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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32578682

RESUMO

Dermatophytes are known as a common cause of superficial mycosis, but atypical presentations in immunosuppressed patients make the diagnosis more challenging. Here, we report a case of a 39-year-old patient, a renal transplant recipient from a living donor, who presented with atypical cutaneous lesions of lower extremities caused by Arthroderma gypseum (Nannizzia gypsea), four months after receiving a renal transplant. It is important to highlight the importance of the early detection of fungal infections in immunosuppressed patients. Clinicians should have a high degree of suspicion for the early detection and treatment of the cases.


Assuntos
Arthrodermataceae/isolamento & purificação , Dermatomicoses/diagnóstico , Transplante de Rim/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Dermatomicoses/patologia , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Humanos , Hialoifomicose/diagnóstico , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido
2.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 171, 2020 Feb 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32087692

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Trichophyton benhamiae is a zoophilic dermatophyte that can cause tinea in humans and animals. Lesions caused by T. benhamiae tend to be highly inflammatory, and patients are often infected by animals or other patients infected with T. benhamiae. In this paper, we report the first case of tinea faciei caused by T. benhamiae in a Chinese girl who might be transmitted from a fox. CASE PRESENTATION: A 4-year-old girl from HaiNing city developed an itchy, erythematous, and annular plaque on her right face for the past 2 months. Before the lesion appeared, she was in close contact with the fur of a fox for almost 1 week. Septate hyaline hyphae were detected by direct mycological examination of the scales. Cultures grew on Sabouraud's dextrose agar (SDA) at 26 °C for 2 weeks revealed the presence of T. mentagrophytes. A molecular sequencing test confirmed that the isolate was consistent with reference strains to T. benhamiae. Then, the diagnosis of tinea faciei due to T. benhamiae was made. Treatment with terbinafine (oral 125 mg/d) and sertaconazole nitrate cream (topical, twice daily) for 4 weeks was initiated and achieved significant improvement of the skin lesions. CONCLUSIONS: This rare dermatophytosis case highlights the importance of ITS sequencing in helping to recognize rare pathogenic fungi that can be easily misdiagnosed with a conventional morphological diagnosis.


Assuntos
Arthrodermataceae/genética , Dermatomicoses/diagnóstico , Tinha/diagnóstico , Trichophyton/genética , Administração Oral , Administração Tópica , Animais , Antifúngicos/administração & dosagem , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Arthrodermataceae/isolamento & purificação , Pré-Escolar , China , Dermatomicoses/tratamento farmacológico , Dermatomicoses/microbiologia , Face/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imidazóis/administração & dosagem , Imidazóis/uso terapêutico , Pele/patologia , Terbinafina/administração & dosagem , Terbinafina/uso terapêutico , Tiofenos/administração & dosagem , Tiofenos/uso terapêutico , Tinha/tratamento farmacológico , Tinha/microbiologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Trichophyton/isolamento & purificação
3.
Comput Biol Chem ; 84: 107189, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31891900

RESUMO

A series of indole-derived methoxylated chalcones were described as anti-dermatophyte agents. The in vitro antifungal susceptibility testing against different dermatophytes revealed that most of compounds had potent activity against the dermatophyte strains. In particular, the 4-ethoxy derivative 4d with MIC values of 0.25-2 µg/ml was the most potent compound against Trichophyton interdigitale, Trichophyton veruccosum and Microsporum fulvum. Moreover, the 4-butoxy analog 4i displaying MIC values in the range of 1-16 µg/ml had the highest inhibitory activity against Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Microsporum canis, and Arthroderma benhamiae. To predict whether the synthesized compounds interact with tubulin binding site of dermatophytes, the 3D-structure of target protein was modeled by homology modeling and then used for molecular docking and molecular dynamics (MD) simulation studies. Docking simulation revealed that the promising compound 4d can properly bind with tubulin. The molecular dynamics analysis showed that interactions of compound 4d with the active site of target protein have binding stability throughout MD simulation. The results of this study could utilize in the design of more effective antifungal drugs with tubulin inhibition mechanism against keratinophilic fungi.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Chalconas/farmacologia , Indóis/farmacologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Antifúngicos/química , Antifúngicos/metabolismo , Arthrodermataceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Sítios de Ligação , Chalconas/química , Chalconas/metabolismo , Humanos , Indóis/química , Indóis/metabolismo , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Fungos Mitospóricos/efeitos dos fármacos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Estrutura Molecular , Ligação Proteica , Alinhamento de Sequência , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Tubulina (Proteína)/química , Tubulina (Proteína)/metabolismo
4.
Nat Prod Res ; 34(4): 449-455, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31135192

