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1.
Oecologia ; 192(1): 179-189, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31828529

RESUMO

Fluxes of materials or organisms across ecological boundaries, often termed "resource subsidies," directly affect recipient food webs. Few studies have addressed how such direct responses in one ecosystem may, in turn, influence the fluxes of materials or organisms to other habitats or the potential for feedback relationships to occur among ecosystems. As part of a large-scale, multi-year experiment, we evaluated the hypothesis that the input of a marine-derived subsidy results in a complex array of resource exchanges (i.e., inputs, outputs, feedbacks) between stream and riparian ecosystems as responses disperse across ecological boundaries. Moreover, we evaluated how the physical properties of resource subsidies mediated complex responses by contrasting carcasses with a pelletized salmon treatment. We found that salmon carcasses altered stream-riparian food webs by directly subsidizing multiple aquatic and terrestrial organisms (e.g., benthic insect larvae, fishes, and terrestrial flies). Such responses further influenced food webs along indirect pathways, some of which spanned land and water (e.g., subsidized fishes reduced aquatic insect emergence, with consequences for spiders and bats). Subsidy-mediated feedbacks manifested when carcasses were removed to riparian habitats where they were colonized by carrion flies, some of which fell into the stream and acted as another prey subsidy for fishes. As the effects of salmon subsidies propagated through the stream-riparian food web, the sign of consumer responses was not always positive and appeared to be determined by the outcome of trophic interactions, such that localized trophic interactions within one ecosystem mediated the export of organisms to others.


Assuntos
Cadeia Alimentar , Aranhas , Animais , Ecologia , Ecossistema , Rios
2.
J Chem Ecol ; 46(1): 48-62, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31811439

RESUMO

We investigated in different sites inside or outside the Namib Desert the amino acids composition of the protein material forming the tube silk of Ariadna spiders. These spiders belong to the primitive Segestriidae family and spend their life inside vertical silk burrows dug within the sandy and gravelly soil of arid areas. The silks, previously purified by solubilization in hexafluoroisopropanol, were subjected to partial or total acid hydrolysis. Partial hydrolyzed samples, analyzed by mass spectrometry (matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization and electrospray), led to relevant information on the amino acid sequences in the proteins. The free amino acids formed by complete hydrolysis were derivatized with the Marfey's reagent and characterized by electrospray mass spectrometry. The reconstruction of the amino acids highlights a homogeneous plan in the chemical structure of all the analyzed silks. Eight amino acids constituting the primary structure of the proteins were identified. Alanine and glycine are the most abundant ones, with a prevalence of alanine, constituting together at least 61% of the chemical composition of the protein material, differently from what occurs in known spidroins. High percentages of proline, serine and threonine and low percentages of leucine complete the peculiarity of these proteins. The purified silks were also characterized by Fourier-transform Infrared Spectroscopy and their thermal properties were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry. The comparison of the silk tubes among the various Namibian populations, carried out through a multivariate statistical analysis, shows significant differences in their amino acid assembly possibly due to habitat features.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos/análise , Seda/metabolismo , Aranhas/metabolismo , Animais , Varredura Diferencial de Calorimetria , Hidrólise , Proteínas de Insetos/química , Proteínas de Insetos/metabolismo , Análise de Componente Principal , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier
3.
Zootaxa ; 4612(3): zootaxa.4612.3.8, 2019 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31717057

RESUMO

Two new species the spider family Anapidae are described from Southeast Asia: Conculus sagadaensis n. sp. from Philippines and Conculus yaoi n. sp. from Indonesia, both described after male specimens. Conculus is reported from Southeast Asia for the first time. Diagnoses and illustrations are provided for two new species. The types are deposited in the Natural History Museum of Sichuan University (NHMSU) in Chengdu, China.


Assuntos
Aranhas , Animais , Ásia Sudeste , China , Indonésia , Masculino , Filipinas
4.
Zootaxa ; 4612(1): zootaxa.4612.1.8, 2019 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31717083

RESUMO

The genus Japalura Gray, 1853 s. l. currently comprises 34 species (Japalura n=7; Cristidorsa Wang, Deepak, Datta-Roy, Lin, Jiang, Che Siler, 2018, n=2; Diploderma Hallowell, 1861, n=25). Furthermore the species Diploderma polygonatum is composed of its nominate form and three additional subspecies. For all but one species primary types (holo-, syn- or lectotypes) are available, and in most cases paratypical specimens have also been deposited. The type specimen of Japalura yunnannensis appears to be lost.


