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1.
BMC Med Educ ; 21(1): 321, 2021 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34090423

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Reflection and various approaches to foster reflection have been regarded as an indispensable element in enhancing professional practice across different disciplines. With its inherent potential to engage learners in reflection and improvement, narrative medicine has been adopted in various settings. However, the relevance and effectiveness of reflection remains underexplored in the context of narrative medicine, specifically in regard to the concern about variability of learner acceptance and the way learners really make sense of these reflective activities. This study aimed to explore what medical learners experience through narrative medicine and the meanings they ascribe to the phenomenon of this narrative-based learning. METHODS: Using a transcendental phenomenology approach, twenty medical learners were interviewed about their lived experiences of taking a narrative medicine course during their internal medicine clerkship rotation. Moustakas' phenomenological analysis procedures were applied to review the interview data. RESULTS: Six themes were identified: feeling hesitation, seeking guidance, shifting roles in narratives, questioning relationships, experiencing transformation, and requesting a safe learning environment. These themes shaped the essence of the phenomenon and illustrated what and how medical learners set out on a reflective journey in narrative medicine. These findings elucidate fundamental elements for educators to consider how narrative approaches can be effectively used to engage learners in reflective learning and practice. CONCLUSION: Adopting Moustakas' transcendental phenomenology approach, a better understanding about the lived experiences of medical learners regarding learning in narrative medicine was identified. Learner hesitancy should be tackled with care by educators so as to support learners with strategies that address guidance, relationship, and learning environment. In so doing, medical learners can be facilitated to develop reflective capabilities for professional and personal growth.


Assuntos
Medicina Narrativa , Compreensão , Humanos , Aprendizagem , Narração
2.
BMC Med Educ ; 21(1): 320, 2021 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34090439

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Self-regulated learning (SRL) is an important contributing element to the academic success of students. Literature suggests that the understanding of SRL among medical students is obscure as there is still some uncertainty about whether high performing medical students use SRL. This study explored the characteristics of high performing medical students from the SRL perspective to gain a better understanding of the application of SRL for effective learning. METHODS: Twenty-one students who scored at the 90th percentile in written knowledge-based assessment consented to participate in this study. Each student wrote a guided reflective journal and subsequently attended a semi-structured interview. Students were prompted to explain the rationales for their answers. The data were then analysed using thematic analysis to identify patterns among these students from the SRL perspective. Two coders analysed the data independently and discussed the codes to reach a consensus. RESULTS: High performing students set goals, made plans, and motivated themselves to achieve the goals. They put consistent efforts into their studies and applied effective learning strategies. They also employed coping mechanisms to deal with challenges. High performing students regularly evaluated their performance and adopted new strategies. CONCLUSIONS: This study reported that high performing students applied SRL and described the rationales of practice. Medical schools could design SRL-driven interventions to enhance the learning experiences of medical students. Recommendations are made for students on how to apply SRL.


Assuntos
Educação de Graduação em Medicina , Estudantes de Medicina , Competência Clínica , Humanos , Aprendizagem , Pesquisa Qualitativa
3.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 282: 176-182, 2021 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34085967

RESUMO

The purpose of this paper is to introduce participants to our journey of integrating Universal Design as a central part of a new Technological University in addressing the challenge of a consistent quality experience for all learners. Adopting and combining both the principles of universal design and universal design for learning is not to make it easier but to offer a framework of principles and guidelines to make education appropriate and challenging for everyone. Ken Robinson wrote "A vibrant school can nourish an entire community by becoming a source of hope and creative energy…Poor schools can drain the optimism from all the students and families who depend on it by diminishing their opportunities for growth and development" (1).


Assuntos
Aprendizagem , Design Universal , Currículo , Humanos , Instituições Acadêmicas , Estudantes
4.
Wiad Lek ; 74(5): 1086-1092, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34090269

