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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e253436, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355870

RESUMO

Abstract The in vitro sporulation of Didymella bryoniae is of great importance for studies that require pure inoculum and in large quantities. Thus, the objectives of this study were to identify the best condition for D. bryoniae sporulation combining different light spectra (UV-A or UV-B light, white light, and continuous dark), with distinct culture media (PDA, V8, ML, and PDAB) and, to evaluate fungus' survivability stored at -20°C over time. The fungus samples were only able to sporulate when subjected to the UV-B light treatment, regardless of the culture medium. The highest appearance of spores conidium type was observed in the PDAB medium, and the lowest production occurred in the ML medium. Reproductive structures, such as perithecia and pycnidia, were observed in all culture media. However, there was considerable variation in the amount of each structure between the different culture media. The ML and V8 media showed a greater number of perithecia and the PDA and PDAB media presented a greater proportion of pycnidia compared to perithecia. The storage duration at -20°C did not affect mycelial growth or mycelial growth rate. In conclusion, the UV-B light is essential for D. bryoniae in vitro sporulation. Moreover, the culture medium composition influences the type of fungal structure produced, as well as spores' size and quantity. Freezing at -20°C is an efficient technique that can be used to store D. bryoniae for at least five months without loss of viability.


Resumo A esporulação de Didymella bryoniae in vitro é de grande importância para estudos que requerem inóculo puro e em grandes quantidades. Assim, os objetivos deste estudo foram identificar a melhor condição para esporulação de D. bryoniae combinando diferentes espectros de luz (luz UV-A ou UV-B, luz branca e escuro contínuo) com distintos meios de cultura (PDA, V8, ML e PDAB) e, avaliar a sobrevivência do fungo armazenado a -20°C ao longo do tempo. As amostras de fungo só esporularam quando submetidas ao tratamento com luz UV-B, independentemente do meio de cultura. Maior aparecimento de esporos do tipo conídio foi observado no meio PDAB, e a menor produção ocorreu no meio ML. Estruturas reprodutivas, como peritécios e picnídeos, foram observadas em todos os meios de cultura. No entanto, houve uma variação considerável na quantidade de cada estrutura entre os diferentes meios de cultura. Os meios ML e V8 apresentaram maior número de peritécios e os meios PDA e PDAB apresentaram maior proporção de picnídeos em relação aos peritécios. A duração do armazenamento a -20°C não afetou o crescimento micelial ou a taxa de crescimento micelial. Em conclusão, a luz UV-B é essencial para a esporulação de D. bryoniae in vitro. Além disso, a composição do meio de cultura influencia o tipo de estrutura fúngica produzida, bem como o tamanho e a quantidade dos esporos. O congelamento a -20°C é uma técnica eficiente que pode ser usada para armazenar D. bryoniae por pelo menos cinco meses sem perda de viabilidade


Assuntos
Ascomicetos , Esporos Fúngicos , Temperatura , Micélio
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e253156, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355904

RESUMO

Abstract Endophytic fungi are a ubiquituos group that colonize all plant species on earth. Studies comparing the location of endophytic fungi within the leaves and the sampling time in Manihot esculenta Crantz (cassava) are limited. In this study, mature leaves of M. esculenta from Panama were collected in order to compare the cultivable diversity of endophytic fungi and to determine their distribution within the leaves. A total of one hundred sixty endophytes belonging to 97 species representing 13 genera and 8 morphospecies determined as mycelia sterilia that containing 63 isolates were isolated. Cladosporium, Nigrospora, Periconia, and mycelia sterilia 1 and 3 were the most predominant isolated endophytes. We detected that endophytes varied across the sampling time, but not amongst locations within leaves. The endophytes composition across sampling and the location of endophytes within leaf was similar, except for Periconia and mycelia sterilia 3 and 7. The data generated in this study contribute to the knowledge on the biodiversity of endophytic fungi in Panama, and establish the bases for future research focused on understanding the function of endophytes in M. esculenta crops.


