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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 103(15): e37755, 2024 Apr 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38608114

RESUMO

Gestational Diabetes Mellitus is an important public health problem that often occurs during pregnancy. This study aimed to reveal the experiences of women with gestational diabetes regarding the fear of having diabetes in their babies. A qualitative research method was carried out with a phenomenological approach. The interviews had a semi-structured form and were recorded on an online/face-to-face voice recorder, and thematic content analysis was performed on the MAXQDA22. Following the inclusion criteria, 12 women with gestational diabetes from the 2 hospitals in the study were included, and in this way, the study reached saturation. As a result of the interviews, 4 main themes and one subtheme were obtained from coding. The main themes were "sugar baby," "risky child," "raising a fearful baby," and "problematic gene carrier." From the main theme of "problematic gene carrier," the subtheme of "pregnancies with problematic genes" was created. This research sheds light on the problems women with gestational diabetes experience with themselves and their babies, and how they deal with these problems. Women with gestational diabetes try to accept and cope with the diagnosis. This research shows that the women were worried about both themselves and their babies. Illuminating the experiences of women with gestational diabetes is part of an integrative care approach that will help increase quality care and treatment in endocrine clinics. More qualitative studies are needed to learn more about the experiences of women with gestational diabetes in endocrine clinics.


Assuntos
Diabetes Gestacional , Lactente , Criança , Gravidez , Feminino , Humanos , Medo , Hospitais , Aprendizagem , Pesquisa Qualitativa
2.
BMC Bioinformatics ; 25(1): 150, 2024 Apr 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38616247

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Eastern Africa Network for Bioinformatics Training (EANBiT) has matured through continuous evaluation, feedback, and codesign. We highlight how the program has evolved to meet challenges and achieve its goals and how experiential learning through mini projects enhances the acquisition of skills and collaboration. We continued to learn and grow through honest feedback and evaluation of the program, trainers, and modules, enabling us to provide robust training even during the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, when we had to redesign the program due to restricted travel and in person group meetings. RESULTS: In response to the pandemic, we developed a program to maintain "residential" training experiences and benefits remotely. We had to answer the following questions: What must change to still achieve the RT goals? What optimal platforms should be used? How would we manage connectivity and data challenges? How could we avoid online fatigue? Going virtual presented an opportunity to reflect on the essence and uniqueness of the program and its ability to meet the objective of strengthening bioinformatics skills among the cohorts of students using different delivery approaches. It allowed an increase in the number of participants. Evaluating each program component is critical for improvement, primarily when feedback feeds into the program's continuous amendment. Initially, the participants noted that there were too many modules, insufficient time, and a lack of hands-on training as a result of too much focus on theory. In the subsequent iterations, we reduced the number of modules from 27 to five, created a harmonized repository for the materials on GitHub, and introduced project-based learning through the mini projects. CONCLUSION: We demonstrate that implementing a program design through detailed monitoring and evaluation leads to success, especially when participants who are the best fit for the program are selected on an appropriate level of skills, motivation, and commitment.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Aprendizagem , Humanos , África Oriental , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Biologia Computacional , Pandemias
3.
IEEE Pulse ; 15(1): 20-23, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38619926

RESUMO

Throughout history, the world's biggest technological innovations have emerged from rich countries. Resource availability, economic prosperity that supports specialization in key areas of science and industry, and the concentrated centers of learning that such economies create all support this model. But history sometimes turns back on itself, and this is one of those moments.


Assuntos
Atenção à Saúde , Aprendizagem , Humanos , Invenções
4.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 121(18): e2312323121, 2024 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38621117

RESUMO

Zebra finches, a species of songbirds, learn to sing by creating an auditory template through the memorization of model songs (sensory learning phase) and subsequently translating these perceptual memories into motor skills (sensorimotor learning phase). It has been traditionally believed that babbling in juvenile birds initiates the sensorimotor phase while the sensory phase of song learning precedes the onset of babbling. However, our findings challenge this notion by demonstrating that testosterone-induced premature babbling actually triggers the onset of the sensory learning phase instead. We reveal that juvenile birds must engage in babbling and self-listening to acquire the tutor song as the template. Notably, the sensory learning of the template in songbirds requires motor vocal activity, reflecting the observation that prelinguistic babbling in humans plays a crucial role in auditory learning for language acquisition.


