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1.
Biomolecules ; 14(4)2024 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38672418

RESUMO

The post-translational modifications (PTMs) of proteins play a crucial role in increasing the functional diversity of proteins and are associated with the pathogenesis of various diseases. This review focuses on a less explored PTM called citrullination, which involves the conversion of arginine to citrulline. This process is catalyzed by peptidyl arginine deiminases (PADs). Different members of the PAD family have distinct tissue distribution patterns and functions. Citrullination is a post-translational modification of native proteins that can alter their structure and convert them into autoantigens; thus, it mediates the occurrence of autoimmune diseases. CD4+ T cells, including Th1, Th2, and Th17 cells, are important immune cells involved in mediating autoimmune diseases, allergic reactions, and tumor immunity. PADs can induce citrullination in CD4+ T cells, suggesting a role for citrullination in CD4+ T cell subset differentiation and function. Understanding the role of citrullination in CD4+ T cells may provide insights into immune-related diseases and inflammatory processes.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos , Citrulinação , Humanos , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/metabolismo , Animais , Doenças Autoimunes/metabolismo , Doenças Autoimunes/imunologia , Desiminases de Arginina em Proteínas/metabolismo , Processamento de Proteína Pós-Traducional , Citrulina/metabolismo , Arginina/metabolismo
2.
FEBS Lett ; 598(8): 889-901, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38563123

RESUMO

BeKm-1 is a peptide toxin from scorpion venom that blocks the pore of the potassium channel hERG (Kv11.1) in the human heart. Although individual protein structures have been resolved, the structure of the complex between hERG and BeKm-1 is unknown. Here, we used molecular dynamics and ensemble docking, guided by previous double-mutant cycle analysis data, to obtain an in silico model of the hERG-BeKm-1 complex. Adding to the previous mutagenesis study of BeKm-1, our model uncovers the key role of residue Arg20, which forms three interactions (a salt bridge and hydrogen bonds) with the channel vestibule simultaneously. Replacement of this residue even by lysine weakens the interactions significantly. In accordance, the recombinantly produced BeKm-1R20K mutant exhibited dramatically decreased activity on hERG. Our model may be useful for future drug design attempts.


Assuntos
Arginina , Canal de Potássio ERG1 , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Venenos de Escorpião , Animais , Humanos , Arginina/química , Arginina/metabolismo , Canal de Potássio ERG1/química , Canal de Potássio ERG1/metabolismo , Células HEK293 , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Mutação , Bloqueadores dos Canais de Potássio/química , Bloqueadores dos Canais de Potássio/metabolismo , Venenos de Escorpião/química , Venenos de Escorpião/genética , Venenos de Escorpião/metabolismo
3.
Front Immunol ; 15: 1363938, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38605962

RESUMO

Arginine and tryptophan are pivotal in orchestrating cytokine-driven macrophage polarization and immune activation. Specifically, interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) stimulates inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression), leading to the conversion of arginine into citrulline and nitric oxide (NO), while Interleukin-4 (IL4) promotes arginase activation, shifting arginine metabolism toward ornithine. Concomitantly, IFN-γ triggers indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1) and Interleukin-4 induced 1 (IL4i1), resulting in the conversion of tryptophan into kynurenine and indole-3-pyruvic acid. These metabolic pathways are tightly regulated by NAD+-dependent sirtuin proteins, with Sirt2 and Sirt5 playing integral roles. In this review, we present novel insights that augment our understanding of the metabolic pathways of arginine and tryptophan following Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection, particularly their relevance in macrophage responses. Additionally, we discuss arginine methylation and demethylation and the role of Sirt2 and Sirt5 in regulating tryptophan metabolism and arginine metabolism, potentially driving macrophage polarization.


