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1.
Genome Biol ; 23(1): 197, 2022 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36127735

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is challenging to determine the effect of DNA methylation on the epigenetic landscape and the function in higher organisms due to the lack of DNA methylation-free mutants. RESULTS: Here, the analysis of a recently generated Arabidopsis mutant completely devoid of DNA methylation reveals that DNA methylation underpins the genome-wide landscape of histone modifications. Complete loss of DNA methylation causes an upheaval of the histone modification landscape, including complete loss of H3K9me2 and widespread redistribution of active and H3K27me3 histone marks, mostly owing to the role of DNA methylation in initiating H3K9me2 deposition and excluding active marks and repressive mark H3K27me3; CG and non-CG methylation can act independently at some genomic regions while they act cooperatively at many other regions. The transcriptional reprogramming upon loss of all DNA methylation correlates with the extensive redistribution or switches of the examined histone modifications. Histone modifications retained or gained in the DNA methylation-free mutant serve as DNA methylation-independent transcriptional regulatory signals: active marks promote genome transcription, whereas the repressive mark H3K27me3 compensates for the lack of DNA hypermethylation/H3K9me2 at multiple transposon families. CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that an intact DNA methylome constitutes the scaffolding of the epigenomic landscape in Arabidopsis and is critical for controlled genome transcription and ultimately for proper growth and development.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , DNA , Metilação de DNA , Epigênese Genética , Epigenômica , Histonas/metabolismo , Humanos
2.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 5542, 2022 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36130923

RESUMO

Polycomb (PcG) silencing is crucial for development, but how targets are specified remains incompletely understood. The cold-induced Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 (PRC2) silencing of Arabidopsis thaliana FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC) provides an excellent system to elucidate PcG regulation. Association of the DNA binding protein VAL1 to FLC PcG nucleation regionis an important step. VAL1 co-immunoprecipitates APOPTOSIS AND SPLICING ASSOCIATED PROTEIN (ASAP) complex and PRC1. Here, we show that ASAP and PRC1 are necessary for co-transcriptional repression and chromatin regulation at FLC. ASAP mutants affect FLC transcription in warm conditions, but the rate of FLC silencing in the cold is unaffected. PRC1-mediated H2Aub accumulation increases at the FLC nucleation region during cold, but unlike the PRC2-delivered H3K27me3, does not spread across the locus. H2Aub thus involved in the transition to epigenetic silencing at FLC, facilitating H3K27me3 accumulation and long-term epigenetic memory. Overall, our work highlights the importance of VAL1 as an assembly platform co-ordinating activities necessary for epigenetic silencing at FLC.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis , Arabidopsis , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Cromatina/genética , Cromatina/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Inativação Gênica , Histonas/genética , Histonas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Domínio MADS/genética , Proteínas de Domínio MADS/metabolismo , Complexo Repressor Polycomb 2/genética , Complexo Repressor Polycomb 2/metabolismo , Proteínas do Grupo Polycomb/metabolismo
3.
Sci Adv ; 8(36): eabn5057, 2022 09 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36083905

RESUMO

Cytokinin plays critical roles in root development. Cytokinin signaling depends on activation of key transcription factors known as type B Arabidopsis response regulators (ARRs). However, the mechanisms underlying the finely tuned regulation of type B ARR activity remain unclear. In this study, we demonstrate that the ERF-associated amphiphilic repression (EAR) motif-containing protein TCP interactor containing ear motif protein2 (TIE2) forms a negative feedback loop to finely tune the activity of type B ARRs during root development. Disruption of TIE2 and its close homolog TIE1 causes severely shortened roots. TIE2 interacts with type B ARR1 and represses transcription of ARR1 targets. The cytokinin response is correspondingly enhanced in tie1-1 tie2-1. We further show that ARR1 positively regulates TIE1 and TIE2 by directly binding to their promoters. Our findings demonstrate that TIEs play key roles in controlling plant development and reveal an important negative feedback regulation mechanism for cytokinin signaling.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis , Arabidopsis , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Citocininas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
4.
Planta ; 256(4): 76, 2022 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36087170

