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1.
J Insect Sci ; 20(1)2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31899494

RESUMO

Mamestra brassicae L. is an important, regionally migratory pest of vegetable crops in Europe and Asia. Its migratory activity contributes significantly to population outbreaks, causing severe crop yield losses. Because an in-depth understanding of flight performance is key to revealing migratory patterns, here we used a computer-linked flight mill and stroboscope to study the flight ability and wingbeat frequency (WBF) of M. brassicae in relation to sex, age, temperature, and relative humidity (RH). The results showed that age significantly affected the flight ability and WBF of M. brassicae, and 3-d-old individuals performed the strongest performance (total flight distance: 45.6 ± 2.5 km; total flight duration: 9.3 ± 0.3 h; WBF: 44.0 ± 0.5 Hz at 24°C and 75% RH). The age for optimal flight was considered to be 2-3 d old. Temperature and RH also significantly affected flight ability and WBF; flight was optimal from 23°C to 25°C and 64-75% RH. Because M. brassicae thus has great potential to undertake long-distance migration, better knowledge of its flight behavior and migration will help establish a pest forecasting and early-warning system.


Assuntos
Voo Animal , Mariposas/fisiologia , Asas de Animais/fisiologia , Fatores Etários , Animais , Feminino , Umidade , Masculino , Fatores Sexuais , Temperatura Ambiente
2.
Forensic Sci Int ; 307: 110104, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31918163

RESUMO

When adult flies are collected at indoor crime scenes, the question of their origin arises, i.e., whether they originated from the outdoors, coming in to oviposit on the body, or if they developed through the larval and pupal stages from eggs laid on the body. This is particularly important if no empty puparia were collected, potentially because they were overlooked, with a consequent impact on the accuracy of the minimum post-mortem interval estimation. This study used two methods to determine if flies sampled in various experimental conditions and at an actual crime scene were wild flies attracted to the body or had developed on the body, i.e., through the assessment of: (1) wing fray and; (2) sex ratio. A template was created to measure the amount of wing fray damage quantitatively in a simple, rapid and efficient manner. The experiments demonstrated that by combining the two methods it is possible to establish the origin of a population of adult flies at a crime scene.


Assuntos
Dípteros/anatomia & histologia , Asas de Animais/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Larva , Masculino , Microscopia , Mudanças Depois da Morte , Pupa , Razão de Masculinidade
3.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 551, 2020 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31992708

RESUMO

The wings of Lepidoptera contain a matrix of living cells whose function requires appropriate temperatures. However, given their small thermal capacity, wings can overheat rapidly in the sun. Here we analyze butterfly wings across a wide range of simulated environmental conditions, and find that regions containing living cells are maintained at cooler temperatures. Diverse scale nanostructures and non-uniform cuticle thicknesses create a heterogeneous distribution of radiative cooling that selectively reduces the temperature of structures such as wing veins and androconial organs. These tissues are supplied by circulatory, neural and tracheal systems throughout the adult lifetime, indicating that the insect wing is a dynamic, living structure. Behavioral assays show that butterflies use wings to sense visible and infrared radiation, responding with specialized behaviors to prevent overheating of their wings. Our work highlights the physiological importance of wing temperature and how it is exquisitely regulated by structural and behavioral adaptations.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica/fisiologia , Comportamento Animal , Borboletas/fisiologia , Termotolerância/fisiologia , Asas de Animais/fisiologia , Animais , Metabolismo Energético/fisiologia , Hemolinfa/fisiologia , Raios Infravermelhos , Modelos Biológicos , Nanoestruturas , Energia Solar , Temperatura Ambiente , Termodinâmica , Sensação Térmica , Asas de Animais/anatomia & histologia , Asas de Animais/citologia , Asas de Animais/efeitos da radiação
4.
Insect Sci ; 27(1): 2-13, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29943911

