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1.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5972, 2021 10 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34645800

RESUMO

Curiosity-driven learning is foundational to human cognition. By enabling humans to autonomously decide when and what to learn, curiosity has been argued to be crucial for self-organizing temporally extended learning curricula. However, the mechanisms driving people to set intrinsic goals, when they are free to explore multiple learning activities, are still poorly understood. Computational theories propose different heuristics, including competence measures (e.g., percent correct) and learning progress, that could be used as intrinsic utility functions to efficiently organize exploration. Such intrinsic utilities constitute computationally cheap but smart heuristics to prevent people from laboring in vain on unlearnable activities, while still motivating them to self-challenge on difficult learnable activities. Here, we provide empirical evidence for these ideas by means of a free-choice experimental paradigm and computational modeling. We show that while humans rely on competence information to avoid easy tasks, models that include a learning-progress component provide the best fit to task selection data. These results bridge the research in artificial and biological curiosity, reveal strategies that are used by humans but have not been considered in computational research, and introduce tools for probing how humans become intrinsically motivated to learn and acquire interests and skills on extended time scales.


Assuntos
Cognição/fisiologia , Comportamento Exploratório/fisiologia , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Motivação/fisiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Simulação por Computador , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Psicológicos
2.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5986, 2021 10 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34645828

RESUMO

Many complex systems operating far from the equilibrium exhibit stochastic dynamics that can be described by a Langevin equation. Inferring Langevin equations from data can reveal how transient dynamics of such systems give rise to their function. However, dynamics are often inaccessible directly and can be only gleaned through a stochastic observation process, which makes the inference challenging. Here we present a non-parametric framework for inferring the Langevin equation, which explicitly models the stochastic observation process and non-stationary latent dynamics. The framework accounts for the non-equilibrium initial and final states of the observed system and for the possibility that the system's dynamics define the duration of observations. Omitting any of these non-stationary components results in incorrect inference, in which erroneous features arise in the dynamics due to non-stationary data distribution. We illustrate the framework using models of neural dynamics underlying decision making in the brain.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiologia , Tomada de Decisões/fisiologia , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Modelos Neurológicos , Rede Nervosa/fisiologia , Algoritmos , Simulação por Computador , Humanos , Dinâmica não Linear , Processos Estocásticos
3.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5791, 2021 10 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34608134

RESUMO

The brain is a hugely diverse, heterogeneous structure. Whether or not heterogeneity at the neural level plays a functional role remains unclear, and has been relatively little explored in models which are often highly homogeneous. We compared the performance of spiking neural networks trained to carry out tasks of real-world difficulty, with varying degrees of heterogeneity, and found that heterogeneity substantially improved task performance. Learning with heterogeneity was more stable and robust, particularly for tasks with a rich temporal structure. In addition, the distribution of neuronal parameters in the trained networks is similar to those observed experimentally. We suggest that the heterogeneity observed in the brain may be more than just the byproduct of noisy processes, but rather may serve an active and important role in allowing animals to learn in changing environments.


Assuntos
Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Modelos Neurológicos , Rede Nervosa/fisiologia , Potenciais de Ação , Algoritmos , Animais , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Tentilhões , Neurônios/fisiologia , Fala/fisiologia , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Fatores de Tempo
4.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 6045, 2021 10 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34663792

RESUMO

The retrosplenial cortex (RSC) has diverse functional inputs and is engaged by various sensory, spatial, and associative learning tasks. We examine how multiple functional aspects are integrated on the single-cell level in the RSC and how the encoding of task-related parameters changes across learning. Using a visuospatial context discrimination paradigm and two-photon calcium imaging in behaving mice, a large proportion of dysgranular RSC neurons was found to encode multiple task-related dimensions while forming context-value associations across learning. During reversal learning requiring increased cognitive flexibility, we revealed an increased proportion of multidimensional encoding neurons that showed higher decoding accuracy for behaviorally relevant context-value associations. Chemogenetic inactivation of RSC led to decreased behavioral context discrimination during learning phases in which context-value associations were formed, while recall of previously formed associations remained intact. RSC inactivation resulted in a persistent positive behavioral bias in valuing contexts, indicating a role for the RSC in context-value updating.


