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1.
Dev Psychobiol ; 66(5): e22511, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38837722

RESUMO

Patients diagnosed with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) present with a spectrum of debilitating anxiety symptoms resulting from exposure to trauma. Women are twice as likely to be diagnosed with anxiety and PTSD compared to men; however, the reason for this vulnerability remains unknown. We conducted four experiments where we first demonstrated a female vulnerability to stress-enhanced fear learning (SEFL) with a moderate, acute early life stress (aELS) exposure (4 footshocks in a single session), compared to a more intense aELS exposure (15 footshocks in a single session) where males and females demonstrated comparable SEFL. Next, we demonstrated that this female vulnerability does not result from differences in footshock reactivity or contextual fear conditioning during the aELS exposure. Finally, using gonadectomy or sham surgeries in adult male and female rats, we showed that circulating levels of gonadal steroid hormones at the time of adult fear conditioning do not explain the female vulnerability to SEFL. Additional research is needed to determine whether this vulnerability can be explained by organizational effects of gonadal steroid hormones or differences in sex chromosome gene expression. Doing so is critical for a better understanding of increased female vulnerability to certain psychiatric diseases.


Assuntos
Medo , Caracteres Sexuais , Estresse Psicológico , Animais , Medo/fisiologia , Masculino , Feminino , Ratos , Estresse Psicológico/metabolismo , Estresse Psicológico/fisiopatologia , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Condicionamento Clássico/fisiologia , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/metabolismo , Aprendizagem/fisiologia
2.
PLoS One ; 19(6): e0295373, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38870202

RESUMO

Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has been shown to modify excitability of the primary motor cortex (M1) and influence online motor learning. However, research on the effects of tDCS on motor learning has focused predominantly on simplified motor tasks. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether anodal stimulation of M1 over a single session of practice influences online learning of a relatively complex rhythmic timing video game. Fifty-eight healthy young adults were randomized to either a-tDCS or SHAM conditions and performed 2 familiarization blocks, a 20-minute 5 block practice period while receiving their assigned stimulation, and a post-test block with their non-dominant hand. To assess performance, a performance index was calculated that incorporated timing accuracy elements and incorrect key inputs. The results showed that M1 a-tDCS enhanced the learning of the video game based skill more than SHAM stimulation during practice, as well as overall learning at the post-test. These results provide evidence that M1 a-tDCS can enhance acquisition of skills where quality or success of performance depends on optimized timing between component motions of the skill, which could have implications for the application of tDCS in many real-world contexts.


Assuntos
Aprendizagem , Córtex Motor , Estimulação Transcraniana por Corrente Contínua , Jogos de Vídeo , Humanos , Estimulação Transcraniana por Corrente Contínua/métodos , Masculino , Feminino , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem , Córtex Motor/fisiologia , Adulto , Destreza Motora/fisiologia
3.
Cell Commun Signal ; 22(1): 321, 2024 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38863004

RESUMO

Huntington's disease (HD) is a neurological disorder caused by a CAG expansion in the Huntingtin gene (HTT). HD pathology mostly affects striatal medium-sized spiny neurons and results in an altered cortico-striatal function. Recent studies report that motor skill learning, and cortico-striatal stimulation attenuate the neuropathology in HD, resulting in an amelioration of some motor and cognitive functions. During physical training, extracellular vesicles (EVs) are released in many tissues, including the brain, as a potential means for inter-tissue communication. To investigate how motor skill learning, involving acute physical training, modulates EVs crosstalk between cells in the striatum, we trained wild-type (WT) and R6/1 mice, the latter with motor and cognitive deficits, on the accelerating rotarod test, and we isolated their striatal EVs. EVs from R6/1 mice presented alterations in the small exosome population when compared to WT. Proteomic analyses revealed that striatal R6/1 EVs recapitulated signaling and energy deficiencies present in HD. Motor skill learning in R6/1 mice restored the amount of EVs and their protein content in comparison to naïve R6/1 mice. Furthermore, motor skill learning modulated crucial pathways in metabolism and neurodegeneration. All these data provide new insights into the pathogenesis of HD and put striatal EVs in the spotlight to understand the signaling and metabolic alterations in neurodegenerative diseases. Moreover, our results suggest that motor learning is a crucial modulator of cell-to-cell communication in the striatum.


