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1.
Curr Protoc ; 4(5): e1053, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38752927

RESUMO

The recombinant human proteoglycan aggrecan-G1 domain (rhG1)-induced arthritis (GIA) mouse model is a complex model of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In GIA, autoimmune arthritis is induced by repeated intraperitoneal immunization of genetically susceptible BALB/c mice with the rhG1 antigen emulsified in the adjuvant dimethyldioctadecylammonium (DDA). This article describes the steps for producing and purifying the rhG1 antigen, the immunization protocol, methods for following the clinical picture of arthritis, and the evaluation of relevant laboratory parameters. In this model, the autoimmune arthritis develops stepwise, similar to RA: First is the preclinical stage (after the first immunization, days 0-20) with no sign of inflammation but detectable T and B cell activation; next, the stage of early arthritis (after the second immunization, days 21-41), where the first definitive signs of arthritis appear together with autoantibody production; and then the severe late-stage arthritis (after the third immunization, after day 42), which presents with massive inflammation of the limbs, leading to cartilage and bone destruction and finally ankylosis. The protocols described here provide sufficient information for investigators to use the GIA model to study different aspects of autoimmune arthritis. © 2024 The Authors. Current Protocols published by Wiley Periodicals LLC. Basic Protocol: Induction of recombinant human proteoglycan aggrecan-G1 domain (rhG1)-induced arthritis (GIA) Support Protocol 1: Production of rhG1-Xa-mFc2a fusion protein with CHOK1 mammalian expression system Support Protocol 2: Purification of the rhG1-Xa-mFc2a fusion protein by affinity chromatography Support Protocol 3: Preparation of DDA adjuvant Support Protocol 4: Clinical assessment of arthritis Support Protocol 5: Measurement of serum antibody levels and cytokines Support Protocol 6: Measurement of rhG1-induced proliferation and cytokine production in spleen cell culture Support Protocol 7: Histological assessment of arthritic limbs Support Protocol 8: Evaluation of arthritis with micro-computed tomography.


Assuntos
Agrecanas , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Proteínas Recombinantes , Animais , Agrecanas/metabolismo , Camundongos , Humanos , Artrite Reumatoide/imunologia , Artrite Experimental/imunologia , Artrite Experimental/patologia
2.
Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao ; 44(4): 739-747, 2024 Apr 20.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38708508

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore the inhibitory effect of Sidaxue, a traditional Miao herbal medicine formula, on articular bone and cartilage destruction and synovial neovascularization in rats with collagen-induced arthritis (CIA). METHODS: In a SD rat model of CIA, we tested the effects of daily gavage of Sidaxue at low, moderate and high doses (10, 20, and 40 g/kg, respectively) for 21 days, with Tripterygium glycosides (GTW) as the positive control, on swelling in the hind limb plantar regions by arthritis index scoring. Pathologies in joint synovial membrane of the rats were observed with HE staining, and serum TNF-α and IL-1ß levels were detected with ELISA. The expressions of NF-κB p65, matrix metalloproteinase 1 (MMP1), MMP2 and MMP9 at the mRNA and protein levels in the synovial tissues were detected using real-time PCR and Western blotting. Network pharmacology analysis was conducted to identify the important target proteins in the pathways correlated with the therapeutic effects of topical Sidaxue treatment for RA, and the core target proteins were screened by topological analysis. RESULTS: Treatment with GTW and Sidaxue at the 3 doses all significantly alleviated plantar swelling, lowered arthritis index scores, improved cartilage and bone damage and reduced neovascularization in CIA rats (P<0.05), and the effects of Sidaxue showed a dose dependence. Both GTW and Sidaxue treatments significantly lowered TNF-α, IL-1ß, NF-κB p65, MMP1, MMP2, and MMP9 mRNA and protein expressions in the synovial tissues of CIA rats (P<0.05). Network pharmacological analysis identified MMPs as the core proteins associated with topical Sidaxue treatment of RA. CONCLUSION: Sidaxue alleviates articular bone and cartilage damages and reduces synovial neovascularization in CIA rats possibly by downregulating MMPs via the TNF-α/IL-1ß/NF-κB-MMP1, 2, 9 signaling pathway, and MMPs probably plays a key role in mediating the effect of Sidaxue though the therapeutic pathways other than oral administration.


Assuntos
Artrite Experimental , Artrite Reumatoide , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Metaloproteinase 1 da Matriz , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Membrana Sinovial , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa , Animais , Ratos , Artrite Reumatoide/tratamento farmacológico , Artrite Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Artrite Experimental/metabolismo , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Metaloproteinase 1 da Matriz/metabolismo , Membrana Sinovial/efeitos dos fármacos , Membrana Sinovial/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Metaloproteinase 2 da Matriz/metabolismo , Regulação para Baixo/efeitos dos fármacos , Metaloproteinase 9 da Matriz/metabolismo , Metaloproteinases da Matriz/metabolismo , Tripterygium/química , Fator de Transcrição RelA/metabolismo
3.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 19: 4411-4427, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38774028