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim: Study of psychophysiological features of children depending on gender in the dynamics of the school year and the action of parents on preventive measures among primary school children. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Materials and methods: The study of biological adaptation of primary school students was conducted in two stages among second-graders (children 7-8 years) in the dynamics of the week and year. A total of 46 children (24 girls and 22 boys). The psychophysiological part of the study included electroencephalography (EEG) recording to assess the individual characteristics of the nervous system and determine mental performance. The next step was to determine mental performance, which is one of the important criteria for the health of schoolchildren, which characterizes the relationship between the functional state of the child's body and learning load. The analysis of mental capacity was conducted at school with the permission of parents during the first school week and the last school week. RESULTS: Results: Based on the recorded EEG, the average values of the peak frequencies in each lead in the five ranges were calculated. When comparing the average values of indicators recorded in the modes of quiet wakefulness and mental load (mental account) at the beginning of the year, using a nonparametric criterion of signs revealed significant (p <0,05) differences between peak frequencies in the ranges ß1 and ß2 . The average peak frequency in the ß1 range at rest (14.3 ± 0.5 Hz) is higher than during mental stress (13.8 ± 0.4 Hz). autonomy of regulation (p <0.01) in girls at the end of the school year is characterized by higher values. Analysis of data on the mental capacity of first-graders showed that the dynamics of the week among boys the number of traced signs increased from (120.5 ± 2.6) to (122.3 ± 4.8) signs, (p > 0.05) by the end of the week , and had the largest number of signs on Wednesday (127.4 ± 4.2) but had no significant difference. CONCLUSION: Conclusions: Preventive measures such as sleep and rest, walks in the fresh air aimed at promoting health can be the same for both girls and boys, but more attention and control over the implementation of these measures should be paid to boys.


Assuntos
Instituições Acadêmicas , Estudantes , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Aprendizagem , Masculino , Pais , Estresse Psicológico
5.
BMC Res Notes ; 14(1): 235, 2021 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34134764

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Cross-sectional studies reported increased postural sway during balance tasks with a high (e.g., unipedal stance on foam ground) compared to a low (e.g., unipedal stance on firm ground) level of task difficulty. Therefore, practicing/training balance tasks using high compared to low stimuli seems to be beneficial as it addresses larger adaptive reserves. Thus, the present study was performed to investigate the role of task difficulty during practice on learning a dynamic balance task in healthy young adults. RESULTS: During acquisition, both practice groups ("Easy" or "Difficult" task condition) significantly improved their performance (i.e., time in balance). Further, the statistical analysis of post-practice performance revealed a significant main effect of test (i.e., better performance under easy compared to difficult test conditions, irrespective of group) but not of group. Additionally, the Group × Test interaction did not reach the level of significance, indicating that learning a dynamic balance task did not depend on the practiced task condition.


Assuntos
Aprendizagem , Equilíbrio Postural , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Adulto Jovem
6.
J Pak Med Assoc ; 71(4): 1157-1161, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34125762

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the frequency of learning styles of medical students and their association with preferred teaching methodologies. METHODS: The cross-sectional study was conducted at Baqai Medical College, Gadap, Karachi, form July to October 2019, and comprised medical students regardless of age, gender and academic year. David Kolb's learning style questionnaire, along with another questionnaire, was used to collect data. Data was analysed using SPSS 23. RESULTS: Of the 523 students, 213(40.7%) were males and 310(59.3%) were females. The overall mean age was 21.5±1.69 years. Of the total, 268(51.7%) students were divergers, 118(22.8%) assimilators, 86(16.6%) accomodators and 46(8.9%) were convergers. There was a significant association between learning styles and selected teaching methodologies (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Majority students were found to be divergers and assimilators. Aligning instructional strategies with learning styles will improve learning and academic performance.


Assuntos
Estudantes de Medicina , Adulto , Cognição , Estudos Transversais , Escolaridade , Feminino , Humanos , Aprendizagem , Masculino , Ensino , Adulto Jovem
7.
J Pak Med Assoc ; 71(4): 1214-1220, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34125774

RESUMO

Behaviourism is the underpinning learning theory of many teaching and assessment tools utilised to enhance the effectiveness of learning. Feedback, reinforcements, motivation, learning outcomes and objectives are a few among many which are implied by the medical teachers while teaching both basic and clinical sciences to students. The claim of behaviourism being redundant or dead is not based on realities. The behaviourist approach is and will remain the most powerful theory to be implied in educational processes for gaining successful outcomes.


Assuntos
Educação Médica , Estudantes de Medicina , Logro , Behaviorismo , Humanos , Aprendizagem , Motivação , Ensino
8.
Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 37(6): 569-574, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34060452

RESUMO

Molecular biology theory and technology, as a frontier subject of life sciences, are developing rapidly. As the key link between theory and practice, molecular biology experimental courses play an important role in the cultivation of students' critical thinking and innovation abilities. This paper analyzed the critical issues in experimental teaching by collecting and reflecting on students' feedbacks. With a focus on the Empowerment and Efficiency Oriented Teaching, the study was aimed at improving students' hands-on and thinking ability, and raising the efficacy of education. A series of measures were taken in attempts to renew the setting of teaching content and reconstruct the classroom timing allotment. The reform of the teaching scheme not only significantly increases students' understanding and mastery of knowledge, and empowers students with stronger thinking and learning abilities, but also enhances the teaching efficacy of experimental courses and further improves students' scientific literacy.