RESUMO

The silkworm Bombyx mori is an important lepidopteran model insect in which many kinds of natural mutants have been identified. However, molecular mechanisms of most of these mutants remain to be explored. Here we report the identification of a gene Bm-app is responsible for the silkworm minute wing (mw) mutation which exhibits exceedingly small wings during pupal and adult stages. Compared with the wild type silkworm, relative messenger RNA expression of Bm-app is significantly decreased in the u11 mutant strain which shows mw phenotype. A 10 bp insertion in the putative promoter region of the Bm-app gene in mw mutant strain was identified and the dual luciferase assay revealed that this insertion decreased Bm-app promoter activity. Furthermore, clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/RNA-guided Cas9 nucleases-mediated depletion of the Bm-app induced similar wing defects which appeared in the mw mutant, demonstrating that Bm-app controls wing development in B. mori. Bm-app encodes a palmitoyltransferase and is responsible for the palmitoylation of selected cytoplasmic proteins, indicating that it is required for cell mitosis and growth during wing development. We also discuss the possibility that Bm-app regulates wing development through the Hippo signaling pathway in B. mori.


Assuntos
Aciltransferases/genética , Bombyx/genética , Proteínas de Insetos/genética , Asas de Animais/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Aciltransferases/metabolismo , Animais , Bombyx/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas de Insetos/metabolismo , Pupa/genética , Pupa/crescimento & desenvolvimento
5.
Insect Sci ; 27(1): 14-21, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31246335

RESUMO

Manipulating an exogenous or endogenous gene of interest at a defined level is critical for a wide variety of experiments. The Gal4/UAS system has been widely used to direct gene expression for studying complex genetic and biological problems in Drosophila melanogaster and other model organisms. Driven by a given tissue-specific Gal4, expressing UAS-transgene or UAS-RNAi (RNA interference) could be used to up- or down-regulate target gene expression, respectively. However, the efficiency of the Gal4/UAS system is roughly predefined by properties of transposon vector constructs and the insertion site in the transgenic stock. Here, we describe a simple way to modulate optomotor blind (omb) expression levels in its endogenous expression region of the wing disc. We co-expressed UAS-omb and UAS-omb-RNAi together under the control of dpp-Gal4 driver which is expressed in the omb expression region of the wing pouch. The repression effect is more sensitive to temperature than that of overexpression. At low temperature, overexpression plays a dominant role but the efficiency is attenuated by UAS-omb-RNAi. In contrast, at high temperature RNAi predominates in gene expression regulation. By this strategy, we could manipulate omb expression levels at a moderate level. It allows us to manipulate omb expression levels in the same tissue between overexpression and repression at different stages by temperature control.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Drosophila/genética , Drosophila melanogaster/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Drosophila melanogaster/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Proteínas com Domínio T/genética , Asas de Animais/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados/genética , Animais Geneticamente Modificados/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais Geneticamente Modificados/metabolismo , Proteínas de Drosophila/metabolismo , Drosophila melanogaster/metabolismo , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Proteínas com Domínio T/metabolismo
6.
Zootaxa ; 4603(1): zootaxa.4603.1.2, 2019 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31717238

RESUMO

Western Palaearctic species of the genus Triphosa Stephens, 1829 are revised with focus on the Middle East and Central Asia. The analysis is based on the morphological examination (wing pattern and genitalia) of the type series of most species, as well as of large series of additional material. Additionally, DNA barcode data were used as an extra line of information. As result, Triphosa agnata Le Cerf, 1918 syn. n. is synonymized with T. sabaudiata (Duponchel, 1830), the taxonomy of the enigmatic Triphosa taochata Lederer, 1870 is clarified, and two species are described as new to science: T. silviae sp. n. and T. lecerfi sp. n.. Hydria ravulata (Staudinger, 1892) comb. rev., is transferred from Triphosa to the genus Hydria. Lectotypes are designated for Triphosa taochata and Hydria ravulata. Wing pattern, genitalia and diagnostic characters of all examined species are illustrated and the distribution data shown on the map.


Assuntos
Mariposas , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Genitália , Oriente Médio , Asas de Animais
7.
Zootaxa ; 4577(3): zootaxa.4577.3.13, 2019 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31715719

RESUMO

Givarbela steinbachi was described as a new genus and species by Clench (1957), based on 21 specimens from central Bolivia (Prov. del Sara; Buena Vista and Rio Japacani). He indicated that Givarbela (Figs 1‒8) belongs to the Langsdorfia-Givira group of genera but differs from them by the following combination of characters: "R2 stalked with R3-R4, R5 free; the long palpi; absence of fore tibial epiphysis; absence of median cell-vein on fore wing and the open cell-end there; stalked M2-M3 on hind wing; absence of all but traces of a single hind wing anal vein; short hind wing cell; deeply excised hind wing costa" (Clench 1957).