Assuntos
Corpo Estriado , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Vesículas Extracelulares , Doença de Huntington , Aprendizagem , Destreza Motora , Doença de Huntington/metabolismo , Doença de Huntington/patologia , Doença de Huntington/genética , Animais , Vesículas Extracelulares/metabolismo , Destreza Motora/fisiologia , Corpo Estriado/metabolismo , Corpo Estriado/patologia , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Camundongos , Masculino , Camundongos Transgênicos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
4.
PLoS One ; 19(6): e0304563, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38865313

RESUMO

Learning an olfactory discrimination task leads to heterogeneous results in honeybees with some bees performing very well and others at low rates. Here we investigated this behavioral heterogeneity and asked whether it was associated with particular gene expression patterns in the bee's brain. Bees were individually conditioned using a sequential conditioning protocol involving several phases of olfactory learning and retention tests. A cumulative score was used to differentiate the tested bees into high and low performers. The rate of CS+ odor learning was found to correlate most strongly with a cumulative performance score extracted from all learning and retention tests. Microarray analysis of gene expression in the mushroom body area of the brains of these bees identified a number of differentially expressed genes between high and low performers. These genes are associated with diverse biological functions, such as neurotransmission, memory formation, cargo trafficking and development.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal , Aprendizagem , Animais , Abelhas/genética , Abelhas/fisiologia , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Corpos Pedunculados/fisiologia , Corpos Pedunculados/metabolismo , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Olfato/genética , Olfato/fisiologia , Odorantes , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Condicionamento Clássico/fisiologia
5.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 121(25): e2305326121, 2024 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38870059

RESUMO

Cortical networks exhibit complex stimulus-response patterns that are based on specific recurrent interactions between neurons. For example, the balance between excitatory and inhibitory currents has been identified as a central component of cortical computations. However, it remains unclear how the required synaptic connectivity can emerge in developing circuits where synapses between excitatory and inhibitory neurons are simultaneously plastic. Using theory and modeling, we propose that a wide range of cortical response properties can arise from a single plasticity paradigm that acts simultaneously at all excitatory and inhibitory connections-Hebbian learning that is stabilized by the synapse-type-specific competition for a limited supply of synaptic resources. In plastic recurrent circuits, this competition enables the formation and decorrelation of inhibition-balanced receptive fields. Networks develop an assembly structure with stronger synaptic connections between similarly tuned excitatory and inhibitory neurons and exhibit response normalization and orientation-specific center-surround suppression, reflecting the stimulus statistics during training. These results demonstrate how neurons can self-organize into functional networks and suggest an essential role for synapse-type-specific competitive learning in the development of cortical circuits.


Assuntos
Aprendizagem , Modelos Neurológicos , Rede Nervosa , Plasticidade Neuronal , Sinapses , Sinapses/fisiologia , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Plasticidade Neuronal/fisiologia , Rede Nervosa/fisiologia , Neurônios/fisiologia , Animais , Humanos
6.
PLoS One ; 19(6): e0297917, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38857268

RESUMO

What is the role of working memory over the course of non-native speech category learning? Prior work has predominantly focused on how working memory might influence learning assessed at a single timepoint. Here, we substantially extend this prior work by examining the role of working memory on speech learning performance over time (i.e., over several months) and leverage a multifaceted approach that provides key insights into how working memory influences learning accuracy, maintenance of knowledge over time, generalization ability, and decision processes. We found that the role of working memory in non-native speech learning depends on the timepoint of learning and whether individuals learned the categories at all. Among learners, across all stages of learning, working memory was associated with higher accuracy as well as faster and slightly more cautious decision making. Further, while learners and non-learners did not have substantially different working memory performance, learners had faster evidence accumulation and more cautious decision thresholds throughout all sessions. Working memory may enhance learning by facilitating rapid category acquisition in initial stages and enabling faster and slightly more careful decision-making strategies that may reduce the overall effort needed to learn. Our results have important implications for developing interventions to improve learning in naturalistic language contexts.