RESUMO

The in vitro antifungal activity of extracts obtained from 14 medicinal plants of the mongolian flora were investigated by measuring their minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) against fungi cause of cutaneous diseases such as Candida species, dermatophytes and Malassezia furfur. Among the species examined, Stellaria dichotoma L., Scutellaria scordifolia L. Aquilegia sibirica Fisch. Et Schrenk. and Hyoscyamus niger L. extracts demonstrated antifungal activity against all studied fungi. In particular, S. scordifolia L. methanol extract, obtained at room temperature, showed the best activity against Candida spp., Malassezia furfur and dermatophytes with GMMIC50 values of 22 µg/mL, 64 µg/mL and 32 µg/mL, respectively. The flavones, luteolin and apigenin, identified in S. scordifolia extracts, and rutin identified in S. dichotoma and Hyoscyamus niger L. extracts, could be responsible of the observed antifungal activity.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Plantas Medicinais/química , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Arthrodermataceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Candida/efeitos dos fármacos , Flavonas/farmacologia , Malassezia/efeitos dos fármacos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Mongólia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Scutellaria/química , Dermatopatias Infecciosas/tratamento farmacológico , Dermatopatias Infecciosas/microbiologia
5.
Mycoses ; 63(1): 65-70, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31599024

RESUMO

Dermatomycoses, involving skin, hair and nail infections, are among the most frequent human infections with global distribution and may have a public health and economic impact. The causative agents include Dermatophytes, Candida, Malassezia and non-Dermatophyte moulds. High morbidity may be associated with certain variables: age, gender, occupation-such as farming or military service, and climate or environmental conditions. The objectives of the present study included: (a). Assessment of epidemiological aspects of dermatomycoses in the Israeli Defense Forces (IDF). (b). Antifungal drug susceptibility of fungi isolated in culture from soldiers. (a) Epidemiological assessment: data based on IDF's medical registry during the period 2009-2013 on 10 831 male and female soldiers (8164 and 2667, respectively), of which 2589 were combat soldiers. (b) Susceptibility tests: to ketoconazole, fluconazole, itraconazole, terbinafine and griseofulvin of ~ 100 Dermatophyte and Candida isolates, using E test and/or disc diffusion assays. (c) Statistical analysis: logistic regression, chi-square and ANOVA. (a) Incidence in male soldiers higher than in female soldiers (35% vs. 28%). (b) Incidence in combat soldiers higher than in non-combat soldiers (39% vs 32%). (c) The major site of involvement-nails. (d) Infections peaked during summer months. (e) Dermatophytes constitute close to 90% of the aetiological agents (87% and 86%). (f) Trichophyton rubrum the dominant species. (g) terbinafine was the most active antifungal drug. The most significant conclusion of relevance of this study is the finding of higher morbidity rate among combat soldiers, as this may affect the activity of this group.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Arthrodermataceae/isolamento & purificação , Dermatomicoses , Terbinafina/uso terapêutico , Trichophyton/isolamento & purificação , Adulto , Arthrodermataceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Candida/efeitos dos fármacos , Candida/isolamento & purificação , Estudos de Coortes , Dermatomicoses/tratamento farmacológico , Dermatomicoses/epidemiologia , Dermatomicoses/microbiologia , Dermatomicoses/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Israel/epidemiologia , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Saúde Militar , Militares , Estações do Ano , Trichophyton/efeitos dos fármacos
6.
Mycoses ; 63(1): 113-118, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31642133

