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1.
Zootaxa ; 4877(3): zootaxa.4877.3.3, 2020 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33311178

RESUMO

We studied wing pattern characters to distinguish closely related sympatric species Papilio zelicaon Lucas, 1852 and Papilio polyxenes Fabricius, 1775 in Southern California, and developed a morphometric method based on the ventral black postmedian band. Application of this method to the holotype of Papilio [Zolicaon variety] Coloro W. G. Wright, 1905, the name currently applied to the P. polyxenes populations, revealed that it is a P. zelicaon specimen. The name for western US polyxenes subspecies thus becomes Papilio polyxenes rudkini (F. R. Chermock, 1981), reinstated status, and we place coloro as a junior subjective synonym of P. zelicaon. Furthermore, we sequenced mitochondrial DNA COI barcodes of rudkini and coloro holotypes and compared them with those of polyxenes and zelicaon specimens, confirming rudkini as polyxenes and coloro as zelicaon.


Assuntos
Borboletas , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Borboletas/genética , California , DNA Mitocondrial , Asas de Animais
2.
Science ; 370(6521): 1165, 2020 12 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33273087
3.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0242053, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33211716

RESUMO

The previous genetic characterization of the honeybee population of Mauritius Island (Indian Ocean) revealed an ongoing process of hybridization between the first established African subspecies Apis mellifera unicolor and recently imported European subspecies (A. m. ligustica, A. m. carnica and A. m. mellifera). This context offers the rare opportunity to explore the influence of hybridization between African and European honeybees on phenotypic traits out of the case largely studied of the Africanized honeybee (hybrid between A. m. scutellata from South Africa and European subspecies). We thus conducted geometric morphometric analyses on forewings of 283 workers genetically characterized at 14 microsatellite loci to evaluate (1) if the morphological variability coincides well with the neutral genetic variability, (2) if hybrids exhibited rather parental, intermediate or transgressive traits, and (3) to test if fluctuating asymmetry (FA) of size and shape, as a measure of developmental stability, was elevated in hybrids (due to genetic stress) and/or European bees (due to unsuitable environment) compared to African bees. A strong concordance was found between morphological variability and neutral genetic variability, especially for wing shape, based on partial least-square analyses (PLS). However, on average, the morphology of hybrids was more similar to the African bees, potentially reflecting the dynamics and direction of introgression. Significant FA for wing size as well as wing shape was detected, suggesting the overall presence of stress during the development of the studied individuals. In contrast, the asymmetry levels do not differ according to the ancestry (African, European or hybrid) of the individuals. Therefore, if ongoing hybridization contributed to increasing the genetic and phenotypic diversity of the populations and influences its adaptive potential, developmental stressors could not be identified and their evolutionary consequences remain uncertain.


Assuntos
Abelhas/anatomia & histologia , Abelhas/genética , Variação Genética , Repetições de Microssatélites , Animais , Abelhas/classificação , Europa (Continente) , Evolução Molecular , Hibridização Genética , Maurício , Fenótipo , Filogenia , Filogeografia , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Clima Tropical , Asas de Animais/anatomia & histologia
4.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0241489, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33141874

RESUMO

Bats possess wings comprised of a flexible membrane and a jointed skeletal structure allowing them to execute complex flight maneuvers such as rapid tight turns. The extent of a bat's tight turning capability can be explored by analyzing a 180-degree U-turn. Prior studies have investigated more subtle flight maneuvers, but the kinematic and aerodynamic mechanisms of a U-turn have not been characterized. In this work, we use 3D optical motion capture and aerodynamic simulations to investigate a U-turn maneuver executed by a great roundleaf bat (Hipposideros armiger: mass = 55 g, span = 51 cm). The bat was observed to decrease its flight velocity and gain approximately 20 cm of altitude entering the U-turn. By lowering its velocity from 2.0 m/s to 0.5 m/s, the centripetal force requirement to execute a tight turn was substantially reduced. Centripetal force was generated by tilting the lift force vector laterally through banking. During the initiation of the U-turn, the bank angle increased from 20 degrees to 40 degrees. During the initiation and persisting throughout the U-turn, the flap amplitude of the right wing (inside of the turn) increased relative to the left wing. In addition, the right wing moved more laterally closer to the centerline of the body during the end of the downstroke and the beginning of the upstroke compared to the left wing. Reorientation of the body into the turn happened prior to a change in the flight path of the bat. Once the bat entered the U-turn and the bank angle increased, the change in flight path of the bat began to change rapidly as the bat negotiated the apex of the turn. During this phase of the turn, the minimum radius of curvature of the bat was 5.5 cm. During the egress of the turn, the bat accelerated and expended stored potential energy by descending. The cycle averaged total power expenditure by the bat during the six wingbeat cycle U-turn maneuver was 0.51 W which was approximately 40% above the power expenditure calculated for a nominally straight flight by the same bat. Future work on the topic of bat maneuverability may investigate a broader array of maneuvering flights characterizing the commonalities and differences across flights. In addition, the interplay between aerodynamic moments and inertial moments are of interest in order to more robustly characterize maneuvering mechanisms.