Assuntos
Lepidópteros , Mariposas , Animais , Bolívia , Extremidades , Masculino , Asas de Animais
8.
Zootaxa ; 4576(2): zootaxa.4576.2.9, 2019 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31715767

RESUMO

A new insect species (†Bittacopsocus megacephalus Beutel, Prokop, Müller et Pohl gen. et sp. nov.) is described, based on a single small male (ca. 2.5 mm) embedded in mid Cretaceous Burmese amber. The species shows some resemblance with the mecopteran family Bittacidae, mainly due to strongly elongated and thin legs. However, the structural affinities are apparently due to convergency. Different features, but especially the mouthparts and the pattern of wing venation, indicate that the species belongs to the extinct order †Permopsocida (?Archipsyllidae). However, it differs markedly from all species previously described in this extinct group. The very thin and strongly elongated legs are probably autapomorphic. A very unusual feature is the antenna with only seven segments and extremely elongated flagellomeres. The two pairs of wings are unusually narrow. M and CuA are basally fused. Proximal rows of spines, two series of closed cells, and a distinctly increased number of terminal branches of M are present in the forewings, in contrast to other archipsyllid genera. It is conceivable that Bittacopsocus megacephalus used its long legs to rest suspended in the vegetation like Bittacus. The head structures tentatively suggest predatory behavior but the feeding habits are unclarified yet.


Assuntos
Âmbar , Fósseis , Animais , Holometábolos , Insetos , Masculino , Asas de Animais
9.
Zootaxa ; 4571(2): zootaxa.4571.2.6, 2019 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31715819

RESUMO

A new species of the insect order Zoraptera, Zorotypus hukawngi sp. n., is described and figured based on one not well-preserved specimen in mid-Cretaceous amber from the Hukawng Valley in northern Myanmar. Compared to known extinct zorapterans, the new species is readily distinguished by characters of the mesonotum, wings, and the spination of the metafemur and metatibia.


Assuntos
Âmbar , Fósseis , Animais , Insetos , Mianmar , Asas de Animais
10.
Zootaxa ; 4585(1): zootaxa.4585.1.2, 2019 Apr 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716180

RESUMO

Rohrthripidae is a family of fossil thrips in the thysanopteran suborder Tubulifera. It includes a single genus, Rohrthrips, of which two species are previously known. Despite typical tubuliferan features, these thrips also show some terebrantian character states, particularly in the wings and antennae, and these are here interpreted as plesiomorphic. Five new species of these ancestral thrips are described from Burmese Cenomanian amber: Rohrthrips breviceps sp. n., Rohrthrips jiewenae sp. n., Rohrthrips maryae sp. n., Rohrthrips patrickmuelleri sp. n. and Rohrthrips schizovenatus sp. n.. Structures on the wings support the conclusion that the wings of Tubulifera are homologous with those of Terebrantia. Syninclusions in the amber fragments provide evidence of the diet and habitats of these ancestral thrips.


Assuntos
Âmbar , Tisanópteros , Animais , Ecossistema , Fósseis , Asas de Animais
11.
Zootaxa ; 4584(1): zootaxa.4584.1.1, 2019 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716192