RESUMO

Background: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic and systemic autoimmune disease characterized by synovial inflammation and joint destruction. Despite progress in RA therapy, it remains difficult to achieve long-term remission in RA patients. Phosphodiesterase 3B (Pde3b) is a member of the phosphohydrolyase family that are involved in many signal transduction pathways. However, its role in RA is yet to be fully addressed. Methods: Studies were conducted in arthritic DBA/1 mice, a suitable mouse strain for collagen-induced rheumatoid arthritis (CIA), to dissect the role of Pde3b in RA pathogenesis. Next, RNAi-based therapy with Pde3b siRNA-loaded liposomes was assessed in a CIA model. To study the mechanism involved, we investigated the effect of Pde3b knockdown on macrophage polarization and related signaling pathway. Results: We demonstrated that mice with CIA exhibited upregulated Pde3b expression in macrophages. Notably, intravenous administration of liposomes loaded with Pde3b siRNA promoted the macrophage anti-inflammatory program and alleviated CIA in mice, as indicated by the reduced inflammatory response, synoviocyte infiltration, and bone and cartilage erosion. Mechanistic study revealed that depletion of Pde3b increased cAMP levels, by which it enhanced PKA-CREB-C/EBPß pathway to transcribe the expression of anti-inflammatory program-related genes. Conclusion: Our results support that Pde3b is involved in the pathogenesis of RA, and Pde3b siRNA-loaded liposomes might serve as a promising therapeutic approach against RA.


Assuntos
Artrite Experimental , Artrite Reumatoide , Nucleotídeo Cíclico Fosfodiesterase do Tipo 3 , Terapia Genética , Lipossomos , Macrófagos , Camundongos Endogâmicos DBA , RNA Interferente Pequeno , Animais , Lipossomos/química , Lipossomos/administração & dosagem , Nucleotídeo Cíclico Fosfodiesterase do Tipo 3/genética , Nucleotídeo Cíclico Fosfodiesterase do Tipo 3/metabolismo , Artrite Reumatoide/genética , Artrite Reumatoide/terapia , Artrite Reumatoide/induzido quimicamente , Camundongos , Artrite Experimental/genética , Artrite Experimental/prevenção & controle , Artrite Experimental/terapia , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética , RNA Interferente Pequeno/administração & dosagem , Terapia Genética/métodos , Masculino , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
4.
Bone Res ; 12(1): 31, 2024 May 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38782893

RESUMO

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease. Early studies hold an opinion that gut microbiota is environmentally acquired and associated with RA susceptibility. However, accumulating evidence demonstrates that genetics also shape the gut microbiota. It is known that some strains of inbred laboratory mice are highly susceptible to collagen-induced arthritis (CIA), while the others are resistant to CIA. Here, we show that transplantation of fecal microbiota of CIA-resistant C57BL/6J mice to CIA-susceptible DBA/1J mice confer CIA resistance in DBA/1J mice. C57BL/6J mice and healthy human individuals have enriched B. fragilis than DBA/1J mice and RA patients. Transplantation of B. fragilis prevents CIA in DBA/1J mice. We identify that B. fragilis mainly produces propionate and C57BL/6J mice and healthy human individuals have higher level of propionate. Fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLSs) in RA are activated to undergo tumor-like transformation. Propionate disrupts HDAC3-FOXK1 interaction to increase acetylation of FOXK1, resulting in reduced FOXK1 stability, blocked interferon signaling and deactivation of RA-FLSs. We treat CIA mice with propionate and show that propionate attenuates CIA. Moreover, a combination of propionate with anti-TNF etanercept synergistically relieves CIA. These results suggest that B. fragilis or propionate could be an alternative or complementary approach to the current therapies.


Assuntos
Artrite Experimental , Artrite Reumatoide , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Histona Desacetilases , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Sinoviócitos , Artrite Reumatoide/metabolismo , Artrite Reumatoide/patologia , Artrite Reumatoide/tratamento farmacológico , Artrite Reumatoide/microbiologia , Animais , Histona Desacetilases/metabolismo , Humanos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Sinoviócitos/metabolismo , Sinoviócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Sinoviócitos/patologia , Artrite Experimental/patologia , Artrite Experimental/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/metabolismo , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Fibroblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos Endogâmicos DBA , Masculino , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
5.
Braz J Med Biol Res ; 57: e13304, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38775546

RESUMO

Arthritis has important cardiovascular repercussions. Phenylephrine-induced vasoconstriction is impaired in rat aortas in the early phase of the adjuvant-induced arthritis (AIA), around the 15th day post-induction. Therefore, the present study aimed to verify the effects of AIA on hyporesponsiveness to phenylephrine in rat aortas. AIA was induced by intradermal injection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (3.8 mg/dL) in the right hind paw of male Wistar rats (n=27). Functional experiments in isolated aortas were carried out 15 days after AIA induction. Morphometric and stereological analyses of the aortas were also performed 36 days after the induction of AIA. AIA did not promote structural modifications in the aortas at any of the time points studied. AIA reduced phenylephrine-induced contraction in endothelium-intact aortas, but not in endothelium-denuded aortas. However, AIA did not change KCl-induced contraction in either endothelium-intact or denuded aortas. L-NAME (non-selective NOS inhibitor), 1400W (selective iNOS inhibitor), and ODQ (guanylyl cyclase inhibitor) reversed AIA-induced hyporesponsiveness to phenylephrine in intact aortas. 7-NI (selective nNOS inhibitor) increased the contraction induced by phenylephrine in aortas from AIA rats. In summary, the hyporesponsiveness to phenylephrine induced by AIA was endothelium-dependent and mediated by iNOS-derived NO through activation of the NO-guanylyl cyclase pathway.


