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1.
Ecol Lett ; 23(2): 316-325, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31800170

RESUMO

Increasing temperatures associated with climate change are predicted to cause reductions in body size, a key determinant of animal physiology and ecology. Using a four-decade specimen series of 70 716 individuals of 52 North American migratory bird species, we demonstrate that increasing annual summer temperature over the 40-year period predicts consistent reductions in body size across these diverse taxa. Concurrently, wing length - an index of body shape that impacts numerous aspects of avian ecology and behaviour - has consistently increased across species. Our findings suggest that warming-induced body size reduction is a general response to climate change, and reveal a similarly consistent and unexpected shift in body shape. We hypothesise that increasing wing length represents a compensatory adaptation to maintain migration as reductions in body size have increased the metabolic cost of flight. An improved understanding of warming-induced morphological changes is important for predicting biotic responses to global change.


Assuntos
Aves , Aquecimento Global , Migração Animal , Animais , Tamanho Corporal , Mudança Climática , Estações do Ano , Temperatura Ambiente
2.
Sci Total Environ ; 701: 134794, 2020 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31715479

RESUMO

Multiple lines of evidence, ranging from time series field observations to climate change stimulation experiments demonstrate the negative effects of global warming and ocean acidification (OA) on bivalve molluscs. The impact of global warming on bivalve aquaculture has recently been reviewed. However, the impact of OA on bivalve aquaculture has received relatively less attention. Although there are many reports on the effects of OA on bivalves, this information is poorly organized and the connection between OA and bivalve aquaculture is unclear. Therefore, understanding the potential impact of acidification on ecosystems and bivalve aquaculture is of prime importance. Here, we provide a comprehensive scientific review of the impact of OA on bivalves and propose mitigation measures for future bivalve farming. This information will help to establish aquaculture and fisheries management plans to be implemented in commercial fisheries and nature conservation. In general, scientific evidence suggests that OA threatens bivalves by diminishing the availability of carbonate minerals, which may adversely affect the development of early life stages, calcification, growth, byssus attachment and survival of bivalves. The Integrated multi-trophic aquaculture (IMTA) approach is a useful method in slowing the effects of climate change, thereby providing longer adaptation period for bivalves to changing ocean conditions. However, for certain regions that experience intense OA effects or for certain bivalve species that have much longer generational time, IMTA alone may not be sufficient to protect bivalves from the adverse effects of climate change. Therefore, it is highly recommended to combine IMTA and genetic breeding methods to facilitate transgenerational acclimation or evolution processes to enhance the climate resilience of bivalves.


Assuntos
Aquicultura/métodos , Bivalves , Animais , Aquecimento Global , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Oceanos e Mares , Água do Mar/química
3.
BMC Ecol ; 19(1): 48, 2019 11 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31771563

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The tomato red spider mite, Tetranychus evansi Baker & Pritchard (Acari: Tetranychidae), is an agricultural pest of solanaceous crops. Although T. evansi is of South American subtropical origin, it has recently expanded its distribution range to many tropical and temperate areas around the world. Its potential distribution range in response to scenarios of global warming was recently modeled, confirming its current and possible future distributions. Here, we experimentally investigated the biological traits of T. evansi in the context of the current and future global warming (2100) scenarios. Using an environmental simulation system, we tested the life-history traits of T. evansi under current summer temperatures (as of June, July, and August 2016) and under expected temperature increases based on two IPCC scenarios: RCP2.6 (+ 1 °C) and RCP8.5 (+ 3.7 °C). The mites were introduced into each scenario on 1 June and their sequential progeny were used for testing in each following month. RESULTS: The mite could develop and reproduce under all scenarios. There was a decrease in the duration of lifespan and female fecundity at RCP8.5 during June and August, but this may be compensated for by the high intrinsic rate of increase, which implies faster population growth and shorter generation time. CONCLUSION: Our study and other reports reveal the high adaptability of T. evansi to a wide range of summer temperatures; this may explain its current distribution. We anticipate that global warming will favor the spread of T. evansi and may further expand its distribution to a large area of the globe. These findings should be of ecological and practical relevance for designing prevention and control strategies.