Assuntos
Lagartos , Aranhas , Animais , Serpentes
5.
Zootaxa ; 4609(1): zootaxa.4609.1.9, 2019 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31717125

RESUMO

 Some polysphinctine wasps of the genus Zatypota complete their life cycles upon theridiid host spiders. The host range of these wasps is usually species-specific, although in some less common associations more than one wasp species interacts with the same host spider. Here we describe and illustrate the polysphinctine wasps Zatypota baezae sp. n. and Zatypota mulunguensis sp. n. (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae), both koinobiont ectoparasitoids of the spider Anelosimus baeza (Theridiidae). The two parasitoid wasps show the same development time (12 days) which was longer when compared with other parasitoid wasps Z. anomala Holmgren and Z. riverai Gauld (nine days). As described for other species of Zatypota and Hymenoepimecis, the second larval instar remains attached to the spider by the remains of the chorion and also by a rigid brownish-semitransparent membrane called a saddle.


Assuntos
Himenópteros , Aranhas , Vespas , Animais , Brasil , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Larva
6.
Zootaxa ; 4608(3): zootaxa.4608.3.3, 2019 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31717132

RESUMO

Purcell (1908) and Simon (1910) described or reported 181 spiders from southern Africa based on the material collected by German zoologist and anthropologist Leonhard Schultze in 1903‒1905. The expedition route passed through several countries/territories that have since changed their boundaries and/or names. The two mentioned papers included 32 localities in three modern countries, aside from broader geographical regions (e.g. Hereroland) without specified localities. In this paper, we list all species reported or described, their current taxonomic status, provide the correct data about the countries from where these species were described, and their current distributions based on taxonomic publications. Purcell and Simon treated 81 and 100 species respectively, of which 49 and 67 respectively were new. A sizeable proportion of these species have since been transferred to other genera or proposed as synonyms. In evaluating all of the localities provided in the treatments of species in these two papers, as well as subsequent taxonomic literature, we found that 25 of the 68 nominative species treated by Purcell and 38 of the 92 species treated by Simon had incorrect distribution data in the World Spider Catalog (2019). We provide revised distribution information for all of these, and discuss the importance of correct information in the preparation of national faunistic lists.


Assuntos
Aracnídeos , Aranhas , África Austral , Distribuição Animal , Estruturas Animais , Animais , Expedições
7.
Zootaxa ; 4607(1): zootaxa.4607.1.1, 2019 May 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31717172

RESUMO

The spider genus Sinopoda Jäger, 1999 in China is studied. Seventeen new species are described: S. abstrusa sp. nov. (♂♀, Xizang), S. aequalis sp. nov. (♂♀, Henan), S. apiculiformis sp. nov. (♂♀, Hunan), S. brevis sp. nov. (♂♀, Liaoning), S. changde sp. nov. (♂♀, Hunan, Shaanxi), S. columnaris sp. nov. (♀, Guizhou), S. curva sp. nov. (♂, Guangxi), S. dehiscens sp. nov. (♀, Hunan), S. erromena sp. nov. (♀, Hunan), S. improcera sp. nov. (♂♀, Yunnan), S. lata sp. nov. (♀, Yunnan), S. luyui sp. nov. (♂♀, Sichuan, Gansu), S. ovata sp. nov. (♂♀, Chongqing), S. pyramidalis sp. nov. (♂♀, Sichuan), S. tumefacta sp. nov. (♂♀, Yunnan), S. yaanensis sp. nov. (♂♀, Sichuan, Yunnan), S. yanlingensis sp. nov. (♂♀, Hunan). Five known species are redescribed or diagnosed and differentiated from related species: the males of S. liui Zhong, Cao Liu, 2017 and S. longshan Yin, Peng, Yan Bao, 2000 and the female of S. pengi Song Zhu, 1999 are reported for the first time; the female of S. longiducta Zhang, Zhang Zhang, 2015 is considered mismatched and transferred to S. yaanensis sp. nov.; photographs and new records are provided for S. globosa Zhang, Zhang Zhang, 2015.


Assuntos
Aranhas , Animais , China , Feminino , Masculino
8.
Zootaxa ; 4603(3): zootaxa.4603.3.2, 2019 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31717212