Assuntos
Artrite Experimental , Óxido Nítrico , Fenilefrina , Ratos Wistar , Animais , Masculino , Fenilefrina/farmacologia , Artrite Experimental/fisiopatologia , Artrite Experimental/induzido quimicamente , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Vasoconstrição/efeitos dos fármacos , Endotélio Vascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Vasoconstritores/farmacologia , Ratos , Aorta/efeitos dos fármacos
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(9)2024 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38731877

RESUMO

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) DNA is known to be shed upon reactivation of latent EBV. Based on our previous findings linking Toll-like receptor-9 (TLR9) to an EBV DNA-driven surge in IL-17A production, we aimed to examine the therapeutic potential of TLR9 inhibition in EBV DNA-exacerbated arthritis in a collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) mouse model. C57BL/6J mice were administered either collagen, EBV DNA + collagen, EBV DNA + collagen + TLR9 inhibitor, or only the TLR9 inhibitor. After 70 days, paw thicknesses, clinical scores, and gripping strength were recorded. Moreover, affected joints, footpads, and colons were histologically scored. Furthermore, the number of cells co-expressing IL-17A, IFN-γ, and FOXP3 in joint sections was determined by immunofluorescence assays. Significantly decreased paw thicknesses, clinical scores, and histological scores with a significantly increased gripping strength were observed in the group receiving EBV DNA + collagen + TLR9 inhibitor, compared to those receiving EBV DNA + collagen. Similarly, this group showed decreased IL-17A+ IFN-γ+, IL-17A+ FOXP3+, and IL-17A+ IFN-γ+ FOXP3+ foci counts in joints. We show that inhibiting TLR9 limits the exacerbation of arthritis induced by EBV DNA in a CIA mouse model, suggesting that TLR9 could be a potential therapeutic target for rheumatoid arthritis management in EBV-infected individuals.


Assuntos
Artrite Experimental , DNA Viral , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Herpesvirus Humano 4 , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Receptor Toll-Like 9 , Animais , Receptor Toll-Like 9/metabolismo , Camundongos , Herpesvirus Humano 4/fisiologia , Artrite Experimental/virologia , Artrite Experimental/patologia , Artrite Experimental/metabolismo , DNA Viral/genética , Interleucina-17/metabolismo , Masculino , Infecções por Vírus Epstein-Barr/virologia , Infecções por Vírus Epstein-Barr/complicações , Infecções por Vírus Epstein-Barr/patologia , Artrite Reumatoide/metabolismo , Artrite Reumatoide/patologia , Artrite Reumatoide/virologia
7.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 11047, 2024 05 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38744989

RESUMO

Callicarpa kwangtungensis Chun (CK) is a common remedy exhibits anti-inflammatory properties and has been used in Chinese herbal formulations, such as KangGongYan tablets. It is the main component of KangGongYan tablets, which has been used to treat chronic cervicitis caused by damp heat, red and white bands, cervical erosion, and bleeding. However, the anti-inflammatory effects of CK water extract remains unknown. This study assessed the anti-inflammatory effects of CK in vivo and in vitro, characterized its main components in the serum of rats and verified the anti-inflammatory effects of serum containing CK. Nitric oxide (NO), tumour necrosis factor α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) release by RAW264.7 cells was examined by ELISA and Griess reagents. Inflammation-related protein expression in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells was measured by western blotting. Furthermore, rat model of foot swelling induced by λ-carrageenan and a collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) rat model were used to explore the anti-inflammatory effects of CK. The components of CK were characterized by LC-MS, and the effects of CK-containing serum on proinflammatory factors levels and the expression of inflammation-related proteins were examined by ELISA, Griess reagents and Western blotting. CK suppressed IL-6, TNF-α, and NO production, and iNOS protein expression in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. Mechanistic studies showed that CK inhibited the phosphorylation of ERK, P38 and JNK in the MAPK signaling pathway, promoted the expression of IκBα in the NF-κB signaling pathway, and subsequently inhibited the expression of iNOS, thereby exerting anti-inflammatory effects. Moreover, CK reduced the swelling rates with λ-carrageenan induced foot swelling, and reduced the arthritis score and incidence in the collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) rat model. A total of 68 compounds in CK water extract and 31 components in rat serum after intragastric administration of CK were characterized. Serum pharmacological analysis showed that CK-containing serum suppressed iNOS protein expression and NO, TNF-α, and IL-6 release. CK may be an anti-inflammatory agent with therapeutic potential for acute and chronic inflammatory diseases, especially inflammatory diseases associated with MAPK activation.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios , Artrite Experimental , Óxido Nítrico , Extratos Vegetais , Animais , Camundongos , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Ratos , Células RAW 264.7 , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Artrite Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Água/química , Carragenina , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/sangue , Masculino , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Interleucina-6/sangue , Edema/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico
8.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0292028, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38691538

RESUMO

APRIL (A Proliferation-Inducing Ligand), a member of the TNF superfamily, was initially described for its ability to promote proliferation of tumor cells in vitro. Moreover, this cytokine has been related to the pathogenesis of different chronic inflammatory diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis. This study aimed to evaluate the ability of APRIL in regulating B cell-mediated immune response in the antigen-induced arthritis (AIA) model in mice. AIA was induced in previously immunized APRIL-transgenic (Tg) mice and their littermates by administration of antigen (mBSA) into the knee joints. Different inflammatory cell populations in spleen and draining lymph nodes were analyzed using flow cytometry and the assay was performed in the acute and chronic phases of the disease, while cytokine levels were assessed by ELISA. In the acute AIA, APRIL-Tg mice developed a less severe condition and a smaller inflammatory infiltrate in articular tissues when compared with their littermates. We also observed that the total cellularity of draining lymph nodes was decreased in APRIL-Tg mice. Flow cytometry analysis revealed an increase of CD19+IgM+CD5+ cell population in draining lymph nodes and an increase of CD19+CD21hiCD23hi (B regulatory) cells in APRIL-Tg mice with arthritis as well as an increase of IL-10 and CXCL13 production in vitro.