Assuntos
Arginina , Tuberculose , Humanos , Arginina/metabolismo , Triptofano/metabolismo , Interleucina-4 , Sirtuína 2 , Ativação de Macrófagos , Interferon gama/farmacologia
4.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 121(16): e2401313121, 2024 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38602916

RESUMO

All forms of life are presumed to synthesize arginine from citrulline via a two-step pathway consisting of argininosuccinate synthetase and argininosuccinate lyase using citrulline, adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP), and aspartate as substrates. Conversion of arginine to citrulline predominantly proceeds via hydrolysis. Here, from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Thermococcus kodakarensis, we identified an enzyme which we designate "arginine synthetase". In arginine synthesis, the enzyme converts citrulline, ATP, and free ammonia to arginine, adenosine 5'-diphosphate (ADP), and phosphate. In the reverse direction, arginine synthetase conserves the energy of arginine deimination and generates ATP from ADP and phosphate while releasing ammonia. The equilibrium constant of this reaction at pH 7.0 is [Cit][ATP][NH3]/[Arg][ADP][Pi] = 10.1 ± 0.7 at 80 °C, corresponding to a ΔG°' of -6.8 ± 0.2 kJ mol-1. Growth of the gene disruption strain was compared to the host strain in medium composed of amino acids. The results suggested that arginine synthetase is necessary in providing ornithine, the precursor for proline biosynthesis, as well as in generating ATP. Growth in medium supplemented with citrulline indicated that arginine synthetase can function in the direction of arginine synthesis. The enzyme is widespread in nature, including bacteria and eukaryotes, and catalyzes a long-overlooked energy-conserving reaction in microbial amino acid metabolism. Along with ornithine transcarbamoylase and carbamate kinase, the pathway identified here is designated the arginine synthetase pathway.


Assuntos
Arginina , Ligases , Arginina/metabolismo , Citrulina/metabolismo , Amônia , Ornitina/genética , Trifosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo , Fosfatos , Adenosina , Catálise
5.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 121(17): e2320312121, 2024 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38625935

RESUMO

In gram-positive bacteria, phosphorylated arginine functions as a protein degradation signal in a similar manner as ubiquitin in eukaryotes. The protein-arginine phosphorylation is mediated by the McsAB complex, where McsB possesses kinase activity and McsA modulates McsB activity. Although mcsA and mcsB are regulated within the same operon, the role of McsA in kinase activity has not yet been clarified. In this study, we determined the molecular mechanism by which McsA regulates kinase activity. The crystal structure of the McsAB complex shows that McsA binds to the McsB kinase domain through a second zinc-coordination domain and the subsequent loop region. This binding activates McsB kinase activity by rearranging the catalytic site, preventing McsB self-assembly, and enhancing stoichiometric substrate binding. The first zinc-coordination and coiled-coil domains of McsA further activate McsB by reassembling the McsAB oligomer. These results demonstrate that McsA is the regulatory subunit for the reconstitution of the protein-arginine kinase holoenzyme. This study provides structural insight into how protein-arginine kinase directs the cellular protein degradation system.


Assuntos
Arginina Quinase , Proteínas Quinases , Proteínas Quinases/metabolismo , Arginina Quinase/metabolismo , Arginina/metabolismo , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Fosforilação , Zinco
6.
J Anim Sci ; 1022024 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38622951

