly individuals divided into two groups, who participated in an educational intervention, in an outpatient clinic of a SUS rehabilitation center in the second half of 2016. To evaluate the effectiveness of the teaching/learning process, a semi-structured questionnaire called QHIV3I was applied before and after the intervention. For data analysis, the generalized version of McNemar's chi-square test was used. Results: comparing the knowledge of the elderly before and after the educational intervention showed a higher number of correct answers, with a minimum percentage of 3.34% and a maximum of 75%. Significant statistical differences were found in one of the questions in the concept, transmission and treatment domains; and in the two vulnerability questions. Conclusion: it was found that the educational intervention contributed to the improvement of knowledge about HIV/AIDS in the elderly population. Thus, it is reasserted that the health promotion policy finds its essential foundation in health education strategies.


RESUMEN Objetivo: analizar el conocimiento de los ancianos atendidos por el Sistema Único de Salud (SUS) acerca de la infección por VIH/SIDA en una unidad de salud, tanto antes como después de una intervención educativa. Método: estudio cuasi-experimental en el que se analizaron los cambios relacionados con el conocimiento sobre VIH/SIDA de 60 ancianos subdivididos en dos grupos y que participaron de una intervención educativa en el área de atención ambulatoria de un centro especializado en rehabilitación del SUS, durante el segundo semestre de 2016. Para evaluar la eficacia del proceso de enseñanza/aprendizaje se aplicó un cuestionario semiestructurado denominado QHIV3I, antes y después de la intervención. En el análisis de los datos se utilizó la versión generalizada de la prueba de chi-cuadrado de McNemar. Resultados: en la comparación de los conocimientos de los ancianos antes y después de la intervención educativa se evidenció una mayor cantidad de respuestas correctas, con un porcentaje mínimo de 3,34% y uno máximo de 75%. Se encontraron diferencias significativas en una de las preguntas de los dominios de concepto y de transmisión y tratamiento, además de en las dos preguntas sobre vulnerabilidad. Conclusión: se constató que la intervención educativa contribuyó a mejorar los conocimientos sobre VIH/SIDA en la población de la tercera edad. Esto reafirma que la política de promoción de la salud encuentra sus fundamentos esenciales en las estrategias de educación en salud.


RESUMO Objetivo: analisar o conhecimento dos idosos atendidos pelo Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS) acerca da infecção do HIV/aids numa unidade de saúde, antes e após intervenção educativa. Método: estudo quase-experimental, em que se analisou as mudanças relativas ao conhecimento sobre HIV/aids de 60 idosos subdivididos em dois grupos, que participaram de intervenção educativa, num ambulatório de um centro especializado em reabilitação do SUS no segundo semestre de 2016. Para avaliar a eficácia do processo de ensino/aprendizagem, aplicou-se questionário semiestruturado denominado QHIV3I, antes e após a intervenção. Na análise dos dados, utilizou-se a versão generalizada do teste qui-quadrado de McNemar. Resultados: a comparação dos conhecimentos dos idosos antes e depois da intervenção educativa evidenciaram maior número de acertos, com percentual mínimo de 3,34% e máximo de 75%. Diferenças estatísticas significativas foram encontradas em uma das questões nos domínios conceito, transmissão e tratamento; e nas duas questões sobre vulnerabilidade. Conclusão: constatou-se que a intervenção educativa contribuiu para o aprimoramento de conhecimentos sobre HIV/aids na população idosa. Com isso, reafirma-se que a política de promoção da saúde encontra nas estratégias de educação em saúde seu alicerce essencial.