Assuntos
Artrite Experimental , Linfócitos B Reguladores , Camundongos Transgênicos , Membro 13 da Superfamília de Ligantes de Fatores de Necrose Tumoral , Animais , Camundongos , Artrite Experimental/imunologia , Artrite Experimental/patologia , Linfócitos B Reguladores/imunologia , Interleucina-10/metabolismo , Linfonodos/imunologia , Linfonodos/patologia , Baço/imunologia , Membro 13 da Superfamília de Ligantes de Fatores de Necrose Tumoral/metabolismo , Membro 13 da Superfamília de Ligantes de Fatores de Necrose Tumoral/genética
9.
Int J Rheum Dis ; 27(5): e15164, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38706209

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: JAK inhibitors are well known for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), but whether they can be used to treat pulmonary fibrosis, a common extra-articular disease of RA, remains to be clarified. METHODS: A jak2 inhibitor, CEP33779 (CEP), was administered to a rat model of RA-associated interstitial lung disease to observe the degree of improvement in both joint swelling and pulmonary fibrosis. HFL1 cells were stimulated with TGF-ß1 to observe the expression of p-JAK2. Then, different concentrations of related gene inhibitors (JAK2, TGFß-R1/2, and p-STAT3) or silencers (STAT3, JAK2) were administered to HFL1 cells, and the expression levels of related proteins were detected to explore the underlying mechanisms of action. RESULTS: CEP not only reduced the degree of joint swelling and inflammation in rats but also improved lung function, inhibited the pro-inflammatory factors IL-1ß and IL-6, reduced lung inflammation and collagen deposition, and alleviated lung fibrosis. CEP decreased the expression levels of TGFß-R2, p-SMAD, p-STAT3, and ECM proteins in rat lung tissues. TGF-ß1 induced HFL1 cells to highly express p-JAK2, with the most pronounced expression at 48 h. The levels of p-STAT3, p-SMAD3, and ECM-related proteins were significantly reduced after inhibition of either JAK2 or STAT3. CONCLUSION: JAK2 inhibitors may be an important and novel immunotherapeutic drug that can improve RA symptoms while also delaying or blocking the development of associated pulmonary fibrotic disease. The mechanism may be related to the downregulation of p-STAT3 protein via inhibition of the JAK2/STAT signaling pathway, which affects the phosphorylation of SMAD3.


Assuntos
Modelos Animais de Doenças , Regulação para Baixo , Isoquinolinas , Janus Quinase 2 , Pulmão , Fibrose Pulmonar , Piridinas , Pirróis , Transdução de Sinais , Proteína Smad3 , Animais , Proteína Smad3/metabolismo , Fibrose Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Fibrose Pulmonar/metabolismo , Janus Quinase 2/metabolismo , Janus Quinase 2/antagonistas & inibidores , Fosforilação , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Pulmão/metabolismo , Pulmão/patologia , Pulmão/enzimologia , Masculino , Artrite Reumatoide/tratamento farmacológico , Artrite Reumatoide/metabolismo , Humanos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Inibidores de Janus Quinases/farmacologia , Inibidores de Janus Quinases/uso terapêutico , Linhagem Celular , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/metabolismo , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/antagonistas & inibidores , Artrite Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Artrite Experimental/metabolismo , Artrite Experimental/enzimologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Ratos
10.
Nanomedicine ; 55: 102716, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38738529

RESUMO

Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic inflammatory autoimmune disease caused by alteration of the immune system. Current therapies have several limitations and the use of nanomedicines represents a promising strategy to overcome them. By employing a mouse model of adjuvant induced arthritis, we aimed to evaluate the biodistribution and therapeutic effects of glucocorticoid dexamethasone conjugated to a nanocarrier based on biocompatible N-(2-hydroxypropyl) methacrylamide copolymers. We observed an increased accumulation of dexamethasone polymer nanomedicines in the arthritic mouse paw using non-invasive fluorescent in vivo imaging and confirmed it by the analysis of tissue homogenates. The dexamethasone conjugate exhibited a dose-dependent healing effect on arthritis and an improved therapeutic outcome compared to free dexamethasone. Particularly, significant reduction of accumulation of RA mediator RANKL was observed. Overall, our data suggest that the conjugation of dexamethasone to a polymer nanocarrier by means of stimuli-sensitive spacer is suitable strategy for improving rheumatoid arthritis therapy.


Assuntos
Artrite Reumatoide , Dexametasona , Polímeros , Animais , Dexametasona/química , Dexametasona/farmacocinética , Dexametasona/administração & dosagem , Dexametasona/farmacologia , Dexametasona/uso terapêutico , Artrite Reumatoide/tratamento farmacológico , Artrite Reumatoide/patologia , Camundongos , Distribuição Tecidual , Polímeros/química , Polímeros/farmacocinética , Artrite Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Artrite Experimental/patologia , Nanopartículas/química , Portadores de Fármacos/química , Portadores de Fármacos/farmacocinética
11.
Cell Commun Signal ; 22(1): 271, 2024 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38750493