Assuntos
Tentilhões , Animais , Humanos , Vocalização Animal , Aprendizagem , Desenvolvimento da Linguagem
5.
Zebrafish ; 21(2): 73-79, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38621202

RESUMO

The goal of the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee WInSTEP SEPA program is to provide valuable and relevant research experiences to students and instructors in diverse secondary educational settings. Introducing an online experience allows the expansion of a proven instructional research program to a national scale and removes many common barriers. These can include lack of access to zebrafish embryos, laboratory equipment, and modern classroom facilities, which often deny disadvantaged and underrepresented students from urban and rural school districts valuable inquiry-based learning opportunities. An online repository of zebrafish embryo imagery was developed in the Carvan laboratory to assess the effects of environmental chemicals. The WInSTEP SEPA program expanded its use as an accessible online tool, complementing the existing classroom experience of our zebrafish module. This virtual laboratory environment contains images of zebrafish embryos grown in the presence of environmental toxicants (ethanol, caffeine, and nicotine), allowing students to collect data on 19 anatomical endpoints and generate significant amounts of data related to developmental toxicology and environmental health. This virtual laboratory offers students and instructors the choice of data sets that differ in the independent variables of chemical concentration and duration of postfertilization exposure. This enables students considerable flexibility in establishing their own experimental design to match the curriculum needs of each instructor.


Assuntos
Estudantes , Peixe-Zebra , Animais , Humanos , Saúde Ambiental/educação , Aprendizagem , Laboratórios , Currículo
6.
Ann Intern Med ; 177(4): 540, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38621275

Assuntos
Aprendizagem , Humanos
7.
Zhongguo Zhen Jiu ; 44(4): 479-483, 2024 Apr 12.
Artigo em Inglês, Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38621737

RESUMO

"Ningbo oriental acupuncture-moxibustion society" was founded in 1930 by ZHANG Junyi. At that era, the enrollment conditions were flexible, the disciplines of warm moxibustion and acupuncture-moxibustion were set and taught by means of face-to-face class and correspondence one. The teaching content included the knowledge of western learning and traditional theory of acupuncture-moxibustion. The Society issued two periodicals, MedicalNewspaper of Warm Moxibustion and Oriental Acupuncture and Moxibustion, the staffs of the Society compiled teaching materials such as Warm Moxibustion and Advanced Acupuncture-Moxibustion, translated relevant books and improved the device and herbal medicine of warm moxibustion. The students trained in the Society worked all of the country and engaged in various professional fields. "Ningbo oriental acupuncture-moxibustion society" has cultivated a large number of excellent talents, adhering the teaching concept of integration of Chinese and western medicine, and has made the contribution to the preservation of precious literature, and promoting the innovation of acupuncture-moxibustion technology and the dissemination of warm moxibustion.


Assuntos
Terapia por Acupuntura , Acupuntura , Moxibustão , Humanos , Acupuntura/educação , Estudantes , Aprendizagem
8.
Adv Physiol Educ ; 48(2): 347-355, 2024 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38625130