RESUMO

Onychomycosis (OM), has a worldwide prevalence of 5% and 0.5%-5% in India. Trichophyton. rubrum (T rubrum) and T mentagrophytes are the most commonly isolated fungi. As the clinical and mycological characteristics change with time and geographical region; it is important to study the temporal and topographic patterns periodically. The study was conducted to identify the epidemiological and clinico-mycological characteristics of patients with OM attending a tertiary care hospital in Delhi. Hundred patients with clinical diagnosis of OM were recruited. Among these, 88 patients who tested positive for OM on direct microscopy with KOH, culture and/or histopathology with periodic acid-Schiff were included in the study. The clinico-mycological characteristics and risk factors associated with OM were evaluated. OM was more common in males (M:F = 2.5:1). The mean age of patients with OM was 39 ± 15.3 years (SE 1.52) with mean disease duration of 27.6 ± 46.1 months (SE 4.9). Seventeen (19.3%) patients had concomitant diabetes mellitus. The patients displayed mean body mass index (BMI) of 25.67 ± 1.35 kg/sq m. Concurrent dermatophytosis of skin was present in 35 (39.77%) patients. Two feet-one hand syndrome was present in 5 patients. Fingernail involvement without toenail involvement was more common than toenail involvement alone. (43.18% vs 38.63%). Distal and lateral subungual OM (DLSO) was the commonest clinical variant (81.8%). Mycological culture showed growth in 47 (53.40%) patients. Dermatophytes were isolated in majority, that is in 30 (63.82%) patients followed by non-dermatophytic moulds (NDM) in 7 (14.8%) and Candida spp. in the remaining 10 (21.27%) patients.


Assuntos
Unhas/microbiologia , Onicomicose , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Arthrodermataceae/isolamento & purificação , Candida/isolamento & purificação , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus , Feminino , Dermatoses do Pé/microbiologia , Dermatoses da Mão/microbiologia , Humanos , Índia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Unhas/patologia , Onicomicose/diagnóstico , Onicomicose/epidemiologia , Onicomicose/patologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Tinha/diagnóstico , Trichophyton/isolamento & purificação , Adulto Jovem
7.
Mycoses ; 63(1): 52-57, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31596519

RESUMO

Tinea capitis is an infectious dermatological disorder caused by dermatophytes that occur primarily in children. It has recently been brought under effective control in Korea since the introduction of oral antifungal medications and the implementation of concerted public health initiatives. Therefore, its incidence rate has decreased considerably. We investigated changes in the epidemiological and mycological characteristics of tinea capitis patients under the age of 10 in Korea. Using medical records from Kyungpook National University Hospital and the Catholic Skin Disease Clinic from 1989 to 2018, we retrospectively investigated the characteristics of 786 patients with tinea capitis. Of the 786 patients, 744 were KOH-positive. The annual incidence of tinea capitis was decreased from 120 to less than 10 between 1989 and 2018. Overall, 446 (56.74%) were male and 340 (43.26%) were female, representing a ratio of 1:0.8. In terms of the seasonality of it, 276 (35.11%) visited hospital in winter, 193 (24.55%) in spring, 177 (22.52%) in fall and 140 (17.81%) in summer. Dermatophytes were cultured from 628 patients. Microsporum canis was the most common dermatophyte (73.16%), followed by Trichophyton verrucosum and Trichophyton rubum. Of the 786 patients, 577 (73.41%) lived in urban areas and 209 (26.59%) in rural areas. Changes in the epidemiological and mycological characteristics of children with tinea capitis were shown in incidence, sex distribution, seasonality and causative dermatophytes. The incidence of tinea capitis has fallen significantly in prepubertal children. Nevertheless, continuous surveillance is needed to prevent tinea capitis in Korea.


Assuntos
Arthrodermataceae/isolamento & purificação , Microsporum/isolamento & purificação , Pele/microbiologia , Tinha do Couro Cabeludo , Trichophyton/isolamento & purificação , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Criança , Saúde da Criança/estatística & dados numéricos , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Itraconazol/uso terapêutico , Masculino , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estações do Ano , Distribuição por Sexo , Pele/patologia , Terbinafina/uso terapêutico , Tinha do Couro Cabeludo/diagnóstico , Tinha do Couro Cabeludo/tratamento farmacológico , Tinha do Couro Cabeludo/epidemiologia , Tinha do Couro Cabeludo/etiologia
8.
J Appl Microbiol ; 128(4): 1038-1049, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31816165