Assuntos
Individualidade , Aprendizagem , Memória de Curto Prazo , Fala , Humanos , Memória de Curto Prazo/fisiologia , Feminino , Masculino , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Fala/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Tomada de Decisões/fisiologia , Idioma
7.
Learn Mem ; 31(5)2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38862169

RESUMO

Octopamine, the functional analog of noradrenaline, modulates many different behaviors and physiological processes in invertebrates. In the central nervous system, a few octopaminergic neurons project throughout the brain and innervate almost all neuropils. The center of memory formation in insects, the mushroom bodies, receive octopaminergic innervations in all insects investigated so far. Different octopamine receptors, either increasing or decreasing cAMP or calcium levels in the cell, are localized in Kenyon cells, further supporting the release of octopamine in the mushroom bodies. In addition, different mushroom body (MB) output neurons, projection neurons, and dopaminergic PAM cells are targets of octopaminergic neurons, enabling the modulation of learning circuits at different neural sites. For some years, the theory persisted that octopamine mediates rewarding stimuli, whereas dopamine (DA) represents aversive stimuli. This simple picture has been challenged by the finding that DA is required for both appetitive and aversive learning. Furthermore, octopamine is also involved in aversive learning and a rather complex interaction between these biogenic amines seems to modulate learning and memory. This review summarizes the role of octopamine in MB function, focusing on the anatomical principles and the role of the biogenic amine in learning and memory.


Assuntos
Aprendizagem , Memória , Corpos Pedunculados , Octopamina , Octopamina/metabolismo , Octopamina/farmacologia , Corpos Pedunculados/fisiologia , Corpos Pedunculados/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Memória/fisiologia , Memória/efeitos dos fármacos , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Aprendizagem/efeitos dos fármacos , Dopamina/metabolismo , Insetos/fisiologia , Neurônios/fisiologia , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurônios/metabolismo
8.
Conscious Cogn ; 122: 103707, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38823317

RESUMO

This study investigates the observers' ability to monitor the ongoing cognitive processes of a partner who is implicitly learning an artificial grammar. Our hypothesis posits that learners experience metacognitive feelings as they attempt to apply their implicit knowledge, and that observers are capable of detecting and interpreting these feelings as cues of the learner's cognitive state. For instance, learners might encounter affective signals linked to cognitive conflicts and errors at different processing stages, which observers can construe as manifestations of the learner's cognitive dissonance. The research involved 126 participants organized into dyads, with one participant acting as a learner, and the other as an observer. The observer's task was to judge whether the learner agrees with the information presented (consonance judgment) and was limited to reading the learner's nonverbal signals to avoid explicit mindreading. The findings suggest that observers possess mindreading abilities, enabling them to detect both learners' confidence and accuracy in stimuli classification. This extends our understanding of non-verbal mindreading capabilities and indicates that observers can effectively interpret early implicit metacognitive information, even in the absence of explicit self-evaluation from the learners. This research offers significant insights into how individuals interpret others' mental states during implicit learning tasks, particularly in the context of utilizing early affective cues within the Artificial Grammar Learning paradigm.


Assuntos
Aprendizagem , Metacognição , Humanos , Metacognição/fisiologia , Feminino , Masculino , Adulto , Adulto Jovem , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Percepção Social , Teoria da Mente/fisiologia , Relações Interpessoais , Adolescente
9.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 20(6): e1012178, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38829900

RESUMO

Striking progress has been made in understanding cognition by analyzing how the brain is engaged in different modes of information processing. For instance, so-called synergistic information (information encoded by a set of neurons but not by any subset) plays a key role in areas of the human brain linked with complex cognition. However, two questions remain unanswered: (a) how and why a cognitive system can become highly synergistic; and (b) how informational states map onto artificial neural networks in various learning modes. Here we employ an information-decomposition framework to investigate neural networks performing cognitive tasks. Our results show that synergy increases as networks learn multiple diverse tasks, and that in tasks requiring integration of multiple sources, performance critically relies on synergistic neurons. Overall, our results suggest that synergy is used to combine information from multiple modalities-and more generally for flexible and efficient learning. These findings reveal new ways of investigating how and why learning systems employ specific information-processing strategies, and support the principle that the capacity for general-purpose learning critically relies on the system's information dynamics.


Assuntos
Encéfalo , Cognição , Aprendizagem , Modelos Neurológicos , Redes Neurais de Computação , Humanos , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Cognição/fisiologia , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Biologia Computacional , Neurônios/fisiologia
10.
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci ; 379(1906): 20230226, 2024 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38853559

RESUMO

Long-term potentiation of synaptic strength is a fundamental aspect of learning and memory. Memories are believed to be stored within specific populations of neurons known as engram cells, which are subsequently reactivated during sleep, facilitating the consolidation of stored information. However, sleep and offline reactivations are associated not only with past experiences but also with anticipation of future events. During periods of offline reactivation, which occur during sleep and quiet wakefulness, the brain exhibits a capability to form novel connections. This process links various past experiences, often leading to the emergence of qualitatively new information that was not initially available. Brain activity during sleep and quiet wakefulness is referred to as the 'idling brain'. Idling brain activity is believed to play a pivotal role in abstracting essential information, comprehending underlying rules, generating creative ideas and fostering insightful thoughts. In this review, we will explore the current state of research and future directions in understanding how sleep and idling brain activity are interconnected with various cognitive functions, especially creative insights. These insights have profound implications for our daily lives, impacting our ability to process information, make decisions and navigate complex situations effectively. This article is part of a discussion meeting issue 'Long-term potentiation: 50 years on'.