Assuntos
Lycopersicon esculentum , Ácaros , Tetranychidae , Animais , Feminino , Aquecimento Global , Temperatura Ambiente
4.
Sci Total Environ ; 695: 133917, 2019 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31756863

RESUMO

Dairy consumption studies or life cycle assessment of dairy products have been in research focus for several years providing useful information. However, limited number of studies confronted the two types of data in order to analyze environmental impacts associated with consumers. The objective of this research was to calculate these impacts, namely global warming potential (GWP), ozone depletion potential (ODP), cumulative energy demand (CED), acidification potential (AP) and eutrophication potential (EP) related to the consumption of milk and yogurt in Serbia. In the present paper, life cycle assessment study was performed using data from nine dairy farms and ten dairy plants. The system boundary applied is 'cradle-to-retail' comprising data from cow farms, raw milk transportation, processing and transportation of dairy products. In parallel, a survey on the consumption of milk and yogurt was conducted analyzing responses from 957 dairy product consumers. It was found that milk production is responsible for the emission of 1.511 kg CO2e/kg of milk, 7.720 MJe/kg, 0.1363 mg R11e/kg, 12.164 g SO2e/kg and 17.825 g PO4e/kg while the results for yogurt are slightly higher 1.672 kg CO2e/kg, 7.804 7.720 MJe/kg, 0.1369 mg R11e/kg, 12.238 g SO2e/kg and 17.609 g PO4e/kg. Further calculations also revealed that weekly emission of GWP, CED, ODP, AP and EP associated with an average consumer of milk and/or yogurt in Serbia was estimated at values of 2.254 kg CO2e/week, 10.926 MJe/week, 0.19261 mg R11e/week, 17.191 g SO2e/week and 24.363 g PO4e/week. These results may be of interest to all actors in the dairy chain giving them a wider perspective of sustainable consumption of dairy products.


Assuntos
Indústria de Laticínios/métodos , Meio Ambiente , Monitoramento Ambiental , Animais , Indústria de Laticínios/estatística & dados numéricos , Aquecimento Global , Humanos , Leite , Método de Monte Carlo , Sérvia , Iogurte
5.
Environ Manage ; 64(6): 772-782, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31748948

RESUMO

During the last decade, China's agro-food production has increased rapidly and been accompanied by the challenge of increasing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and other environmental pollutants from fertilizers, pesticides, and intensive energy use. Understanding the energy use and environmental impacts of crop production will help identify environmentally damaging hotspots of agro-production, allowing environmental impacts to be assessed and crop management strategies optimized. Conventional farming has been widely employed in wolfberry (Lycium barbarum) cultivation in China, which is an important cash tree crop not only for the rural economy but also from an ecological standpoint. Energy use and global warming potential (GWP) were investigated in a wolfberry production system in the Yellow River irrigated Jingtai region of Gansu. In total, 52 household farms were randomly selected to conduct the investigation using questionnaires. Total energy input and output were 321,800.73 and 166,888.80 MJ ha-1, respectively, in the production system. The highest share of energy inputs was found to be electricity consumption for lifting irrigation water, accounting for 68.52%, followed by chemical fertilizer application (11.37%). Energy use efficiency was 0.52 when considering both fruit and pruned wood. Nonrenewable energy use (88.52%) was far larger than the renewable energy input. The share of GWP of different inputs were 64.52% electricity, 27.72% nitrogen (N) fertilizer, 5.07% phosphate, 2.32% diesel, and 0.37% potassium, respectively. The highest share was related to electricity consumption for irrigation, followed by N fertilizer use. Total GWP in the wolfberry planting system was 26,018.64 kg CO2 eq ha-1 and the share of CO2, N2O, and CH4 were 99.47%, 0.48%, and negligible respectively with CO2 being dominant. Pathways for reducing energy use and GHG emission mitigation include: conversion to low carbon farming to establish a sustainable and cleaner production system with options of raising water use efficiency by adopting a seasonal gradient water pricing system and advanced irrigation techniques; reducing synthetic fertilizer use; and policy support: smallholder farmland transfer (concentration) for scale production, credit (small- and low-interest credit) and tax breaks.