RESUMO

We determined apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and standardized ileal digestibility (SID) values of crude protein (CP) and amino acids (AA) in fermented soybean meal from five different sources (FSBM 1 to 5) in China when fed to mid and late-gestating sows. Twenty-four parity four sows (12 at 30 d in gestation and 12 at 80 d in gestation) were fitted with a T-cannula in the distal ileum and used in this experiment. Sows were randomly assigned to a replicated 6 × 3 Youden square design including six diets and three periods. Six diets were provided for sows in mid and late gestation, including a nitrogen-free diet and five test diets containing 26% FSBM from different sources. Results showed that there were differences in AID and SID of CP among the different FSBM samples, but no differences between sow physiological stages were observed. Specifically, when mid-gestating sows were fed FSBM 2, the AID of CP was the lowest, whereas FSBM 3 exhibited a greater AID of CP when compared to the other FSBM samples (P < 0.01). Furthermore, during late gestation, FSBM 3 consistently had greater SID of CP when compared to other FSBM samples (P < 0.01). The ileal digestibility of most AA varied with different FSBM samples. In both mid and late gestation, differences (P < 0.05) were observed for AID of lysine, tryptophan, histidine, and arginine across different FSBM samples. Similarly, the AID of dispensable AA (cysteine, glutamine, and serine) also exhibited differences (P < 0.05) across different FSBM samples in both mid and late-gestating sows. For mid-gestating sows, SID differences relating to lysine, phenylalanine, tryptophan, threonine, and arginine were observed among different diets (P < 0.05). In late-gestating sows, SID values for lysine, tryptophan, leucine, and arginine differed across diets (P < 0.05). Furthermore, the ileal digestibility of some dispensable AA was influenced by physiological stage, as evidenced by greater AID and SID values for glycine, glutamine, cysteine, and serine in late-gestating sows when compared to mid-gestating sows (P < 0.01). In summary, our study determined AA ileal digestibility of different FSBM fed to mid and late-gestating sows. We observed that the AA ileal digestibility differed among five FSBM samples, but the physiological stage of sows did not affect the ileal digestibility of CP and most AA. Additionally, when formulating diets for sows, it is crucial to consider the nutritional value differences of FSBM.


Fermented soybean meal (FSBM) is obtained from the microbial fermentation of soybean meal, which reduces anti-nutritional factor levels and enhances other nutrient content. Substituting soybean meal with FSBM in piglet and growing pig diets improves nutrient digestibility. However, its nutritional value for sows remains unclear. Therefore, five sources of FSBM were fed to sows in mid and late gestation to evaluate apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and standardized ileal digestibility (SID) values of amino acids (AA). We found that different FSBM samples impacted the SID value of AA when fed to gestating sows. Additionally, sow physiological stage influenced the SID of some dispensable AA. These findings provide valuable insights into the incorporation of FSBM into sow diets.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos , Alimentos Fermentados , Suínos , Animais , Feminino , Gravidez , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Digestão/fisiologia , Glutamina/metabolismo , Triptofano/metabolismo , Cisteína/metabolismo , Lisina/metabolismo , Glycine max , Dieta/veterinária , Arginina/metabolismo , Serina , Ração Animal/análise , Íleo/metabolismo , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal
7.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 2809, 2024 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38561334

RESUMO

Protein arginine methyltransferase 9 (PRMT9) is a recently identified member of the PRMT family, yet its biological function remains largely unknown. Here, by characterizing an intellectual disability associated PRMT9 mutation (G189R) and establishing a Prmt9 conditional knockout (cKO) mouse model, we uncover an important function of PRMT9 in neuronal development. The G189R mutation abolishes PRMT9 methyltransferase activity and reduces its protein stability. Knockout of Prmt9 in hippocampal neurons causes alternative splicing of ~1900 genes, which likely accounts for the aberrant synapse development and impaired learning and memory in the Prmt9 cKO mice. Mechanistically, we discover a methylation-sensitive protein-RNA interaction between the arginine 508 (R508) of the splicing factor 3B subunit 2 (SF3B2), the site that is exclusively methylated by PRMT9, and the pre-mRNA anchoring site, a cis-regulatory element that is critical for RNA splicing. Additionally, using human and mouse cell lines, as well as an SF3B2 arginine methylation-deficient mouse model, we provide strong evidence that SF3B2 is the primary methylation substrate of PRMT9, thus highlighting the conserved function of the PRMT9/SF3B2 axis in regulating pre-mRNA splicing.