RESUMO

MAIN CONCLUSION: High ammonium suppresses hybrid incompatibility between Ler and Kas-2 accessions through lowering nitric oxide levels and nitrate reductase activity required for autoimmunity. The immune-related hybrid incompatibility (HI) between Landsberg erecta (Ler) and Kashmir-2 (Kas-2) accessions is due to a deleterious genetic interaction between the RPP1 (RECOGNITION OF PERONOSPORA PARASITICA1)-like Ler locus and Kas-2 alleles of the receptor-like kinase SRF3 (STRUBBELIG RECEPTOR FAMILY 3). The genetic incompatibility is temperature-dependent and leads to constitutive activation of the salicylic acid (SA) pathway, dwarfism and cell death at 14-16 °C. Here we investigated the effect of nutrition on the occurrence of Ler/Kas-2 HI and found that high ammonium suppresses Ler/Kas-2 incompatible phenotypes independently of the ammonium/nitrate ratio. Ammonium feeding leads to compromised disease resistance to Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000, lower total SA, nitric oxide and nitrate reductase activity in Ler/Kas-2 incompatible hybrids. In addition, we find that Ler/Kas-2 incompatibility is dependent on NPR1 (NONEXPRESSER OF PR GENES 1) and nitric oxide production. Overall, this work highlights the effect of nutrition on the expression of incompatible phenotypes independently of temperature.


Assuntos
Compostos de Amônio , Proteínas de Arabidopsis , Arabidopsis , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Nitrato Redutases , Óxido Nítrico , Ácido Salicílico/metabolismo
5.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(38): e2205842119, 2022 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36095196

RESUMO

RNA uridylation, catalyzed by terminal uridylyl transferases (TUTases), represents a conserved and widespread posttranscriptional RNA modification in eukaryotes that affects RNA metabolism. In plants, several TUTases, including HEN1 SUPPRESSOR 1 (HESO1) and UTP: RNA URIDYLYLTRANSFERASE (URT1), have been characterized through genetic and biochemical approaches. However, little is known about their physiological significance during plant development. Here, we show that HESO1 and URT1 act cooperatively with the cytoplasmic 3'-5' exoribonucleolytic machinery component SUPERKILLER 2 (SKI2) to regulate photosynthesis through RNA surveillance of the Calvin cycle gene TRANSKETOLASE 1 (TKL1) in Arabidopsis. Simultaneous dysfunction of HESO1, URT1, and SKI2 resulted in leaf etiolation and reduced photosynthetic efficiency. In addition, we detected massive illegitimate short interfering RNAs (siRNAs) from the TKL1 locus in heso1 urt1 ski2, accompanied by reduced TKL1/2 expression and attenuated TKL activities. Consequently, the metabolic analysis revealed that the abundance of many Calvin cycle intermediates is dramatically disturbed in heso1 urt1 ski2. Importantly, all these molecular and physiological defects were largely rescued by the loss-of-function mutation in RNA-DEPENDENT RNA POLYMERASE 6 (RDR6), demonstrating illegitimate siRNA-mediated TKL silencing. Taken together, our results suggest that HESO1- and URT1-mediated RNA uridylation connects to the cytoplasmic RNA degradation pathway for RNA surveillance, which is crucial for TKL expression and photosynthesis in Arabidopsis.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis , Arabidopsis , MicroRNAs , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/genética , Fotossíntese/genética , RNA Nucleotidiltransferases , Estabilidade de RNA/genética , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética , Transcetolase/metabolismo , Uridina/genética , Uridina/metabolismo
6.
PLoS One ; 17(9): e0272647, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36048814