Assuntos
Humanos , Idoso , Saúde do Idoso , Educação em Saúde , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida , HIV , Sistema Único de Saúde , Saúde , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa , Promoção da Saúde , Aprendizagem
2.
Rev. enferm. UERJ ; 28: e51821, jan.-dez. 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1117686

RESUMO

Objetivo: compreender a vivência do enfrentamento e repercussões da COVID-19, na percepção de mulheres em tratamento oncológico. Método: estudo qualitativo, do tipo ação-participante, fundamentado no Itinerário de Pesquisa de Paulo Freire, que possui três fases: Investigação Temática; Codificação e Descodificação; Desvelamento Crítico. Foi realizado Círculo de Cultura virtual, com a participação de 12 mulheres em tratamento do câncer de mama, de diferentes localidades do Brasil. Resultados: no Círculo de Cultura virtual discutiram dois temas: desafios no enfrentamento do câncer e da COVID-19; aprendizados gerados nessa vivência, considerando um renascimento das próprias cinzas. Considerações finais: o momento pandêmico tem instigado reflexões sobre o viver. Assim, as mulheres em tratamento oncológico e também em restrição social puderam expressar seus sentimentos, descobrindo e redescobrindo fragilidades e fortalezas para ressignificar e crescer como seres, em uma sociedade, que pode e deve articular estratégias para promoção da saúde.


Objective: to understand the experience of coping with COVID-19, as perceived by women undergoing cancer treatment. Method: qualitative, participatory action research based on the three phases of Paulo Freire's Research Itinerary: Thematic Investigation; Coding and Decoding; and Critical Unveiling. A Culture Circle was held online with 12 women from different places in Brazil undergoing breast cancer treatment. Results: in the virtual Culture Circle, they discussed two themes: challenges in coping with cancer and COVID-10; and learning generated in that experience, with a view to rebirth from their own ashes. Final considerations: the pandemic has prompted thinking about living. Accordingly, women undergoing cancer treatment and also under social restrictions were able to express their feelings, and in discovering and rediscovering weaknesses and strengths, to resignify themselves and to grow in a society that can and should deploy strategies for health promotion.


Objetivo: comprender la experiencia de afrontamiento del COVID-19, según la perciben las mujeres en tratamiento oncológico. Método: investigación-acción cualitativa y participativa basada en las tres fases del Itinerario de Investigación de Paulo Freire: Investigación Temática; Codificación y decodificación; y revelación crítica. Se realizó un Círculo Cultural en línea con 12 mujeres de diferentes lugares de Brazil sometidas a tratamiento contra el cáncer de mama. Resultados: en el Círculo de Cultura virtual se discutieron dos temas: desafíos en el afrontamiento del cáncer y COVID-10; y el aprendizaje generado en esa experiencia, con miras a renacer de sus propias cenizas. Consideraciones finales: la pandemia ha llevado a pensar en vivir. En consecuencia, las mujeres en tratamiento oncológico y también bajo restricciones sociales pudieron expresar sus sentimientos, y al descubrir y redescubrir debilidades y fortalezas, resignificarse y crecer en una sociedad que puede y debe desplegar estrategias de promoción de la salud.


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias da Mama/psicologia , Adaptação Psicológica , Quarentena/psicologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Promoção da Saúde , Aprendizagem , Brasil , Processo Saúde-Doença , Telemedicina , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Emoções , Acontecimentos que Mudam a Vida
3.
Rev. enferm. UERJ ; 28: e41988, jan.-dez. 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1103393

RESUMO

Objetivo: analisar a percepção dos docentes do curso de Graduação em Enfermagem acerca do desenvolvimento do pensamento crítico dos alunos, a partir da utilização de estratégias de ensino e suas implicações no processo ensino aprendizagem. Método: estudo exploratório, descritivo, de cunho qualitativo. Participaram da pesquisa 16 docentes de um curso de graduação em Enfermagem e Obstetrícia. Os dados foram produzidos por meio de entrevistas com roteiro semiestruturado e categorizados pela técnica de análise temática, sendo aprovado por Comitê de Ética em Pesquisa. Resultados: evidenciaram-se três categorias: pensamento crítico como interpretação subjetiva, estratégias de ensino utilizadas pelos docentes no curso de graduação em enfermagem, e desafios e facilidades para o desenvolvimento do pensamento crítico no curso de graduação em enfermagem. Conclusão: os docentes mantiveram opiniões positivas e pontuaram que o pensamento crítico é construído ao longo da vida do ser humano, sendo considerado inerente à construção das suas habilidades e capacidades profissionais.