Assuntos
Quirópteros/fisiologia , Voo Animal/fisiologia , Asas de Animais/fisiologia , Animais , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Quirópteros/anatomia & histologia , Simulação por Computador , Metabolismo Energético
5.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0241798, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33147271

RESUMO

Fast and accurate identification of biting midges is crucial in the study of Culicoides-borne diseases. In this work, we propose a two-stage method for automatically analyzing Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) species. First, an image preprocessing task composed of median and Wiener filters followed by equalization and morphological operations is used to improve the quality of the wing image in order to allow an adequate segmentation of particles of interest. Then, the segmentation of the zones of interest inside the biting midge wing is made using the watershed transform. The proposed method is able to produce optimal feature vectors that help to identify Culicoides species. A database containing wing images of C. obsoletus, C. pusillus, C. foxi, and C. insignis species was used to test its performance. Feature relevance analysis indicated that the mean of hydraulic radius and eccentricity were relevant for the decision boundary between C. obsoletus and C. pusillus species. In contrast, the number of particles and the mean of the hydraulic radius was relevant for deciding between C. foxi and C. insignis species. Meanwhile, for distinguishing among the four species, the number of particles and zones, and the mean of circularity were the most relevant features. The linear discriminant analysis classifier was the best model for the three experimental classification scenarios previously described, achieving averaged areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.98, 0.90, and 0.96, respectively.


Assuntos
Ceratopogonidae/classificação , Asas de Animais/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Área Sob a Curva , Automação , Teorema de Bayes , Bases de Dados Factuais , Análise Discriminante , Feminino , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Curva ROC , Máquina de Vetores de Suporte
6.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5726, 2020 11 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33184261

RESUMO

Apoptosis is an ancient and evolutionarily conserved cell suicide program. During apoptosis, executioner caspase enzyme activation has been considered a point of no return. However, emerging evidence suggests that some cells can survive caspase activation following exposure to apoptosis-inducing stresses, raising questions as to the physiological significance and underlying molecular mechanisms of this unexpected phenomenon. Here, we show that, following severe tissue injury, Drosophila wing disc cells that survive executioner caspase activation contribute to tissue regeneration. Through RNAi screening, we identify akt1 and a previously uncharacterized Drosophila gene CG8108, which is homologous to the human gene CIZ1, as essential for survival from the executioner caspase activation. We also show that cells expressing activated oncogenes experience apoptotic caspase activation, and that Akt1 and dCIZ1 are required for their survival and overgrowth. Thus, survival following executioner caspase activation is a normal tissue repair mechanism usurped to promote oncogene-driven overgrowth.


Assuntos
Carcinogênese/genética , Caspases/metabolismo , Sobrevivência Celular , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Animais , Apoptose , Morte Celular , Drosophila/genética , Proteínas de Drosophila/genética , Proteínas de Drosophila/metabolismo , Humanos , Proteínas Nucleares , Oncogenes , Interferência de RNA , Fatores de Transcrição , Asas de Animais , Dedos de Zinco
7.
Science ; 370(6517): 721-725, 2020 11 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33154142

RESUMO

Developmental plasticity allows genomes to encode multiple distinct phenotypes that can be differentially manifested in response to environmental cues. Alternative plastic phenotypes can be selected through a process called genetic assimilation, although the mechanisms are still poorly understood. We assimilated a seasonal wing color phenotype in a naturally plastic population of butterflies (Junonia coenia) and characterized three responsible genes. Endocrine assays and chromatin accessibility and conformation analyses showed that the transition of wing coloration from an environmentally determined trait to a predominantly genetic trait occurred through selection for regulatory alleles of downstream wing-patterning genes. This mode of genetic evolution is likely favored by selection because it allows tissue- and trait-specific tuning of reaction norms without affecting core cue detection or transduction mechanisms.