Resumo Os fungos endofíticos são um grupo ubiquituo que colonizam todas as espécies de plantas na terra. Os estudos que comparam a localização dos fungos endofíticos dentro das folhas de Manihot esculenta Crantz (mandioca) e o tempo de amostragem são muito escassos. Neste estudo, folhas maduras de M. esculenta foram coletadas do Panamá com a finalidade de comparar a diversidade cultivável de endófitos e determinar sua distribuição dentro das folhas. Um total de 170 endófitos foram isolados de 97 espécies que representam 13 gêneros e 8 morfoespécies determinadas como micélios esterilizados contendo 63 isolados. Os fungos Cladosporium, Nigrospora, Periconia e mycelia sterilia 1 e 3 foram os isolados mais predominantes. Também detectamos que os endófitos variaram ao longo do tempo de amostragem, mas não entre os locais dentro das folhas. A composição de endófitos na amostragem e localização de endófitos dentro da folha foi semelhante, exceto para Periconia e mycelia sterilia 3 e 7. Os dados gerados neste estudo contribuem para o conhecimento da biodiversidade de fungos endofíticos no Panamá e estabelecem as bases para pesquisas sobre o entendimento da função de endófitos em culturas de M. esculenta.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos , Manihot , Filogenia , Folhas de Planta , Biodiversidade , Endófitos , Fungos
3.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 629(Pt A): 794-804, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36099847

RESUMO

Interactions between biomolecules are ubiquitous in nature and crucial to many applications including vaccine development; environmentally friendly textile detergents; and food formulation. Using small angle X-ray scattering and structure-based molecular simulations, we explore protein-protein interactions in dilute to semi-concentrated protein solutions. We address the pertinent question, whether interaction models developed at infinite dilution can be extrapolated to concentrated regimes? Our analysis is based on measured and simulated osmotic second virial coefficients and solution structure factors at varying protein concentration and for different variants of the protein Thermomyces Lanuginosus Lipase (TLL). We show that in order to span the dilute and semi-concentrated regime, any model must carefully capture the balance between spatial and orientational correlations as the protein concentration is elevated. This requires consideration of the protein surface morphology, including possible patch interactions. Experimental data for TLL is most accurately described when assuming a patchy interaction, leading to dimer formation. Our analysis supports that the dimeric proteins predominantly exist in their open conformation where the active site is exposed, thereby maximising hydrophobic attractions that promote inter-protein alignment.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos , Eurotiales , Detergentes , Ascomicetos/metabolismo , Lipase/química , Proteínas , Soluções
4.
Enzyme Microb Technol ; 162: 110151, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36347159

RESUMO

ß-1,3-1,4-Glucanase is an indispensable biocatalyst in barley brewing industry for its crucial effect in reducing the viscosity of mash. However, the unsatisfactory thermostability greatly limited its application performance. In this study, structure-based surface charge engineering was conducted aiming at thermostability improvement of BisGlu16B, a highly active ß-1,3-1,4-glucanase from Bispora sp. MEY-1. By applying the enzyme thermal stability system (ETSS), residues D47, D213, and D253 were inferred to be critical sites for thermal properties. Single (D47A, D213A, and D253A) and combination (D47A/D213A/D253A) mutants were generated and compared with BisGlu16B. Among all improved mutants, D47A/D213A/D253A outstanded in thermostability. In comparison with BisGlu16B, its T50 and Tm were respectively increased by 7.0 °C and 4.3 °C, while the t1/2 at 70 °C was 8.1 times that of the wild type. Furthermore, the catalytic activity of D47A/D213A/D253A also increased by 42.5%, compared with BisGlu16B (42,900 ± 300 U/mg vs. 30,100 ± 800 U/mg). Comparing with BisGlu16B and commercial enzyme treatment groups, under simulated malting conditions, efficiency improvement was observed in decreasement of viscosity (35.5% and 90.7%) and filtration time (30.9% and 34.6%) for D47A/D213A/D253A treatment group. Molecular dynamics simulation showed that mutation sites A47, A213, and A253 increased the protein rigidity by lowering the overall root mean square deviation (RMSD). This study may bring optimization of technology and improvement of producing efficiency to the present brewing industry.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos , Hordeum , Hordeum/genética , Hordeum/metabolismo , Glicosídeo Hidrolases/metabolismo , Estabilidade Enzimática , Catálise , Ascomicetos/metabolismo , Temperatura
5.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e244261, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285633