Assuntos
Aprendizagem , Estudantes , Humanos , Biologia Molecular
9.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(9)2021 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34063180

RESUMO

Collaboration is an important 21st Century skill. Co-located (or face-to-face) collaboration (CC) analytics gained momentum with the advent of sensor technology. Most of these works have used the audio modality to detect the quality of CC. The CC quality can be detected from simple indicators of collaboration such as total speaking time or complex indicators like synchrony in the rise and fall of the average pitch. Most studies in the past focused on "how group members talk" (i.e., spectral, temporal features of audio like pitch) and not "what they talk". The "what" of the conversations is more overt contrary to the "how" of the conversations. Very few studies studied "what" group members talk about, and these studies were lab based showing a representative overview of specific words as topic clusters instead of analysing the richness of the content of the conversations by understanding the linkage between these words. To overcome this, we made a starting step in this technical paper based on field trials to prototype a tool to move towards automatic collaboration analytics. We designed a technical setup to collect, process and visualize audio data automatically. The data collection took place while a board game was played among the university staff with pre-assigned roles to create awareness of the connection between learning analytics and learning design. We not only did a word-level analysis of the conversations, but also analysed the richness of these conversations by visualizing the strength of the linkage between these words and phrases interactively. In this visualization, we used a network graph to visualize turn taking exchange between different roles along with the word-level and phrase-level analysis. We also used centrality measures to understand the network graph further based on how much words have hold over the network of words and how influential are certain words. Finally, we found that this approach had certain limitations in terms of automation in speaker diarization (i.e., who spoke when) and text data pre-processing. Therefore, we concluded that even though the technical setup was partially automated, it is a way forward to understand the richness of the conversations between different roles and makes a significant step towards automatic collaboration analytics.


Assuntos
Percepção da Fala , Fala , Automação , Comunicação , Humanos , Aprendizagem
10.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(11)2021 May 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34070237

RESUMO

Virtual reality (VR) has been widely used as a tool to assist people by letting them learn and simulate situations that are too dangerous and risky to practice in real life, and one of these is road safety training for children. Traditional video- and presentation-based road safety training has average output results as it lacks physical practice and the involvement of children during training, without any practical testing examination to check the learned abilities of a child before their exposure to real-world environments. Therefore, in this paper, we propose a 3D realistic open-ended VR and Kinect sensor-based training setup using the Unity game engine, wherein children are educated and involved in road safety exercises. The proposed system applies the concepts of VR in a game-like setting to let the children learn about traffic rules and practice them in their homes without any risk of being exposed to the outside environment. Thus, with our interactive and immersive training environment, we aim to minimize road accidents involving children and contribute to the generic domain of healthcare. Furthermore, the proposed framework evaluates the overall performance of the students in a virtual environment (VE) to develop their road-awareness skills. To ensure safety, the proposed system has an extra examination layer for children's abilities evaluation, whereby a child is considered fit for real-world practice in cases where they fulfil certain criteria by achieving set scores. To show the robustness and stability of the proposed system, we conduct four types of subjective activities by involving a group of ten students with average grades in their classes. The experimental results show the positive effect of the proposed system in improving the road crossing behavior of the children.


Assuntos
Realidade Virtual , Acidentes , Acidentes de Trânsito/prevenção & controle , Criança , Humanos , Aprendizagem , Estudantes
11.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(11)2021 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34071960

RESUMO

Maximizing performance success in sports is about continuous learning and adaptation processes. Aside from physiological, technical and emotional performance factors, previous research focused on perceptual skills, revealing their importance for decision-making. This includes deriving relevant environmental information as a result of eye, head and body movement interaction. However, to evaluate visual exploratory activity (VEA), generally utilized laboratory settings have restrictions that disregard the representativeness of assessment environments and/or decouple coherent cognitive and motor tasks. In vivo studies, however, are costly and hard to reproduce. Furthermore, the application of elaborate methods like eye tracking are cumbersome to implement and necessitate expert knowledge to interpret results correctly. In this paper, we introduce a virtual reality-based reproducible assessment method allowing the evaluation of VEA. To give insights into perceptual-cognitive processes, an easily interpretable head movement-based metric, quantifying VEA of athletes, is investigated. Our results align with comparable in vivo experiments and consequently extend them by showing the validity of the implemented approach as well as the use of virtual reality to determine characteristics among different skill levels. The findings imply that the developed method could provide accurate assessments while improving the control, validity and interpretability, which in turn informs future research and developments.