RESUMO

Holonotus latithorax Thomson, 1861 (Prioninae, Solenopterini), and Periestola Breuning, 1943 (Lamiinae, Acanthocinini) are revalidated. A lectotype is designated for Holonotus latithorax. The following new synonyms are proposed: Lagocheirus plantaris indistinctus Dillon, 1957 = Lagocheirus plantaris plantaris Erichson, 1847 (Lamiinae, Acanthocinini); Paracobelura curiosa Monné Martins, 1976 = Periestola strandi Breuning, 1943 (Lamiinae, Acanthocinini), with a new country record for Panama; Anisopodus humeralis Bates, 1863 = Anisopodus lignicola Bates, 1863, with a new Brazilian state record. New species are described from Colombia: Lepturges (Lepturges) brechlini; Pseudosparna antonkozlovi; Hyperplatys ushveridzei; Blabia antonkozlovi; and Cycnidolon antonkozlovi. The female of Nealcidion napoensis Nascimento McClarin, 2018 is described, and the species is reported for Colombia for the first time. Additionally, the following new records are reported: Amniscites pictipes (Bates, 1863) from Colombia; two new department records in Colombia for Onalcidion tavakiliani Audureau, 2013; new department record in Colombia for Trypanidius irroratus Monné Delfino, 1980; Icublabia multispinosa Galileo Martins, 2003 for Colombia including additional notes; new department record in Colombia for Blabia intricata Martins Galileo, 1995; Obrium costaricum Hovore Chemsak, 1980 for Panama; Pantonyssus nigriceps Bates, 1870 for Colombia; Stizocera geniculata (Pascoe, 1866) for Colombia; and Pygmodeon obtusum (Bates, 1874) for Panama. Stizocera geniculata is also excluded from the fauna of the Brazilian state of Rondônia.


Assuntos
Besouros , Aranhas , Animais , Brasil , Colômbia , Feminino , Panamá
9.
Zootaxa ; 4603(3): zootaxa.4603.3.8, 2019 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31717218

RESUMO

Two new species of the spider genus Belisana Thorell, 1898 are described based on material collected in Xishuangbanna, Yunnan, China: Belisana menghai Yao Li sp. nov. (male, female) and Belisana xishuangbanna  Yao Li sp. nov. (male), bringing the total Chinese Belisana fauna to 41 species. The DNA barcode COI of B. menghai  Yao Li sp. nov. is documented. All material studied is deposited in the Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences (IZCAS) in Beijing, China.


Assuntos
Aranhas , Animais , China , Feminino , Masculino
10.
Zootaxa ; 4695(6): zootaxa.4695.6.10, 2019 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31719331

RESUMO

The diagnosis of Ozineus Bates, 1863 is emended and a key is provided for the species of the genus in South America. A new synonymy is proposed for Sternacutus Gilmour, 1961 (junior synonym of Ozineus Bates, 1863), which includes a new combination for Sternacutus zikani (Melzer, 1935). Tropidozineus albidus Monné, 2009 is transferred to Ozineus.


Assuntos
Besouros , Aranhas , Animais , América do Sul
11.
Zootaxa ; 4691(2): zootaxa.4691.2.3, 2019 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31719402

RESUMO

We diagnose and describe two Songthela and one Vinathela species of the primitively segmented spiders, Liphistiidae, as new to science based on morphological characters and molecular data: Songthela pyriformis sp. nov. (male, female), Songthela shuyuan sp. nov. (male, female), Vinathela nenglianggu sp. nov. (male, female), which were collected at Mt Yuelu in Changsha, Hunan Province, China. To facilitate future identification of our species, we also provide the GenBank accession numbers of the DNA barcode gene, cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) for all type specimens and the evidence of genetic distances based on COI for three new species.


Assuntos
Aranhas , Animais , China , DNA , Feminino , Masculino
12.
Zootaxa ; 4691(2): zootaxa.4691.2.9, 2019 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31719408

RESUMO

The genus Phoroncidia Westwood 1835 is currently represented by 81 species and is cosmopolitan in distribution. Currently, four species are known from India, namely Phoroncidia aculeata Westwood 1835, Phoroncidia maindroni (Simon 1905), Phoroncidia septemaculeata O. Pickard-Cambridge 1873 and Phoroncidia testudo (O. Pickard-Cambridge 1873) (World Spider Catalog 2019). P. septemaculeata O. Pickard-Cambridge 1873 was described based on a few specimens collected by Mr G. H. K. Thwaites in 1871 from Sri Lanka and it was mostly derived from the somatic features of the species. Recently, Patil et al. (2018) reported two subadult males presumed to be Phoroncidia septemaculeata from the Maharashtra state in India. Until now, no mature specimen of the species has been reported and its genitalia remains unknown. This paper provides a detailed redescription of P. septemaculeata, including illustrations of male and female genitalia for the first time, based on fresh materials collected from different localities in the Coastal Plains and Western Ghats of Kerala state and Coastal plains of Tamil Nadu. Additionally, the current distributional range and new records of the species is mapped.