Assuntos
Encéfalo , Sono , Vigília , Vigília/fisiologia , Sono/fisiologia , Humanos , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Criatividade , Memória/fisiologia , Cognição , Aprendizagem/fisiologia
11.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 4765, 2024 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38834541

RESUMO

Biological systems interact directly with the environment and learn by receiving multimodal feedback via sensory stimuli that shape the formation of internal neuronal representations. Drawing inspiration from biological concepts such as exploration and sensory processing that eventually lead to behavioral conditioning, we present a robotic system handling objects through multimodal learning. A small-scale organic neuromorphic circuit locally integrates and adaptively processes multimodal sensory stimuli, enabling the robot to interact intelligently with its surroundings. The real-time handling of sensory stimuli via low-voltage organic neuromorphic devices with synaptic functionality forms multimodal associative connections that lead to behavioral conditioning, and thus the robot learns to avoid potentially dangerous objects. This work demonstrates that adaptive neuro-inspired circuitry with multifunctional organic materials, can accommodate locally efficient bio-inspired learning for advancing intelligent robotics.


Assuntos
Redes Neurais de Computação , Robótica , Robótica/instrumentação , Robótica/métodos , Eletrônica/instrumentação , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Humanos
12.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 12867, 2024 06 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38834667

RESUMO

Online education has become increasingly popular in recent years, and video lectures have emerged as a common instructional format. While the importance of instructors' nonverbal social cues such as gaze, facial expression, and gestures for learning progress in face-to-face teaching is well-established, their impact on instructional videos is not fully understood. Most studies on nonverbal social cues in instructional videos focus on isolated cues rather than considering multimodal nonverbal behavior patterns and their effects on the learning progress. This study examines the role of instructors' nonverbal immediacy (a construct capturing multimodal nonverbal behaviors that reduce psychological distance) in video lectures with respect to learners' cognitive, affective, and motivational outcomes. We carried out an eye-tracking experiment with 87 participants (Mage = 24.11, SD = 4.80). Results of multilevel path analyses indicate that high nonverbal immediacy substantially increases learners' state motivation and enjoyment, but does not affect cognitive learning. Analyses of learners' eye movements show that learners allocate more attention to the instructor than to the learning material with increasing levels of nonverbal immediacy displayed by the instructor. The study highlights the importance of considering the role of multimodal nonverbal behavior patterns in online education and provides insights for effective video lecture design.


Assuntos
Aprendizagem , Comportamento Social , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Adulto , Adulto Jovem , Comunicação não Verbal/psicologia , Gravação em Vídeo , Motivação/fisiologia , Educação a Distância/métodos , Movimentos Oculares/fisiologia , Expressão Facial
13.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 13080, 2024 06 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38844465

RESUMO

Greater exposure to stressors over the life course is believed to promote striatum-dependent over hippocampus-dependent learning and memory processes under stressful conditions. However, little research in this context has actually assessed lifetime stressor exposure and, moreover, it remains unknown whether greater cumulative lifetime stressor exposure exerts comparable effects on striatum-dependent learning and hippocampus-dependent learning in non-stressful contexts. To investigate this issue, we used the Stress and Adversity Inventory for Adults (Adult STRAIN) and Multicued Search Task to investigate the relation between cumulative lifetime stressor exposure and striatum-dependent stimulus-response learning and hippocampus-dependent contextual learning under non-stressful conditions among healthcare professionals (N = 205; 157 females, 48 males; Age: M = 34.23, SD 9.3, range 20-59 years). Individuals with moderate, but not low, cumulative lifetime stressor exposure exhibited impaired learning for stimulus-response associations. In contrast, learning for context associations was unrelated to participants' lifetime stressor exposure profiles. These results thus provide first evidence that cumulative lifetime stressor exposure may have negative consequences on human striatum-dependent stimulus-response learning under non-stressful environmental conditions.