Objective: to examine perceptions of undergraduate Nursing teachers of their students' development of critical thinking, based on the use of teaching strategies and their implications in the teaching-learning process. Method: sixteen professors from an undergraduate course in Nursing and Obstetrics participated in this exploratory, descriptive, qualitative study. Data were produced through interviews to a semi-structured script and categorized by the thematic analysis technique, The study was approved by the research ethics committee. Results: three categories were identified: critical thinking as subjective interpretation, teaching strategies the teachers used in the undergraduate Nursing course, and what hinders and helps the development critical thinking on the undergraduate Nursing course. Conclusion: teachers held positive opinions and pointed out that critical thinking is built over the course of life and is considered inherent to constructing professional skills and abilities.


Objetivo: analizar las percepciones de los docentes de enfermería de pregrado sobre el desarrollo del pensamiento crítico de sus alumnos, basándose en el uso de estrategias de enseñanza y sus implicaciones en el proceso de enseñanza-aprendizaje. Método: dieciséis profesores de un curso de pregrado en Enfermería y Obstetricia participaron en este estudio exploratorio, descriptivo y cualitativo. Los datos fueron producidos a través de entrevistas a un guion semiestructurado y clasificados por la técnica de análisis temático. El estudio fue aprobado por el comité de ética de investigación. Resultados: se identificaron tres categorías: pensamiento crítico como interpretación subjetiva, estrategias de enseñanza que los maestros utilizaron en el curso de pregrado en Enfermería, y lo que dificulta y ayuda al desarrollo del pensamiento crítico en el curso de pregrado en Enfermería. Conclusión: los maestros sostuvieron opiniones positivas y señalaron que el pensamiento crítico se construye a lo largo de la vida y se considera inherente a la construcción de habilidades y destrezas profesionales.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ensino/educação , Pensamento , Educação em Enfermagem/métodos , Docentes de Enfermagem , Brasil , Epidemiologia Descritiva , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Aprendizagem
4.
J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent ; 38(3): 293-303, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33004729

RESUMO

Introduction: Basic behavioral guidance (BBG) skills help in delivery of quality health care in pediatric dentistry. The complex nature of these skills, warrants analyzing actions performed. An appropriate scientific way to do this is by "reflection." Hence, the present study was designed to introduce "reflection of action" as means for learning BBG skills by undergraduates in pediatric dentistry. Methods: Participants (dental undergraduate) performed oral prophylaxis (two visits) in pediatric patients (age 3-7 years) with application of BBG skills, under video recording. They were instructed regarding "reflection on action." The learners then reviewed own videos and wrote reflections. Reflections were assessed on Boud's 4R framework and feedback was given by the faculty. Reflective writing was repeated for a second visit. Knowledge of the learners in using reflections for learning was assessed by retrospective pretest posttest questionnaire. Video recordings were scored for BBG skills. Acceptability of the intervention was addressed by satisfaction questionnaire. Results: There was a significant improvement in the knowledge of participants in using reflections for learning these skills. All participants were able to "revisit" (R1 level under Boud's 4R framework) patient encounter in their written reflections. Sixteen participants exhibited shift toward higher levels in the next visit. Video scores of learners also improved significantly over both visits. Students were satisfied with the content, delivery, and relevance of the new educational intervention. Conclusion: The strong need of improving BBG skills in pediatric dentistry was met by "reflection on action." There was improvement in the knowledge of students in using reflections for learning and application of behavior guidance skills and was well accepted.