Assuntos
Aquecimento Global , Lycium , Agricultura , Carbono , China , Fertilizantes , Efeito Estufa , Metano , Óxido Nitroso
6.
Waste Manag Res ; 37(12): 1282-1290, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31674292

RESUMO

Greenhouse gas emissions resulting from municipal solid waste management activities and the associated climate change impacts are getting great attention worldwide. This study investigates greenhouse gas emissions and their distribution during waste collection and transport activities in the Dammam region of Saudi Arabia. Greenhouse gas emissions and associated global warming factors were estimated based on diesel fuel consumption during waste collection and transport activities. Then, waste collection and transport data were used to parameterise a mechanistic collection model that can be used to estimate and predict future fuel consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. For the collection and transport of municipal waste in the study area, the average associated total greenhouse gas emissions were about 24,935 tCO2-eq. Global warming factors for three provinces were estimated as 25.23 kg CO2-eq t-1, 25.04 kg CO2-eq t-1, and 37.15 kg CO2-eq t-1, respectively. Lastly, the American Meteorological Society/Environmental Protection Agency Regulatory Model (AERMOD) modelling system was used to estimate the atmospheric dispersion of greenhouse gas emissions. Model results revealed that the maximum daily greenhouse gas concentrations ranged between 0.174 and 97.3 mg m-3, while annual average greenhouse gas concentrations were found to be between 0.012 and 27.7 mg m-3 within the study domain. The highest greenhouse gas concentrations were observed for the regions involving the municipal solid waste collection routes owing to their higher source emission rates.


Assuntos
Gases de Efeito Estufa , Eliminação de Resíduos , Dióxido de Carbono , Aquecimento Global , Efeito Estufa , Resíduos Sólidos
8.
Environ Sci Technol ; 53(23): 14054-14062, 2019 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31693360

RESUMO

Global warming mitigation strategies are likely to affect human health and biodiversity through diverse cause-effect mechanisms. To analyze these effects, we implement a methodology to link TIMES energy models with life cycle assessment using open-source software. The proposed method uses a cutoff to identify the most relevant processes. These processes have their efficiencies, fuel mixes, and emission factors updated to be consistent with the TIMES model. The use of a cutoff criterion reduces exponentially the number of connection points between models, facilitating the analysis of scenarios with a large number of technologies involved. The method is used to assess the potential effects of deploying low-carbon technologies to reduce combustion emissions in the province of Quebec (Canada). In the case of Quebec, the reduction of combustion emissions is largely achieved through electrification of energy services. Global warming mitigation efforts reduce the impact on human health and ecosystem quality, mainly because of lower global warming, water scarcity, and metal contamination impacts. The TIMES model alone underestimated the reduction of CO2eq by 21% with respect to a full account of emissions.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Aquecimento Global , Biodiversidade , Canadá , Humanos , Quebeque
9.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1465, 2019 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31694683

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ischemic heart disease (IHD) is one of the leading causes of deaths worldwide and causes a tremendous disease burden. Temperature is an important environmental determinant among the many risk factors for IHD. However, the emerging temperature-related health risks of IHD in the elderly is limited because of the lack of estimates that integrate global warming and demographic change. METHODS: Data on daily IHD deaths in the elderly aged ≥65 years and meteorological conditions were collected in Tianjin, a megacity of China, from 2006 to 2011. First, the baseline relationship between the temperature and years of life lost (YLL) from IHD was established. Then, future assessments were performed in combination with temperature projections for 19 global-scale climate models (GCMs) under 3 representative concentration pathways (RCPs) for the 2050s and 2070s. RESULTS: Increased YLL from IHD in the elderly was found to be associated with future ambient temperatures. The annual temperature-related YLL from IHD in the 2050s and 2070s were higher than the baseline. For instance, increases of 4.5, 14.9 and 38.3% were found under the RCP2.6, RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 scenarios, respectively, in the 2070s. The most significant increases occurred in warm season months. The increase in heat-related YLL will not be completely offset, even with the 25% adaptation assumed. When considering demographic change, the temperature-related disease burden of IHD in the elderly will be exacerbated by 158.4 to 196.6% under 3 RCPs in the 2050s and 2070s relative to the baseline. CONCLUSIONS: These findings have significant meaning for environmental and public health policy making and interventions towards the important issue of the health impacts of global warming on the elderly.