RESUMO

Abstract Endophytic bacteria serve key roles in the maintenance of plant health and growth. Few studies to date, however, have explored the antagonistic and plant growth-promoting (PGP) properties of Prunus cerasifera endophytes. To that end, we isolated endophytic bacteria from P. cerasifera tissue samples and used a dual culture plate assay to screen these microbes for antagonistic activity against Verticillium dahliae, Botryosphaeria dothidea, Fusarium oxysporum, F. graminearum, and F. moniliforme. Of the 36 strains of isolated bacteria, four (strains P1, P10, P16, and P20) exhibited antagonistic effects against all five model pathogens, and the P10 strain exhibited the strongest antagonistic to five pathogens. This P10 strain was then characterized in-depth via phenotypic assessments, physiological analyses, and 16s rDNA sequencing, revealing it to be a strain of Bacillus subtilis. Application of a P10 cell suspension (1×108 CFU/mL) significantly enhanced the seed germination and seedling growth of tomato in a greenhouse setting. This P10 strain further significantly suppressed tomato Verticillium wilt with much lower disease incidence and disease index scores being observed following P10 treatment relative to untreated plants in pot-based experiments. Tomato plants that had been treated with strain P10 also enhanced defense-related enzymes, peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, and catalase activity upon V. dahliae challenge relative to plants that had not been treated with this endophytic bacterium. The results revealed that the P10 bacterial strain has potential value as a biocontrol agent for use in the prevention of tomato Verticillium wilt.


Resumo As bactérias endofíticas desempenham papel fundamental na manutenção da saúde e do crescimento das plantas. Poucos estudos até o momento, no entanto, exploraram as propriedades antagônicas e promotoras de crescimento de plantas (PGP) de endófitos de Prunus cerasifera. Para esse fim, isolamos bactérias endofíticas de amostras de tecido de P. cerasifera e usamos um ensaio de placa de cultura dupla para rastrear esses micróbios quanto à atividade antagonista contra Verticillium dahliae, Botryosphaeria dothidea, Fusarium oxysporum, F. graminearum e F. moniliforme. Das 36 cepas de bactérias isoladas, quatro (cepas P1, P10, P16 e P20) exibiram efeitos antagônicos contra todos os cinco patógenos modelo, e a cepa P10 exibiu o antagonista mais forte para cinco patógenos. Essa cepa P10 foi então caracterizada em profundidade por meio de avaliações fenotípicas, análises fisiológicas e sequenciamento de rDNA 16s, revelando ser uma cepa de Bacillus subtilis. A aplicação de uma suspensão de células P10 (1 × 108 UFC / mL) aumentou significativamente a germinação das sementes e o crescimento das mudas de tomate em casa de vegetação. Essa cepa P10 suprimiu ainda mais a murcha de Verticillium do tomate com incidência de doença muito menor e pontuações de índice de doença sendo observadas após o tratamento com P10 em relação a plantas não tratadas em experimentos baseados em vasos. As plantas de tomate que foram tratadas com a cepa P10 também aumentaram as enzimas relacionadas à defesa, peroxidase, superóxido dismutase e atividade da catalase após o desafio de V. dahliae em relação às plantas que não foram tratadas com essa bactéria endofítica. Os resultados revelaram que a cepa bacteriana P10 tem valor potencial como agente de biocontrole para uso na prevenção da murcha de Verticillium em tomate.


Assuntos
Lycopersicon esculentum , Verticillium , Prunus domestica , Doenças das Plantas/prevenção & controle , Ascomicetos , Bacillus subtilis , Fusarium
6.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e242070, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278554

RESUMO

Abstract Interactions between endophytic fungi (EFs) and their host plants range from positive to neutral to negative. The results of such interactions can vary depending on the organ of the infected host plant. EFs isolated from the leaves of some species of plants have potential for use as agents to inhibit seed germination and control invasive plants. The objectives of this study were to identify EFs present in the leaves of Copaifera oblongifolia and to evaluate the role of these fungi in seed germination and seedling development. A total of 11 species of EFs were isolated, which were identified using the internal transcribed spacers (ITS) sequence of the nuclear ribosomal DNA. The isolated species of EFs are generalists and probably are transmitted horizontally. Laboratory tests revealed that filtrates of these fungal isolates differently affect seed germination and seedling development of C. oblongifolia. The species Curvularia intermedia, Neofusicoccum parvum, Pseudofusicoccum stromaticum and Phomopsis sp. negatively affected seed germination, with N. parvum standing out for its negative effects, inhibiting seedling germination and survival in 89 and 222%, respectively. In addition, Cochliobolus intermedius negatively affected seedling development. Thus, the combined use of N. parvum and C. intermedius, or products from the metabolism of these microorganisms, in the control of invasive plants deserves attention from future studies.