Assuntos
Processamento Alternativo , RNA , Animais , Humanos , Camundongos , Arginina/metabolismo , Camundongos Knockout , Mutação , Proteína-Arginina N-Metiltransferases/metabolismo , RNA/metabolismo , Precursores de RNA/metabolismo , Splicing de RNA/genética
8.
Curr Biol ; 34(7): R267-R268, 2024 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38593766

RESUMO

In this Quick guide, Palmer and Berks introduce the twin-arginine translocation (Tat) systems. Tats are found in a variety of microbes and microbe-derived organelles, and are known to translocate folded substrate proteins across biological membranes.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Escherichia coli , Sistema de Translocação de Argininas Geminadas , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/genética , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/metabolismo , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Sistema de Translocação de Argininas Geminadas/metabolismo , Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Arginina/metabolismo , Transporte Proteico , Sinais Direcionadores de Proteínas , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo
9.
FEBS Lett ; 598(9): 1061-1079, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38649155

RESUMO

The molecular mechanisms of selective RNA loading into exosomes and other extracellular vesicles are not yet completely understood. In order to show that a pool of RNA sequences binds both the amino acid arginine and lipid membranes, we constructed a bifunctional RNA 10Arg aptamer specific for arginine and lipid vesicles. The preference of RNA 10Arg for lipid rafts was visualized and confirmed using FRET microscopy in neuroblastoma cells. The selection-amplification (SELEX) method using a doped (with the other three nucleotides) pool of RNA 10Arg sequences yielded several RNA 10Arg(D) sequences, and the affinities of these RNAs both to arginine and liposomes are improved in comparison to pre-doped RNA. Generation of these bispecific aptamers supports the hypothesis that an RNA molecule can bind both to RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) through arginine within the RBP-binding site and to membrane lipid rafts, thus facilitating RNA loading into exosomes and other extracellular vesicles.


Assuntos
Arginina , Lipossomos , Arginina/química , Arginina/metabolismo , Humanos , Lipossomos/química , Lipossomos/metabolismo , Microdomínios da Membrana/metabolismo , Microdomínios da Membrana/química , Aptâmeros de Nucleotídeos/química , Aptâmeros de Nucleotídeos/metabolismo , Aptâmeros de Nucleotídeos/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/química , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/genética , Sequência de Bases , RNA/metabolismo , RNA/química , RNA/genética , Exossomos/metabolismo , Exossomos/genética , Exossomos/química , Transferência Ressonante de Energia de Fluorescência
10.
Cell Signal ; 119: 111189, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38670475

RESUMO

In patients on maintenance hemodialysis (MHD), vascular calcification (VC) is an independent predictor of cardiovascular disease (CVD), which is the primary cause of death in chronic kidney disease (CKD). The main component of VC in CKD is the vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). VC is an ordered, dynamic activity. Under the stresses of oxidative stress and calcium-­phosphorus imbalance, VSMCs undergo osteogenic phenotypic transdifferentiation, which promotes the formation of VC. In addition to traditional epigenetics like RNA and DNA control, post-translational modifications have been discovered to be involved in the regulation of VC in recent years. It has been reported that the process of osteoblast differentiation is impacted by catalytic histone or non-histone arginine methylation. Its function in the osteogenic process is comparable to that of VC. Thus, we propose that arginine methylation regulates VC via many signaling pathways, including as NF-B, WNT, AKT/PI3K, TGF-/BMP/SMAD, and IL-6/STAT3. It might also regulate the VC-related calcification regulatory factors, oxidative stress, and endoplasmic reticulum stress. Consequently, we propose that arginine methylation regulates the calcification of the arteries and outline the regulatory mechanisms involved.


Assuntos
Arginina , Calcificação Vascular , Arginina/metabolismo , Humanos , Calcificação Vascular/metabolismo , Calcificação Vascular/patologia , Metilação , Animais , Transdução de Sinais , Músculo Liso Vascular/metabolismo , Músculo Liso Vascular/patologia , Estresse Oxidativo
11.
BMC Vet Res ; 20(1): 167, 2024 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38689278