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Macrophages are key inflammatory immune cells that orchestrate the initiation and progression of autoimmune diseases. The characters of macrophage in diseases are determined by its phenotype in response to the local microenvironment. Ficolins have been confirmed as crucial contributors to autoimmune diseases, with Ficolin-2 being particularly elevated in patients with autoimmune diseases. However, whether Ficolin-A stimulates macrophage polarization is still poorly understood. METHODS: We investigated the transcriptomic expression profile of murine bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) stimulated with Ficolin-A using RNA-sequencing. To further confirm a distinct phenotype activated by Ficolin-A, quantitative RT-PCR and Luminex assay were performed in this study. Additionally, we assessed the activation of underlying cell signaling pathways triggered by Ficolin-A. Finally, the impact of Ficolin-A on macrophages were investigated in vivo through building Collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) and Dextran Sulfate Sodium Salt (DSS)-induced colitis mouse models with Fcna-/- mice. RESULTS: Ficolin-A activated macrophages into a pro-inflammatory phenotype distinct to LPS-, IFN-γ- and IFN-γ + LPS-induced phenotypes. The transcriptomic profile induced by Ficolin-A was primarily characterized by upregulation of interleukins, chemokines, iNOS, and Arginase 1, along with downregulation of CD86 and CD206, setting it apart from the M1 and M2 phenotypes. The activation effect of Ficolin-A on macrophages deteriorated the symptoms of CIA and DSS mouse models, and the deletion of Fcna significantly alleviated the severity of diseases in mice. CONCLUSION: Our work used transcriptomic analysis by RNA-Seq to investigate the impact of Ficolin-A on macrophage polarization. Our findings demonstrate that Ficolin-A induces a novel pro-inflammatory phenotype distinct to the phenotypes activated by LPS, IFN-γ and IFN-γ + LPS on macrophages.


Assuntos
Ficolinas , Inflamação , Lectinas , Macrófagos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Fenótipo , Animais , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Lectinas/genética , Lectinas/metabolismo , Camundongos , Inflamação/genética , Inflamação/patologia , Ativação de Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Colite/induzido quimicamente , Colite/patologia , Colite/genética , Polaridade Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Artrite Experimental/genética , Artrite Experimental/patologia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
12.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 19: 4217-4234, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38766660

RESUMO

Introduction: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an inflammatory immune-mediated disease that involves synovitis, cartilage destruction, and even joint damage. Traditional agents used for RA therapy remain unsatisfactory because of their low efficiency and obvious adverse effects. Therefore, we here established RA microenvironment-responsive targeted micelles that can respond to the increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in the joint and improve macrophage-specific targeting of loaded drugs. Methods: We here prepared ROS-responsive folate-modified curcumin micelles (TK-FA-Cur-Ms) in which thioketal (TK) was used as a ROS-responsive linker for modifying polyethylene glycol 5000 (PEG5000) on the micellar surface. When micelles were in the ROS-overexpressing inflammatory microenvironment, the PEG5000 hydration layer was shed, and the targeting ligand FA was exposed, thereby enhancing cellular uptake by macrophages through active targeting. The targeting, ROS sensitivity and anti-inflammatory properties of the micelles were assessed in vitro. Collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) rats model was utilized to investigate the targeting, expression of serum inflammatory factors and histology change of the articular cartilage by micelles in vivo. Results: TK-FA-Cur-Ms had a particle size of 90.07 ± 3.44 nm, which decreased to 78.87 ± 2.41 nm after incubation with H2O2. The micelles exhibited in vitro targeting of RAW264.7 cells and significantly inhibited inflammatory cytokine levels. Pharmacodynamic studies have revealed that TK-FA-Cur-Ms prolonged the drug circulation and exhibited augmented cartilage-protective and anti-inflammatory effects in vivo. Conclusion: The unique ROS-responsive targeted micelles with targeting, ROS sensitivity and anti-inflammatory properties were successfully prepared and may offer an effective therapeutic strategy against RA.


Assuntos
Artrite Experimental , Artrite Reumatoide , Curcumina , Ácido Fólico , Micelas , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio , Animais , Curcumina/farmacologia , Curcumina/química , Curcumina/farmacocinética , Curcumina/administração & dosagem , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Ratos , Artrite Reumatoide/tratamento farmacológico , Células RAW 264.7 , Camundongos , Ácido Fólico/química , Ácido Fólico/farmacologia , Artrite Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Polietilenoglicóis/química , Portadores de Fármacos/química , Receptores de Folato com Âncoras de GPI/metabolismo , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Masculino , Tamanho da Partícula , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/administração & dosagem , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacocinética , Modelos Animais de Doenças
13.
Eur J Med Chem ; 271: 116417, 2024 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38688063

RESUMO

Since synovial hypoxic microenvironment significantly promotes the pathological progress of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) has been emerged as a promising target for the development of novel therapeutic agents for RA treatment. In this study, we designed and synthesized a series of diaryl substituted isoquinolin-1(2H)-one derivatives as HIF-1 signaling inhibitors using scaffold-hopping strategy. By modifying the substituents on N-atom and 6-position of isoquinolin-1-one, we discovered compound 17q with the most potent activities against HIF-1 (IC50 = 0.55 µM) in a hypoxia-reactive element (HRE) luciferase reporter assay. Further pharmacological studies revealed that 17q concentration-dependently blocked hypoxia-induced HIF-1α protein accumulation, reduced inflammation response, inhibited cellular invasiveness and promoted VHL-dependent HIF-1α degradation in human RA synovial cell line. Moreover, 17q improved the pathological injury of ankle joints, decreased angiogenesis and attenuated inflammation response in the adjuvant-induced arthritis (AIA) rat model, indicating the promising therapeutic potential of compound 17q as an effective HIF-1 inhibitor for RA therapy.