Resumo As interações entre fungos endofíticos (FEs) e suas plantas hospedeiras variam de positivas, neutras a negativas. Os resultados destas interações podem variar dependendo do órgão da planta hospedeira infectada. FEs isolados de folhas de algumas espécies de plantas têm potencial para serem usados como agentes inibidores da germinação de sementes e no controle de plantas invasoras. Os objetivos deste estudo foram identificar os FEs presentes nas folhas de Copaifera oblongifolia e avaliar o papel destes fungos na germinação das sementes e no desenvolvimento das plântulas. Um total de 11 espécies de FEs foi isolado das folhas de C. oblongifolia e identificado através da sequência dos espaçadores internos transcritos do DNA ribossomal nuclear. As espécies de FEs isoladas são generalistas e provavelmente devem ser transmitidas horizontalmente. Os resultados dos testes de germinação mostraram que filtrados destes isolados fúngicos podem afetar diferentemente a germinação das sementes e o desenvolvimento das plântulas de C. oblongifolia. As espécies Curvularia intermedia, Neofusicoccum parvum, Pseudofusicoccum stromaticum e Phomopsis sp. afetaram negativamente a germinação das sementes de C. oblongifolia. Dentre estas espécies devemos destacar que N. parvum reduziu a germinação e a sobrevivência das plântulas em 89 e 222%, respectivamente. Além disso, Cochiliobolus intermedius afetou negativamente o desenvolvimento das plântulas. Assim, o uso combinado de N. parvum e C. intermedius, ou de produtos do metabolismo destas espécies de fungos, têm potencial para serem usados no manejo de plantas invasoras.


Assuntos
Germinação , Fabaceae , Ascomicetos , Sementes , Folhas de Planta , Plântula , Fungos , Curvularia
7.
BMC Plant Biol ; 22(1): 509, 2022 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36319971

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Poa pratensis is one of the most common cold-season turfgrasses used for urban turf building, and it is also widely used in ecological environment management worldwide. Powdery mildew is a common disease of P. pratensis. To scientifically and ecologically control lawn powdery mildew, the molecular mechanism underlying the response of P. pratensis to powdery mildew infection must better understood. RESULTS: To explore molecular mechanism underlying the response of P. pratensis to powdery mildew infection, this study compared physiological changes and transcriptomic level differences between the highly resistant variety 'BlackJack' and the extremely susceptible variety 'EverGlade' under powdery mildew infection conditions. We analyzed DEGs using reference canonical pathways in the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) database, and the results showed that "starch and sucrose metabolism", "photosynthesis" and "fatty acid metabolism"pathways were only enriched in 'BlackJack', and the expression of DEGs such as HXK, INV, GS, SS, AGpase and ß-amylase in "starch and sucrose metabolism" pathway of 'BlackJack' were closely related to powdery mildew resistance. Meanwhile, compared with 'EverGlade', powdery mildew infection promoted synthesis of sucrose, expression of photosynthesis parameters and photosynthesis-related enzymes in leaves of 'BlackJack' and decreased accumulation of monosaccharides such as glucose and fructose. CONCLUSIONS: This study identified the key metabolic pathways of a P. pratensis variety with high resistance to powdery mildew infection and explored the differences in physiological characteristics and key genes related to sugar metabolism pathways under powdery mildew stress. These findings provide important insights for studying underlying molecular response mechanism.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos , Poa , Transcriptoma , Resistência à Doença/genética , Poa/genética , Ascomicetos/fisiologia , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Kentucky , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Erysiphe , Sacarose , Amido
8.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 19790, 2022 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36396737

RESUMO

The production and leaf quality of Telfairia occidentalis in Cameroon are gravely threatened by leaf spot disease. A field study was conducted in July 2019 and 2020 to determine the influence of tillage systems and sowing dates on the incidence of Telfairia occidentalis leaf spot caused by Phoma sorghina. A randomized block design with three replications and four planting dates was used. The soil physicochemical properties were also determined. Data for disease incidence were registered once every two weeks and submitted to generalized linear model for statistical analysis. The means were separated by Duncan's multiple range test at a 95% confidence interval. Calculations for disease incidence and statistical analysis were conducted using the Microsoft Excel program and SPSS version 23, respectively. Statistical analysis revealed that the zero tilled field generally registered a lower leaf spot disease incidence than the tilled field, which was highly significant (p ≤ 0.05). In addition, the second sowing date in the zero tilled field proved to be better in terms of low disease incidence than other sowing dates employed in the study. Therefore, to minimize the devastating effects of leaf spot disease, zero tillage coupled with the second sowing date could be exploited.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos , Cucurbitaceae , Incidência , Camarões/epidemiologia
9.
FEMS Microbiol Lett ; 369(1)2022 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36354105