Assuntos
Aprendizagem , Estresse Psicológico , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Estresse Psicológico/fisiopatologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Hipocampo/fisiologia , Corpo Estriado/fisiologia
14.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 13061, 2024 06 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38844766

RESUMO

Advances in autonomous driving provide an opportunity for AI-assisted driving instruction that directly addresses the critical need for human driving improvement. How should an AI instructor convey information to promote learning? In a pre-post experiment (n = 41), we tested the impact of an AI Coach's explanatory communications modeled after performance driving expert instructions. Participants were divided into four (4) groups to assess two (2) dimensions of the AI coach's explanations: information type ('what' and 'why'-type explanations) and presentation modality (auditory and visual). We compare how different explanatory techniques impact driving performance, cognitive load, confidence, expertise, and trust via observational learning. Through interview, we delineate participant learning processes. Results show AI coaching can effectively teach performance driving skills to novices. We find the type and modality of information influences performance outcomes. Differences in how successfully participants learned are attributed to how information directs attention, mitigates uncertainty, and influences overload experienced by participants. Results suggest efficient, modality-appropriate explanations should be opted for when designing effective HMI communications that can instruct without overwhelming. Further, results support the need to align communications with human learning and cognitive processes. We provide eight design implications for future autonomous vehicle HMI and AI coach design.


Assuntos
Condução de Veículo , Cognição , Confiança , Humanos , Condução de Veículo/psicologia , Masculino , Feminino , Cognição/fisiologia , Adulto , Confiança/psicologia , Inteligência Artificial , Adulto Jovem , Aprendizagem/fisiologia
15.
Hum Brain Mapp ; 45(8): e26719, 2024 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38826009

RESUMO

Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS) is a disorder characterised by motor and vocal tics, which may represent habitual actions as a result of enhanced learning of associations between stimuli and responses (S-R). In this study, we investigated how adults with GTS and healthy controls (HC) learn two types of regularities in a sequence: statistics (non-adjacent probabilities) and rules (predefined order). Participants completed a visuomotor sequence learning task while EEG was recorded. To understand the neurophysiological underpinnings of these regularities in GTS, multivariate pattern analyses on the temporally decomposed EEG signal as well as sLORETA source localisation method were conducted. We found that people with GTS showed superior statistical learning but comparable rule-based learning compared to HC participants. Adults with GTS had different neural representations for both statistics and rules than HC adults; specifically, adults with GTS maintained the regularity representations longer and had more overlap between them than HCs. Moreover, over different time scales, distinct fronto-parietal structures contribute to statistical learning in the GTS and HC groups. We propose that hyper-learning in GTS is a consequence of the altered sensitivity to encode complex statistics, which might lead to habitual actions.


Assuntos
Eletroencefalografia , Síndrome de Tourette , Humanos , Síndrome de Tourette/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Adulto , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Aprendizagem por Probabilidade
16.
Psychol Aging ; 39(3): 209-214, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38829338

RESUMO

This is an introduction to the special issue "Adult Age Differences in Language, Communication, and Learning from Text." These articles illustrate the great variety of language use through the adult lifespan, tell us a little more-and invite further inquiry. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2024 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Comunicação , Idioma , Aprendizagem , Humanos , Adulto , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Envelhecimento/psicologia , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Adulto Jovem , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
17.
Front Neural Circuits ; 18: 1423505, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38841557

RESUMO

The olfactory tubercle (OT) is a unique part of the olfactory cortex of the mammal brain in that it is also a component of the ventral striatum. It is crucially involved in motivational behaviors, particularly in adaptive olfactory learning. This review introduces the basic properties of the OT, its synaptic connectivity with other brain areas, and the plasticity of the connectivity associated with learning behavior. The adaptive properties of olfactory behavior are discussed further based on the characteristics of OT neuronal circuits.


Assuntos
Plasticidade Neuronal , Tubérculo Olfatório , Animais , Plasticidade Neuronal/fisiologia , Humanos , Tubérculo Olfatório/fisiologia , Aprendizagem/fisiologia
18.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 4768, 2024 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38849336

RESUMO

Parvalbumin (PV)-expressing GABAergic neurons of the basal forebrain (BFPVNs) were proposed to serve as a rapid and transient arousal system, yet their exact role in awake behaviors remains unclear. We performed bulk calcium measurements and electrophysiology with optogenetic tagging from the horizontal limb of the diagonal band of Broca (HDB) while male mice were performing an associative learning task. BFPVNs responded with a distinctive, phasic activation to punishment, but showed slower and delayed responses to reward and outcome-predicting stimuli. Optogenetic inhibition during punishment impaired the formation of cue-outcome associations, suggesting a causal role of BFPVNs in associative learning. BFPVNs received strong inputs from the hypothalamus, the septal complex and the median raphe region, while they synapsed on diverse cell types in key limbic structures, where they broadcasted information about aversive stimuli. We propose that the arousing effect of BFPVNs is recruited by aversive stimuli to serve crucial associative learning functions.