RESUMO

Phosphoglucose isomerase (PGI) catalyzes the interconversion between glucose-6-phosphate (G6P) and fructose-6-phosphate (F6P), thereby regulating sucrose synthesis in plant cells. In general, plants contain a pair of PGI isozymes located in two distinct compartments of the cell (cytosol and plastid) with differences in both the primary structure and the higher-order structure. Previously, we showed that the activity of cytosolic PGI (PGIc) is more robust (activity, thermal stability, substrate turnover rate, etc.) than that of the plastid counterpart (PGIp) in multiple organisms, including wheat, rice, and Arabidopsis. The crystal structures of apoTaPGIc (an isotype cytosol PGIc in Triticum aestivum), TaPGIc-G6P complex, and apoTaPGIp (an isotype plastid PGIp in Triticum aestivum) were first solved in higher plants, especially in crops. In this study, we detailed the structural characteristics related to the biochemical properties and functions of TaPGIs in different plant organelles. We found that the C-terminal domains (CTDs) of TaPGIc and TaPGIp are very different, which affects the stability of the dimerized enzyme, and that Lys213TaPGIc/Lys193TaPGIp and its surrounding residues at the binding pocket gateway may participate in the entrance and exit of substrates. Our findings provide a good example illuminating the evolution of proteins from primary to higher structures as a result of physical barriers and adaptation to the biochemical environment.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis , Glucose-6-Fosfato Isomerase , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Citosol/metabolismo , Glucose-6-Fosfato , Glucose-6-Fosfato Isomerase/química , Glucose-6-Fosfato Isomerase/genética , Glucose-6-Fosfato Isomerase/metabolismo , Isoenzimas/genética , Plantas/metabolismo , Plastídeos/metabolismo , Triticum/metabolismo
7.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 189: 115-125, 2022 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36084527

RESUMO

Epidermal waxes are part of the outermost hydrophobic structures of apples and play a significant role in enhancing apple resistance and improving fruit quality. The biosynthetic precursors of epidermal waxes are very long-chain fatty acids (VLCFAs), which are made into different wax components through various wax synthesis pathways. In Arabidopsis thaliana, the AtLACS1 protein can activate the alkane synthesis pathway to produce very long-chain acyl CoAs (VLC-acyl-CoAs), which provide substrates for wax synthesis, from VLCFAs. The apple protein MdLACS1, encoded by the MdLACS1 gene, belongs to the AMP-binding superfamily and has long-chain acyl coenzyme A synthase activity, but its function in apple remains unclear. Here, we identified MdLACS1 in apple (Malus × domestica) and analyzed its function. Our results suggest that MdLACS1 promotes wax synthesis and improves biotic and abiotic stress tolerance, which were directly or indirectly dependent on wax. Our study further refines the molecular mechanism of wax biosynthesis in apples and elucidates the physiological function of wax in resistance to external stresses. These findings provide candidate genes for the synergistic enhancement of apple fruit quality and stress tolerance.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis , Malus , Acil Coenzima A/metabolismo , Monofosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo , Alcanos/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Malus/genética , Malus/metabolismo , Epiderme Vegetal/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Ceras/metabolismo
8.
PLoS One ; 17(9): e0274791, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36112700

RESUMO

Galactinol synthase (GolS) catalyzes the first and rate-limiting step in the synthesis of raffinose family of oligosaccharides (RFOs), which serve as storage and transport sugars, signal transducers, compatible solutes and antioxidants in higher plants. The present work aimed to assess the potential functions of citrus GolS in mechanisms of stress response and tolerance. By homology searches, eight GolS genes were found in the genomes of Citrus sinensis and C. clementina. Phylogenetic analysis showed that there is a GolS ortholog in C. clementina for each C. sinensis GolS, which have evolved differently from those of Arabidopsis thaliana. Transcriptional analysis indicated that most C. sinensis GolS (CsGolS) genes show a low-level tissue-specific and stress-inducible expression in response to drought and salt stress treatments, as well as to 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' infection. CsGolS6 overexpression resulted in improved tobacco tolerance to drought and salt stresses, contributing to an increased mesophyll cell expansion, photosynthesis and plant growth. Primary metabolite profiling revealed no significant changes in endogenous galactinol, but different extents of reduction of raffinose in the transgenic plants. On the other hand, a significant increase in the levels of metabolites with antioxidant properties, such as ascorbate, dehydroascorbate, alfa-tocopherol and spermidine, was observed in the transgenic plants. These results bring evidence that CsGolS6 is a potential candidate for improving stress tolerance in citrus and other plants.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis , Citrus , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Citrus/genética , Citrus/metabolismo , Galactosiltransferases , Oligossacarídeos/metabolismo , Filogenia , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/metabolismo , Rafinose/metabolismo , Espermidina/metabolismo , Tocoferóis/metabolismo
9.
BMC Plant Biol ; 22(1): 443, 2022 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36114469