RESUMO

Erythritol is a 4-carbon polyol produced with the aid of microbes in presence of hyper-osmotic stress. It is the most effective sugar alcohol that is produced predominantly by fermentation. In comparison to various polyols, it has many precise functions and is used as a flavor enhancer, sequestrant, humectant, nutritive sweetener, stabilizer, formulation aid, thickener, and a texturizer. Erythritol production is a common trait in a number of the yeast genera viz., Trigonopsis, Candida, Pichia, Moniliella, Yarrowia, Pseudozyma, Trichosporonoides, Aureobasidium, and Trichoderma. Extensive work has been carried out on the biological production of erythritol through Yarrowia, Moniliella, Candida, and other yeast strains, and numerous strategies used to improve erythritol productivity through mutagenesis and genetic engineering are discussed in this review.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos , Ustilaginales , Yarrowia , Abelhas , Animais , Eritritol , Candida , Pressão Osmótica
10.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 19876, 2022 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36400797

RESUMO

Citrus black spot (CBS), caused by the fungus Phyllosticta citricarpa, is associated with serious yield and quality losses. The climate suitability of the Mediterranean Basin for CBS development has been long debated. However, CBS has been described in Tunisia. In this study, a generic model was used to simulate potential infections by ascospores and pycnidiospores together with a degree-day model to predict the onset of ascospore release. High-resolution climatic data were retrieved from the ERA5-Land dataset for the citrus-growing regions in the Mediterranean Basin and other locations where CBS is present. In general, the onset of ascospore release was predicted to occur late in spring, but there is no agreement on the adequacy of this empirical model for extrapolation to the Mediterranean Basin. The generic model indicated that infections by ascospores and pycnidiospores would be concentrated mainly in autumn, as well as in spring for pycnidiospores. In contrast to previous studies, the percentage of hours suitable for infection was higher for pycnidiospores than for ascospores. The values obtained with the generic infection model for Tunisia and several CBS-affected locations worldwide were similar to those for other citrus-growing regions in Europe and Northern Africa. These results support previous work indicating that the climate of the Mediterranean Basin is suitable for CBS development.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos , Citrus , Citrus/microbiologia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Esporos Fúngicos , Tunísia
11.
Int J Med Mushrooms ; 24(10): 83-91, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36374832

RESUMO

Biomineralization is the phenomenon by which organisms form crystals. Studies have shown that many fungi can biomineralize, producing calcium oxalate crystals on their hyphae and fruiting body. Schizophyllum commune is a medicinal and edible fungus found worldwide, however, studies on biomineralization in this fungus are limited. Here, samples of Sch. commune fruiting bodies were collected from three different provinces in China and hyphal cells were cultured. Using light microscopy, FE-SEM, and EDAX, we identified crystals on the fruiting body and mycelium of each strain and analyzed their morphological characteristics and ion content. These data demonstrate that biomineralization occurs in Sch. commune in nature as well as during subsequent in vitro culture.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos , Schizophyllum , Animais , Schizophyllum/química , Hifas , Oxalato de Cálcio , Brânquias
12.
Molecules ; 27(21)2022 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36364185

RESUMO

The secondary metabolites of the phytopathogenic fungus Corynespora cassiicola CC01 from Hevea brasiliensis were investigated. As a result, two new compounds, 5-acetyl-7-hydroxy-6- methoxybenzofuran-2(3H)-one (1) and (S)-2-(2,3-dihydrofuro [3,2-c]pyridin-2-yl)propan-2-ol (2), together with seven known compounds, 4,6,8-trihydroxy-3,4-dihydronaphthalen-1(2H)-one (3), 3,6,8-trihydroxy-3,4-dihydronaphthalen-1(2H)-one (4), curvulin acid (5), 2-methyl-5-carboxymethyl- 7-hydroxychromone (6), tyrosol (7), p-hydroxybenzoic acid (8) and cerevisterol (9), were isolated from the fermentation extract by comprehensive silica gel, reverse phase silica gel, Sephadex-LH20 column chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The structures of these compounds were identified by using high-resolution electrospray mass spectrometry (HRESIMS), nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR), optical rotation, ultraviolet and infrared spectroscopy techniques and a comparison of NMR data with those reported in the literature. Compounds 1 and 2 were new compounds, and compounds 3-9 were discovered from this phytopathogenic fungus for the first time. Compounds 1-9 were tested for phytotoxicity against the fresh tender leaf of Hevea brasiliensis, and the results show that none of them were phytotoxic. Additionally, these compounds were subjected to an antimicrobial assay against three bacteria (E. coli, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Micrococcus luteus), but they showed no activity.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos , Hevea , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina , Hevea/química , Sílica Gel , Escherichia coli
13.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 19628, 2022 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36380003