RESUMO

Arginine, which is metabolized into ornithine, proline, and nitric oxide, plays an important role in embryonic development. The present study was conducted to investigate the molecular mechanism of arginine in proliferation, differentiation, and physiological function of porcine trophoblast cells (pTr2) through metabolic pathways. The results showed that arginine significantly increased cell viability (P < 0.05). The addition of arginine had a quadratic tendency to increase the content of progesterone (P = 0.06) and protein synthesis rate (P = 0.03), in which the maximum protein synthesis rate was observed at 0.4 mM arginine. Arginine quadratically increased (P < 0.05) the intracellular contents of spermine, spermidine and putrescine, as well as linearly increased (P < 0.05) the intracellular content of NO in a dose-dependent manner. Arginine showed a quadratic tendency to increase the content of putrescine (P = 0.07) and a linear tendency to increase NO content (P = 0.09) in cell supernatant. Moreover, increasing arginine activated (P < 0.05) the mRNA expressions for ARG, ODC, iNOS and PCNA. Furthermore, inhibitors of arginine metabolism (L-NMMA and DFMO) both inhibited cell proliferation, while addition of its metabolites (NO and putrescine) promoted the cell proliferation and cell cycle, the mRNA expressions of PCNA, EGF and IGF-1, and increased (P < 0.05) cellular protein synthesis rate, as well as estradiol and hCG secretion (P < 0.05). In conclusion, our results suggested that arginine could promote cell proliferation and physiological function by regulating the metabolic pathway. Further studies showed that arginine and its metabolites modulate cell function mainly through ß-catenin and mTOR pathways.


Assuntos
Arginina , Diferenciação Celular , Proliferação de Células , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR , Trofoblastos , beta Catenina , Animais , Arginina/farmacologia , Arginina/metabolismo , Trofoblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Trofoblastos/metabolismo , Suínos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , beta Catenina/metabolismo , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular
12.
Arch Biochem Biophys ; 756: 110011, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38649133

RESUMO

Structure-function relationships are key to understanding enzyme mechanisms, controlling enzyme activities, and designing biocatalysts. Here, we investigate the functions of arginine residues in the active sites of pyridoxal-5'-phosphate (PLP)-dependent non-canonical d-amino acid transaminases, focusing on the analysis of a transaminase from Haliscomenobacter hydrossis. Our results show that the tandem of arginine residues R28* and R90, which form the conserved R-[RK] motif in non-canonical d-amino acid transaminases, not only facilitates effective substrate binding but also regulates the catalytic properties of PLP. Non-covalent interactions between residues R28*, R90, and Y147 strengthen the hydrogen bond between Y147 and PLP, thereby maintaining the reactivity of the cofactor. Next, the R90 residue contributes to the stability of the holoenzyme. Finally, the R90I substitution induces structural changes that lead to substrate promiscuity, as evidenced by the effective binding of substrates with and without the α-carboxylate group. This study sheds light on the structural determinants of the activity of non-canonical d-amino acid transaminases. Understanding the structural basis of the active site plasticity in the non-canonical transaminase from H. hydrossis, which is characterized by effective conversion of d-amino acids and α-keto acids, may help to tailor it for industrial applications.


Assuntos
Arginina , Domínio Catalítico , Fosfato de Piridoxal , Transaminases , Transaminases/metabolismo , Transaminases/química , Arginina/química , Arginina/metabolismo , Fosfato de Piridoxal/metabolismo , Fosfato de Piridoxal/química , Especificidade por Substrato , Proteínas de Bactérias/química , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Modelos Moleculares
13.
Genomics ; 116(2): 110817, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38431031

RESUMO

Perilipin-2 (PLIN2) can anchor to lipid droplets (LDs) and play a crucial role in regulating nascent LDs formation. Bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) and flow cytometry were examined to verify the PLIN2-CGI-58 interaction efficiency in bovine adipocytes. GST-Pulldown assay was used to detect the key site arginine315 function in PLIN2-CGI-58 interaction. Experiments were also examined to research these mutations function of PLIN2 in LDs formation during adipocytes differentiation, LDs were measured after staining by BODIPY, lipogenesis-related genes were also detected. Results showed that Leucine (L371A, L311A) and glycine (G369A, G376A) mutations reduced interaction efficiencies. Serine (S367A) mutations enhanced the interaction efficiency. Arginine (R315A) mutations resulted in loss of fluorescence in the cytoplasm and disrupted the interaction with CGI-58, as verified by pulldown assay. R315W mutations resulted in a significant increase in the number of LDs compared with wild-type (WT) PLIN2 or the R315A mutations. Lipogenesis-related genes were either up- or downregulated when mutated PLIN2 interacted with CGI-58. Arginine315 in PLIN2 is required for the PLIN2-CGI-58 interface and could regulate nascent LD formation and lipogenesis. This study is the first to study amino acids on the PLIN2 interface during interaction with CGI-58 in bovine and highlight the role played by PLIN2 in the regulation of bovine adipocyte lipogenesis.