Assuntos
Esportes , Realidade Virtual , Atletas , Humanos , Aprendizagem , Movimento
12.
Korean J Med Educ ; 33(2): 87-96, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34062640

RESUMO

PURPOSE: With the ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, health institutions and hospitals are increasingly relying on e-learning for continuing education. However, in many countries there is still limited data on the effectiveness of online learning particularly in the healthcare field. This study aims to evaluate whether webinar as a form of online educational intervention is satisfactory and effective for the continuing education of health professionals in Indonesia. METHODS: We collected participants' demographic information including health profession, place of work, work unit, and year of graduation. There were six independent webinars included in this study. Webinar outcomes included satisfaction and learning scores. Regarding satisfaction, participants were told to complete a satisfaction survey and asked whether they would recommend the webinar to their colleagues. Regarding learning, information on their mean pre-test and post-test scores was collected. RESULTS: A total of 3,607 health professionals were enrolled, with the highest participation in webinars about emergency cases and COVID-19 management. The response towards satisfaction was overwhelmingly positive. In all six webinars, post-test scores were statistically significantly higher than pre-test scores. Recently graduated physicians scored higher in learning than senior physicians, while place of work and work unit did not significantly affect the scores. CONCLUSION: The use of webinar for health professionals training in Indonesia was well-received amid the ongoing pandemic. In the future, health institutions and teaching hospitals should optimize the implementation of webinar training as it is associated with low cost, high flexibility, and less time commuting.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Educação Continuada/métodos , Educação à Distância , Pessoal de Saúde , Pandemias , Análise Custo-Benefício , Gerenciamento Clínico , Avaliação Educacional , Hospitais de Ensino , Humanos , Indonésia , Aprendizagem , Satisfação Pessoal , Médicos , SARS-CoV-2 , Ensino
13.
Korean J Med Educ ; 33(2): 125-131, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34062644

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study aims to analyze pre-clerkship medical students' learning strategies and perceptions in online classes during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. METHODS: To develop the survey items, 20 pre-clerkship students were interviewed about their learning experiences in the first semester of 2020. A total of 425 pre-clerkship students have participated in the survey, which comprised four parts (general experience, learning strategies, important features, and overall satisfaction). RESULTS: Before classes began, students generally had "neutral expectations" about online classes (2.90 out of 5). At the end of the semester, overall satisfaction with the curriculum was moderate (3.04 out of 5). Premedical students reported lower scores in "daily study hours" and "regular lifestyle" and higher scores in "experience of playing recorded lectures solely for an attendance check" (p<0.001). In addition, first-year premedical students not only showed significantly lower utilization of learning strategies compared to other grades (p<0.001). CONCLUSION: Although pre-clerkship students mostly shared similar perceptions and behaviors in their learning regardless of grade level, some characteristics were either more prominent in premedical students on the whole or limited to first-year premedical students.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Educação à Distância , Educação de Graduação em Medicina/métodos , Aprendizagem , Pandemias , Estudantes de Medicina , Adolescente , Adulto , Atitude , Estágio Clínico , Currículo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Percepção , Satisfação Pessoal , SARS-CoV-2 , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
17.
BMC Med Educ ; 21(1): 309, 2021 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34059030

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic and palliative care are rapidly gaining importance within the physician's range of duties. In this context, it is important to address the four dimensions of care: physical, psychological, social, and spiritual. Medical students, however, feel inadequately equipped to discuss these dimensions with the patient. To bridge this gap, a new assignment was developed and implemented, in which students talked to a chronic or palliative patient about the four dimensions of care during an internship. This study, reports the evaluation of this assignment by students and teachers using a design-based approach. METHODS: Mixed methods were used, including a) student questionnaires, b) student focus groups, c) teacher interviews, and d) student's written reflections. Two researchers performed analyses of the qualitative data from the focus groups, interviews, and written reflections using qualitative research software (ALTLAS.TI). Descriptive statistics were computed for the quantitative data using SPSS 21.0. RESULTS: Students and teachers valued talking to an actual patient about the four dimensions of care. Reading and providing peer feedback on each other's reports was considered valuable, especially when it came to the diversity of illnesses, the way that patients cope and communication techniques. The students considered reflection useful, especially in the group and provided it was not too frequent. All the dimensions were addressed in the interviews, however the spiritual dimension was found to be the most difficult to discuss. The analysis of the written reflections revealed an overlap between the social and spiritual dimensions. Students pay a lot of attention to the relationship between the illness and the patient's daily life, but the reflections do often not show insight in the potential relationship between the four dimensions and decisions in patient care. CONCLUSIONS: During internships, medical students can practice talking about four dimensions of care with a chronically ill or palliative patient. Due to the format, it can be implemented across existing internships with relatively little extra time and effort. Reflection, peer feedback, and group discussion under the guidance of a teacher are important additions.