RESUMO

Gummy stem blight (GSB) is a fungal disease affecting cucurbit crops, including watermelon (Citrullus lanatus), leading to significant yield losses. The disease is caused by three Stagonosporopsis species, of which Stagonosporopsis citrulli is the most common in the southeastern United States. Currently no gummy stem blight-resistant watermelon cultivars are available to growers. In this study, QTL-seq in an interspecific population developed from Sugar Baby × PI 189225 (Citrullus amarus) identified QTL on chromosomes 2, 5, 9 and 11. A novel QTL on chromosome 5 (Qgsb5.2) associated with resistance to S. citrulli (PVE = 13.3%) was confirmed by genetic mapping. KASP marker assays were developed for selection of Qgsb5.2 to allow breeders to track the allele contributing resistance to GSB, reducing the need for laborious phenotyping. Pyramiding different GSB resistance QTL could be a useful strategy to develop GSB resistant watermelon cultivars.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos , Citrullus , Citrullus/genética , Citrullus/microbiologia , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Ascomicetos/genética , Mapeamento Cromossômico
14.
BMC Genom Data ; 23(1): 78, 2022 11 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36357835

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Zalaria sp. Him3 was reported as a novel fructooligosaccharides (FOS) producing yeast. However, Zalaria spp. have not been widely known and have been erroneously classified as a different black yeast, Aureobasidium pullulans. In this study, de novo genome assembly and analysis of Zalaria sp. Him3 was demonstrated to confirm the existence of a potential enzyme that facilitates FOS production and to compare with the genome of A. pullulans. RESULTS: The genome of Zalaria sp. Him3 was analyzed; the total read bases and total number of reads were 6.38 Gbp and 42,452,134 reads, respectively. The assembled genome sequence was calculated to be 22.38 Mbp, with 207 contigs, N50 of 885,387, L50 of 10, GC content of 53.8%, and 7,496 genes. g2419, g3120, and g3700 among the predicted genes were annotated as cellulase, xylanase, and ß-fructofuranosidase (FFase), respectively. When the read sequences were mapped to A. pullulans EXF-150 genome as a reference, a small amount of reads (3.89%) corresponded to the reference genome. Phylogenetic tree analysis, which was based on the conserved sequence set consisting of 2,362 orthologs in the genome, indicated genetic differences between Zalaria sp. Him3 and Aureobasidium spp. CONCLUSION: The differences between Zalaria and Aureobasidium spp. were evident at the genome level. g3700 identified in the Zalaria sp. Him3 likely does not encode a highly transfructosyl FFase because the motif sequences were unlike those in other FFases involved in FOS production. Therefore, strain Him3 may produce another FFase. Furthermore, several genes with promising functions were identified and might elicit further interest in Zalaria yeast.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos , Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Filogenia , Ascomicetos/genética , beta-Frutofuranosidase/genética
15.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 20079, 2022 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36418499

RESUMO

The bioremediation of heavy metals contaminated soils with macrofungi is a new and promising approach; hence Agaricus bisporus (Large) sing has potentially shown accumulating ability to Cd contamination. This study focused on the tolerance response by A. bisporus to different contents of Cd in the closed cup and the flat stage of fruiting body development. The contents of Cd, soluble protein, sugar, low molecular weight organic acids (LMWOAs), and antioxidant activity were investigated. The bioaccumulation factor and transfer factor results revealed that Cd accumulated in the cap of A. bisporus more than that in the stipe with the highest content being 18.38 mg kg-1 dry weight at the closed cup stage under 414.28 mg kg-1 Cd stress. High Cd content stress increased soluble protein, proline, and malonaldehyde contents at both stages; while higher peroxidase, catalase, ascorbic acid peroxidase activities, and LMWOAs contents were only recorded at the closed cup stage. On the other hand, Superoxide dismutase activities and soluble sugar content showed a complex trend. Overall, these results have successfully established that A. bisporus could resort to modulating its metabolism to avoid the destructive effects of Cd stress and could successfully accumulate Cd in the soil, which is a promising prospect for the remediation of Cd-contaminated soils.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos , Carcinoma , Bioacumulação , Cádmio/toxicidade , Solo , Peroxidases , Açúcares
16.
Microb Cell Fact ; 21(1): 249, 2022 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36419162