Assuntos
Artrite Reumatoide , Isoquinolinas , Transdução de Sinais , Animais , Humanos , Masculino , Ratos , Antirreumáticos/farmacologia , Antirreumáticos/química , Antirreumáticos/síntese química , Artrite Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Artrite Experimental/patologia , Artrite Experimental/metabolismo , Artrite Reumatoide/tratamento farmacológico , Artrite Reumatoide/metabolismo , Artrite Reumatoide/patologia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Descoberta de Drogas , Subunidade alfa do Fator 1 Induzível por Hipóxia/antagonistas & inibidores , Subunidade alfa do Fator 1 Induzível por Hipóxia/metabolismo , Isoquinolinas/química , Isoquinolinas/farmacologia , Isoquinolinas/síntese química , Estrutura Molecular , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Quinolonas/síntese química , Quinolonas/química , Quinolonas/farmacologia
14.
Molecules ; 29(8)2024 Apr 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38675650

RESUMO

Onosma bracteatum Wall (O. bracteatum) has been used traditionally for the management of arthritis; however, its therapeutic potential warrants further investigation. This study aimed to evaluate the anti-arthritic effects of the aqueous-ethanolic extract of O. bracteatum leaves (AeOB) in a rat model of complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA)-induced arthritis. Rats were treated with AeOB (250, 500, and 750 mg/kg), indomethacin (10 mg/kg), or a vehicle control from days 8 to 28 post-CFA injection. Arthritic score, paw diameter, and body weight were monitored at regular intervals. X-ray radiographs and histopathological analysis were performed to assess arthritic severity. Inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and C-reactive protein (CRP) were quantified by qPCR and icromatography. Phytochemical analysis of AeOB revealed alkaloids, flavonoids, phenols, tannins, Saponins, and glycosides. AeOB also exhibited antioxidant potential with an IC50 of 73.22 µg/mL in a DPPH assay. AeOB and diclofenac exhibited anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic activities. Rats treated with AeOB at 750 mg/kg and indomethacin showed significantly reduced arthritic symptoms and joint inflammation versus the CFA control. The AeOB treatment downregulated TNF-α and IL-6 and decreased CRP levels compared with arthritic rats. Radiography and histopathology also showed improved prognosis. These findings demonstrate the anti-arthritic potential of AeOB leaves.


Assuntos
Artrite Experimental , Proteína C-Reativa , Adjuvante de Freund , Interleucina-6 , Extratos Vegetais , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa , Animais , Masculino , Ratos , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/química , Artrite Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Artrite Experimental/patologia , Artrite Experimental/induzido quimicamente , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Sapindaceae/química , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo , Ratos Wistar
15.
Zhen Ci Yan Jiu ; 49(4): 331-340, 2024 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês, Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38649200

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To observe whether acupuncture up-regulates chemokine CXC ligand 1 (CXCL1) in the brain to play an analgesic role through CXCL1/chemokine CXC receptor 2 (CXCR2) signaling in adjuvant induced arthritis (AIA) rats, so as to reveal its neuro-immunological mechanism underlying improvement of AIA. METHODS: BALB/c mice with relatively stable thermal pain reaction were subjected to planta injection of complete Freund adjuvant (CFA) for establishing AIA model, followed by dividing the AIA mice into simple AF750 (fluorochrome) and AF750+CXCL1 groups (n=2 in each group). AF750 labeled CXCL1 recombinant protein was then injected into the mouse's tail vein to induce elevation of CXCL1 level in blood for simulating the effect of acupuncture stimulation which has been demonstrated by our past study. In vivo small animal imaging technology was used to observe the AF750 and AF750+CXCL1-labelled target regions. After thermal pain screening, the Wistar rats with stable pain reaction were subjected to AIA modeling by injecting CFA into the rat's right planta, then were randomized into model and manual acupuncture groups (n=12 in each group). Other 12 rats that received planta injection of saline were used as the control group. Manual acupuncture (uniform reinforcing and reducing manipulations) was applied to bilateral "Zusanli" (ST36) for 4×2 min, with an interval of 5 min between every 2 min, once daily for 7 days. The thermal pain threshold was assessed by detecting the paw withdrawal latency (PWL) using a thermal pain detector. The contents of CXCL1 in the primary somatosensory cortex (S1), medial prefrontal cortex, nucleus accumbens, amygdala, periaqueductal gray and rostroventromedial medulla regions were assayed by using ELISA, and the expression levels of CXCL1, CXCR2 and mu-opioid receptor (MOR) mRNA in the S1 region were detected using real time-quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The immune-fluorescence positive cellular rate of CXCL1 and CXCR2 in S1 region was observed after immunofluorescence stain. The immunofluorescence double-stain of CXCR2 and astrocyte marker glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) or neuron marker NeuN or MOR was used to determine whether there is a co-expression between them. RESULTS: In AIA mice, results of in vivo experiments showed no obvious enrichment signal of AF750 or AF750+CXCL1 in any organ of the body, while in vitro experiments showed that there was a stronger fluorescence signal of CXCL1 recombinant protein in the brain. In rats, compared with the control group, the PWL from day 0 to day 7 was significantly decreased (P<0.01) and the expression of CXCR2 mRNA in the S1 region significantly increased in the model group (P<0.05), while in comparison with the model group, the PWL from day 2 to day 7, CXCL1 content, CXCR2 mRNA expression and CXCR2 content, and MOR mRNA expression in the S1 region were significantly increased in the manual acupuncture group (P<0.05, P<0.01). Immunofluorescence stain showed that CXCR2 co-stained with NeuN and MOR in the S1 region, indicating that CXCR2 exists in neurons and MOR-positive neurons but not in GFAP positive astrocytes. CONCLUSIONS: Acupuncture can increase the content of CXCL1 in S1 region, up-regulate CXCR2 on neurons in the S1 region and improve MOR expression in S1 region of AIA rats, which may contribute to its effect in alleviating inflammatory pain.