Assuntos
Borboletas/genética , Borboletas/fisiologia , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Genes de Insetos/fisiologia , Pigmentação/genética , Adaptação Fisiológica/genética , Animais , Evolução Molecular , Genômica , Estações do Ano , Asas de Animais
8.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(44): 27474-27480, 2020 11 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33093195

RESUMO

Development can bias the independent evolution of traits sharing ontogenetic pathways, making certain evolutionary changes less likely. The eyespots commonly found on butterfly wings each have concentric rings of differing colors, and these serially repeated pattern elements have been a focus for evo-devo research. In the butterfly family Nymphalidae, eyespots have been shown to function in startling or deflecting predators and to be involved in sexual selection. Previous work on a model species of Mycalesina butterfly, Bicyclus anynana, has provided insights into the developmental control of the size and color composition of individual eyespots. Experimental evolution has also shown that the relative size of a pair of eyespots on the same wing surface is highly flexible, whereas they are resistant to diverging in color composition, presumably due to the underlying shared developmental process. This fixed color composition has been considered as a prime example of developmental bias with significant consequences for wing pattern evolution. Here, we test this proposal by surveying eyespots across the whole subtribe of Mycalesina butterflies and demonstrate that developmental bias shapes evolutionary diversification except in the genus Heteropsis which has gained independent control of eyespot color composition. Experimental manipulations of pupal wings reveal that the bias has been released through a novel regional response of the wing tissue to a conserved patterning signal. Our study demonstrates that development can bias the evolutionary independence of traits, but it also shows how bias can be released through developmental innovations, thus, allowing rapid morphological change, facilitating evolutionary diversification.


Assuntos
Padronização Corporal/genética , Borboletas/fisiologia , Especiação Genética , Pigmentação/genética , Asas de Animais/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Borboletas/anatomia & histologia , Cor , Genoma de Inseto/genética , Masculino
9.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 16458, 2020 10 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33020523

RESUMO

Most microinsects have feather-like bristled wings, a state known as ptiloptery, but featherwing beetles (family Ptiliidae) are unique among winged microinsects in their ability to fold such wings. An asymmetrical wing folding pattern, found also in the phylogenetically related rove beetles (Staphylinidae), was ancestral for Ptiliidae. Using scanning electron, confocal laser scanning, and optical microscopy, high-speed video recording, and 3D reconstruction, we analyze in detail the symmetrical wing folding pattern and the mechanism of the folding and unfolding of the wings in Acrotrichis sericans (Coleoptera: Ptiliidae) and show how some of the smaller featherwing beetles have reverted to strict symmetry in their wing folding. The wings are folded in three phases by bending along four lines (with the help of wing folding patches on the abdominal tergites) and locked under the closed elytra; they unfold passively in two phases, apparently with the help of the elasticity provided by resilin unevenly distributed in the wing and of convexities forming in the cross-sections of the unfolding wing, making it stiffer. The minimum duration of folding is 3.5 s; unfolding is much more rapid (minimum duration lowest recorded in beetles, 0.038 s). The folding ratio of A. sericans is 3.31 (without setae), which is greater than in any beetle in which it has been measured. The symmetrical wing folding pattern found in A. sericans and in all of the smallest ptiliids, in which ptiloptery is especially pronounced, is the only known example of symmetry re-established during miniaturization. This direction of evolution is remarkable because miniaturization is known to result in various asymmetries, while in this case miniaturization was accompanied by reversal to symmetry, probably associated with the evolution of ptiloptery. Our results on the pattern and mechanisms of wing folding and unfolding can be used in robotics for developing miniature biomimetic robots: the mechanisms of wing folding and unfolding in Ptiliidae present a challenge to engineers who currently work at designing ever smaller flying robots and may eventually produce miniature robots with foldable wings.