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: ATP-citrate lyase (ACL) plays a pivotal role in histone acetylation and aerobic glycolysis. In plant, ACL is a heteromeric enzyme composed of ACLA (45 kD) and ACLB (65 kD). So far, the function of ACL genes in cotton still remains unknown. RESULTS: Here, we identified three ACLA homologous sequences and two ACLB homologous in each genome/sub-genome of cotton species. Silencing ACLB in cotton led to cell death at newly-grown leaves and stem apexes. Simultaneously, in ACLB-silenced plants, transcription factors related to senescence including SGR, WRKY23 and Osl57 were observed to be activated. Further investigation showed that excessive H2O2 was accumulated, salicylic acid-dependent defense response and pathogenesis-related gene expressions were evidently enhanced in ACLB-silenced plants, implying that knockdown of ACLB genes leads to hypersensitive response-like cell death in cotton seedlings. However, as noted, serious cell death happened in newly-grown leaves and stem apexes in ACLB-silenced plants, which led to the failure of subsequent fungal pathogenicity assays. To confirm the role of ACLB gene in regulating plant immune response, the dicotyledonous model plant Arabidopsis was selected for functional verification of ACLB gene. Our results indicate the resistance to Verticillium dahliae infection in the Arabidopsis mutant aclb-2 were enhanced without causing strong cell death. Ectopic expression of GausACLB-2 in Arabidopsis weakened its resistance to V. dahliae either in Col-0 or in aclb-2 background, in which the expression level of ACLB is negatively correlated with the resistance to V. dahliae. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that ACLB has a new function in negatively affecting the induction of plant defense response and cell death in cotton, which provides theoretical guidance for developing cotton varieties with resistance against Verticillium wilt.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis , Arabidopsis , Verticillium , ATP Citrato (pro-S)-Liase/metabolismo , Trifosfato de Adenosina , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Morte Celular , Histonas , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Complexos Multienzimáticos , Oxo-Ácido-Liases , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Ácido Salicílico/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Verticillium/fisiologia
10.
BMC Plant Biol ; 22(1): 427, 2022 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36064347

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hormones play an indispensable role during fruit ripening, nine clades in 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenase (2OGD) superfamily are responsible for the hormone biosynthesis and metabolism, but less information is known about them. RESULTS: A total of 163 Vv2OGD superfamily members were identified from grape genome, which were mainly expanded by local (tandem and proximal) duplication. Phylogenetic analysis of 2OGD members in grape and Arabidopsis indicates 37 members in Vv2OGD superfamily are related to hormone biosynthesis and metabolism process (Vv2OGD-H), which could be divided into 9 clades, gibberellin (GA) 3-oxidase (GA3ox), GA 20-oxidase (GA20ox), carbon-19 GA 2-oxidase (C19-GA2ox), carbon-20 GA 2-oxidase (C20-GA2ox), 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase (ACO), dioxygenase for auxin oxidation (DAO), lateral branching oxidoreductas (LBO), downy mildew resistant 6 and DMR6-like oxygenase (DMR6/DLO) and jasmonate-induced oxygenase (JOX). Sixteen of these 37 Vv2OGD-Hs are expressed in grape berry, in which the expression patterns of VvGA2oxs, VvDAOs and VvJOXs shows a correlation with the change patterns of GAs, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and jasmonates (JAs), indicating the involvement of these genes in grape berry development by regulating corresponding hormones. Twelve Vv2OGD-Hs respond to methyl JA (MeJA) treatment, of which eight may lead to the inhibition of the ripening process by the crosstalk of JAs-salicylic acids (SAs), JAs-GAs and JAs-JAs, while seven Vv2OGD-Hs respond to ABA treatment may be responsible for the promotion of ripening process by the interplay of abscisic acid (ABA)-strigolactones (SLs), ABA-SAs, ABA-GAs, ABA-JAs. Especially, VvLBO1 reach an expression peak near véraison and up-regulate about four times after ABA treatment, which implies SLs and ABA-SLs crosstalk may be related to the onset of berry ripening in grape. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides valuable clues and new insights for the mechanism research of Vv2OGD-Hs in hormones regulation during the grape berry development.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis , Dioxigenases , Vitis , Ácido Abscísico/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Dioxigenases/genética , Dioxigenases/metabolismo , Frutas , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Hormônios/metabolismo , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Vitis/metabolismo
11.
Nature ; 609(7927): 575-581, 2022 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36071161