Assuntos
Condicionamento Clássico/fisiologia , Giro do Cíngulo/fisiologia , Neurônios/fisiologia , Animais , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Córtex Cerebral/fisiologia , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Masculino , Rememoração Mental , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
5.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 6102, 2021 10 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34671032

RESUMO

Damage to the primary visual cortex (V1) causes homonymous visual-field loss long considered intractable. Multiple studies now show that perceptual training can restore visual functions in chronic cortically-induced blindness (CB). A popular hypothesis is that training can harness residual visual functions by recruiting intact extrageniculostriate pathways. Training may also induce plastic changes within spared regions of the damaged V1. Here, we link changes in luminance detection sensitivity with retinotopic fMRI activity before and after visual discrimination training in eleven patients with chronic, stroke-induced CB. We show that spared V1 activity representing perimetrically-blind locations prior to training predicts the amount of training-induced recovery of luminance detection sensitivity. Additionally, training results in an enlargement of population receptive fields in perilesional V1, which increases blind-field coverage and may support further recovery with subsequent training. These findings uncover fundamental changes in perilesional V1 cortex underlying training-induced restoration of conscious luminance detection sensitivity in CB.


Assuntos
Cegueira Cortical/reabilitação , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Visão Ocular/fisiologia , Córtex Visual/fisiologia , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Cegueira Cortical/diagnóstico por imagem , Cegueira Cortical/fisiopatologia , Mapeamento Encefálico , Discriminação Psicológica/fisiologia , Feminino , Lateralidade Funcional/fisiologia , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Plasticidade Neuronal/fisiologia , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica/fisiologia , Córtex Visual/diagnóstico por imagem , Campos Visuais/fisiologia
6.
Molecules ; 26(20)2021 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34684847

RESUMO

Brain G-protein coupled receptors have been hypothesized to be potential targets for maintaining or restoring cognitive function in normal aged individuals or in patients with neurodegenerative disease. A number of recent reports suggest that activation of melanocortin receptors (MCRs) in the brain can significantly improve cognitive functions of normal rodents and of different rodent models of the Alzheimer's disease. However, the potential impact of normative aging on the expression of MCRs and their potential roles for modulating cognitive function remains to be elucidated. In the present study, we first investigated the expression of these receptors in six different brain regions of young (6 months) and aged (23 months) rats following assessment of their cognitive status. Correlation analysis was further performed to reveal potential contributions of MCR subtypes to spatial learning and memory. Our results revealed statistically significant correlations between the expression of several MCR subtypes in the frontal cortex/hypothalamus and the hippocampus regions and the rats' performance in spatial learning and memory only in the aged rats. These findings support the hypothesis that aging has a direct impact on the expression and function of MCRs, establishing MCRs as potential drug targets to alleviate aging-induced decline of cognitive function.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/metabolismo , Cognição/fisiologia , Lobo Frontal/metabolismo , Hipotálamo/metabolismo , Receptores de Melanocortina/metabolismo , Animais , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Masculino , Memória/fisiologia , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Endogâmicos F344
7.
Nat Neurosci ; 24(9): 1292-1301, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34465915

RESUMO

Generalizing experiences to guide decision-making in novel situations is a hallmark of flexible behavior. Cognitive maps of an environment or task can theoretically afford such flexibility, but direct evidence has proven elusive. In this study, we found that discretely sampled abstract relationships between entities in an unseen two-dimensional social hierarchy are reconstructed into a unitary two-dimensional cognitive map in the hippocampus and entorhinal cortex. We further show that humans use a grid-like code in entorhinal cortex and medial prefrontal cortex for inferred direct trajectories between entities in the reconstructed abstract space during discrete decisions. These grid-like representations in the entorhinal cortex are associated with decision value computations in the medial prefrontal cortex and temporoparietal junction. Collectively, these findings show that grid-like representations are used by the human brain to infer novel solutions, even in abstract and discrete problems, and suggest a general mechanism underpinning flexible decision-making and generalization.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiologia , Tomada de Decisões/fisiologia , Hierarquia Social , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
8.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0257729, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34555100