Assuntos
Arginina , Gotículas Lipídicas , Animais , Bovinos , Perilipina-2/genética , Perilipina-2/química , Perilipina-2/metabolismo , Arginina/genética , Arginina/metabolismo , Gotículas Lipídicas/metabolismo , Mutação , Adipócitos/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos
14.
Microbiology (Reading) ; 170(3)2024 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38511653

RESUMO

Different bacteria change their life styles in response to specific amino acids. In Pseudomonas putida (now alloputida) KT2440, arginine acts both as an environmental and a metabolic indicator that modulates the turnover of the intracellular second messenger c-di-GMP, and expression of biofilm-related genes. The transcriptional regulator ArgR, belonging to the AraC/XylS family, is key for the physiological reprogramming in response to arginine, as it controls transport and metabolism of the amino acid. To further expand our knowledge on the roles of ArgR, a global transcriptomic analysis of KT2440 and a null argR mutant growing in the presence of arginine was carried out. Results indicate that this transcriptional regulator influences a variety of cellular functions beyond arginine metabolism and transport, thus widening its regulatory role. ArgR acts as positive or negative modulator of the expression of several metabolic routes and transport systems, respiratory chain and stress response elements, as well as biofilm-related functions. The partial overlap between the ArgR regulon and those corresponding to the global regulators RoxR and ANR is also discussed.


Assuntos
Arginina , Proteínas Repressoras , Arginina/metabolismo , Proteínas Repressoras/genética , Pseudomonas/genética , Expressão Gênica , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica
15.
Sci Total Environ ; 926: 172017, 2024 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38552976

RESUMO

As global warming intensifies, extreme heat is becoming increasingly frequent. These extreme heatwaves have decreased the milk production of dairy animals such as cows and goats and have caused significant damage to the entire dairy industry. It is known that heat stress (HS) can induce the apoptosis and autophagy of mammary epithelial cells (MECs), leading to a decrease in lactating MECs. L-arginine can effectively attenuate HS-induced decreases in milk yield, but the exact mechanisms are not fully understood. In this study, we found that HS upregulated the arginine sensor CASTOR1 in mouse MECs. Arginine activated mTORC1 activity through CASTOR1 and promoted mitochondrial biogenesis through the mTORC1/PGC-1α/NRF1 pathway. Moreover, arginine inhibited mitophagy through the CASTOR1/PINK1/Parkin pathway. Mitochondrial homeostasis ensures ATP synthesis and a stable cellular redox state for MECs under HS, further alleviating HS-induced damage and improving the lactation performance of MECs. In conclusion, these findings reveal the molecular mechanisms by which L-arginine relieves HS-induced mammary gland injury, and suggest that the intake of arginine-based feeds or feed additives is a promising method to increase the milk yield of dairy animals in extreme heat conditions.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Estresse por Calor , Lactação , Feminino , Animais , Bovinos , Camundongos , Alvo Mecanístico do Complexo 1 de Rapamicina/metabolismo , Leite/metabolismo , Resposta ao Choque Térmico , Homeostase , Arginina/metabolismo
16.
J Biotechnol ; 385: 65-74, 2024 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38503366