Assuntos
Educação de Graduação em Medicina , Estudantes de Medicina , Currículo , Avaliação Educacional , Humanos , Aprendizagem
18.
Rev Bras Enferm ; 74(6): e20200445, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34133668

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: to develop and validate a scenario for clinical simulation in nursing education on the management of severe preeclampsia in the puerperium. METHOD: methodological study in five stages (overview, scenario, scenario design progression, debriefing and assessment), developed from March to December 2019, involving 10 volunteers (one professor, five actors and four judges). Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and Content Validation Index. RESULTS: the scenario was built from the definition of learning objectives that meet the needs of nursing education. From the completion of a Likert scale, by the judges in on-site validation, a Content Validity Index of 1.0 was reached, which indicates 100% agreement in the assessed items. CONCLUSION: the scenario was validated. It is expected that teaching by simulation will be expanded and that new studies of scenario validation will contribute to the preparation of future nurses, based on the most recent scientific evidence.


Assuntos
Educação em Enfermagem , Pré-Eclâmpsia , Feminino , Humanos , Aprendizagem , Período Pós-Parto , Pré-Eclâmpsia/terapia , Gravidez
19.
Rev Bras Enferm ; 74(3): e20201106, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34133683

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: to report the experience using ludic strategies for the teaching-learning in the elaboration of the genogram and ecomap; and the use of these instruments by Nursing students in the Primary Health Care services. METHODS: an experience report of the discipline Integrity of Care I (Integralidade do Cuidado I), of the Nursing School of Ribeirao Preto. Problems scenarios were created to approach the genogram and ecomap, comprising different family arrangements, represented by pedagogic puppets. RESULTS: students actively participated, held collective discussions, elaborated genogram, and ecomap, identified the type of family, and the stages of the vital cycle, providing increased dynamics and interactivity. Subsequently, in supervised activities in Primary Health Care services, students elaborated the genogram and ecomap to monitor a family. FINAL CONSIDERATIONS: the use of ludic strategies propitiates the teamwork, active interaction of the group, and the creativity. The articulation between theory and practice resulted in a significant learning.


Assuntos
Aprendizagem , Brasil , Humanos
20.
BMC Med Educ ; 21(1): 338, 2021 Jun 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34107935

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Molding competent clinicians capable of applying ethics principles in their practice is a challenging task, compounded by wide variations in the teaching and assessment of ethics in the postgraduate setting. Despite these differences, ethics training programs should recognise that the transition from medical students to healthcare professionals entails a longitudinal process where ethics knowledge, skills and identity continue to build and deepen over time with clinical exposure. A systematic scoping review is proposed to analyse current postgraduate medical ethics training and assessment programs in peer-reviewed literature to guide the development of a local physician training curriculum. METHODS: With a constructivist perspective and relativist lens, this systematic scoping review on postgraduate medical ethics training and assessment will adopt the Systematic Evidence Based Approach (SEBA) to create a transparent and reproducible review. RESULTS: The first search involving the teaching of ethics yielded 7669 abstracts with 573 full text articles evaluated and 66 articles included. The second search involving the assessment of ethics identified 9919 abstracts with 333 full text articles reviewed and 29 articles included. The themes identified from the two searches were the goals and objectives, content, pedagogy, enabling and limiting factors of teaching ethics and assessment modalities used. Despite inherent disparities in ethics training programs, they provide a platform for learners to apply knowledge, translating it to skill and eventually becoming part of the identity of the learner. Illustrating the longitudinal nature of ethics training, the spiral curriculum seamlessly integrates and fortifies prevailing ethical knowledge acquired in medical school with the layering of new specialty, clinical and research specific content in professional practice. Various assessment methods are employed with special mention of portfolios as a longitudinal assessment modality that showcase the impact of ethics training on the development of professional identity formation (PIF). CONCLUSIONS: Our systematic scoping review has elicited key learning points in the teaching and assessment of ethics in the postgraduate setting. However, more research needs to be done on establishing Entrustable Professional Activities (EPA)s in ethics, with further exploration of the use of portfolios and key factors influencing its design, implementation and assessment of PIF and micro-credentialling in ethics practice.


Assuntos
Currículo , Estudantes de Medicina , Pessoal de Saúde/educação , Humanos , Aprendizagem , Faculdades de Medicina
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