RESUMO

Prior to the COVID 19 pandemic, discussions about online learning referred to the use of e-learning platforms and social networks as auxiliary tools in the educational process. Due to the pandemic, universities were forced to adopt an exclusive online teaching process and most universities today use platforms dedicated to online learning such as Moodle platforms. In this context, we were interested in analyzing the attitude of students regarding the way social networks could be integrated into the educational process, and if the positive attitude of students towards social networks and their use for academic purposes, proven in previous studies, remains positive under the conditions generated by the pandemic. In this regard, the present study aimed at identifying the attitude of Romanian students towards the use of Facebook and Instagram as educational tools and the circumstances in which students believe these platforms could be used by them and their teachers. An online survey was conducted on 872 students from public higher education institutions in Romania. Based on the exploratory factor analysis and the parametric test, the empirical results show that students have a slightly positive attitude towards using Facebook in the educational process, but they have a more reticent, less positive attitude towards using Instagram. Thus, the most appropriate contexts in which these platforms could be used are represented by extracurricular activities. A higher preference for the use of Facebook rather than Instagram, was identified among master and PhD students. No major differences were revealed in student subgroups sorted by gender or study domain.


Assuntos
Educação à Distância/métodos , Pandemias/estatística & dados numéricos , Mídias Sociais/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes de Medicina/estatística & dados numéricos , Universidades/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Atitude , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Masculino , Romênia/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
9.
Nat Neurosci ; 24(10): 1441-1451, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34545249

RESUMO

Associative memories are stored in distributed networks extending across multiple brain regions. However, it is unclear to what extent sensory cortical areas are part of these networks. Using a paradigm for visual category learning in mice, we investigated whether perceptual and semantic features of learned category associations are already represented at the first stages of visual information processing in the neocortex. Mice learned categorizing visual stimuli, discriminating between categories and generalizing within categories. Inactivation experiments showed that categorization performance was contingent on neuronal activity in the visual cortex. Long-term calcium imaging in nine areas of the visual cortex identified changes in feature tuning and category tuning that occurred during this learning process, most prominently in the postrhinal area (POR). These results provide evidence for the view that associative memories form a brain-wide distributed network, with learning in early stages shaping perceptual representations and supporting semantic content downstream.


Assuntos
Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Córtex Visual/fisiologia , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Animais , Mapeamento Encefálico , Sinalização do Cálcio/fisiologia , Condicionamento Operante , Discriminação Psicológica , Agonistas GABAérgicos/farmacologia , Generalização Psicológica , Masculino , Memória , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Muscimol/farmacologia , Neocórtex/fisiologia , Plasticidade Neuronal/fisiologia , Estimulação Luminosa , Recrutamento Neurofisiológico
10.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5678, 2021 09 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34584080

RESUMO

Medical imaging is a central part of clinical diagnosis and treatment guidance. Machine learning has increasingly gained relevance because it captures features of disease and treatment response that are relevant for therapeutic decision-making. In clinical practice, the continuous progress of image acquisition technology or diagnostic procedures, the diversity of scanners, and evolving imaging protocols hamper the utility of machine learning, as prediction accuracy on new data deteriorates, or models become outdated due to these domain shifts. We propose a continual learning approach to deal with such domain shifts occurring at unknown time points. We adapt models to emerging variations in a continuous data stream while counteracting catastrophic forgetting. A dynamic memory enables rehearsal on a subset of diverse training data to mitigate forgetting while enabling models to expand to new domains. The technique balances memory by detecting pseudo-domains, representing different style clusters within the data stream. Evaluation of two different tasks, cardiac segmentation in magnetic resonance imaging and lung nodule detection in computed tomography, demonstrate a consistent advantage of the method.


Assuntos
Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Aprendizado de Máquina , Memória/fisiologia , Redes Neurais de Computação , Diagnóstico por Imagem/métodos , Humanos , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Pulmão/patologia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos
11.
Elife ; 102021 09 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34505576

RESUMO

The strength of cortical connectivity to the striatum influences the balance between behavioral variability and stability. Learning to consistently produce a skilled action requires plasticity in corticostriatal connectivity associated with repeated training of the action. However, it remains unknown whether such corticostriatal plasticity occurs during training itself or 'offline' during time away from training, such as sleep. Here, we monitor the corticostriatal network throughout long-term skill learning in rats and find that non-rapid-eye-movement (NREM) sleep is a relevant period for corticostriatal plasticity. We first show that the offline activation of striatal NMDA receptors is required for skill learning. We then show that corticostriatal functional connectivity increases offline, coupled to emerging consistent skilled movements, and coupled cross-area neural dynamics. We then identify NREM sleep spindles as uniquely poised to mediate corticostriatal plasticity, through interactions with slow oscillations. Our results provide evidence that sleep shapes cross-area coupling required for skill learning.