RESUMO

The phytohormone auxin triggers transcriptional reprogramming through a well-characterized perception machinery in the nucleus. By contrast, mechanisms that underlie fast effects of auxin, such as the regulation of ion fluxes, rapid phosphorylation of proteins or auxin feedback on its transport, remain unclear1-3. Whether auxin-binding protein 1 (ABP1) is an auxin receptor has been a source of debate for decades1,4. Here we show that a fraction of Arabidopsis thaliana ABP1 is secreted and binds auxin specifically at an acidic pH that is typical of the apoplast. ABP1 and its plasma-membrane-localized partner, transmembrane kinase 1 (TMK1), are required for the auxin-induced ultrafast global phospho-response and for downstream processes that include the activation of H+-ATPase and accelerated cytoplasmic streaming. abp1 and tmk mutants cannot establish auxin-transporting channels and show defective auxin-induced vasculature formation and regeneration. An ABP1(M2X) variant that lacks the capacity to bind auxin is unable to complement these defects in abp1 mutants. These data indicate that ABP1 is the auxin receptor for TMK1-based cell-surface signalling, which mediates the global phospho-response and auxin canalization.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis , Ácidos Indolacéticos , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Ácidos Indolacéticos/metabolismo , Percepção , Fosforilação , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Receptores de Superfície Celular
12.
J Plant Physiol ; 277: 153805, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36087409

RESUMO

Arabidopsis abscisic acid ABA-Insensitive RING Proteins (AtAIRP1-4) are RING E3s that play significant roles in ABA-signaling pathways. However, it is still unclear whether they have other functions. Here, AtAIRP4 was determined to play a role in response to gibberellin A3 (GA3) in Arabidopsis thaliana. After proAtAIRP4::GUS transgenic lines were treated with GA3, the GUS activity decreased in hypocotyls. Increased hypocotyl elongation in response to GA3 seen in WT was not observed in the AtAIRP4-overexpression lines, whereas AtAIRP4-overexpression lines were hypersensitive to Paclobutrazol (PAC, an inhibitor of GA biosynthesis) during the seed germination stage. Additionally, AtAIRP4-overexpressing lines showed the lowest level of primary root elongation in the presence of GA3. The levels of endogenous GA3 in 35S::AtAIRP4 lines were lower than those in wild-type. In addition, among the plants, the mRNA levels of the GA synthetic gene GIBBERELLIN 20-OXIDASE1 (GA20ox1) was the lowest in overexpressing line. However, the expression of the response gene DELLA RGA-LIKE3 (RGL3) was the highest in overexpressing lines after treatment with GA3. Thus, AtAIRP4 plays a negative role in GA-mediated hypocotyl elongation and root growth, and it inhibits the synthesis of endogenous biologically active GA3 to some extent.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis , Arabidopsis , Ácido Abscísico/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Giberelinas/metabolismo , Giberelinas/farmacologia , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/genética , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/metabolismo
13.
BMC Plant Biol ; 22(1): 428, 2022 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36071408