RESUMO

AIM: The purpose of this study was to uncover insights into the mechanism of action of the 8-hydroxyquinoline derivatives PH151 and PH153. In addition, with the future perspective of developing a topical drug for the treatment of candidiasis and dermatophytosis, the antifungal activity of a nanoemulsion formulation containing the most active compound (PH151) is also presented here. METHODS AND RESULTS: Sorbitol protection assay and scanning electron microscopy indicate that the 8-hydroxyquinoline derivatives act on the cell wall of Candida sp. and dermatophytes and they inhibit the pseudohyphae formation of C. albicans. These findings demonstrate a strong effect of these compounds on C. albicans morphogenesis, which can be considered a potential mode of action for this molecule. Besides, the nanoemulsion formulation MIC values ranged from 0·5 to 4 µg ml-1 demonstrating the significant antifungal activity when incorporated into a pharmaceutical formulation. CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, the results support the potential of these molecules as promising antifungal candidates for the treatment of candidiasis and dermatophytosis. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: There is an emerging need to fill the pipeline with new antifungal drugs due to the limitations presented by the currently used drugs. In this study, we have described a novel formulation with a 8-hydroxyquinoline-5-sulfonamide derivative which has presented a great potency in providing a finished product. Furthermore, the derivative has shown a selective mechanism of action confirming its potential to be developed into a new drug candidate.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Arthrodermataceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Dermatomicoses/microbiologia , Oxiquinolina/farmacologia , Sulfonamidas/farmacologia , Antifúngicos/química , Arthrodermataceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Candida albicans/efeitos dos fármacos , Candida albicans/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Candidíase/tratamento farmacológico , Candidíase/microbiologia , Parede Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Dermatomicoses/tratamento farmacológico , Hifas/efeitos dos fármacos , Hifas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Oxiquinolina/química , Sulfonamidas/química
9.
Mycoses ; 63(1): 21-29, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31610041

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite the worldwide prevalence of dermatophyte infections, only a few genes are reported to be related to dermatophyte infections. In addition, the mechanism by which different ecological dermatophytes infection leads to varying intensity of inflammation remains unclear. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the mechanism of varying intensity of skin inflammation caused by different ecological dermatophytes infection. METHODS: We infected HaCaT cells with anthropophilic and geophilic dermatophytes to mimic various ecological dermatophyte infections. RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) was employed to identify the change in the gene expression of HaCaT cells. To verify the expression of differentially expressed genes (DEGs), we selected 18 HaCaT cells genes to conduct qPCR experiments. In addition, immunoblotting was conducted to validate key genes from the MAPK signalling pathway. RESULTS: After HaCaT cells were infected with the anthropophilic Trichophyton rubrum (T rubrum) and the geophilic Microsporum gypseum (M gypseum), 118 and 619 differentially expressed genes were identified in HaCaT cells, respectively. These genes may provide a clue as to how keratinocytes respond to anthropophilic and geophilic dermatophytes. We also found that JUN may play a critical role in keratinocytes infected with M gypseum. CONCLUSIONS: Differential gene expression in HaCaT cells may account for the various clinical presentation caused by anthropophilic and geophilic dermatophytes infections. In addition, the intense inflammatory reaction of M gypseum infection may be triggered by activating the JNK-JUN signalling pathway.


Assuntos
Arthrodermataceae , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/imunologia , Queratinócitos/metabolismo , Queratinócitos/microbiologia , Arthrodermataceae/patogenicidade , Linhagem Celular , Dermatomicoses/genética , Dermatomicoses/imunologia , Dermatomicoses/microbiologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Queratinócitos/imunologia , Microsporum/patogenicidade , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Trichophyton/patogenicidade
11.
Int J Mol Med ; 44(6): 2047-2056, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31573050

RESUMO

Microsporum canis (M. canis) is a common pathogen that causes tinea capitis and is present worldwide. The incidence of M. canis infection, particularly tinea capitis, has been increasing in China. In our previous studies, family of serine hydrolases 1 (FSH1) was identified as a potential virulence factor in tinea capitis infection caused by M. canis. To determine the function of this gene in M. canis, FSH1 was knocked down using double­stranded RNA interference mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Reverse transcription­quantitative PCR analysis was used to confirm gene knockdown. Loss of FSH1 expression by RNAi resulted in a minor phenotype alteration, but M. canis pathogenicity in guinea pig cutaneous infection was decreased compared with the wild­type strain. To the best of our knowledge, the present study is the first to demonstrate that FSH1 is associated with macroconidia septa formation and is an important contributor to M. canis virulence. These findings may advance the understanding of the function of the FSH1 gene and provide a foundation for future studies on macroconidia septa formation and pathogenicity of M. canis.