RESUMO

Ethyl carbamate (EC), a multisite carcinogenic compound, is naturally produced from urea and ethanol in alcoholic beverages. In order to reduce the content of EC in wine, the accumulation of arginine in Saccharomyces cerevisiae was regulated by genetic modifying genes involved in arginine transport and synthesis pathways to reduce the production of urea. Knockout of genes encoding arginine permease (Can1p) and amino acid permease (Gap1p) on the cell membrane as well as argininosuccinate synthase (Arg1) respectively resulted in a maximum reduction of 66.88% (9.40 µg/L) in EC, while overexpressing the gene encoding amino acid transporter (Vba2) reduced EC by 52.94% (24.13 µg/L). Simultaneously overexpressing Vba2 and deleting Arg1 showed the lowest EC production with a decrease of 68% (7.72 µg/L). The yield of total higher alcohols of the mutants all decreased compared with that of the original strain. Comprehensive consideration of flavor compound contents and sensory evaluation results indicated that mutant YG21 obtained by deleting two allele coding Gap1p performed best in must fermentation of Cabernet Sauvignon with the EC content low to 9.40 µg/L and the contents of total higher alcohols and esters of 245.61 mg/L and 41.71 mg/L respectively. This study has provided an effective strategy for reducing the EC in wine.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Vinho , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Vinho/análise , Uretana/metabolismo , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Arginina/metabolismo , Etanol/metabolismo , Ureia/metabolismo , Fermentação
17.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 121(13): e2319686121, 2024 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38507452

RESUMO

Orphan solute carrier (SLC) represents a group of membrane transporters whose exact functions and substrate specificities are not known. Elucidating the function and regulation of orphan SLC transporters is not only crucial for advancing our knowledge of cellular and molecular biology but can potentially lead to the development of new therapeutic strategies. Here, we provide evidence for the biological function of a ubiquitous orphan lysosomal SLC, the Major Facilitator Superfamily Domain-containing Protein 1 (MFSD1), which has remained phylogenetically unassigned. Targeted metabolomics revealed that dipeptides containing either lysine or arginine residues accumulate in lysosomes of cells lacking MFSD1. Whole-cell patch-clamp electrophysiological recordings of HEK293-cells expressing MFSD1 on the cell surface displayed transport affinities for positively charged dipeptides in the lower mM range, while dipeptides that carry a negative net charge were not transported. This was also true for single amino acids and tripeptides, which MFSD1 failed to transport. Our results identify MFSD1 as a highly selective lysosomal lysine/arginine/histidine-containing dipeptide exporter, which functions as a uniporter.


Assuntos
Lisina , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras , Humanos , Arginina/metabolismo , Transporte Biológico , Dipeptídeos/metabolismo , Células HEK293 , Lisina/metabolismo , Lisossomos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/metabolismo , Fosfoproteínas/metabolismo
18.
Cell Rep ; 43(4): 113995, 2024 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38527061

RESUMO

The tumor microenvironment (TME) is restricted in metabolic nutrients including the semi-essential amino acid arginine. While complete arginine deprivation causes T cell dysfunction, it remains unclear how arginine levels fluctuate in the TME to shape T cell fates. Here, we find that the 20-µM low arginine condition, representing the levels found in the plasma of patients with cancers, confers Treg-like immunosuppressive capacities upon activated T cells. In vivo mouse tumor models and human single-cell RNA-sequencing datasets reveal positive correlations between low arginine condition and intratumoral Treg accumulation. Mechanistically, low arginine-activated T cells engage in metabolic and transcriptional reprogramming, using the ATF4-SLC7A11-GSH axis, to preserve their suppressive function. These findings improve our understanding of the role of arginine in human T cell biology with potential applications for immunotherapy strategies.