Assuntos
Corpo Estriado/fisiologia , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Córtex Motor/fisiologia , Destreza Motora/fisiologia , Sono de Ondas Lentas/fisiologia , Animais , Eletrodos Implantados , Masculino , Plasticidade Neuronal/fisiologia , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Ratos , Ratos Long-Evans , Silício , Fatores de Tempo
12.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5394, 2021 09 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34518520

RESUMO

Humans form lasting memories of stimuli that were only encountered once. This naturally occurs when listening to a story, however it remains unclear how and when memories are stored and retrieved during story-listening. Here, we first confirm in behavioral experiments that participants can learn about the structure of a story after a single exposure and are able to recall upcoming words when the story is presented again. We then track mnemonic information in high frequency activity (70-200 Hz) as patients undergoing electrocorticographic recordings listen twice to the same story. We demonstrate predictive recall of upcoming information through neural responses in auditory processing regions. This neural measure correlates with behavioral measures of event segmentation and learning. Event boundaries are linked to information flow from cortex to hippocampus. When listening for a second time, information flow from hippocampus to cortex precedes moments of predictive recall. These results provide insight on a fine-grained temporal scale into how episodic memory encoding and retrieval work under naturalistic conditions.


Assuntos
Córtex Cerebral/fisiologia , Eletrocorticografia/métodos , Hipocampo/fisiologia , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Rememoração Mental/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Algoritmos , Mapeamento Encefálico/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Neurológicos , Adulto Jovem
13.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5286, 2021 09 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34489431

RESUMO

Vomeronasal information is critical in mice for territorial behavior. Consequently, learning the territorial spatial structure should incorporate the vomeronasal signals indicating individual identity into the hippocampal cognitive map. In this work we show in mice that navigating a virtual environment induces synchronic activity, with causality in both directionalities, between the vomeronasal amygdala and the dorsal CA1 of the hippocampus in the theta frequency range. The detection of urine stimuli induces synaptic plasticity in the vomeronasal pathway and the dorsal hippocampus, even in animals with experimentally induced anosmia. In the dorsal hippocampus, this plasticity is associated with the overexpression of pAKT and pGSK3ß. An amygdalo-entorhino-hippocampal circuit likely underlies this effect of pheromonal information on hippocampal learning. This circuit likely constitutes the neural substrate of territorial behavior in mice, and it allows the integration of social and spatial information.


Assuntos
Tonsila do Cerebelo/fisiologia , Região CA1 Hipocampal/fisiologia , Glicogênio Sintase Quinase 3 beta/genética , Percepção Olfatória/fisiologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/genética , Comportamento Espacial/fisiologia , Órgão Vomeronasal/fisiologia , Tonsila do Cerebelo/citologia , Animais , Anosmia/genética , Anosmia/metabolismo , Anosmia/fisiopatologia , Comportamento Animal , Região CA1 Hipocampal/citologia , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Glicogênio Sintase Quinase 3 beta/metabolismo , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Rede Nervosa/citologia , Rede Nervosa/fisiologia , Plasticidade Neuronal/fisiologia , Neurônios/citologia , Neurônios/metabolismo , Feromônios/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Percepção Social , Percepção Espacial/fisiologia , Ritmo Teta/fisiologia , Órgão Vomeronasal/citologia
14.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0256614, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34529702

RESUMO

Children imitate actions that are perceivably unnecessary to achieve the instrumental goal of an action sequence, a behavior termed over-imitation. It is debated whether this behavior is based on the motivation to follow behavioral norms and affiliate with the model or whether it can be interpreted in terms of a behavioral heuristic to copy observed intentional actions without questioning the purpose of each action step. To resolve this question, we tested whether preschool-aged children (N = 89) over-imitate a prosocial model, a helper in a prior third-party moral transgression, but refuse to over-imitate an antisocial model, the perpetrator of the moral transgression. After first observing an inefficient way to extract a reward from a puzzle box from either a perpetrator or a helper, children over-imitated the perpetrator to the same degree as they over-imitated the helper. In a second phase, children were then presented the efficient solution by the respective other model, i.e. the helper or the perpetrator. Over-imitation rates then dropped in both conditions, but remained significantly higher than in a baseline condition only when children had observed the prosocial model demonstrate the inefficient action sequence and the perpetrator performed the efficient solution. In contrast, over-imitation dropped to baseline level when the perpetrator had modelled the inefficient actions and the prosocial model subsequently showed children the efficient solution. In line with a dual-process account of over-imitation, results speak to a strong initial tendency to imitate perceivably irrelevant actions regardless of the model. Imitation behavior is then adjusted according to social motivations after deliberate consideration of different options to attain the goal.