Assuntos
Dermatomicoses/microbiologia , Hidrolases/genética , Microsporum/genética , Tinha do Couro Cabeludo/genética , Arthrodermataceae/genética , Arthrodermataceae/patogenicidade , China , Dermatomicoses/genética , Dermatomicoses/patologia , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Humanos , Microsporum/patogenicidade , Fenótipo , Tinha do Couro Cabeludo/microbiologia , Tinha do Couro Cabeludo/patologia , Virulência/genética
12.
J Med Microbiol ; 68(11): 1641-1648, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31526456

RESUMO

Introduction: Onychomycosis is a debilitating, difficult-to-treat nail fungal infection with increasing prevalence worldwide. The main etiological agents are dermatophytes, which are common causative pathogens in superficial fungal mycoses. Conventional detection methods such as fungal culture have low sensitivity and specificity and are time-consuming.Aim: The main objective of this study was to design, develop and validate a real-time probe-based multiplex qPCR assay for the detection of dermatophytes and Fusarium species.Methodology: The performance characteristics of the qPCR assays were evaluated. The multiplex qPCR assays targeted four genes (assay 1: pan-dermatophytes/Fusarium spp.; assay 2: Trichophyton rubrum/Microsporum spp.). Analytical validation was accomplished using 150 fungal isolates and clinical validation was done on 204 nail specimens. The performance parameters were compared against the gold standard (fungal culture) and expanded gold standard (culture in conjunction with sequencing).Results: Both the single-plex and multiplex qPCR assays performed well especially when compared against the expanded gold standard. Among the 204 tested nail specimens, the culture method showed that 125 (61.3 %) were infected with at least one organism, of which 40 yielded positive results for dermatophytes and Fusarium spp. These target organisms detected include 20 dermatophytes and 22 Fusarium spp. The developed qPCR assays demonstrated excellent limit of detection, efficiency, coefficient of determination, analytical and clinical sensitivity and specificity.Conclusion: The multiplex qPCR assays were reliable for the diagnosis of onychomycosis, with shorter turn-around time as compared to culture method. This aids in the planning of treatment strategies to achieve optimal therapeutic outcome.


Assuntos
Arthrodermataceae/isolamento & purificação , Dermatomicoses/microbiologia , Fusariose/microbiologia , Fusarium/isolamento & purificação , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Multiplex/métodos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/métodos , Arthrodermataceae/classificação , Arthrodermataceae/genética , Dermatomicoses/diagnóstico , Fusariose/diagnóstico , Fusarium/genética , Humanos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
13.
Mycoses ; 62(12): 1116-1126, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31493312

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Since accurate identification of dermatophyte species is essential for epidemiological studies and implementing antifungal treatment, overcoming limitations of conventional diagnostics is a fruitful subject. OBJECTIVES AND METHODS: In this study, we investigated real-time polymerase chain reaction(q-PCR), matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and nano-electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (nano-ESI-MS) to detect and identify the most frequently isolated dermatophytes from human and animal dermatophytosis in comparison with conventional methods. RESULTS: Among 200 samples, the identified species were Microsporum canis (78.22%), Trichophyton verrucosum (10.89%) and T. mentagrophytes (5.94%). Q-PCR assay displayed great execution attributes for dermatophytes detection and identification. Using MALDI-TOF MS, M. canis, but none of T. violacium, T. verrucosum or T. mentagrophytes, could be identified. Nano-ESI-MS accurately identified all species. The potential virulence attributes of secreted proteases were anticipated and compared between species. Secreted endoproteases belonging to families/subfamilies of metalloproteases, subtilisins and aspartic protease were detected. The analysed exoproteases are aminopeptidases, dipeptidyl peptidases and carboxypeptidases. Microsporum canis have three immunogenic proteins, siderophore iron transporter mirB, protease inhibitors, plasma membrane proteolipid 3 and annexin. CONCLUSION: In essence, q-PCR, MALDI-TOF MS and nano-ESI-MS assays are very nearly defeating difficulties of dermatophytes detection and identification, thereby, supplement or supplant conventional diagnosis of dermatophytosis.