Assuntos
Previsões , Aquecimento Global , Isquemia Miocárdica/mortalidade , Adaptação Fisiológica , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , China/epidemiologia , Clima , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Isquemia Miocárdica/etiologia , Fatores de Risco , Estações do Ano , Temperatura Ambiente
10.
Nature ; 575(7781): 109-118, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31695205

RESUMO

The current trajectory for crop yields is insufficient to nourish the world's population by 20501. Greater and more consistent crop production must be achieved against a backdrop of climatic stress that limits yields, owing to shifts in pests and pathogens, precipitation, heat-waves and other weather extremes. Here we consider the potential of plant sciences to address post-Green Revolution challenges in agriculture and explore emerging strategies for enhancing sustainable crop production and resilience in a changing climate. Accelerated crop improvement must leverage naturally evolved traits and transformative engineering driven by mechanistic understanding, to yield the resilient production systems that are needed to ensure future harvests.


Assuntos
Produção Agrícola/métodos , Produção Agrícola/estatística & dados numéricos , Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Abastecimento de Alimentos/métodos , Abastecimento de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Aquecimento Global/estatística & dados numéricos , Desenvolvimento Sustentável/tendências , Aclimatação/genética , Aclimatação/fisiologia , Animais , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Produtos Agrícolas/microbiologia , Produtos Agrícolas/virologia , Fertilizantes , Humanos , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Doenças das Plantas/prevenção & controle , Doenças das Plantas/estatística & dados numéricos , Chuva
12.
Lakartidningen ; 1162019 Oct 10.
Artigo em Sueco | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31613372

RESUMO

This study estimated the climate footprint of halogenated inhalation anesthetics in Sweden and estimated effects of a decreased use of these compounds. We collected data on sales of desflurane, sevoflurane and isoflurane in Sweden during 2017 and calculated the mass of CO2 equivalents (CO2e) using Global Warming Potential data over 100 years for the compounds. Inhalation anesthetics contributed by 5000 tons of CO2e which corresponds to 0.005 percent of the Swedish climate footprint. By replacing desflurane with sevoflurane the footprint can be reduced by 73 percent. By replacing sevoflurane with intravenous propofol the climate effect can be reduced further by at least 2 orders of magnitude.


Assuntos
Anestésicos Inalatórios , Pegada de Carbono , Anestésicos Inalatórios/análise , Anestésicos Inalatórios/química , Anestésicos Intravenosos/análise , Anestésicos Intravenosos/química , Desflurano/análise , Desflurano/química , Aquecimento Global , Humanos , Isoflurano/análise , Isoflurano/química , Óxido Nitroso/análise , Óxido Nitroso/química , Propofol/administração & dosagem , Propofol/análise , Propofol/química , Sevoflurano/análise , Sevoflurano/química , Suécia
13.
Biol Lett ; 15(10): 20190518, 2019 10 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31615375

RESUMO

Poikilothermic organisms are predicted to show reduced body sizes as they experience warming environments under a changing global climate. Such a shrinking of size is expected under scenarios where rising temperatures increase cellular reaction rates and basal metabolic energy demands, therein requiring limited energy to be shifted from growth. Here, we provide evidence that the ecological changes associated with warming may not only lead to shrinking body size but also trigger shifts in morphology. We documented 33.4 and 39.0% declines in body mass and 7.2 and 7.6% reductions in length for males and females, respectively, in a wild population of Amargosa pupfish, Cyprinodon nevadensis amargosae, following an abrupt anthropogenically driven temperature increase. That reduction in size was accompanied by the partial or complete loss of paired pelvic fins in approximately 34% of the population, a morphological change concomitant with altered body dimensions including head size and body depth. These observations confirm that increasing temperatures can reduce body size under some ecological scenarios and highlight how human-induced environmental warming may also trigger morphological changes with potential relevance for fitness.