Assuntos
Aranhas , Distribuição Animal , Estruturas Animais , Animais , Feminino , Índia , Masculino , Sri Lanka
13.
Zootaxa ; 4688(4): zootaxa.4688.4.4, 2019 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31719427

RESUMO

The tarantula spider genus Aphonopelma Pocock, 1901 has received considerable attention in recent years but the group's diversity remains poorly understood in Mexico, particularly in the pine-oak woodlands of the Sierra Madre Occidental and associated Madrean "Sky Islands". A pair of tarantulas discovered from an unsampled region in the Sierra de Bacadéhuachi (the westernmost range of the Sierra Madre Occidental) in northeastern Sonora was found to be closely related to four species from the Madrean "Sky Islands" in Arizona and New Mexico. An integrative approach for delimiting species (incorporating data from molecular phylogenetics, morphology, distributions, and breeding periods) suggests that the specimens from Sierra de Bacadéhuachi belong to an undescribed species that is herein named Aphonopelma bacadehuachi sp. nov. This new species adds to our knowledge of an increasingly diverse assemblage of Aphonopelma from the Madrean Pine-Oak Woodlands Hotspot. Collaborations between Mexican and American researchers are needed to accelerate discovery and description of the group's remaining diversity, particularly in light of the many threats facing the ecoregion including habitat degradation and climate change.


Assuntos
Quercus , Aranhas , Animais , Arizona , Florestas , Ilhas , México , New Mexico
14.
Zootaxa ; 4688(3): zootaxa.4688.3.8, 2019 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31719442

RESUMO

Titanoeca deltshevi sp. n. is described and illustrated from Bulgaria. It appears closely related to T. praefica (Simon, 1870), T. spominima (Taczanowski, 1866) and partially (males only) to T. flavicoma L. Koch, 1872. A faunistic synopsis of the genus Titanoeca Thorell, 1870 in Bulgaria is also presented that is based on new field data and a review of the published literature. Titanoeca flavicoma is newly recorded for Bulgaria and T. turkmenia Wunderlich, 1995 is new for Bulgaria and Albania. Titanoeca incerta (Nosek, 1905) is removed from the Bulgarian, and therefore from the European spider checklists. The possible division of the European members of Titanoeca into three groups based on differences in copulatory and somatic traits is discussed.


Assuntos
Aranhas , Albânia , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Península Balcânica , Bulgária , Masculino
15.
Zootaxa ; 4688(2): zootaxa.4688.2.2, 2019 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31719447

RESUMO

Three new species of Parasyrisca Schenkel, 1963 belonging to the potanini-group are described from Western Mongolia: P. platnicki sp. n., P. polchaninovae sp. n. and P. szinetari sp. n. Each species description is based on both sexes. Both the male and female of P. platnicki sp. n. possess some copulatory organ characters unknown in other species of the genus. The previously unknown female and the poorly known male of P. khubsugul Ovtsharenko, Platnick et Marusik, 1995 are described and redescribed respectively, the descriptions being based on the specimens found in Arkhangai and Bayankhongor Aimags. The structures of copulatory organs in Parasyrsca potanini-group are briefly discussed.


Assuntos
Aranhas , Distribuição Animal , Estruturas Animais , Animais , Tamanho Corporal , Feminino , Masculino , Mongólia , Tamanho do Órgão
16.
Zootaxa ; 4641(1): zootaxa.4641.1.1, 2019 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31712453

RESUMO

The goblin spider genus Cinetomorpha Simon is removed from the synonymy of Gamasomorpha Karsch and treated as the senior synonym of Yumates Chamberlin and Lucetia Dumitresco Georgesco. All 41 species occur only in the New World, and the genus is divided into four species groups: the simplex group, the puberula group, the patquiana group and the itabaiana group. The following species are transferred to Cinetomorpha: C. floridana (Banks), comb. nov., and C. sedata (Gertsch Mulaik), comb. nov., from Opopaea; C. angela (Chamberlin), comb. nov., and C. nesophila (Chamberlin), comb. nov., from Yumates; and C. patquiana (Birabén) and C. platensis (Birabén), comb. nov., from Gamasomorpha. Gamasomorpha wasmanniae Mello-Leitão and Lucetia distincta Dumitresco Georgesco are newly synonymized with C. simplex Simon. Two species currently in Gamasomorpha are transferred to Hexapopha Platnick Berniker: H. brasiliana (Bristowe), comb. nov. and H. m-scripta (Birabén), comb. nov. The following 31 species are newly described: C. adaga Ott Bonaldo (Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador and Peru); C. atlantica Ott Brescovit (Brazil); C. baja Ott Ubick (Mexico); C. bandolera Ott Harvey (Mexico USA); C. boraceia Ott Brescovit (Argentina and Brazil); C. campana Ott Harvey (Chile); C. central Ott Brescovit (Brazil); C. chicote Ott Bonaldo (Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador and Peru); C. concepcion Ott Harvey (Chile); C. iguazu Ott Brescovit (Argentina and Brazil); C. itabaiana Ott Brescovit (Brazil); C. laguna Ott Ubick (Mexico); C. lavras Ott Brescovit (Brazil); C. longisetosa Ott Harvey (Costa Rica and Brazil); C. lorenzo Ott Harvey (Guatemala); C. loreto Ott Bonaldo (Peru); C. nayarit Ott Harvey (Mexico); C. orellana Ott Bonaldo (Ecuador); C. pauferro Ott Brescovit (Brazil); C. peluda Ott Harvey (Chile); C. pinheiral Ott Brescovit (Brazil); C. pocone Ott Brescovit (Brazil); C. punctata Ott Brescovit (Brazil); C. quillota Ott Harvey (Chile); C. rinconada Ott Harvey (Chile); C. santamaria Ott Brescovit (Argentina); C. similis Ott Brescovit (Brazil); C. sternalis Ott Bonaldo (Brazil); C. sur Ott Ubick (Mexico); C. waorani Ott Bonaldo (Ecuador); and C. zero Ott Harvey (Mexico to Venezuela).