RESUMO

Species of the genus Tephritis usually have the wing pattern with dark rays on veins R4+5 and M connected to the preapical dark spot or to each other (often called the "apical fork). Some species, however, have a solid apical crossband (Korneyev, 2013), whereas others have an isolated pair of apical spots. Specimens with the latter morphological character occasionally occur in many species with typical wing patterns, but in this article we focus on the species that normally have it. They occur mostly in the Palaearctic Region, except T. candidipennis Foote, 1960 from North America. A total of twenty species are recognized in this complex, including three new species and two new subspecies: Tephritis arsenii S. Korneyev, 2015, T. bardanae (Schrank 1803), T. conyzifoliae Merz 1992, T. crepidis Hendel 1927, T. dilacerata (Loew 1846), T. dilacerata kaszabi new subspecies, T. formosa (Loew 1844), T. ghissarica new species, T. hendeliana Hering 1944, T. hyoscyami (Linnaeus 1758), T. kyrghyzica new species, T. kogardtauica Hering 1944, T. kovalevi Korneyev Kameneva 1990, T. kovalevi kumana new subspecies; T. postica (Loew 1844), T. stictica Loew 1862, T. theryi Séguy 1930, T. tridentata S. Korneyev Mohamadzade-Namin 2013, T. truncata (Loew 1844), T. valida (Loew 1862), T. youngiana new species, and T. zernyi Hendel 1927. Most of the species are keyed, redescribed and illustrated based on extensive material from the Palaearctic Region. Lectotypes of T. dilacerata, T. formosa, T. hendeliana, T. truncata, T. valida, T. posis, T. heiseri, T. procera and a neotype for T. postica are designated. Known host plants of this complex belong to the tribes Anthemideae, Cardueae, Cichorieae, Inuleae, and Senecioneae (Asteraceae); preliminary comparison of the morphological characters (other than the wing pattern) with the distribution among host plants shows that the flies apparently do not form a monophyletic group, belonging to several different lineages, which also include other species with the typical "forked wing pattern. New distribution records and host plants are reported.        The following synonymies are established: Musca hyoscyami Linnaeus 1758 = Tephritis heiseri Frauenfeld 1865 new synonym; Trypeta postica Loew 1844 = Tephritis posis Hering 1939 new synonym.


Assuntos
Asteraceae , Dípteros , Tephritidae , Animais , América do Norte , Taiwan , Asas de Animais
12.
Zootaxa ; 4624(2): zootaxa.4624.2.6, 2019 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716225

RESUMO

Paraleuctra cuihuashana sp. nov., the first formally reported brachypterous stonefly of Leuctridae (Plecoptera) known from China, is described from Shaanxi Province of northwestern China. The new species is characterized by the short-winged male with unique hindwing venation and a finger-shaped process on cerci. The female of P. cuihuashana sp. nov. has variable wing length. Molecular data supported the distinctness of the new species and the widespread P. orientalis (Chu, 1928).


Assuntos
Insetos , Lepidópteros , Animais , China , Feminino , Masculino , Neópteros , Asas de Animais
13.
Science ; 366(6468): 946-947, 2019 11 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31753981
14.
Zootaxa ; 4613(2): zootaxa.4613.2.11, 2019 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716420

RESUMO

A new genus and species of Ithonidae, Puripolystoechotes pumilus gen. et sp. nov., is described from the Middle Jurassic of Inner Mongolia, China. The new genus is distinguished by possessing a hind wing with a simple humeral vein, only three ra-rp crossveins, M forked slightly distal to origin of RP1, and wing membrane without color pattern. This is the third ithonid genus from this locality, showing interesting morphological similarity with the other ithonids from the same locality and period.


Assuntos
Fósseis , Holometábolos , Animais , China , Insetos , Asas de Animais
15.
Zootaxa ; 4565(1): zootaxa.4565.1.4, 2019 Mar 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716490

RESUMO

A fossil genus Myanmaro gen. nov., with a species M. primus sp. nov. (Diptera, Chironomidae) is described from mid-Cretaceous Burmese amber (~100 Ma). The adult male of the new species shows the wing venation pattern lacking a cross-vein MCu, the fore leg ratio lower than 1, and the gonostylus folded inwards - features typical of the subfamily  Orthocladiinae. A bifid gonostylus, with an articulate, likely movable inner branch, is the character indicating a close relationship between Myanmaro and Diplocladius Kieffer, 1908, the latter genus previously postulated as an early lineage in Orthocladiinae. Several characters, i.e. the structure of tergite IX and the anal point, are defined as generic autapom orphies for Myanmaro. A combination of the shape of hypopygial volsellae (or their absence) and the lack of tibial combs also separate this genus from related extant Orthocladiinae and from the only known Cretaceous extinct orthoclad genus Lebanorthocladius Veltz, Azar et Nel, 2007.


Assuntos
Âmbar , Chironomidae , Animais , Fósseis , Masculino , Asas de Animais
16.
Zootaxa ; 4664(2): zootaxa.4664.2.6, 2019 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716680

RESUMO

Neohybrizon gen. nov. is described from Japan (type species: Neohybrizon mutus sp. nov.). This new genus is characterized by much reduced mouth parts, long mesoscutum, absence of epicnemial carina, depressed posterocentral area of mesoscutum, slender stigma, short RS+M of fore wing, entirely straight M of fore wing, slender hind wing, long hind femur which is over 5.5 × as long as trochanter, and using the ant Myrmica kotokui Forel, 1911 as its host. A key to genera of Hybrizontinae is also provided.