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genomic analysis indicated that the genomes of ascomycetes might carry dozens of biosynthetic gene clusters (BGCs), yet many clusters have remained enigmatic. The ascomycete genus Epicoccum, belonging to the family Didymellaceae, is ubiquitous that colonizes different types of substrates and is associated with phyllosphere or decaying vegetation. Species of this genus are prolific producers of bioactive substances. The epicoccamides, as biosynthetically distinct mannosylated tetramate, were first isolated in 2003 from Epicoccum sp. In this study, using a combination of genome mining, chemical identification, genetic deletion, and bioinformatic analysis, we identified the required BGC epi responsible for epicoccamide A biosynthesis in Epicoccum sp. CPCC 400996. RESULTS: The unconventional biosynthetic gene cluster epi was obtained from an endophyte Epicoccum sp. CPCC 400996 through AntiSMASH-based genome mining. The cluster epi includes six putative open reading frames (epiA-epiF) altogether, in which the epiA encodes a tetramate-forming polyketide synthase and nonribosomal peptide synthetases (PKS-NRPS hybrid). Sequence alignments and bioinformatic analysis to other metabolic pathways of fungal tetramates, we proposed that the gene cluster epi could be involved in generating epicoccamides. Genetic knockout of epiA completely abolished the biosynthesis of epicoccamide A (1), thereby establishing the correlation between the BGC epi and biosynthesis of epicoccamide A. Bioinformatic adenylation domain signature analysis of EpiA and other fungal PKS-NRPSs (NRPs) indicated that the EpiA is L-alanine incorporating tetramates megasynthase. Furthermore, based on the molecular structures of epicoccamide A and deduced gene functions of the cluster epi, a hypothetic metabolic pathway for biosynthesizing compound 1 was proposed. The corresponding tetramates releasing during epicoccamide A biosynthesis was catalyzed through Dieckmann-type cyclization, in which the reductive (R) domain residing in terminal module of EpiA accomplished the conversion. These results unveiled the underlying mechanism of epicoccamides biosynthesis and these findings might provide opportunities for derivatization of epicoccamides or generation of new chemical entities. CONCLUSION: Genome mining and genetic inactivation experiments unveiled a previously uncharacterized PKS - NRPS hybrid-based BGC epi responsible for the generation of epicoccamide A (1) in endophyte Epicoccum sp. CPCC 400996. In addition, based on the gene cluster data, a hypothetical biosynthetic pathway of epicoccamide A was proposed.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos , Policetídeo Sintases , Policetídeo Sintases/genética , Monossacarídeos , Cetonas , Ascomicetos/genética
17.
J Plant Physiol ; 279: 153839, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36370615

RESUMO

Pyrenophora teres f. maculata (Ptm) is a fungal pathogen that causes the spot form of net blotch on barley and leads to economic losses in many of the world's barley-growing regions. Isolates of Ptm exhibit varying levels of aggressiveness that result in quantifiable changes in the severity of the disease. Previous research on plant-pathogen interactions has shown that such divergence is reflected in the proteome and secretome of the pathogen, with certain classes of proteins more prominent in aggressive isolates. Here we have made a detailed comparative analysis of the secretomes of two Ptm isolates, GPS79 and E35 (highly and mildly aggressive, respectively) using a proteomics-based approach. The secretomes were obtained in vitro using media amended with barley leaf sections. Secreted proteins therein were harvested, digested with trypsin, and fractionated offline by HPLC prior to LC-MS in a high-resolution instrument to obtain deep coverage of the proteome. The subsequent analysis used a label-free quantitative proteomics approach with relative quantification of proteins based on precursor ion intensities. A total of 1175 proteins were identified, 931 from Ptm and 244 from barley. Further analysis revealed 160 differentially abundant proteins with at least a two-fold abundance difference between the isolates, with the most enriched in the aggressive GPS79 secretome. These proteins were mainly cell-wall (carbohydrate) degrading enzymes and peptidases, with some oxidoreductases and other pathogenesis-related proteins also identified, suggesting that aggressiveness is associated with an improved ability of GPS79 to overcome cell wall barriers and neutralize host defense responses.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos , Hordeum , Peptídeo Hidrolases , Proteoma , Parede Celular
18.
Molecules ; 27(21)2022 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36364472