RESUMO

Preparing students for the transition to graduate-level education with greater learning demands in a condensed time frame is a challenging process for health professions educators and incoming students. Prematriculation programs offer a solution for exposing students to the foundational sciences in preparation for the academic rigor of a doctoral program. This retrospective study assessed whether incoming students enrolled across 3 yr of a 2-day online anatomy workshop, offered in July and August before the start of their first semester resulted in improved anatomy knowledge. Whether this acquired knowledge translated to improved anatomy outcomes in the first semester of a Doctor of Physical Therapy program was also assessed, while also accounting for variables of gender, ethnicity, and grade-point average. Knowledge acquired during both days of the workshop resulted in statistically significant improvements in anatomy postquiz scores compared to the baseline prequiz (P < 0.001). Multivariate regression analyses demonstrated statistically significant relationships between the first-semester anatomy practical score and workshop participation (P = 0.04) as well as a predictive value of gender (P = 0.01). Evaluating a timing effect on the predictive value of the online anatomy workshop demonstrated statistically significant effects of the prematriculation workshop on both first-semester anatomy practicals for August (P = 0.03 for practical 1; P = 0.04 for practical 2) but not July workshop participants. Findings from this study support the utility of an online prematriculation anatomy workshop to prepare students for graduate-level anatomy learning expectations in a doctoral allied health program.NEW & NOTEWORTHY This paper presents the findings of a retrospective study examining the effectiveness of an online prematriculation anatomy workshop on knowledge acquisition and first-semester anatomy competency following the success of a previously offered peer-led onsite workshop. To our knowledge, this is the first report of an online prematriculation program that successfully introduces graduate-level learning expectations and access to anatomical resources leading to improved anatomy competency in an allied health professional program.


Assuntos
Aprendizagem , Estudantes , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Escolaridade , Ocupações em Saúde
9.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 121(15): e2317618121, 2024 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38557193

RESUMO

Throughout evolution, bacteria and other microorganisms have learned efficient foraging strategies that exploit characteristic properties of their unknown environment. While much research has been devoted to the exploration of statistical models describing the dynamics of foraging bacteria and other (micro-) organisms, little is known, regarding the question of how good the learned strategies actually are. This knowledge gap is largely caused by the absence of methods allowing to systematically develop alternative foraging strategies to compare with. In the present work, we use deep reinforcement learning to show that a smart run-and-tumble agent, which strives to find nutrients for its survival, learns motion patterns that are remarkably similar to the trajectories of chemotactic bacteria. Strikingly, despite this similarity, we also find interesting differences between the learned tumble rate distribution and the one that is commonly assumed for the run and tumble model. We find that these differences equip the agent with significant advantages regarding its foraging and survival capabilities. Our results uncover a generic route to use deep reinforcement learning for discovering search and collection strategies that exploit characteristic but initially unknown features of the environment. These results can be used, e.g., to program future microswimmers, nanorobots, and smart active particles for tasks like searching for cancer cells, micro-waste collection, or environmental remediation.


Assuntos
Aprendizagem , Reforço Psicológico , Modelos Estatísticos , Movimento (Física) , Bactérias
10.
BMJ Paediatr Open ; 8(1)2024 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38627059

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cancer treatment for children is typically long-term and difficult, and the experience is unique for each child. When designing child-centred care, individuals' values and preferences are considered equally important as the clinical evidence; therefore, understanding children's thoughts and attitudes while they receive long-term treatment could offer valuable insights for better clinical practice. METHODS: We conducted long-term consecutive participatory observations and interviews with seven children, who were hospitalised and receiving cancer treatment for the first time. The daily observational data on those children's discourses, behaviours and interactions with health professionals were systematically collected and thematically examined. The analysis was expanded to explore significant narratives for each child to capture their narrative sequence over time. RESULTS: The initial analysis identified 685 narrative indexes for all observation data, which were categorised into 21 sub-codes. Those sub-codes were assembled into five main themes by thematic analysis: making promises with health professionals, learning about the treatment procedures through participation, taking care of oneself, increasing the range of activities one can perform and living an ordinary life. CONCLUSION: We observed a forward-looking attitude toward understanding cancer, accepting treatment and looking forward to the future among children undergoing in-hospital cancer treatment. In addition, the children developed cognitively, affectively and relationally throughout cancer treatment processes. These findings have implications for better clinical practice in child-centred care, including children's participation in shared decision-making in paediatric oncology.