Assuntos
Fator 4 Ativador da Transcrição , Arginina , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos , Arginina/metabolismo , Fator 4 Ativador da Transcrição/metabolismo , Animais , Humanos , Camundongos , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/metabolismo , Ativação Linfocitária/imunologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Sistema y+ de Transporte de Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Sistema y+ de Transporte de Aminoácidos/genética , Microambiente Tumoral/imunologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/metabolismo , Feminino , Sistemas de Transporte de Aminoácidos Básicos/metabolismo , Sistemas de Transporte de Aminoácidos Básicos/genética
19.
Plant Mol Biol ; 114(2): 27, 2024 Mar 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38478146

RESUMO

Cyanobacteria are oxygen-evolving photosynthetic prokaryotes that affect the global carbon and nitrogen turnover. Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 (Synechocystis 6803) is a model cyanobacterium that has been widely studied and can utilize and uptake various nitrogen sources and amino acids from the outer environment and media. l-arginine is a nitrogen-rich amino acid used as a nitrogen reservoir in Synechocystis 6803, and its biosynthesis is strictly regulated by feedback inhibition. Argininosuccinate synthetase (ArgG; EC 6.3.4.5) is the rate-limiting enzyme in arginine biosynthesis and catalyzes the condensation of citrulline and aspartate using ATP to produce argininosuccinate, which is converted to l-arginine and fumarate through argininosuccinate lyase (ArgH). We performed a biochemical analysis of Synechocystis 6803 ArgG (SyArgG) and obtained a Synechocystis 6803 mutant overexpressing SyArgG and ArgH of Synechocystis 6803 (SyArgH). The specific activity of SyArgG was lower than that of other arginine biosynthesis enzymes and SyArgG was inhibited by arginine, especially among amino acids and organic acids. Both arginine biosynthesis enzyme-overexpressing strains grew faster than the wild-type Synechocystis 6803. Based on previous reports and our results, we suggest that SyArgG is the rate-limiting enzyme in the arginine biosynthesis pathway in cyanobacteria and that arginine biosynthesis enzymes are similarly regulated by arginine in this cyanobacterium. Our results contribute to elucidating the regulation of arginine biosynthesis during nitrogen metabolism.


KEY MESSAGE: This study revealed the catalytic efficiency and inhibition of cyanobacterial argininosuccinate synthetase by arginine and demonstrated that a strain overexpressing this enzyme grew faster than the wild-type strain.


Assuntos
Synechocystis , Synechocystis/genética , Synechocystis/metabolismo , Ácido Aspártico/metabolismo , Arginina/metabolismo , Fotossíntese , Nitrogênio/metabolismo
20.
Cell Mol Life Sci ; 81(1): 123, 2024 Mar 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38459149

RESUMO

Maintaining genomic stability is a prerequisite for proliferating NPCs to ensure genetic fidelity. Though histone arginine methylation has been shown to play important roles in safeguarding genomic stability, the underlying mechanism during brain development is not fully understood. Protein arginine N-methyltransferase 5 (PRMT5) is a type II protein arginine methyltransferase that plays a role in transcriptional regulation. Here, we identify PRMT5 as a key regulator of DNA repair in response to double-strand breaks (DSBs) during NPC proliferation. Prmt5F/F; Emx1-Cre (cKO-Emx1) mice show a distinctive microcephaly phenotype, with partial loss of the dorsal medial cerebral cortex and complete loss of the corpus callosum and hippocampus. This phenotype is resulted from DSBs accumulation in the medial dorsal cortex followed by cell apoptosis. Both RNA sequencing and in vitro DNA repair analyses reveal that PRMT5 is required for DNA homologous recombination (HR) repair. PRMT5 specifically catalyzes H3R2me2s in proliferating NPCs in the developing mouse brain to enhance HR-related gene expression during DNA repair. Finally, overexpression of BRCA1 significantly rescues DSBs accumulation and cell apoptosis in PRMT5-deficient NSCs. Taken together, our results show that PRMT5 maintains genomic stability by regulating histone arginine methylation in proliferating NPCs.


Assuntos
Células-Tronco Neurais , Reparo de DNA por Recombinação , Animais , Camundongos , Arginina/metabolismo , Reparo do DNA , Instabilidade Genômica , Genômica , Histonas/genética , Histonas/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Neurais/metabolismo , Proteína-Arginina N-Metiltransferases/genética , Proteína-Arginina N-Metiltransferases/metabolismo
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