Assuntos
Arthrodermataceae/classificação , Dermatomicoses/microbiologia , Proteômica , Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Arthrodermataceae/química , Gatos/microbiologia , Bovinos/microbiologia , Criança , DNA Fúngico/isolamento & purificação , Dermatomicoses/diagnóstico , Cães/microbiologia , Feminino , Cavalos/microbiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz , Adulto Jovem
14.
Molecules ; 24(17)2019 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31470602

RESUMO

The promising antimicrobial activity of essential oils (EOs) has led researchers to use them in combination with antimicrobial drugs in order to reduce drug toxicity, side effects, and resistance to single agents. Mentha x piperita, known worldwide as "Mentha of Pancalieri", is produced locally at Pancalieri (Turin, Italy). The EO from this Mentha species is considered as one of the best mint EOs in the world. In our research, we assessed the antifungal activity of "Mentha of Pancalieri" EO, either alone or in combination with azole drugs (fluconazole, itraconazole, ketoconazole) against a wide panel of yeast and dermatophyte clinical isolates. The EO was analyzed by GC-MS, and its antifungal properties were evaluated by minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) parameters, in accordance with the CLSI guidelines, with some modifications. The interaction of EO with azoles was evaluated through the chequerboard and isobologram methods. The results suggest that this EO exerts a fungicidal activity against yeasts and a fungistatic activity against dermatophytes. Interaction studies with azoles indicated mainly synergistic profiles between itraconazole and EO vs. Candida spp., Cryptococcus neoformans, and Trichophyton mentagrophytes. Thus, the "Mentha of Pancalieri" EO may act as a potential antifungal agent and could serve as a natural adjuvant for fungal infection treatment.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Azóis/farmacologia , Mentha piperita/química , Monoterpenos/farmacologia , Óleos Voláteis/química , Animais , Antifúngicos/química , Antifúngicos/isolamento & purificação , Arthrodermataceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Arthrodermataceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Arthrodermataceae/isolamento & purificação , Candida/efeitos dos fármacos , Candida/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Candida/isolamento & purificação , Cryptococcus/efeitos dos fármacos , Cryptococcus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cryptococcus/isolamento & purificação , Combinação de Medicamentos , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Fluconazol/farmacologia , Guias como Assunto , Humanos , Itraconazol/farmacologia , Cetoconazol/farmacologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Monoterpenos/química , Monoterpenos/isolamento & purificação , Óleos Voláteis/isolamento & purificação
15.
Artigo em Inglês, Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31434126

RESUMO

Dermatophytosis is a cutaneous infection, caused by several types of keratophilic fungi (dermatophytes). It represents a serious and common contagious skin disease in dogs and cats. The significance of this disease for pet owners is based on the zoonotic potential. The prevalence varies with climate and local dermatophyte infestation. The most common infection in dogs and cats are caused by the genera Microsporum (M.), Nannizzia (N.) or Trichophyton (T.). The aim of this article is to summarise novel taxonomy, diagnosis, and treatment recommendations as well as the recently revised recommendations of the World Association of Veterinary Dermatology.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato/microbiologia , Doenças do Cão/microbiologia , Tinha/veterinária , Animais , Arthrodermataceae/genética , Arthrodermataceae/isolamento & purificação , Arthrodermataceae/patogenicidade , Biópsia/veterinária , Doenças do Gato/diagnóstico , Doenças do Gato/terapia , Gatos , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Doenças do Cão/terapia , Cães , Meio Ambiente , Humanos , Microsporum/isolamento & purificação , Microsporum/patogenicidade , Tinha/diagnóstico , Tinha/microbiologia , Tinha/terapia , Trichophyton/patogenicidade , Zoonoses/diagnóstico , Zoonoses/microbiologia
16.
Braz J Microbiol ; 50(4): 985-987, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31463867

RESUMO

Arthroderma benhamiae is a zoophilic dermathophyte that can cause highly inflammatory tinea corporis and tinea capitis in humans. This is the first report of a patient with dermatophytosis caused by A. benhamiae in Brazil. The lesion was an erythematous, annular plaque on the lumbar region that appeared few weeks after playing with a street cat in a 19-month-old girl. Initial presumed diagnosis was tinea corporis caused by Microsporum canis. Topical treatments were ineffective and the patient required systemic treatment with griseofulvin. Mycological diagnosis was inconclusive: morphological differentiation between M. canis and Trichophyton benhamiae may be difficult, especially when the latter present yellow colonies. The etiological agent was identified only by ITS sequencing of the isolates aligned with reference strains to A. benhamiae. This report highlights the importance of ITS sequencing in the identification of isolates from some cases of dermatophytosis, because conventional morphological diagnosis may result in misdiagnosis of the agent and delay proper treatment.