Assuntos
Aprendizagem , Odontopediatria , Criança , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Redação
6.
Rev Lat Am Enfermagem ; 28: e3375, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33027405

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: to develop and validate an interactive educational technology on spotted fever, to offer an innovative teaching method. METHOD: a methodological study that covered the following stages: analysis and diagnosis; instructional planning, didactic design, review, and validation and production of technology. RESULTS: the analysis and diagnosis were obtained from experiences in education and health activities for spotted fever. In the instructional planning, it was defined that the technology would be presented in the form of an Interactive Laboratory, with learning stations. The production of the Laboratory was carried out by a multidisciplinary team made up of a carpenter, an electrician, and a plastic artist, among others. The review and validation process was subdivided into two stages: appearance and content validation by professionals in the fields of biology, and education and semantic validation by students of the Nursing and Pedagogy courses. The results of the appearance and content validation showed a content validity index over 0.8 for the vast majority of the variables. In the semantic validation, the Laboratory was evaluated positively by the students. CONCLUSION: the trajectory followed for the construction of the Interactive Laboratory on spotted fever gave academic and scientific support to the product, offering an innovative educational resource with pedagogical potential that values significant learning.


Assuntos
Tecnologia Educacional , Rickettsiose do Grupo da Febre Maculosa , Humanos , Aprendizagem , Inquéritos e Questionários
7.
Am J Pharm Educ ; 84(8): ajpe8142, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32934391

RESUMO

During the COVID-19 pandemic, universities around the globe frantically and emergently switched to remote teaching. This commentary provides the perspective from a teaching and learning center about the difference between emergency remote teaching and online learning, plus suggestions for preparing for an online fall semester.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Educação a Distância/organização & administração , Aprendizagem , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Ensino/organização & administração , Humanos , Pandemias , Universidades
8.
Am J Pharm Educ ; 84(8): ajpe8197, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32934392

RESUMO

The coronavirus identified in 2019 (COVID-19) has affected peoples' lives worldwide. This pandemic forced both pharmacy faculty members and students to adapt to a new teaching and learning environment not only in the United States but around the globe. Pharmacy educators faced challenges and opportunities to convert classroom learning and experiences, as well as student assessments, to a remote or online format. The unique approaches taken to overcome difficulties in various countries showed pharmacy faculty members' resilience in the face of adversity and their determination to continue providing education to students. The pandemic also shed light on areas needing improvement for pharmacy educators to work on in the future.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Educação em Farmácia/organização & administração , Docentes de Farmácia/organização & administração , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Estudantes de Farmácia , Educação a Distância/organização & administração , Docentes de Farmácia/psicologia , Humanos , Aprendizagem , Pandemias , Resiliência Psicológica , Ensino/organização & administração
9.
J Nurs Educ ; 59(9): 518-521, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32865586

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The integration of telehealth simulation experiences enables nursing students to effectively care for postnatal clients through interactive video technologies. METHOD: Faculty created a telehealth postnatal triage simulation in response to a need for client interaction due to COVID-19 social isolation restrictions. RESULTS: Telehealth triage is an inexpensive, engaging teaching strategy and formative assessment method that can be easily created with existing resources and implemented in a postnatal simulation experience. CONCLUSION: Faculty concluded that this telehealth simulation experience is valuable in meeting student clinical learning outcomes and its continued use after social restrictions are removed is recommended. In the future, effectiveness of the simulation experience should be studied and measured along with incorporation of inter-and intraprofessional collaboration activities. [J Nurs Educ. 2020;59(9):518-521.].