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Calmodulin-binding transcription activators (CAMTAs) are relatively conserved calmodulin-binding transcription factors widely found in eukaryotes and play important roles in plant growth and stress response. CAMTA transcription factors have been identified in several plant species, but the family members and functions have not yet been identified and analyzed in quinoa. RESULTS: In this study, we identified seven CAMTA genes across the whole quinoa genome and analyzed the expression patterns of CqCAMTAs in root and leaf tissues. Gene structure, protein domain, and phylogenetic analyses showed that the quinoa CAMTAs were structurally similar and clustered into the same three major groups as other plant CAMTAs. A large number of stress response-related cis-elements existed in the 2 kb promoter region upstream of the transcription start site of the CqCAMTA genes. qRT-PCR indicated that CqCAMTA genes were expressed differentially under PEG treatments in leaves, and responded to drought stress in leaves and roots. In particular, the CqCAMTA03 gene strongly responded to drought. The transient expression of CqCAMTA03-GFP fusion protein in the tobacco leaf showed that CqCAMTA03 was localized in the nucleus. In addition, transgenic Arabidopsis lines exhibited higher concentration levels of the antioxidant enzymes measured, including POD, SOD, and CAT, under drought conditions with very low levels of H2O2 and MDA. Moreover, relative water content and the degree of stomatal opening showed that the transgenic Arabidopsis lines were more tolerant of both stress factors as compared to their wild types. CONCLUSION: In this study, the structures and functions of the CAMTA family in quinoa were systematically explored. Many CAMTAs may play vital roles in the regulation of organ development, growth, and responses to drought stress. The results of the present study serve as a basis for future functional studies on the quinoa CAMTA family.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis , Secas , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Calmodulina/metabolismo , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
14.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 5147, 2022 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36050482

RESUMO

Directionality in the intercellular transport of the plant hormone auxin is determined by polar plasma membrane localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) auxin transport proteins. However, apart from PIN phosphorylation at conserved motifs, no further determinants explicitly controlling polar PIN sorting decisions have been identified. Here we present Arabidopsis WAVY GROWTH 3 (WAV3) and closely related RING-finger E3 ubiquitin ligases, whose loss-of-function mutants show a striking apical-to-basal polarity switch in PIN2 localization in root meristem cells. WAV3 E3 ligases function as essential determinants for PIN polarity, acting independently from PINOID/WAG-dependent PIN phosphorylation. They antagonize ectopic deposition of de novo synthesized PIN proteins already immediately following completion of cell division, presumably via preventing PIN sorting into basal, ARF GEF-mediated trafficking. Our findings reveal an involvement of E3 ligases in the selective targeting of apically localized PINs in higher plants.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis , Arabidopsis , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Ácidos Indolacéticos/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Transporte Proteico , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/genética , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/metabolismo
15.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(39): e2210978119, 2022 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36122211

RESUMO

Identifying the PPR-E+-NUWA-DYW2 editosome improves our understanding of the C-to-U RNA editing in plant organelles. However, the mechanism of RNA editing remains to be elucidated. Here, we report that GLUTAMINE-RICH PROTEIN23 (GRP23), a previously identified nuclear transcription regulator, plays an essential role in mitochondrial RNA editing through interacting with MORF (multiple organellar RNA-editing factor) proteins and atypical DYW-type pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) proteins. GRP23 is targeted to mitochondria, plastids, and nuclei. Analysis of the grp23 mutants rescued by embryo-specific complementation shows decreased editing efficiency at 352 sites in mitochondria and 6 sites in plastids, with a predominant specificity for sites edited by the PPR-E and PPR-DYW proteins. GRP23 interacts with atypical PPR-DYW proteins (MEF8, MEF8S, DYW2, and DYW4) and MORF proteins (MORF1 and MORF8), whereas the four PPR-DYWs interact with the two MORFs. These interactions may increase the stability of the GRP23-MORF-atypical PPR-DYW complex. Furthermore, analysis of mef8N△64aamef8s double mutants shows that MEF8/MEF8S are required for the editing of the PPR-E protein-targeted sites in mitochondria. GRP23 could enhance the interaction between PPR-E and MEF8/MEF8S and form a homodimer or heterodimer with NUWA. Genetic complementation analysis shows that the C-terminal domains of GRP23 and NUWA possess a similar function, probably in the interaction with the MORFs. NUWA also interacts with atypical PPR-DYWs in yeast. Both GRP23 and NUWA interact with the atypical PPR-DYWs, suggesting that the PPR-E proteins recruit MEF8/MEF8S, whereas the PPR-E+ proteins specifically recruit DYW2 as the trans deaminase, and then GRP23, NUWA, and MORFs facilitate and/or stabilize the E or E+-type editosome formation.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis , Arabidopsis , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Glutamina/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/genética , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , RNA Mitocondrial/metabolismo
16.
Development ; 149(17)2022 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36052695