Assuntos
Antropologia Cultural , Neoplasias , Humanos , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Cognição , Aprendizagem , Neoplasias/terapia
11.
BMC Med Educ ; 24(1): 414, 2024 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38627720

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The use of virtual learning platforms is on the rise internationally, however, successful integration into existing curricula is a complex undertaking fraught with unintended consequences. Looking beyond medical and pedagogic literature can provide insight into factors affecting the user experience. The technology acceptance model, widely used in software evaluation, can be used to identify barriers and enablers of engagement with virtual learning platforms. Here, the technology acceptance model was used to scaffold the exploration of the factors that influenced students' perceptions of the virtual anatomy platform, Anatomage and how these shaped their intention to use it. METHODS: Focus groups identified factors influencing students use of the Anatomage tables. Interventions were rolled out to address these findings, then further focus groups and the technology acceptance model identified how factors including self-efficacy, enjoyment, and social norms influenced students' intention to use the Anatomage table in the future. RESULTS: Students raised significant concerns about understanding how to use the Anatomage table. Moreover, students who considered themselves to be poor at using technology perceived the Anatomage table as more complicated to use. The subjective norm of the group significantly altered the perceived ease of use and usefulness of the Anatomage. However, enjoyment had the greatest impact in influencing both perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use. Indicating that enjoyment is the largest contributing factor in altering technology engagement in healthcare cohorts and has the biggest potential to be manipulated to promote engagement. CONCLUSIONS: Focus groups used in tandem with the technology acceptance model provide an effective way to understand student perceptions around technology used in the healthcare curricula. This research determined interventions that promote student engagement with virtual learning platforms, which are important in supporting all healthcare programmes that incorporate technology enhanced learning.


Assuntos
Aprendizagem , Estudantes , Humanos , Currículo , Software , Atenção à Saúde
12.
BMC Med Educ ; 24(1): 415, 2024 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38627740

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Suture knotting is the basis of surgical skills. In the process of surgical skills learning, the surrounding environment, especially the light, will affect the efficiency of learning. This study investigated the effect of optical environment on the learning of stitching and knotting skills. METHODS: A total of 44 medical students were randomly divided into four groups and participated in the study of suture knotting in four different optical environments. During the process, we assess objective pressure level by testing salivary amylase activity Likert scale and objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) was used to estimate the subjective psychological state and overall skill mastery in surgical suturing respectively. RESULTS: Under high illumination conditions (700 lx), the salivary amylase activity of the high color temperature group (6000 K) was significantly higher than that of the low color temperature group (4000 K) (p < 0.0001). Similarly, under low illumination (300 lx), the salivary amylase activity of the high color temperature group was also significantly higher than that of the low color temperature group (p < 0.05). The student under high illumination conditions (700 lx) and the low color temperature (6000 K) have an autonomy score between 37-45, which is significantly higher compared to the other three groups (p < 0.0001). Group 2 has an average OSCE score of 95.09, which were significantly higher than those of the other three groups (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: High illumination combined with low color temperature is considered as the optimal training conditions, promoting trainees' optimism, reducing stress levels, and enhancing learning efficiency. These results highlight the pivotal role of light environment in improving the quality and efficiency of surgical skills training.


Assuntos
Aprendizagem , Exame Físico , Humanos , Amilases , Competência Clínica , Técnicas de Sutura/educação
13.
Health Expect ; 27(2): e14040, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38629481

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Collaborations between patient organisations (POs) and the pharmaceutical industry can help identify and address the unmet needs of people living with a disease. In Alzheimer's disease (AD), the scale and complexity of the current unmet needs call for a broad and cross-sectoral collaboration, including people living with Alzheimer's (PLWA), their care partners and the wider research community. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to describe learnings from the Finding Alzheimer's Solutions Together (F.A.S.T.) Council, a collaboration between POs and Roche, convened to better understand the unmet needs of PLWA and their care partners. RESULTS: 1. Learnings from the collaboration, including clarifying objectives and members' expectations upfront, and establishing a set of guiding values and engagement principles. 2. Insights and recommendations for improving care in AD, including a wide range of unmet needs and potential solutions, systematically captured throughout the PLWA journey. These have resulted in several published reports and other outcomes, including (1) 'Portraits of care', highlighting the role of care partners, and the impact of coronavirus disease 2019 on care; (2) Clinical trial guidebook, recommending how PLWA and care partner experience can be incorporated into trial design; (3) 'Commitments Catalogue', highlighting progress by governmental organisations in achieving their commitments; and (4) a report to guide policy on improving diversity, equity and inclusion in clinical trials. CONCLUSIONS: Close collaboration between POs and the pharmaceutical industry in AD can enable effective research, in which PLWA and care partners are engaged as 'experts through experience' to help identify key unmet needs and co-create solutions with the wider AD research community. This paper and the work undertaken by the F.A.S.T. Council may act as a blueprint for meaningful collaboration between POs and the pharmaceutical industry. PATIENT OR PUBLIC CONTRIBUTION: The paper reports the collaboration between POs, the F.A.S.T. Council and Roche to progress towards a future in which PLWA can live fulfilling lives with their disease managed well. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: Not applicable.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Humanos , Doença de Alzheimer/terapia , Melhoria de Qualidade , Aprendizagem
14.
Elife ; 132024 Apr 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38629828