Assuntos
Bacharelado em Enfermagem/organização & administração , Treinamento por Simulação/organização & administração , Telemedicina/organização & administração , Triagem/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Aprendizagem , Pesquisa em Educação de Enfermagem , Pesquisa em Avaliação de Enfermagem , Pesquisa Metodológica em Enfermagem , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Estudantes de Enfermagem/psicologia
10.
J Nurs Educ ; 59(9): 522-525, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32865587

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Amidst the COVID-19 pandemic, university instruction was transitioned online, including an undergraduate nursing clinical course. Charged with developing and executing virtual simulations, an online clinical course was conceived. METHOD: Simulated clinical experiences were crafted using a combination of student preassignments and video-conferencing facilitated by faculty. Each experience included the collective review of a case study and student-developed care plans before viewing and debriefing a series of videos. Students summarized their experience in a weekly written reflection. RESULTS: Student feedback was examined through their reflections and verbal responses. The videos served as catalysts for robust discussion. Feedback was overwhelmingly positive related to an interactive experience, a heightened sense of teamwork, and enhanced comprehension by sharing differing perspectives of common experiences. CONCLUSION: This educational innovation was successful in creating an engaging environment that facilitated student learning and a sense of togetherness during a global pandemic. The use of technology enabled the continuity of a productive teaching-learning experience. [J Nurs Educ. 2020;59(9):522-525.].


Assuntos
Currículo , Educação a Distância/organização & administração , Bacharelado em Enfermagem/organização & administração , Treinamento por Simulação/organização & administração , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Difusão de Inovações , Humanos , Aprendizagem , Pesquisa em Educação de Enfermagem , Pesquisa em Avaliação de Enfermagem , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Estudantes de Enfermagem/psicologia
11.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4669, 2020 09 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32938940

RESUMO

The prefrontal cortex and striatum form a recurrent network whose spiking activity encodes multiple types of learning-relevant information. This spike-encoded information is evident in average firing rates, but finer temporal coding might allow multiplexing and enhanced readout across the connected network. We tested this hypothesis in the fronto-striatal network of nonhuman primates during reversal learning of feature values. We found that populations of neurons encoding choice outcomes, outcome prediction errors, and outcome history in their firing rates also carry significant information in their phase-of-firing at a 10-25 Hz band-limited beta frequency at which they synchronize across lateral prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex and anterior striatum when outcomes were processed. The phase-of-firing code exceeds information that can be obtained from firing rates alone and is evident for inter-areal connections between anterior cingulate cortex, lateral prefrontal cortex and anterior striatum. For the majority of connections, the phase-of-firing information gain is maximal at phases of the beta cycle that were offset from the preferred spiking phase of neurons. Taken together, these findings document enhanced information of three important learning variables at specific phases of firing in the beta cycle at an inter-areally shared beta oscillation frequency during goal-directed behavior.


Assuntos
Corpo Estriado/fisiologia , Giro do Cíngulo/fisiologia , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Neurônios/fisiologia , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiologia , Animais , Análise por Conglomerados , Corpo Estriado/citologia , Sincronização de Fases em Eletroencefalografia , Eletrofisiologia/métodos , Eletrofisiologia/estatística & dados numéricos , Giro do Cíngulo/citologia , Macaca mulatta , Masculino , Rede Nervosa , Córtex Pré-Frontal/citologia , Recompensa
12.
J Cancer Educ ; 35(5): 1034-1040, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32888144