Assuntos
Terapia por Acupuntura , Artrite Experimental , Quimiocina CXCL1 , Receptores de Interleucina-8B , Córtex Somatossensorial , Animais , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Ratos , Pontos de Acupuntura , Artrite Experimental/terapia , Artrite Experimental/metabolismo , Artrite Experimental/genética , Quimiocina CXCL1/metabolismo , Quimiocina CXCL1/genética , Inflamação/terapia , Inflamação/metabolismo , Inflamação/genética , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Dor/metabolismo , Dor/genética , Manejo da Dor , Ratos Wistar , Receptores de Interleucina-8B/metabolismo , Receptores de Interleucina-8B/genética , Transdução de Sinais , Córtex Somatossensorial/metabolismo
16.
In Vivo ; 38(3): 1182-1191, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38688626

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an inflammatory autoimmune disease, and management of it is still a challenge. The present investigation assessed the potential preventive effect of phlorizin on rats with RA. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 40 healthy Wistar rats were used for this study. Bovine type II collagen and Freund's incomplete adjuvant (1:1 and 1 mg/ml) were administered on days 1 and 8 of the protocol to induce RA in rats; treatment with phlorizin at 60 or 120 mg/kg was started after the 4th week of the protocol, and its effect on inflammation, level of inflammatory cytokines, and expression of proteins were estimated in RA rats. Moreover, an in vitro study was performed on fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLSs), and the effects of phlorizin on proliferation, apoptosis, and expression of the mechanistic target of rapamycin kinase pathway protein after stimulating these cells with tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) were estimated. RESULTS: The data obtained from the study indicate that phlorizin has the potential to mitigate inflammation and enhance weight management in rats with RA induced by bovine type II collagen (CII). The level of inflammatory cytokines in the serum and the expression of protein kinase B (AKT), phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase (PI3K), and mechanistic target of rapamycin kinase (mTOR) proteins in the joint tissue were reduced in phlorizin-treated rats with RA. In this investigation, phlorizin was shown to reverse the histological abnormalities in the joint tissue of rats with RA. The in-vitro study showed that phlorizin reduced proliferation and had no apoptotic effect on TNF-α-stimulated FLSs. Expression of AKT, PI3K, and mTOR proteins was also down-regulated in phlorizin-treated TNF-α-stimulated FLSs. CONCLUSION: Phlorizin protects against inflammation and reduces injury to synovial tissues in RA by modulating the AKT/PI3K/mTOR pathway.


Assuntos
Artrite Reumatoide , Hiperplasia , Inflamação , Florizina , Transdução de Sinais , Sinoviócitos , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR , Animais , Artrite Reumatoide/tratamento farmacológico , Artrite Reumatoide/metabolismo , Artrite Reumatoide/patologia , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo , Ratos , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Florizina/farmacologia , Inflamação/patologia , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamação/metabolismo , Sinoviócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Sinoviócitos/metabolismo , Sinoviócitos/patologia , Membrana Sinovial/efeitos dos fármacos , Membrana Sinovial/metabolismo , Membrana Sinovial/patologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Citocinas/metabolismo , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Artrite Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Artrite Experimental/patologia , Artrite Experimental/metabolismo , Ratos Wistar , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo
17.
J Nanobiotechnology ; 22(1): 197, 2024 Apr 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38644475

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic autoimmune disorder characterized by synovial inflammation, causing substantial disability and reducing life quality. While macrophages are widely appreciated as a master regulator in the inflammatory response of RA, the precise mechanisms underlying the regulation of proliferation and inflammation in RA-derived fibroblast-like synoviocytes (RA-FLS) remain elusive. Here, we provide extensive evidence to demonstrate that macrophage contributes to RA microenvironment remodeling by extracellular vesicles (sEVs) and downstream miR-100-5p/ mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) axis. RESULTS: We showed that bone marrow derived macrophage (BMDM) derived-sEVs (BMDM-sEVs) from collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) mice (cBMDM-sEVs) exhibited a notable increase in abundance compared with BMDM-sEVs from normal mice (nBMDM-sEVs). cBMDM-sEVs induced significant RA-FLS proliferation and potent inflammatory responses. Mechanistically, decreased levels of miR-100-5p were detected in cBMDM-sEVs compared with nBMDM-sEVs. miR-100-5p overexpression ameliorated RA-FLS proliferation and inflammation by targeting the mTOR pathway. Partial attenuation of the inflammatory effects induced by cBMDM-sEVs on RA-FLS was achieved through the introduction of an overexpression of miR-100-5p. CONCLUSIONS: Our work reveals the critical role of macrophages in exacerbating RA by facilitating the transfer of miR-100-5p-deficient sEVs to RA-FLS, and sheds light on novel disease mechanisms and provides potential therapeutic targets for RA interventions.


Assuntos
Artrite Reumatoide , Macrófagos , MicroRNAs , Transdução de Sinais , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR , Animais , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Artrite Experimental/metabolismo , Artrite Experimental/patologia , Artrite Experimental/genética , Artrite Reumatoide/metabolismo , Artrite Reumatoide/genética , Artrite Reumatoide/patologia , Proliferação de Células , Vesículas Extracelulares/metabolismo , Inflamação/metabolismo , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Camundongos Endogâmicos DBA , MicroRNAs/genética , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Membrana Sinovial/metabolismo , Membrana Sinovial/patologia , Sinoviócitos/metabolismo , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo
18.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(8)2024 Apr 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38674027