Assuntos
Conscientização/fisiologia , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Comportamento Imitativo/fisiologia , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Motivação/fisiologia , Comportamento Social , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial , Criança , Comportamento Infantil , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Recompensa
15.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 17441, 2021 08 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34465846

RESUMO

Movement is accompanied by beta power changes over frontal and sensorimotor regions: a decrease during movement (event-related desynchronization, ERD), followed by an increase (event-related synchronization, ERS) after the movement end. We previously found that enhancements of beta modulation (from ERD to ERS) during a reaching test (mov) occur over frontal and left sensorimotor regions after practice in a visuo-motor adaptation task (ROT) but not after visual learning practice. Thus, these enhancements may reflect local cumulative effects of motor learning. Here we verified whether they are triggered by the learning component inherent in ROT or simply by motor practice in a reaching task without such learning (MOT). We found that beta modulation during mov increased over frontal and left areas after three-hour practice of either ROT or MOT. However, the frontal increase was greater after ROT, while the increase over the left area was similar after the two tasks. These findings confirm that motor practice leaves local traces in beta power during a subsequent motor test. As they occur after motor tasks with and without learning, these traces likely express the cost of processes necessary for both usage and engagement of long-term potentiation mechanisms necessary for the learning required by ROT.


Assuntos
Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Córtex Motor/fisiologia , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
16.
Cells ; 10(9)2021 09 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34572042

RESUMO

Dendritic spines are small, bulbous protrusions along neuronal dendrites where most of the excitatory synapses are located. Dendritic spine density in normal human brain increases rapidly before and after birth achieving the highest density around 2-8 years. Density decreases during adolescence, reaching a stable level in adulthood. The changes in dendritic spines are considered structural correlates for synaptic plasticity as well as the basis of experience-dependent remodeling of neuronal circuits. Alterations in spine density correspond to aberrant brain function observed in various neurodevelopmental and neuropsychiatric disorders. Dendritic spine initiation affects spine density. In this review, we discuss the importance of spine initiation in brain development, learning, and potential complications resulting from altered spine initiation in neurological diseases. Current literature shows that two Bin Amphiphysin Rvs (BAR) domain-containing proteins, MIM/Mtss1 and SrGAP3, are involved in spine initiation. We review existing literature and open databases to discuss whether other BAR-domain proteins could also take part in spine initiation. Finally, we discuss the potential molecular mechanisms on how BAR-domain proteins could regulate spine initiation.


Assuntos
Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/metabolismo , Encefalopatias/patologia , Encéfalo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Espinhas Dendríticas/fisiologia , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Proteínas Nucleares/metabolismo , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/metabolismo , Encefalopatias/metabolismo , Humanos , Domínios Proteicos
17.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0255400, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34543301

RESUMO

A growing number of studies suggest that the frequency of numeracy experiences that parents provide at home may relate to children's mathematical development. However, the relation between home numeracy practices and children's numerical skills is complex and might depend upon both the type and difficulty of activities, as well as the type of math skills. Studies have also argued that this relation may be driven by factors that are not systematically controlled for in the literature, including socio-economic status (SES), parental math skills and children's IQ. Finally, as most prior studies have focused on preschoolers, it remains unclear to what extent there remains a relation between the home numeracy environment and math skills when children are in elementary school. In the present study, we tested an extensive range of math skills in 66 8-year-olds, including non-symbolic quantity processing, symbolic number understanding, transcoding, counting, and mental arithmetic. We also asked parents to complete a questionnaire about their SES, academic expectations, academic attitudes, and the numeracy practices that they provide at home. Finally, we measured their arithmetic fluency as a proxy for parental math skills. Over and above differences in socio-economic status, parental arithmetic fluency, child's IQ, and time spent with the child, we found a positive relation between the frequency of formal numeracy practices that were at or above grade level and two separate measures of mental arithmetic. We further found that the frequency of these advanced formal numeracy practices was related to parents' academic expectations. Therefore, our study shows that home numeracy experiences predict arithmetic skills in elementary school children, but only when those activities are formal and sufficiently challenging for children.