Assuntos
Besouros/fisiologia , Asas de Animais/fisiologia , Animais , Biomimética/métodos , Besouros/metabolismo , Voo Animal/fisiologia , Proteínas de Insetos/metabolismo , Miniaturização/métodos , Filogenia , Robótica/métodos , Sensilas/metabolismo , Sensilas/fisiologia , Asas de Animais/metabolismo
10.
Zootaxa ; 4809(1): zootaxa.4809.1.8, 2020 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33055953

RESUMO

This work presents new distribution records in Paraguay for 19 fruit fly species of the genus Anastrepha Schiner, including four new records for the country: A. alveatoides Blanchard, A. australis (Blanchard), A. obliqua (Macquart) and A. pastranai Blanchard. Additionally, an updated list of the 26 Anastrepha species present in Paraguay is provided, as well as illustrations (wings, aculeus tips) of the majority of species.


Assuntos
Tephritidae , Animais , Drosophila , Paraguai , Asas de Animais
11.
Zootaxa ; 4803(2): zootaxa.4803.2.6, 2020 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056021

RESUMO

Nine species of Cymothales, one of the most characteristic African antlion genera, are known from the Guineo-Congolian rainforests. A new species, Cymothales massaronei sp. nov. is described here from Gabon. Cymothales massaronei sp. nov. is characterized by the fifth tarsomere equal in length to the first tarsomere, but differs from all of the congeners with this character in the shape and markings of wings, shape of antenna and body pattern.


Assuntos
Holometábolos , Floresta Úmida , Animais , Asas de Animais
12.
Zootaxa ; 4822(1): zootaxa.4822.1.1, 2020 Aug 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056298

RESUMO

Inquiline oak gall wasps from the genus Synergus Hartig (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae: Synergini) that occur in the New World should be classified into the following morphological groups: i) species with the radial cell of fore wings open; ii) species with the radial cell of fore wings closed and mesopleurae completely sculptured, always with transversal striae covering its surface; iii) species with the radial cell of fore wings closed and mesopleurae partially smooth, with the speculum always shiny and not sculptured. The latter group, which appears to be unique to the New World's fauna, is the focus of this study. An exhaustive taxonomical revision of all the Synergus species within this morphological group is carried out for the first time after the initial treatment by Lobato-Vila Pujade-Villar (2017). Redescriptions, images and new distribution and biological data are provided. A new species from Mexico, Synergus aurofacies Lobato-Vila Pujade-Villar, sp. nov., is here formally described and illustrated. Synergus variegatus McCracken Egbert, 1922 is a junior synonym of S. flavens McCracken Egbert, 1922 syn. nov.; S. profusus McCracken Egbert, 1922 is a junior synonym of S. pacificus McCracken Egbert, 1922 syn. nov.; and S. flavus Kieffer, 1904 and S. varicolor Fullaway, 1911 are junior synonyms of S. pomiformis (Ashmead, 1885) syn. nov. A key to species of this group is provided. The morphological traits of the species with partially smooth mesopleurae are discussed.


Assuntos
Vespas , Animais , Fenótipo , Asas de Animais
13.
Zootaxa ; 4822(1): zootaxa.4822.1.4, 2020 Aug 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056301

RESUMO

Contrary to the typical southern distribution of the extant Kempyninae, a subfamily of Osmylidae, its fossil group shows the high diversification in the northern hemisphere during the Mesozoic. Herein a new genus with a new species, Mirokempynus profundobifurcus gen. et sp. nov., and a new species, Jurakempynus loculosus sp. nov., of Kempyninae, are described from the Middle Jurassic Jiulongshan Formation of Daohugou Village, Inner Mongolia, China. The new species share the characteristic synapomorphies of Kempyninae, e.g. subcostal veinlets mostly irregularly forked in the forewing and the distinctly expanded intramedial area with multiple rows of cells in the hind wing. The new genus distinctly shows a particular condition of intramedial area and MP branching in the hind wing. However, the condition of the region between MA and MP significantly broadened in the hind wing appear distinctively different to other known kempynine genera. A key is provided for all the genera of documented kempynines, both fossil and extant.


Assuntos
Holometábolos , Insetos , Animais , China , Fósseis , Asas de Animais
14.
Zootaxa ; 4821(1): zootaxa.4821.1.11, 2020 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056339

RESUMO

We diagnose a new butterfly species from the Belmira paramo in the central cordillera of the Colombian Andes. We infer from the barcoding analysis, wing pattern, morphology and distribution that this entity is not a geographical variation or subspecies of any named lycaenid, and it is described herein as Rhamma eleonorae sp. nov. Adult specimens and female genitalia are illustrated and compared with R. arria (Hewitson, 1870) and R. oxida (Hewitson, 1870), the most closely related taxa based on similarities of wing pattern and COI sequences.