RESUMO

The presence of global synchronization of vasomotion induced by oscillating visual stimuli was identified in the mouse brain. Endogenous autofluorescence was used and the vessel 'shadow' was quantified to evaluate the magnitude of the frequency-locked vasomotion. This method allows vasomotion to be easily quantified in non-transgenic wild-type mice using either the wide-field macro-zoom microscopy or the deep-brain fiber photometry methods. Vertical stripes horizontally oscillating at a low temporal frequency (0.25 Hz) were presented to the awake mouse, and oscillatory vasomotion locked to the temporal frequency of the visual stimulation was induced not only in the primary visual cortex but across a wide surface area of the cortex and the cerebellum. The visually induced vasomotion adapted to a wide range of stimulation parameters. Repeated trials of the visual stimulus presentations resulted in the plastic entrainment of vasomotion. Horizontally oscillating visual stimulus is known to induce horizontal optokinetic response (HOKR). The amplitude of the eye movement is known to increase with repeated training sessions, and the flocculus region of the cerebellum is known to be essential for this learning to occur. Here, we show a strong correlation between the average HOKR performance gain and the vasomotion entrainment magnitude in the cerebellar flocculus. Therefore, the plasticity of vasomotion and neuronal circuits appeared to occur in parallel. Efficient energy delivery by the entrained vasomotion may contribute to meeting the energy demand for increased coordinated neuronal activity and the subsequent neuronal circuit reorganization.


Assuntos
Encéfalo , Cerebelo , Camundongos , Animais , Cerebelo/fisiologia , Nistagmo Optocinético , Neurônios , Aprendizagem , Estimulação Luminosa/métodos
15.
J Math Biol ; 88(6): 65, 2024 Apr 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38630136

RESUMO

First-principles-based modelings have been extremely successful in providing crucial insights and predictions for complex biological functions and phenomena. However, they can be hard to build and expensive to simulate for complex living systems. On the other hand, modern data-driven methods thrive at modeling many types of high-dimensional and noisy data. Still, the training and interpretation of these data-driven models remain challenging. Here, we combine the two types of methods to model stochastic neuronal network oscillations. Specifically, we develop a class of artificial neural networks to provide faithful surrogates to the high-dimensional, nonlinear oscillatory dynamics produced by a spiking neuronal network model. Furthermore, when the training data set is enlarged within a range of parameter choices, the artificial neural networks become generalizable to these parameters, covering cases in distinctly different dynamical regimes. In all, our work opens a new avenue for modeling complex neuronal network dynamics with artificial neural networks.


Assuntos
Aprendizagem , Redes Neurais de Computação , Dinâmica não Linear
16.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2794: 313-319, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38630240

RESUMO

This chapter aims to provide a comprehensive overview of the methodologies available to dissect genetic regulation of the nervous systems in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. These techniques encompass genetic screens and genetic tools to unravel the spatial-temporal contribution of genes on neural structure and function. Unbiased genetic screens on random mutations induced by ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) or target gene silencing by genome-wide RNA interference (RNAi) help progress our understanding of the genetic control of neural development and functions. Complement to unbiased genetic approaches, gene- and protein-targeted manipulation by Cre/LoxP recombination system and auxin-inducible degron (AID) protein degradation system, respectively, helps identify tissues/cells and the time window critical for gene and protein function during the proper execution of a particular behavior. Considering the remarkable conservation of genetic pathways between C. elegans and mammalian systems, elucidating the genetic underpinnings of neural functions and learning behaviors in C. elegans may furnish invaluable insights into analogous processes in more complex organisms. As shown in the following chapter, leveraging these diverse methodologies enable researchers to elucidate the intricate network governing neural function and structure, laying the foundation for innovating strategies to ameliorate cognitive alterations.