RESUMO

In response to the COVID-19 social distancing guidelines, residency and fellowship programs transitioned to virtual instruction to deliver didactics and continue with medical education. The efficacy of such a fully online learning environment, however, remains unknown. To investigate its impact on medical education, this study surveyed hematology/oncology fellows at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center on their attitudes regarding the online-based lecture program. Fellows were emailed a 19-question survey with questions on demographics, ease of technical access to the online platform, level of comfort with participation, knowledge acquisition, wellness, and COVID-19-specific coverage. A free-text question soliciting ways to improve upon online learning was also included. The response rate was 71% (30/42). Most respondents reported easy/very easy accessibility to the online environment. Seventy-seven percent of the participants did not experience a technical issue. Seventy percent felt comfortable/very comfortable with participating in the conference. Thirty-seven percent felt comfortable/very comfortable with actively offering an answer to questions during the interactive board review session. Eighty-seven percent would have been more willing to offer an answer during the board review session if an anonymous poll format was utilized. Sixty-three percent felt they learned the same amount as they typically do during an in-person session. Thirty-three percent reported they were less focused as compared with an in-person session. One hundred percent of the participants had their questions answered, either at all times (87%) or sometimes (13%). Sixty percent experienced a change in social interactions as compared with an in-person session. Fifty-four percent reported that it was easy/very to balance online attendance despite personal/family commitments. One hundred percent appreciated the flexibility of the online learning environment. Ninety percent felt safer at home attending these lectures compared with receiving these lectures in-person during the COVID-19 pandemic. Overall, most fellows felt comfortable with the transition to a fully online learning environment. Strategies to encourage active participation, enhance social interaction, and provide additional flexibility are still needed.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Educação a Distância , Educação de Pós-Graduação em Medicina/métodos , Bolsas de Estudo , Hematologia/educação , Oncologia/educação , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Betacoronavirus , Feminino , Humanos , Aprendizagem , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários , Texas
13.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4715, 2020 09 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32948772

RESUMO

Animal-fMRI is a powerful method to understand neural mechanisms of cognition, but it remains a major challenge to scan actively participating small animals under low-stress conditions. Here, we present an event-related functional MRI platform in awake pigeons using single-shot RARE fMRI to investigate the neural fundaments for visually-guided decision making. We established a head-fixated Go/NoGo paradigm, which the animals quickly learned under low-stress conditions. The animals were motivated by water reward and behavior was assessed by logging mandibulations during the fMRI experiment with close to zero motion artifacts over hundreds of repeats. To achieve optimal results, we characterized the species-specific hemodynamic response function. As a proof-of-principle, we run a color discrimination task and discovered differential neural networks for Go-, NoGo-, and response execution-phases. Our findings open the door to visualize the neural fundaments of perceptual and cognitive functions in birds-a vertebrate class of which some clades are cognitively on par with primates.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Cognição/fisiologia , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/veterinária , Vigília , Animais , Artefatos , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Mapeamento Encefálico , Columbidae , Humanos , Inibição Psicológica , Aprendizagem , Movimento (Física) , Redes Neurais de Computação , Recompensa
14.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4361, 2020 08 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32868773

RESUMO

The sensory responses of cortical neuronal populations following training have been extensively studied. However, the spike firing properties of individual cortical neurons following training remain unknown. Here, we have combined two-photon Ca2+ imaging and single-cell electrophysiology in awake behaving mice following auditory associative training. We find a sparse set (~5%) of layer 2/3 neurons in the primary auditory cortex, each of which reliably exhibits high-rate prolonged burst firing responses to the trained sound. Such bursts are largely absent in the auditory cortex of untrained mice. Strikingly, in mice trained with different multitone chords, we discover distinct subsets of neurons that exhibit bursting responses specifically to a chord but neither to any constituent tone nor to the other chord. Thus, our results demonstrate an integrated representation of learned complex sounds in a small subset of cortical neurons.


Assuntos
Córtex Auditivo/fisiologia , Percepção Auditiva/fisiologia , Neurônios/fisiologia , Estimulação Acústica/métodos , Córtex Auditivo/citologia , Sinalização do Cálcio , Eletrofisiologia/métodos , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Microscopia de Fluorescência por Excitação Multifotônica/métodos , Neurônios/metabolismo , Análise de Célula Única/métodos
15.
Phys Rev Lett ; 125(8): 088103, 2020 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32909804

RESUMO

The ability of humans and animals to quickly adapt to novel tasks is difficult to reconcile with the standard paradigm of learning by slow synaptic weight modification. Here, we show that fixed-weight neural networks can learn to generate required dynamics by imitation. After appropriate weight pretraining, the networks quickly and dynamically adapt to learn new tasks and thereafter continue to achieve them without further teacher feedback. We explain this ability and illustrate it with a variety of target dynamics, ranging from oscillatory trajectories to driven and chaotic dynamical systems.