Assuntos
Borboletas , Animais , Código de Barras de DNA Taxonômico , Feminino , Asas de Animais
15.
Zootaxa ; 4852(3): zootaxa.4852.3.3, 2020 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056413

RESUMO

The tettigoniid subfamily Phyllophorinae, distributed in Southeast Asia and Australia, is poorly known. Our study of the biology of Giant Katydid Siliquofera grandis (Blanchard, 1853) from a laboratory culture has shown that these insects mate more than once, the females lay a total of up to 400 eggs during their life, and these hatch after 2-2.5 months. The life cycle from egg to death takes longer than one year. In the laboratory, the insects fed mainly on leaves of various Rosaceae, Ficus, and lettuce, and on fruits.                It is known that the males of hooded katydids lack the tegminal stridulatory apparatus typical for Tettigoniidae, but are capable of producing protest sounds using their coxosternal sound-producing organs for stridulation. Here, protest stridulation of the males and females and the sound-producing organs used to produce it have been analyzed in Phyllophorina kotoshoensis Shiraki, 1930 and S. grandis. In addition, nymphal protest sounds produced by friction of the metafemur against the edge of the pronotum and adult protest signals produced with the wings are described. In S. grandis, vibratory signals have been described and studied for the first time: territorial, protest, drumming and rhythmic low-amplitude vibrations emitted by adults and nymphs and pre- and postcopulatory vibrations of the males and females. The territorial signals not accompanied with visible movements of the body may be produced by contracting the antagonist muscles of the thorax and possibly of the legs. Using their coxosternal sound-producing organs males of S. grandis produced also an audible courtship song lasting for several seconds. Acoustic signals may thus both regulate intrapopulation relations and serve for interspecific communication (protest signals). The acoustic communication in Phyllophorinae is probably especially important during mating behavior.


Assuntos
Ortópteros , Acústica , Animais , Feminino , Insetos , Masculino , Asas de Animais
16.
Zootaxa ; 4789(1): zootaxa.4789.1.7, 2020 Jun 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056449

RESUMO

The species composition of the genus Argyresthia Hübner, 1825 in the Azores is examined. Argyresthia brumella, sp. nov., is described and illustrated from Terceira and Flores Islands. Argyresthia minusculella Rebel, 1940, syn. nov. and Tinea poecilella Rebel, 1940, syn. nov. are synonymized with Argyresthia atlanticella Rebel, 1940. The high variability of A. atlanticella is revealed through the polymorphic wing pattern and the intraspecific genetic divergence of the DNA barcode COI in the specimens examined.


Assuntos
Mariposas , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Açores , Asas de Animais
17.
Zootaxa ; 4786(3): zootaxa.4786.3.6, 2020 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056475

RESUMO

A new species of Aricoris Westwood, 1851, until now treated erroneously as Aricoris tutana (Godart, [1824]), is described and illustrated from the Neotropical Cerrado savanna. Aricoris emeryi Callaghan, Lemes Kaminski, sp. nov. can be identified by a set of characters on wings and male genitalia that differentiates it from other species belonging to the constantius group.


Assuntos
Borboletas , Pradaria , Animais , Genitália Masculina , Masculino , Asas de Animais
18.
Zootaxa ; 4766(3): zootaxa.4766.3.7, 2020 Apr 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056594

RESUMO

Hetaerina americana Fabricius, 1798 has a long and irresolute taxonomic history. Several synonyms have been suggested (H. californica Hagen in Selys-Longchamps, 1859, H. basalis Hagen in Selys-Longchamps, 1859, H. texana Walsh, 1863, H. scelerata Walsh, 1863, etc.), related to the variation in the size of the wing spots as well as to the morphology of the male cerci. However, Calvert (1901) suggested that H. americana represents one variable species. Nevertheless, Vega-Sánchez et al. (2019) through a genetic and morphological analysis presented evidence to propose that H. americana represents a species complex. In the present work, we describe a new species that belongs to this complex: H. calverti sp. nov. The morphological characteristics by which males and females of H. calverti differ from H. americana are highlighted. The most important character for the differentiation of males is the shape of the cerci and the size of the individuals (when the two species are in sympatry). In females, the main differences are in the shape of the intersternites and the medio-dorsal carina of the last segment of the abdomen. Some generalities about the biology of the species are presented, including geographical distribution patterns and genetic divergence data. [urn:lsid:zoobank.org:act:F5C329AE-7A00-4979-8A0D-A13D869E54B1].