Assuntos
Caenorhabditis elegans , Depressores do Sistema Nervoso Central , Animais , Caenorhabditis elegans/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Neurogênese , Aprendizagem , Sistema Nervoso , Mamíferos
17.
JMIR Med Educ ; 10: e50118, 2024 Apr 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38630531

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Carers often assume key roles in cancer care. However, many carers report feeling disempowered and ill-equipped to support patients. Our group published evidence-based guidelines (the Triadic Oncology [TRIO] Guidelines) to improve oncology clinician engagement with carers and the management of challenging situations involving carers. OBJECTIVE: To facilitate implementation of the TRIO Guidelines in clinical practice, we aimed to develop, iteratively refine, and conduct user testing of a suite of evidence-based and interactive web-based education modules for oncology clinicians (e-Triadic Oncology [eTRIO]), patients with cancer, and carers (eTRIO for Patients and Carers [eTRIO-pc]). These were designed to improve carer involvement, communication, and shared decision-making in the cancer management setting. METHODS: The eTRIO education modules were based on extensive research, including systematic reviews, qualitative interviews, and consultation analyses. Guided by the person-based approach, module content and design were reviewed by an expert advisory group comprising academic and clinical experts (n=13) and consumers (n=5); content and design were continuously and iteratively refined. User experience testing (including "think-aloud" interviews and administration of the System Usability Scale [SUS]) of the modules was completed by additional clinicians (n=5), patients (n=3), and carers (n=3). RESULTS: The final clinician module comprises 14 sections, requires approximately 1.5 to 2 hours to complete, and covers topics such as carer-inclusive communication and practices; supporting carer needs; and managing carer dominance, anger, and conflicting patient-carer wishes. The usability of the module was rated by 5 clinicians, with a mean SUS score of 75 (SD 5.3), which is interpreted as good. Clinicians often desired information in a concise format, divided into small "snackable" sections that could be easily recommenced if they were interrupted. The carer module features 11 sections; requires approximately 1.5 hours to complete; and includes topics such as the importance of carers, carer roles during consultations, and advocating for the patient. The patient module is an adaptation of the relevant carer module sections, comprising 7 sections and requiring 1 hour to complete. The average SUS score as rated by 6 patients and carers was 78 (SD 16.2), which is interpreted as good. Interactive activities, clinical vignette videos, and reflective learning exercises are incorporated into all modules. Patient and carer consumer advisers advocated for empathetic content and tone throughout their modules, with an easy-to-read and navigable module interface. CONCLUSIONS: The eTRIO suite of modules were rigorously developed using a person-based design methodology to meet the unique information needs and learning requirements of clinicians, patients, and carers, with the goal of improving effective and supportive carer involvement in cancer consultations and cancer care.


Assuntos
Cuidadores , Neoplasias , Humanos , Escolaridade , Oncologia , Aprendizagem , Internet , Neoplasias/terapia
18.
Afr J Prim Health Care Fam Med ; 16(1): e1-e3, 2024 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38572862