RESUMO

Stomata are epidermal pores that control gas exchange between plants and the atmosphere. In Arabidopsis, the ERECTA family (ERECTAf) receptors, including ERECTA, ERECTA-LIKE 1 (ERL1) and ERL2, redundantly play pivotal roles in enforcing the 'one-cell-spacing' rule. Accumulating evidence has demonstrated that the functional specificities of receptors are likely associated with their differential subcellular dynamics. The endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-resident chaperone complex SDF2-ERdj3B-BiP functions in many aspects of plant development. We employed pharmacological treatments combined with cell biological and biochemical approaches to demonstrate that the abundance of ERECTA was reduced in the erdj3b-1 mutant, but the localization and dynamics of ERECTA were not noticeably affected. By contrast, the erdj3b mutation caused the retention of ERL1/ERL2 in the ER. Furthermore, we found that the function of SDF2-ERdj3B-BiP is implicated with the distinct roles of ERECTAf receptors. Our findings establish that the ERECTAf receptor-mediated signaling in stomatal development is ensured by the activities of the ER quality control system, which preferentially maintains the protein abundance of ERECTA and proper subcellular dynamics of ERL1/ERL2, prior to the receptors reaching their destination - the plasma membrane - to execute their functions.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis , Arabidopsis , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Proteínas de Transporte/metabolismo , Retículo Endoplasmático/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP40/genética , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP40/metabolismo , Chaperonas Moleculares/genética , Chaperonas Moleculares/metabolismo , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases , Receptores de Superfície Celular/genética
17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(17)2022 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36077020

RESUMO

The NAC (NAM, ATAF1/2, and CUC2) transcription factors are one of the largest families of transcription factors in plants and play an important role in plant development and the response to adversity. In this study, we cloned a new NAC gene, SlNAC10, from the halophyte Suaeda liaotungensis K. The gene has a total length of 1584 bp including a complete ORF of 1107 bp that encodes 369 amino acids. The SlNAC10-GFP fusion protein is located in the nucleus and SlNAC10 has a transcription activation structural domain at the C-terminus. We studied the expression characteristics of SlNAC10 and found that it was highest in the leaves of S. liaotungensis and induced by drought, salt, cold, and abscisic acid (ABA). To analyze the function of SlNAC10 in plants, we obtained SlNAC10 transgenic Arabidopsis. The growth characteristics and physiological indicators of transgenic Arabidopsis were measured under salt and drought stress. The transgenic Arabidopsis showed obvious advantages in the root length and survival rate; chlorophyll fluorescence levels; and the antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), and catalase (CAT) activities, and the proline content was higher than that of the wild-type (WT) Arabidopsis, whereas the relative electrolyte leakage and malondialdehyde (MDA) content were lower than those of the wild-type Arabidopsis. We explored the regulatory role of SlNAC10 on proline synthesis-related enzyme genes and found that SlNAC10 binds to the AtP5CS1, AtP5CS2, and AtP5CR promoters and regulates their downstream gene transcription. To sum up, SlNAC10 as a transcription factor improves salt and drought tolerance in plants possibly by regulating proline synthesis.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis , Chenopodiaceae , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Chenopodiaceae/genética , Chenopodiaceae/metabolismo , Secas , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Prolina/metabolismo , Cloreto de Sódio/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
18.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(17)2022 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36077223