Assuntos
Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Modelos Neurológicos , Neurônios/fisiologia , Animais , Comunicação Celular/fisiologia , Humanos , Rede Nervosa/citologia , Rede Nervosa/fisiologia , Neurônios/citologia
16.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4358, 2020 08 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32868768

RESUMO

Learned fear and safety are associated with distinct oscillatory states in the basolateral amygdala (BLA) and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). To determine if and how these network states support the retrieval of competing memories, we mimicked endogenous oscillatory activity through optogenetic stimulation of parvalbumin-expressing interneurons in mice during retrieval of contextual fear and extinction memories. We found that exogenously induced 4 Hz and 8 Hz oscillatory activity in the BLA exerts bi-directional control over conditioned freezing behavior in an experience- and context-specific manner, and that these oscillations have an experience-dependent ability to recruit distinct functional neuronal ensembles. At the network level we demonstrate, via simultaneous manipulation of BLA and mPFC, that experience-dependent 4 Hz resonance across BLA-mPFC circuitry supports post-extinction fear memory retrieval. Our findings reveal that post-extinction fear memory retrieval is supported by local and interregional experience-dependent resonance, and suggest novel approaches for interrogation and therapeutic manipulation of acquired fear circuitry.


Assuntos
Tonsila do Cerebelo/fisiologia , Extinção Psicológica , Medo/fisiologia , Memória/fisiologia , Animais , Complexo Nuclear Basolateral da Amígdala/fisiologia , Condicionamento Psicológico , Eletrofisiologia/métodos , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Camundongos , Optogenética/métodos , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiologia
17.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4217, 2020 08 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32868778

RESUMO

The cerebellum plays a crucial role in sensorimotor and associative learning. However, the contribution of molecular layer interneurons (MLIs) to these processes is not well understood. We used two-photon microscopy to study the role of ensembles of cerebellar MLIs in a go-no go task where mice obtain a sugar water reward if they lick a spout in the presence of the rewarded odorant and avoid a timeout when they refrain from licking for the unrewarded odorant. In naive animals the MLI responses did not differ between the odorants. With learning, the rewarded odorant elicited a large increase in MLI calcium responses, and the identity of the odorant could be decoded from the differential response. Importantly, MLIs switched odorant responses when the valence of the stimuli was reversed. Finally, mice took a longer time to refrain from licking in the presence of the unrewarded odorant and had difficulty becoming proficient when MLIs were inhibited by chemogenetic intervention. Our findings support a role for MLIs in learning valence in the cerebellum.


Assuntos
Cerebelo/fisiologia , Condicionamento Operante/fisiologia , Interneurônios/fisiologia , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Células de Purkinje/fisiologia , Algoritmos , Animais , Cerebelo/citologia , Feminino , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Transgênicos , Microscopia de Fluorescência por Excitação Multifotônica , Modelos Neurológicos , Odorantes , Recompensa , Fatores de Tempo
18.
An. psicol ; 36(2): 283-294, mayo 2020. ilus, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-192065

RESUMO

Identificar factores instruccionales específicos relacionados con progresos en comprensión lectora es esencial para optimizar el aprendizaje y orientar la intervención, especialmente en contextos de desventaja socio-cultural o dificultades de aprendizaje. Este estudio pretende identificar patrones instruccionales de mediación eficaces en la explicación del progreso en comprensión. Se grabaron, transcribieron y analizaron sistemáticamente 82 sesiones-clase, y se registraron pautas de mediación relativas a diferentes procesos lectores. Los patrones de mediación fueron analizados mediante codificación y categorización del contenido con el programa Maxqdea-7. Fueron consideradas 19 categorías, que aglutinaron 178 unidades de información significativas (pautas/conductas de mediación). La muestra estuvo compuesta por 21 docentes y 821 estudiantes de tercero a octavo grado de Educación Básica de escuelas públicas de Chile ubicadas en contextos de-privados socialmente. El progreso lector se midió con la prueba estandarizada CL-PT, aplicada al principio y al final del curso escolar. Los resultados permitieron identificar pautas específicas de mediación significativas en la explicación del progreso, especialmente el patrón M_17 (Mediación del uso de estrategias para la activación e integración de conocimientos previos) explicaba el 26% de la varianza (r = .55, p < .01; R2ajustado = .26, F (1, 19) = 8.19, p = .01). Se discuten las implicaciones educativas de estos resultados