RESUMO

Responding to the need for authentic clinical training for students in the context of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the Stellenbosch University Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences developed an innovative 12-week longitudinal, integrated rotation for pre-final-year medical students, the Integrated Distributed Engagement to Advance Learning (IDEAL) rotation. This saw 252 students being placed across 30 primary and secondary healthcare facilities in the Western and Northern Cape provinces. With a focus on service learning, the rotation was built on experiences and research of members of the planning team, as well as partnership relationships developed over an extended period. The focus of student learning was on clinical reasoning through being exposed to undifferentiated patient encounters and the development of practical clinical skills. Students on the distributed platform were supported by clinicians on site, alongside whom they worked, and by a set of online supports, in the form of resources placed on the learning management systems, learning facilitators to whom patient studies were submitted and wellness supporters. Important innovations of the rotation included extensive distribution of clinical training, responsiveness to health service need, co-creation of the module with students, the roles of learning facilitators and wellness supporters, the use of mobile apps and the integration of previously siloed learning outcomes. The IDEAL rotation was seen to be so beneficial as a learning experience that it has been incorporated into the medical degree on an ongoing basis.Contribution: Longitudinal exposure of students to undifferentiated patients in a primary health care context allows for integrated, self-regulated learning. This provides excellent opportunities for medical students, with support, to develop both clinical reasoning and practical skills.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Educação de Graduação em Medicina , Estudantes de Medicina , Humanos , Aprendizagem , Currículo , Competência Clínica
19.
J Vis ; 24(4): 9, 2024 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38602837

RESUMO

Practice on perceptual tasks can lead to long-lasting, stimulus-specific improvements. Rapid stimulus-specific learning, assessed 24 hours after practice, has been found with just 105 practice trials in a face identification task. However, a much longer time course for stimulus-specific learning has been found in other tasks. Here, we examined 1) whether rapid stimulus-specific learning occurs for unfamiliar, non-face stimuli in a texture identification task; 2) the effects of varying practice across a range from just 21 trials up to 840 trials; and 3) if rapid, stimulus-specific learning persists over a 1-week, as well as a 1-day, interval. Observers performed a texture identification task in two sessions separated by one day (Experiment 1) or 1 week (Experiment 2). Observers received varying amounts of practice (21, 63, 105, or 840 training trials) in session 1 and completed 840 trials in session 2. In session 2, one-half of the observers in each group performed the task with the same textures as in session 1, and one-half switched to novel textures (same vs. novel conditions). In both experiments we found that stimulus-specific learning - defined as the difference in response accuracy in the same and novel conditions - increased as a linear function of the log number of session 1 training trials and was statistically significant after approximately 100 training trials. The effects of stimulus novelty did not differ across experiments. These results support the idea that stimulus-specific learning in our task arises gradually and continuously through practice, perhaps concurrently with general learning.


Assuntos
Aprendizagem , Humanos
20.
J Vis ; 24(4): 11, 2024 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38607637

RESUMO

Using a novel approach to classification images (CIs), we investigated the visual expertise of surveyors for luminance and binocular disparity cues simultaneously after screening for stereoacuity. Stereoscopic aerial images of hedges and ditches were classified in 10,000 trials by six trained remote sensing surveyors and six novices. Images were heavily masked with luminance and disparity noise simultaneously. Hedge and ditch images had reversed disparity on around half the trials meaning hedges became ditch-like and vice versa. The hedge and ditch images were also flipped vertically on around half the trials, changing the direction of the light source and completing a 2 × 2 × 2 stimulus design. CIs were generated by accumulating the noise textures associated with "hedge" and "ditch" classifications, respectively, and subtracting one from the other. Typical CIs had a central peak with one or two negative side-lobes. We found clear differences in the amplitudes and shapes of perceptual templates across groups and noise-type, with experts prioritizing binocular disparity and using this more effectively. Contrariwise, novices used luminance cues more than experts meaning that task motivation alone could not explain group differences. Asymmetries in the luminance CIs revealed individual differences for lighting interpretation, with experts less prone to assume lighting from above, consistent with their training on aerial images of UK scenes lit by a southerly sun. Our results show that (i) dual noise in images can be used to produce simultaneous CI pairs, (ii) expertise for disparity cues does not depend on stereoacuity, (iii) CIs reveal the visual strategies developed by experts, (iv) top-down perceptual biases can be overcome with long-term learning effects, and (v) CIs have practical potential for directing visual training.


Assuntos
Iluminação , Disparidade Visual , Humanos , Sinais (Psicologia) , Individualidade , Aprendizagem
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