RESUMO

CBF transcription factors (TFs) are key regulators of plant stress tolerance and play an integral role in plant tolerance to adverse growth environments. However, in the current research situation, there are few reports on the response of the CBF gene to Begonia stress. Therefore, this experiment investigated a novel CBF TF gene, named MbCBF2, which was isolated from M. baccata seedlings. According to the subcellular localization results, the MbCBF2 protein was located in the nucleus. In addition, the expression level of MbCBF2 was higher in new leaves and roots under low-temperature and high-salt induction. After the introduction of MbCBF2 into Arabidopsis thaliana, the adaptability of transgenic A. thaliana to cold and high-salt environments was significantly enhanced. In addition, the high expression of MbCBF2 can also change many physiological indicators in transgenic A. thaliana, such as increased chlorophyll and proline content, superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD) and catalase (CAT) activity, and reduced malondialdehyde (MDA) content. Therefore, it can be seen from the above results that MbCBF2 can positively regulate the response of A. thaliana to low-temperature and osmotic stress. In addition, MbCBF2 can also regulate the expression of its downstream genes in transgenic lines. It can not only positively regulate the expression of the downstream key genes AtCOR15a, AtERD10, AtRD29a/b and AtCOR6.6/47, related to cold stress at low temperatures, but can also positively regulate the expression of the downstream key genes AtNCED3, AtCAT1, AtP5CS, AtPIF1/4 and AtSnRK2.4, related to salt stress. That is, the overexpression of the MbCBF2 gene further improved the adaptability and tolerance of transgenic plants to low-temperature and high-salt environments.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis , Malus , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Malus/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/metabolismo , Estresse Salino , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
19.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(17)2022 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36077286

RESUMO

Vernalization is the requirement for exposure to low temperatures to trigger flowering. The best knowledge about the mechanisms of vernalization response has been accumulated for Arabidopsis and cereals. In Arabidopsis thaliana, vernalization involves an epigenetic silencing of the MADS-box gene FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC), which is a flowering repressor. FLC silencing releases the expression of the main flowering inductor FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT), resulting in a floral transition. Remarkably, no FLC homologues have been identified in the vernalization-responsive legumes, and the mechanisms of cold-mediated transition to flowering in these species remain elusive. Nevertheless, legume FT genes have been shown to retain the function of the main vernalization signal integrators. Unlike Arabidopsis, legumes have three subclades of FT genes, which demonstrate distinct patterns of regulation with respect to environmental cues and tissue specificity. This implies complex mechanisms of vernalization signal propagation in the flowering network, that remain largely elusive. Here, for the first time, we summarize the available information on the genetic basis of cold-induced flowering in legumes with a special focus on the role of FT genes.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis , Arabidopsis , Fabaceae , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Temperatura Baixa , Fabaceae/genética , Fabaceae/metabolismo , Flores/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Proteínas de Domínio MADS/genética , Proteínas de Domínio MADS/metabolismo
20.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(17)2022 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36077350

RESUMO

Iris laevigata is ideal for gardening and landscaping in northeast China because of its beautiful flowers and strong cold resistance. However, the short length of flowering time (2 days for individual flowers) greatly limits its applications. Molecular breeding and engineering hold high potential for producing I. laevigata of desirable flowering properties. A prerequisite is to identify and characterize key flowering control genes, the identity of which remains largely unknown in I. laevigata due to the lack of genome information. To fill this knowledge gap, we used sequencing data of the I. laevigata transcriptome to identify MADS-box gene-encoding transcription factors that have been shown to play key roles in developmental processes, including flowering. Our data revealed 41 putative MADS-box genes, which consisted of 8 type I (5 Mα and 3 Mß, respectively) and 33 type II members (2 MIKC* and 31 MIKCC, respectively). We then selected IlSEP3 and IlSVP for functional studies and found that both are localized to the nucleus and that they interact physically in vitro. Ectopic expression of IlSEP3 in Arabidopsis resulted in early flowering (32 days) compared to that of control plants (36 days), which could be mediated by modulating the expression of FT, SOC1, AP1, SVP, SPL3, VRN1, and GA20OX. By contrast, plants overexpressing IlSVP were phenotypically similar to that of wild type. Our functional validation of IlSEP3 was consistent with the notion that SEP3 promotes flowering in multiple plant species and indicated that IlSEP3 regulates flowering in I. laevigata. Taken together, this work provided a systematic identification of MADS-box genes in I. laevigata and demonstrated that the flowering time of I. laevigata can be genetically controlled by altering the expression of key MADS-box genes.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis , Iris (Planta) , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Flores/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Iris (Planta)/genética , Iris (Planta)/metabolismo , Proteínas de Domínio MADS/genética , Proteínas de Domínio MADS/metabolismo , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
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