Assuntos
Aranhas , Distribuição Animal , Animais , América do Sul
17.
Zootaxa ; 4638(4): zootaxa.4638.4.2, 2019 Jul 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31712457

RESUMO

Anicius Chamberlin, 1925 is a monotypic genus and only the male of A. dolius Chamberlin, 1925 has been described. Herein the genus is revised and the female of the type species is described for the first time; new distribution records are also provided for this species. Five new species from Mexico are described based on males and females: Anicius chiapanecus sp. nov., Anicius cielito sp. nov., Anicius faunus sp. nov., Anicius grisae sp. nov., and Anicius maddisoni sp. nov. A key for identification of males and females is given, as well as a map with distribution records of the six species.


Assuntos
Aranhas , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , México
18.
Zootaxa ; 4638(4): zootaxa.4638.4.5, 2019 Jul 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31712460

RESUMO

Herbiphantes Tanasevitch, 1992 and Labullinyphia van Helsdingen, 1985 are two genera for the first time in China. Two new species,  Herbiphantes acutalis n. sp. (male, female) and Labullinyphia furcata n. sp. (male, female), are described from Gaoligong Mountains, Yunnan. Detailed morphological description of both new species, habitus photos, copulatory organs, line drawings of copulatory organs, as well as the locality map are provided.


Assuntos
Aranhas , Animais , China , Feminino , Masculino
19.
Zootaxa ; 4638(2): zootaxa.4638.2.8, 2019 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31712480

RESUMO

Symphytognatha Hickman, 1931 was originally erected by Hickman (1931) as the type genus of the spider family Symphytognathidae. Forster and Platnick (1977) reviewed the family and proposed a diagnosis for Symphytognatha: almost completely fused chelicerae with a visible suture line and multidentate superior claws on legs I and II (but not on legs III and IV). Currently this genus contains 14 species (World Spider Catalog 2019), mainly widespread in South Africa (Griswold 1987), Oceania (Hickman 1931, Forster Platnick 1977, Platnick 1979, Harvey 1992, 2001), and Central and South America (Balogh Loksa 1968, Forster Platnick 1977, Georgescu 1988, Brescovit, Álvares Lopes 2004, Dupérré Tapia 2017).


Assuntos
Aranhas , Distribuição Animal , Estruturas Animais , Animais , Ásia , África do Sul , América do Sul
20.
Zootaxa ; 4634(1): zootaxa.4634.1.1, 2019 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31712493

RESUMO

A synopsis of the 13 species of Phyllogomphoides Belle, 1970 known to occur within Mexico is presented. Taxonomic keys for males are based primarily on morphology of anterior and posterior hamules, caudal appendages and of the vulvar lamina in females and includes full descriptions for each species accompanied by high-resolution photographs, drawings, comparative diagnostic notes, natural history and distribution maps. Females of P. danieli González Novelo, 1990 and P. nayaritensis Belle, 1987 are described for the first time. Moreover, new records for P. albrighti (Needham, 1950) for the states of Guerrero; P. danieli González Novelo, 1990 for Colima, Guerrero and San Luis Potosí; P. duodentatus Donnelly, 1979 for Oaxaca; P. luisi González Novelo, 1990 for Nayarit, and P. pugnifer Donnelly, 1979 for San Luis Potosí, are also provided.


Assuntos
Besouros , Odonatos , Aranhas , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , México
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