Assuntos
Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Matemática/educação , Relações Pais-Filho , Pais/psicologia , Atitude , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários
18.
J Neurochem ; 159(3): 417-451, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34528252

RESUMO

Learning is an essential biological process for survival since it facilitates behavioural plasticity in response to environmental changes. This process is mediated by a wide variety of genes, mostly expressed in the nervous system. Many studies have extensively explored the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying learning and memory. This review will focus on the advances gained through the study of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. C. elegans provides an excellent system to study learning because of its genetic tractability, in addition to its invariant, compact nervous system (~300 neurons) that is well-characterised at the structural level. Importantly, despite its compact nature, the nematode nervous system possesses a high level of conservation with mammalian systems. These features allow the study of genes within specific sensory-, inter- and motor neurons, facilitating the interrogation of signalling pathways that mediate learning via defined neural circuits. This review will detail how learning and memory can be studied in C. elegans through behavioural paradigms that target distinct sensory modalities. We will also summarise recent studies describing mechanisms through which key molecular and cellular pathways are proposed to affect associative and non-associative forms of learning.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans/genética , Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans/fisiologia , Caenorhabditis elegans/genética , Caenorhabditis elegans/fisiologia , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Memória/fisiologia , Biologia Molecular , Animais
19.
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci ; 376(1836): 20200247, 2021 10 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34482722

RESUMO

Understanding when learning begins is critical for identifying the factors that shape both the developmental course and the function of information acquisition. Until recently, sufficient development of the neural substrates for any sort of vocal learning to begin in songbirds was thought to be reached well after hatching. New research shows that embryonic gene activation and the outcome of vocal learning can be modulated by sound exposure in ovo. We tested whether avian embryos across lineages differ in their auditory response strength and sound learning in ovo, which we studied in vocal learning (Maluridae, Geospizidae) and vocal non-learning (Phasianidae, Spheniscidae) taxa. While measuring heart rate in ovo, we exposed embryos to (i) conspecific or heterospecific vocalizations, to determine their response strength, and (ii) conspecific vocalizations repeatedly, to quantify cardiac habituation, a form of non-associative learning. Response strength towards conspecific vocalizations was greater in two species with vocal production learning compared to two species without. Response patterns consistent with non-associative auditory learning occurred in all species. Our results demonstrate a capacity to perceive and learn to recognize sounds in ovo, as evidenced by habituation, even in species that were previously assumed to have little, if any, vocal production learning. This article is part of the theme issue 'Vocal learning in animals and humans'.


Assuntos
Percepção Auditiva/fisiologia , Galliformes/fisiologia , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Aves Canoras/fisiologia , Spheniscidae/fisiologia , Vocalização Animal/fisiologia , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Modelos Biológicos , Comportamento Social
20.
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci ; 376(1836): 20200252, 2021 10 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34482729

RESUMO

Comparative animal studies of complex behavioural traits, and their neurobiological underpinnings, can increase our understanding of their evolution, including in humans. Vocal learning, a potential precursor to human speech, is one such trait. Mammalian vocal learning is under-studied: most research has either focused on vocal learning in songbirds or its absence in non-human primates. Here, we focus on a highly promising model species for the neurobiology of vocal learning: grey seals (Halichoerus grypus). We provide a neuroanatomical atlas (based on dissected brain slices and magnetic resonance images), a labelled MRI template, a three-dimensional model with volumetric measurements of brain regions, and histological cortical stainings. Four main features of the grey seal brain stand out: (i) it is relatively big and highly convoluted; (ii) it hosts a relatively large temporal lobe and cerebellum; (iii) the cortex is similar to that of humans in thickness and shows the expected six-layered mammalian structure; (iv) there is expression of FoxP2 present in deeper layers of the cortex; FoxP2 is a gene involved in motor learning, vocal learning, and spoken language. Our results could facilitate future studies targeting the neural and genetic underpinnings of mammalian vocal learning, thus bridging the research gap from songbirds to humans and non-human primates. Our findings are relevant not only to vocal learning research but also to the study of mammalian neurobiology and cognition more in general. This article is part of the theme issue 'Vocal learning in animals and humans'.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/anatomia & histologia , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Focas Verdadeiras/anatomia & histologia , Vocalização Animal , Animais , Feminino , Focas Verdadeiras/fisiologia
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