Assuntos
Odonatos , Animais , Feminino , Deriva Genética , Masculino , Estados Unidos , Asas de Animais
19.
Zootaxa ; 4801(1): zootaxa.4801.1.9, 2020 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056678

RESUMO

The genus Uranotaenia (Diptera: Culicidae) has been well documented in Madagascar where it includes 73 species, 89.4% being endemic. However, one problem is that most species are morphologically similar in the adult stage. Here, 713 Uranotaenia specimens collected in the tropical forests of Anorana and Maromizaha between 2008 and 2014 were examined. Using the dichotomous keys for the Uranotaenia fauna of Madagascar published in 2004, three species were identified: Uranotaenia neireti (220), Ur. alboabdominalis (110) and Ur. mayottensis (28). The other specimens (355) were not identifiable and were classified as Uranotaenia sp1. Using wing morphometry, the four taxa were classified into four morphogroups. Within the Uranotaenia sp1 group, specimens from the Anorana forest and those from the Maromizaha forest overlapped. This result suggests that wing morphometric traits could be a good marker to distinguish Uranotaenia species in Madagascar.


Assuntos
Culicidae , Animais , Madagáscar , Asas de Animais
20.
Zootaxa ; 4790(3): zootaxa.4790.3.7, 2020 Jun 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056698

RESUMO

This extinct cicadomorphan family Hylicellidae was a significant element of the Late Triassic (Norian) hemipteran fauna of south-eastern Queensland, represented by the tegmina of five monotypic genera from the fossil insect localities at Mount Crosby, Denmark Hill and Dinmore. Of the five, Mesothymbris Evans, 1956, from Mount Crosby, has previously been re-examined. The present work revises the remaining four genera: Hylicella Evans, 1956, with Hylicella colorata Evans, 1956, Mount Crosby; Crosbella Evans, 1956 (= Mesocicadella Evans, 1956, syn. nov.), with Crosbella elongata Evans, 1956 (= Crosbella alata Evans, 1956, syn. nov. = Mesocicadella venosa Evans, 1956, syn. nov. = Mesocicadella punctata Evans, 1961, syn. nov.), Mount Crosby; Triassoscelis Evans, 1956, with Triassoscelis anomala Evans, 1956, Mount Crosby; and Mesocixiodes Tillyard, 1922, with Mesocixiodes termioneura Tillyard, 1922 (= Mesocixiodes brachyclada Tillyard, 1922, syn. nov.), Denmark Hill, Dinmore. The Hylicellidae remains poorly defined as is its generic composition, however, the four Queensland Triassic genera are quite distinct. Hylicella is distinguished by the partial fusion of CuA1 with M3+4, and the very large intra-medial cell, and Crosbella and Triassoscelis by the peculiar parallelogram-like CuA1 cell and the widened peripheral membrane at CuA. Triassoscelis differs from Crosbella in its broader, more squat wing shape, CuA fork in line rather than proximal to the M fork, and much less proliferated apical venation. Mesocixiodes is distinguished by the alignment of the crossvein field at the claval apex to form a fairly even series of long, sub-equal apical cells. On the basis of the proliferated and variable apical venation, the presence of weakly developed costal veinlets, and the fusion of M and CuA at a single point to close the basal cell, Crosbella and Triassoscelis, are ascribed to the subfamily Vietocyclinae. The relationships of the three other Queensland genera, Hylicella, Mesocixiodes, and Mesothymbris remain obscure, and they are retained in the undefined catch-all subfamily Hylicellinae. With the exception of the hindwing, Mesojassula marginata Evans, 1956, the revision of the cicadomorphan fauna of the Mount Crosby Formation is now complete, resulting in an inventory of five species of Dysmorphoptilidae, four of Hylicellidae and two of Archijassidae, with the dysmorphoptilid Dysmorphoptiloides elongata Evans, 1956, as the dominant species.


Assuntos
Hemípteros , Animais , Fósseis , Insetos , Queensland , Asas de Animais
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