Assuntos
Arthrodermataceae/isolamento & purificação , Dermatomicoses/microbiologia , Tinha do Couro Cabeludo/microbiologia , Tinha/microbiologia , Antifúngicos/administração & dosagem , Arthrodermataceae/classificação , Arthrodermataceae/genética , Brasil , Dermatomicoses/diagnóstico , Dermatomicoses/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Tinha/diagnóstico , Tinha/tratamento farmacológico , Tinha do Couro Cabeludo/diagnóstico
17.
J Mycol Med ; 29(3): 265-272, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31285126

RESUMO

Onychomycosis or fungal nail infection is one of the most common fungal infections. Nearly 50% of all nail disorders are caused by fungi. This systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted to determine the prevalence of onychomycosis across Iran. We searched English and Persian databases for studies reporting the epidemiologic features of onychomycosis in Iranian people from January 2000 to December 2018. Literature search revealed 307 studies, of which 24 studies met the eligibility criteria. In order to identifying the existence of publication bias among studies, funnel plots were used. The results of the meta-analysis were visualized as a forest plot representing the prevalence estimates of each study. Heterogeneity was also analyzed using the I2, Chi2, and Tau2 statistics. A high level of I2 and Chi2 was obtained among studies, which provides evidence of notable heterogeneity between studies. The results of current study revealed that the highest prevalence of onychomycosis was related to Mazandaran and Tehran provinces, respectively. As in the literature hypothesized shift in etiologic agents from yeasts to dermatophytes or molds could not be confirmed. Females were affected more frequently than males and in both sexes the highest incidence of infection occurrence was at the ages of >50 years. It seems the highest prevalence of onychomycosis in Mazandaran and Tehran provinces is due to the concentration of specialist doctors and research centers in these two provinces compared with others which leads to more detection and more care of the disease. Therefore, further educational strategies in order to accurate diagnosis in other provinces is necessary to reduce the risk of onychomycosis in Iran.


Assuntos
Arthrodermataceae/isolamento & purificação , Dermatomicoses/epidemiologia , Onicomicose/epidemiologia , Leveduras/isolamento & purificação , Fatores Etários , Dermatomicoses/microbiologia , Feminino , Geografia , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Masculino , Onicomicose/microbiologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais
18.
Molecules ; 24(14)2019 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31295972

RESUMO

Predominantly spread in West Tropical Africa, the shrub Salacia senegalensis (Lam.) DC. is known because of its medicinal properties, the leaves being used in the treatment of skin diseases. Prompted by the ethnomedicinal use, a hydroethanolic extract obtained from the leaves of the plant was screened against a panel of microbial strains, the majority of which involved in superficial infections. The extract was found to be active against the dermatophytes Trichophyton rubrum and Epidermophyton floccosum. Notable results were also recorded regarding the attenuation of the inflammatory response, namely the inhibitory effects observed against soybean 5-lipoxygenase (IC50 = 71.14 µg mL-1), no interference being recorded in the cellular viability of RAW 264.7 macrophages and NO levels. Relevantly, the extract did not lead to detrimental effects against the keratinocyte cell line HaCaT, at concentrations displaying antidermatophytic and anti-inflammatory effects. Flavonoid profiling of S. senegalensis leaves was achieved for the first time, allowing the identification and quantitation of myricitrin, three 3-O-substituted quercetin derivatives, and three other flavonoid derivatives, which may contribute, at least partially, to the observed antidermatophytic and anti-inflammatory effects. In the current study, the plant S. senegalensis is assessed concerning its antidermatophytic and anti-inflammatory properties.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Arthrodermataceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta/química , Salacia/química , Animais , Anti-Infecciosos/química , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Antifúngicos/química , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Flavonoides/química , Humanos , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/imunologia , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Camundongos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Estrutura Molecular , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Células RAW 264.7 , Análise Espectral
19.
J Appl Microbiol ; 127(5): 1362-1372, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31297951