RESUMO

The new polyketides lopouzanones A and B, as well as the new 1-O-acetyl and 2-O-acetyl derivatives of dendrodochol B, were isolated from the sponge-derived marine fungus Lopadostoma pouzarii strain 168CLC-57.3. Moreover, six known polyketides, gliorosein, balticolid, dendrodolide G, dihydroisocoumarine, (-)-5-methylmellein, and dendrodochol B, were identified. The structures of the isolated compounds were determined by a combination of NMR and ESIMS techniques. The absolute configurations of the lopouzanones A and B were determined using the Mosher's method. The cytotoxicity of the isolated compounds against human prostate cancer cells PC-3 and normal rat cardiomyocytes H9c2 was investigated. Gliorosein showed weak DPPH radical-scavenging activity and in vitro cardioprotective effects toward rotenone toxicity and CoCl2-mimic hypoxia.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos , Policetídeos , Humanos , Ratos , Animais , Policetídeos/química , Ascomicetos/química , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Estrutura Molecular
19.
Korean J Parasitol ; 60(5): 345-352, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36320111

RESUMO

Chitinase AO-801 is a hydrolase secreted by Arthrobotrys oligospora during nematode feeding, while its role remained elusive. This study analyzed the molecular characteristics of recombinant chitinase of Arthrobotrys oligospora (reAO-801). AO-801 belongs to the typical glycoside hydrolase 18 family with conserved chitinase sequence and tertiary structure of (α/ß)8 triose-phosphate isomerase (TIM) barrel. The molecular weight of reAO-801 was 42 kDa. reAO-801 effectively degraded colloidal and powdered chitin, egg lysate, and stage I larval lysate of Caenorhabditis elegans. The activity of reAO-801 reached its peak at 40˚C and pH values between 4-7. Enzyme activity was inhibited by Zn2+, Ca2+, and Fe3+, whereas Mg2+ and K+ potentiated its activity. In addition, urea, sodium dodecyl sulfate, and 2-mercaptoethanol significantly inhibited enzyme activity. reAO-801 showed complete nematicidal activity against C. elegans stage I larvae. reAO-801 broke down the C. elegans egg shells, causing them to die or die prematurely by hatching the eggs. It also invoked degradation of Haemonchus contortus eggs, resulting in apparent changes in the morphological structure. This study demonstrated the cytotoxic effect of reAO-801, which laid the foundation for further dissecting the mechanism of nematode infestation by A. oligospora.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos , Quitinases , Nematoides , Animais , Quitinases/metabolismo , Quitinases/farmacologia , Caenorhabditis elegans , Ascomicetos/metabolismo , Larva
20.
BMC Biol ; 20(1): 246, 2022 11 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36329441

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Scab, caused by the biotrophic fungus Venturia inaequalis, is the most economically important disease of apples worldwide. During infection, V. inaequalis occupies the subcuticular environment, where it secretes virulence factors, termed effectors, to promote host colonization. Consistent with other plant-pathogenic fungi, many of these effectors are expected to be non-enzymatic proteins, some of which can be recognized by corresponding host resistance proteins to activate plant defences, thus acting as avirulence determinants. To develop durable control strategies against scab, a better understanding of the roles that these effector proteins play in promoting subcuticular growth by V. inaequalis, as well as in activating, suppressing, or circumventing resistance protein-mediated defences in apple, is required. RESULTS: We generated the first comprehensive RNA-seq transcriptome of V. inaequalis during colonization of apple. Analysis of this transcriptome revealed five temporal waves of gene expression that peaked during early, mid, or mid-late infection. While the number of genes encoding secreted, non-enzymatic proteinaceous effector candidates (ECs) varied in each wave, most belonged to waves that peaked in expression during mid-late infection. Spectral clustering based on sequence similarity determined that the majority of ECs belonged to expanded protein families. To gain insights into function, the tertiary structures of ECs were predicted using AlphaFold2. Strikingly, despite an absence of sequence similarity, many ECs were predicted to have structural similarity to avirulence proteins from other plant-pathogenic fungi, including members of the MAX, LARS, ToxA and FOLD effector families. In addition, several other ECs, including an EC family with sequence similarity to the AvrLm6 avirulence effector from Leptosphaeria maculans, were predicted to adopt a KP6-like fold. Thus, proteins with a KP6-like fold represent another structural family of effectors shared among plant-pathogenic fungi. CONCLUSIONS: Our study reveals the transcriptomic profile underpinning subcuticular growth by V. inaequalis and provides an enriched list of ECs that can be investigated for roles in virulence and avirulence. Furthermore, our study supports the idea that numerous sequence-unrelated effectors across plant-pathogenic fungi share common structural folds. In doing so, our study gives weight to the hypothesis that many fungal effectors evolved from ancestral genes through duplication, followed by sequence diversification, to produce sequence-unrelated but structurally similar proteins.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos , Malus , Ascomicetos/genética , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Fungos do Gênero Venturia , Malus/genética , Malus/microbiologia
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