Identifying specific instructional factors related to progress in reading comprehension is essential to optimize learning and guide intervention, especially in contexts of sociocultural disadvantage or learning difficulties. This study aims to identify effective mediational instructional patterns in the explanation of progress in reading comprehension. Teaching guidelines were systematically recorded in relation to different reading processes. Eighty-two sessions were recorded, transcribed and analyzed by coding and categorizing the content of the sessions through the Maxqdea-7 program. Nineteen categories were considered, which comprised 178 significant units of information (mediation guidelines). The sample consisted of 21 teachers and 821 students from third to the eighth grade of public schools of Chile located in deprived contexts. Reading progress was measured with the standardized CL-PT test, which was applied at the beginning and end of the school year. The results have allowed identifying mediation patterns with a significant relevance in the explanation of reading progress, especially the pattern M_P17 (Mediation of the use of strategies for the activation and integration of previous knowledge) managed to explain 26% of the variance in the progress (r = .55, p < .01; R2adjusted = .26, F(1, 19) = 8.19, p = .01). The educational implications of these results are discussed


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Compreensão , Populações Vulneráveis , Leitura , Aprendizagem , Docentes/normas , Desempenho Acadêmico/psicologia , Estudantes/psicologia , Metacognição/fisiologia , Estudos Transversais , 25783 , Recursos Audiovisuais/normas , Ajustamento Social , Análise de Regressão , Desempenho Acadêmico/normas
19.
CBE Life Sci Educ ; 19(3): es11, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32870086

RESUMO

Recent calls in biology education research (BER) have recommended that researchers leverage learning theories and methodologies from other disciplines to investigate the mechanisms by which students to develop sophisticated ideas. We suggest design-based research from the learning sciences is a compelling methodology for achieving this aim. Design-based research investigates the "learning ecologies" that move student thinking toward mastery. These "learning ecologies" are grounded in theories of learning, produce measurable changes in student learning, generate design principles that guide the development of instructional tools, and are enacted using extended, iterative teaching experiments. In this essay, we introduce readers to the key elements of design-based research, using our own research into student learning in undergraduate physiology as an example of design-based research in BER. Then, we discuss how design-based research can extend work already done in BER and foster interdisciplinary collaborations among cognitive and learning scientists, biology education researchers, and instructors. We also explore some of the challenges associated with this methodological approach.


Assuntos
Biologia/educação , Pesquisa/educação , Comportamento Cooperativo , Humanos , Aprendizagem , Fisiologia/educação , Estudantes
20.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4783, 2020 09 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32963219

RESUMO

Relations between task elements often follow hidden underlying structural forms such as periodicities or hierarchies, whose inferences fosters performance. However, transferring structural knowledge to novel environments requires flexible representations that are generalizable over particularities of the current environment, such as its stimuli and size. We suggest that humans represent structural forms as abstract basis sets and that in novel tasks, the structural form is inferred and the relevant basis set is transferred. Using a computational model, we show that such representation allows inference of the underlying structural form, important task states, effective behavioural policies and the existence of unobserved state-trajectories. In two experiments, participants learned three abstract graphs during two successive days. We tested how structural knowledge acquired on Day-1 affected Day-2 performance. In line with our model, participants who had a correct structural prior were able to infer the existence of unobserved state-trajectories and appropriate behavioural policies.


Assuntos
Cognição/fisiologia , Conhecimento , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Tomada de Decisões , Humanos , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Modelos Teóricos
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