RESUMO

AIM: The increase in the number of fungal infections worldwide, coupled with the limitations of current antifungal chemotherapy, demand the development of safe and effective new antifungals. Here, we presented the synthesis of a novel acridone (M14) and its antifungal properties against Candida and dermatophytes species. METHODS AND RESULTS: A series of 17 acridones was designed, synthesized and tested for its antifungal activity. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined by the broth microdilution method. Only the acridone M14 showed growth-inhibitory activity against reference strains and clinical isolates of Candida and dermatophytes, with MIC range of 7·81-31·25 µg ml-1 . Moreover, M14 exhibited fungicidal activity and prevented biofilm formation by C. albicans as well as reduced the viability of preformed biofilms, even at sub-MICs. The confocal laser scanning microscopy analysis revealed that C. albicans hyphal growth was completely inhibited in the presence of M14. Similarly, there was a severe inhibition on hyphal growth of Trichophyton rubrum. We also found that M14 has relatively low toxicity to human fibroblasts. CONCLUSIONS: The new acridone M14 has antifungal properties against Candida spp. and dermatophytes, and antibiofilm activity against C. albicans. In addition, M14 is relatively selective to fungal cells compared to human normal cells. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: Because of its in vitro antifungal activity, anti-Candida biofilm effect and moderate cytotoxicity towards normal human cell, M14 may serve as a valuable lead compound to develop a new antifungal agent.


Assuntos
Acridonas/farmacologia , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Arthrodermataceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Candida/efeitos dos fármacos , Acridonas/síntese química , Antifúngicos/síntese química , Biofilmes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Candida/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Candida albicans/efeitos dos fármacos , Candida albicans/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sobrevivência Celular , Humanos , Hifas/efeitos dos fármacos , Hifas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Trichophyton/efeitos dos fármacos , Trichophyton/crescimento & desenvolvimento
20.
J Mycol Med ; 29(4): 331-344, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31248775

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Syzygium australe (H.L. Wnddl. ex. Link) B. Hyland, Syzygium luehmannii (F. Muell.) L.A.S. Johnson, Syzygium jambos L. (Alston), Terminalia ferdinandiana Exell. and Tasmannia lanceolata (Poir.) A.C.Sm. are used in traditional Australian Aboriginal and Asian healing systems to treat a variety of pathogenic diseases including fungal skin infections, yet they are yet to be examined for the ability to inhibit the growth of human dermatophytes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The fungal growth inhibitory activity of extracts produced from selected Australian and Asian plants was assessed against a panel of human dermatophytes by standard disc diffusion and liquid dilution MIC methods. The toxicity of the extracts was evaluated by Artemia lethality and MTS HDF cell viability assays. The phytochemistry of the most promising extracts were examined by GC-MS headspace analysis and some interesting compounds were highlighted. RESULTS: The aqueous and methanolic extracts of all plant species were good antifungal agents, inhibiting the growth of all of the dematophytes tested. The methanolic S. australe (SA) and S. luehmannii (SL) extracts were particularly potent fungal growth inhibitors. MIC values of 39 and 53µg/mL were recorded for the methanolic SL fruit extract against T. mentagrophytes and T. rubrum respectively. Similar MICs were also noted for the methanolic SL leaf extract (88 and 106µg/mL respectively). The methanolic SL leaf extract was a particularly good fungal growth inhibitor, with MIC values≤100µg/mL against the reference C. albicans strain (96µg/mL), E. floccosum (53µg/mL), and T. mentagrophytes (88µg/mL). This extract also produced MICs≤200µg/mL against all other fungal species/strains tested. Similarly good activity was seen for the methanolic S. australe leaf and fruit extracts, as well as the S. lehmannii fruit and S. jambos leaf extracts, with MIC values 100-500µg/mL. Interestingly, these extracts had low toxicity and high therapeutic indices, indicating their suitability for clinical use. GC-MS headspace analysis highlighted several monoterpenoids and sesquiterpenoids in the methanolic SA and SL extracts. T. ferdinandiana and T. lanceolata extracts also had promising antifungal activity, albeit with substantially higher MICs. CONCLUSION: Whilst multiple extracts inhibited fungal growth, the methanolic S. australe and S. luehmannii leaf extracts and the S. luehmannii fruit extracts showed particularly potent activity against each of these dermatophytes, indicating that they are promising leads for the development of anti-dermatophytic therapeutics.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Arthrodermataceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Arthrodermataceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Plantas Medicinais/química , Arthrodermataceae/patogenicidade , Ásia , Austrália , Dermatomicoses/tratamento farmacológico , Frutas/química , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional do Leste Asiático , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Extratos Vegetais/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Syzygium/química , Terminalia/química , Winteraceae/química
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