Assuntos
Prosencéfalo Basal , Neurônios GABAérgicos , Optogenética , Parvalbuminas , Animais , Parvalbuminas/metabolismo , Prosencéfalo Basal/metabolismo , Prosencéfalo Basal/fisiologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Neurônios GABAérgicos/metabolismo , Neurônios GABAérgicos/fisiologia , Recompensa , Punição , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Neurônios/metabolismo , Neurônios/fisiologia , Aprendizagem por Associação/fisiologia
19.
Med Sci Monit ; 30: e943748, 2024 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38853414

RESUMO

BACKGROUND This study embarked on an innovative exploration to elucidate the effects of integrating electroacupuncture (EA) with motor training (MT) on enhancing corticospinal excitability and motor learning. Central to this investigation is the interplay between homeostatic and non-homeostatic metaplasticity processes, providing insights into how these combined interventions may influence neural plasticity and motor skill acquisition. MATERIAL AND METHODS The investigation enrolled 20 healthy volunteers, subjecting them to 4 distinct interventions to parse out the individual and combined effects of EA and MT. These interventions were EA alone, MT alone, EA-priming followed by MT, and MT-priming followed by EA. The assessment of changes in primary motor cortex (M1) excitability was conducted through motor-evoked potentials (MEPs), while the grooved pegboard test (GPT) was used to evaluate alterations in motor performance. RESULTS The findings revealed that EA and MT independently contributed to enhanced M1 excitability and motor performance. However, the additional priming with EA or MT did not yield further modulation in MEPs amplitudes. Notably, EA-priming was associated with improved GPT completion times, underscoring its potential in facilitating motor learning. CONCLUSIONS The study underscores that while EA and MT individually augment motor cortex excitability and performance, their synergistic application does not further enhance or inhibit cortical excitability. This points to the involvement of non-homeostatic metaplasticity mechanisms. Nonetheless, EA emerges as a critical tool in preventing M1 overstimulation, thereby continuously fostering motor learning. The findings call for further research into the strategic application of EA, whether in isolation or with MT, within clinical settings to optimize rehabilitation outcomes.


Assuntos
Eletroacupuntura , Potencial Evocado Motor , Voluntários Saudáveis , Aprendizagem , Córtex Motor , Estimulação Magnética Transcraniana , Humanos , Eletroacupuntura/métodos , Masculino , Córtex Motor/fisiologia , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Feminino , Potencial Evocado Motor/fisiologia , Adulto , Estimulação Magnética Transcraniana/métodos , Plasticidade Neuronal/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem , Destreza Motora/fisiologia , Tratos Piramidais/fisiologia
20.
Trends Neurosci Educ ; 35: 100223, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38879195

RESUMO

AIM: We examined age-related differences in valuation and cognitive control circuits during value-based decision-making. METHODS: 13-year-olds (N = 25) and 17-year-olds (N = 22) made a metacognitive choice to be tested or not on an upcoming learning task, based on reward and difficulty associated with word-pairs. To investigate whether these determinants of subjective value are differently processed at different ages, we performed region-of-interest(ROI)-based analyses of task-related and functional connectivity data. RESULTS: We observed age-related differences in responsiveness of valuation structures (amygdala, ventral striatum, ventromedial prefrontal cortex) and caudate nucleus, with activity modulated by reward in 13-year-olds, while in 17-year-olds activity being responsive to difficulty. These accompanied age-related differences in functional connectivity between medial prefrontal and striatal/amygdala seeds. DISCUSSION: These results are in line with current views that sensitivity changes for reward and difficulty during adolescence are the result of a maturational switch in effort-related signalling in the cognitive control circuit, which increasingly regulates value-signalling structures.


Assuntos
Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Recompensa , Humanos , Adolescente , Masculino , Feminino , Comportamento de Escolha/fisiologia , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Tomada de Decisões/fisiologia , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiologia , Córtex Pré-Frontal/diagnóstico por imagem , Mapeamento Encefálico
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