Assuntos
Meio Ambiente , Peixes , Animais , Tamanho Corporal , Mudança Climática , Ecologia , Feminino , Aquecimento Global , Masculino , Temperatura Ambiente
17.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(32): 33694-33701, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31595409

RESUMO

The pollutants' emissions from on-road transport are critical pressure on the climate change scenario, and most developing countries rely on mostly diesel transportation. The current study aimed to estimate the environmental impact of the distance from the agricultural production area of fresh food (papaya, potato, and tomato) to a fresh food distribution center located in Campinas, Sao Paulo, Brazil. The way the products were carried was assessed for calculating the total transported volume. The total amount carried was measured, considering the number of trips multiplied by the total distance traveled within a year of supply. An online calculator was used to evaluate the amount of CO2 emission, and to allow the estimative of the amount of CO2-eq, that is the Global Warming Impact (GWP) in 100 years. The highest CO2 emission was identified in the potato transported from Paraná State to the distribution center, with a CO2-eq emission of 3237 t/year (64% of contribution), followed by the papaya from Bahia State (2723 t/year, 42% of contribution), and the tomato from Sao Paulo State (625 t/year, 71% of contribution). However, when computing the GWP, the highest value was found in the transport of potato from the Minas Gerais State (8 × 10-2 in 100 years) followed by the papaya from Rio Grande do Norte State (5 × 10-2 in 100 years) and the papaya from Bahia (3 × 10-2 in 100 years). The higher the amount of product transported by a trip, the smaller the environmental impact in the long run. A proper strategy to reduce the environmental impact would be to have large freight volume when transporting food from vast distances within continental countries.


Assuntos
Meio Ambiente , Monitoramento Ambiental , Fazendas , Transportes , Agricultura , Brasil , Mudança Climática , Aquecimento Global
18.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(32): 33702-33714, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31595410

RESUMO

In this study, we aimed at determining greenhouse gas (GHG) (CO2, CH4, and N2O) fluxes exchange between the soil collected from sites dominated by different vegetation types (Calamagrostis epigeios, Phragmites australis, and Carex schnimdtii) in nitrogenous loaded riparian wetland and the atmosphere. The intact soil columns collected from the wetland were incubated in laboratory and continuously treated with [Formula: see text]-enriched water simulating downward surface water percolating through the soil to become groundwater in a natural system. This study revealed that the soil collected from the site dominated by C. epigeios was net CO2 and N2O sources, whereas the soil from P. australis and C. schnimdtii were net sinks of CO2 and N2O, respectively. The soil from the site dominated by C. schnimdtii had the highest climate impact, as it had the highest global warming potential (GWP) compared with the other sites. Our study indicates that total organic carbon and [Formula: see text] concentration in the soil water has great influence on GHG fluxes. Carbon dioxide (CO2) and N2O fluxes were accelerated by the availability of higher [Formula: see text] concentration in soil water. On the other hand, higher [Formula: see text] concentration in soil water favors CH4 oxidation, hence the low CH4 production. Temporally, CO2 fluxes were relatively higher in the first 15 days and reduced gradually likely due to a decline in organic carbon. The finding of this study implies that higher [Formula: see text] concentration in wetland soil, caused by human activities, could increase N2O and CO2 emissions from the soil. This therefore stresses the importance of controls of [Formula: see text] leaching in the mitigation of anthropogenic N2O and CO2 emissions.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Gases de Efeito Estufa/análise , Nitratos/análise , Áreas Alagadas , Atmosfera , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Clima , Aquecimento Global , Efeito Estufa , Água Subterrânea , Estudos Longitudinais , Metano/análise , Nitrogênio , Óxido Nitroso/análise , Poaceae , Solo
20.
Invest. educ. enferm ; 37(3): [E01], 15 Octubre 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1023466

RESUMO

Climate change and global warming are phenomena that are progressively affecting the planet. Temperature changes bring about various threats in distinct sectors and environments of human society, among them, threats to health secondary to extreme temperatures and natural disasters. Thus, it is constituted as a global threat to biodiversity and the human population, given that it affects habitat conditions, as well as causes an increase in forest fires as consequence of increased temperatures and diminished precipitations. Forest fires have attracted attention not only because of their ecological and environmental consequences, but also in production and economic aspects and in relation with the health of people potentially exposed, given that these place populations at environmental risks, like fire, smoke, and others derived from the combustion of wood and chemical products that can be released.


Assuntos
Humanos , Saúde Pública , Pessoal de Saúde , Incêndios Florestais , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Papel Profissional , Poluentes Atmosféricos , Desastres , Aquecimento Global
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