Assuntos
Formigas , Himenópteros , Animais , Japão , Asas de Animais
17.
Zootaxa ; 4657(3): zootaxa.4657.3.12, 2019 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716779

RESUMO

Concerning the description of Rohrthrips patrickmuelleri Ulitzka (2019), it has been brought to my attention that the depositary and serial number of the holotype was not given. This information is given below in order to comply with ICZN, Article 16.4.2 (1999).


Assuntos
Âmbar , Tisanópteros , Animais , Fósseis , Asas de Animais
18.
Zootaxa ; 4648(2): zootaxa.4648.2.6, 2019 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716950

RESUMO

Potamocloeon edentatum sp. n. is described based on all stages of both sexes associated by rearing from Usambara Mountains in Tanzania. Some key generic characters, i.e. mode of gonostyli development, genital musculature, patella-tibial suture of winged stages and texture of subimaginal tarsi, are described for Potamocloeon Gillies 1990 (= Maliqua Lugo-Ortiz McCafferty 1997) for the first time.


Assuntos
Ephemeroptera , Gastrópodes , Animais , Feminino , Genitália , Masculino , Tanzânia , Asas de Animais
19.
J Insect Sci ; 19(5)2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31665785

RESUMO

Scales, exoskeletal features characteristic of the Lepidoptera, occur in enormous structural and functional diversity. They cover the wing membranes and other body parts and give butterflies and moths their often stunning appearance. Generally, the patterns made by scales are visual signals for intra- and interspecific communication. In males, scales and/or bristles also make up the androconial organs, which emit volatile signals during courtship. Here, a structurally and putative functionally novel type of scales and bristles is reported: 'crystal macrosetae'. These lack trabeculae and windows, are made up by a very thin and flexible envelope only and contain crystallizing material. In 'crystal scales', there is a flat surface ornamentation of modified ridges, while 'crystal bristles' often show large protrusions. Crystal macrosetae usually cannot be reliably recognized without destruction. Apparently, they serve as containers for large amounts of material that is viscous in living moths, highly hygroscopic, crystallizes when specimens dry up, and can be visualized by scanning electron microscopy. Crystal macrosetae occur in males only, always associated with or making up androconial organs located on various parts of the body, and have numerous forms with diverse surface ornamentation across many species and genera. The newly identified structures and the discovery of crystallizing material in scales and bristles raise many questions and could shed new light on ontogenetic development of macrosetae, and on the biology and physiology as well as the evolution and systematics of Arctiinae. There is evidence that crystal macrosetae occur in other moths too.


Assuntos
Escamas de Animais/ultraestrutura , Mariposas/ultraestrutura , Asas de Animais/ultraestrutura , Animais , Masculino , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura
20.
Biol Lett ; 15(9): 20190530, 2019 09 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31506035

RESUMO

Many endothermic animals experience variable limb temperatures, even as they tightly regulate core temperature. The limbs are often cooler than the core at rest, but because the large locomotor muscles of the limbs produce heat during exercise, they are thought to operate at or above core temperature during activity. Bats, small-bodied flying mammals with greatly elongated forelimbs, possess wings with large surfaces lacking any insulating fur. We hypothesized that during flight the relatively small muscles that move the elbow and wrist operate below core body temperature because of elevated heat loss. We measured muscle temperature continuously in the small fruit bat Carollia perspicillata before and during wind tunnel flights, and discretely in diverse bats at rest in Belize. We found that bats maintained high rectal temperatures, but that there was a steep proximal-to-distal gradient in wing muscle temperature. Forearm muscles were 4-6°C cooler than rectal temperature at rest and approximately 12°C cooler during flights at an air temperature of 22°C. These findings invite further study into how bats and other endotherms maintain locomotor performance in variable environments, when some muscles may be operating at low temperatures that are expected to slow contractile properties.


Assuntos
Quirópteros , Animais , Regulação da Temperatura Corporal , Voo Animal , Contração Muscular , Asas de Animais
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