RESUMO

Stem cell therapy stands out as a promising avenue for addressing arthritis treatment. However, its therapeutic efficacy requires further enhancement. In this study, we investigated the anti-arthritogenic potential of human amniotic mesenchymal stem cells (AMM) overexpressing insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) in a collagen-induced mouse model. The IGF-1 gene was introduced into the genome of AMM through transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs). We assessed the in vitro immunomodulatory properties and in vivo anti-arthritogenic effects of IGF-1-overexpressing AMM (AMM/I). Co-culture of AMM/I with interleukin (IL)-1ß-treated synovial fibroblasts significantly suppressed NF-kB levels. Transplantation of AMM/I into mice with collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) led to significant attenuation of CIA progression. Furthermore, AMM/I administration resulted in the expansion of regulatory T-cell populations and suppression of T-helper-17 cell activation in CIA mice. In addition, AMM/I transplantation led to an increase in proteoglycan expression within cartilage and reduced infiltration by inflammatory cells and also levels of pro-inflammatory factors including cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), IL-1ß, NF-kB, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α. In conclusion, our findings suggest that IGF-1 gene-edited human AMM represent a novel alternative therapeutic strategy for the treatment of arthritis.


Assuntos
Artrite Experimental , Edição de Genes , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais , Animais , Humanos , Artrite Experimental/genética , Artrite Experimental/patologia , Artrite Experimental/imunologia , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/genética , Camundongos , Transplante de Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/métodos , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos DBA , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/metabolismo , Células Th17/imunologia , Células Th17/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo
19.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 174: 116515, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38569276

RESUMO

Mesenchymal stem cell exosome (MSCs-exo) is a class of products secreted by mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) that contain various biologically active substances. MSCs-exo is a promising alternative to MSCs due to their lower immunogenicity and lack of ethical constraints. Ginsenoside Rh2 (Rh2) is a hydrolyzed component of the primary active substance of ginsenosides. Rh2 has a variety of pharmacological functions, including anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor, and antioxidant. Studies have demonstrated that gut microbiota and metabolites are critical in developing rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In this study, we constructed a collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) model in rats. We used MSCs-exo combined with Rh2 to treat CIA rats. To observe the effect of MSCs-exo combined with Rh2 on joint inflammation, rat feces were collected for 16 rRNA amplicon sequencing and untargeted metabolomics analysis. The results showed that the arthritis index score and joint swelling of CIA rats treated with MSCs-exo in combination with Rh2 were significantly lower than those of the model and MSCs-exo alone groups. MSCs-exo and Rh2 significantly ameliorated the disturbed gut microbiota in CIA rats. The regulation of Candidatus_Saccharibacteria and Clostridium_XlVb regulation may be the most critical. Rh2 enhanced the therapeutic effect of MSCs-exo compared with the MSCs-exo -alone group. Furthermore, significant changes in gut metabolites were observed in the CIA rat group, and these differentially altered metabolites may act as messengers for host-microbiota interactions. These differential metabolites were enriched into relevant critical metabolic pathways, revealing possible pathways for host-microbiota interactions.


Assuntos
Artrite Experimental , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Ginsenosídeos , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais , Animais , Humanos , Masculino , Ratos , Artrite Experimental/induzido quimicamente , Artrite Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Artrite Experimental/microbiologia , Artrite Experimental/terapia , Artrite Reumatoide/induzido quimicamente , Artrite Reumatoide/tratamento farmacológico , Artrite Reumatoide/microbiologia , Artrite Reumatoide/terapia , Exossomos/metabolismo , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Ginsenosídeos/farmacologia , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/efeitos dos fármacos , Cordão Umbilical , Colágeno/metabolismo , Colágeno/farmacologia
20.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 133: 111727, 2024 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38636369

RESUMO

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an inflammatory autoimmune disease and management of it still a challenge. Given report evaluates protective effect of phlorizin on RA and also postulates the molecular mechanism of its action. Bovine type II collagen (CIA) and Freund's incomplete adjuvant (1:1 and 1 mg/ml) was administered on 1st and 8th day of protocol to induce RA in rats and treatment with phlorizin 60 and 120 mg/kg was started after 4th week of protocol. Level of inflammatory cytokines and expression of proteins were estimated in phlorizin treated RA rats. Moreover in-vitro study was performed on Fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLSs) and effect of phlorizin was estimated on proliferation, apoptosis and expression of mTOR pathway protein after stimulating these cell lines with Tumour Necrosis Factor alpha (TNF-α). Data of study suggest that phlorizin reduces inflammation and improves weight in CIA induced RA rats. Level of inflammatory cytokines in the serum and expression of Akt/PI3K/mTOR proteins in the join tissue was reduced in phlorizin treated RA rats. Phlorizin also reported to reverse the histopathological changes in the joint tissue of RA rats. In-vitro study supports that phlorizin reduces proliferation and no apoptotic effect on TNF-α stimulated FLSs. Expression of Akt/PI3K/mTOR proteins also downregulated in phlorizin treated TNF-α stimulated FLSs. In conclusion, phlorizin protects inflammation and reduces injury to the synovial tissues in RA, as it reduces autophagy by regulating Akt/PI3K/mTOR pathway.


Assuntos
Artrite Experimental , Artrite Reumatoide , Hiperplasia , Florizina , Transdução de Sinais , Sinoviócitos , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR , Animais , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo , Artrite Reumatoide/tratamento farmacológico , Artrite Reumatoide/patologia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Artrite Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Artrite Experimental/patologia , Sinoviócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Sinoviócitos/patologia , Hiperplasia/tratamento farmacológico , Ratos , Florizina/farmacologia , Florizina/uso terapêutico , Citocinas/metabolismo , Masculino , Membrana Sinovial/efeitos dos fármacos , Membrana Sinovial/patologia , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Ratos Wistar , Células Cultivadas , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Humanos , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
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