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1.
Food Chem ; 366: 130642, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34304135

RESUMO

Morchella sp. is a typical edible fungus. However, its unique natural products, especially bioactive composition, are rarely reported. In this study, an untargeted metabolomics approach combined with multivariate statistical analysis was employed to screen the differential metabolites in Morchella sp. compared to four other edible fungi. Among the screened 50-top differential metabolites, 18 compounds involving fatty acids and peptides showed higher content in Morchella sp.. A unique peptide of desferriferricrocin was identified. Subsequently, molecular networking analysis revealed three novel homologous compounds of desferriferricrocin, which were annotated as desferriferrichrome, desferriferrichrome C, and a new homolog not previously reported. These results were further verified by quantitative analysis. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of four peptides in Morchella sp..


Assuntos
Ascomicetos , Metabolômica , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão
2.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 109: 193-205, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34607668

RESUMO

The bioaccumulation of PAHs and metal elements in the indigenous lichens Xanthoria parietina was monitored during two years at a quarterly frequency, in 3 sites of contrasted anthropic influence. The impact of the meteorological factors (temperature, relative humidity, rainfall, wind speed) was first estimated through principal component analysis, and then by stepwise multilinear regressions to include wind directions. The pollutants levels reflected the proximity of atmospheric emissions, in particular from a large industrial harbor. High humidity and mild temperatures, and in a lower extent low wind speed and rainfall, also favored higher concentration levels. The contributions of these meteorological aspects became minor when including wind direction, especially when approaching major emission sources. The bioaccumulation integration time towards meteorological variations was on a seasonal basis (1-2 months) but the wind direction and thus local emissions also relied on a longer time scale (12 months). This showed that the contribution of meteorological conditions may be prevalent in remote places, while secondary in polluted areas, and should be definitely taken into account regarding long-term lichen biomonitoring and inter-annual comparisons. In the same time, a quadruple sampling in each site revealed a high homogeneity among supporting tree species and topography. The resulting uncertainty, including sampling, preparation and analysis was below 30% when comfortable analytical conditions were achieved. Finally, the occurrence of unexpected events such as a major forest fire, permitted to evaluate that this type of short, although intense, events did not have a strong influence on PAH and metals bioaccumulation by lichen.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Líquens , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Ascomicetos , Bioacumulação , Monitoramento Ambiental
3.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 105(20): 7981-7995, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34596724

RESUMO

In this study, we examined a synthetic microbial consortium, composed of two selected bacteria, i.e., Citrobacter freundii so4 and Sphingobacterium multivorum w15, next to the fungus Coniochaeta sp. 2T2.1, with respect to their fate and roles in the degradation of wheat straw (WS). A special focus was placed on the effects of pH (7.2, 6.2, or 5.2), temperature (25 versus 28 °C), and shaking speed (60 versus 180 rpm). Coniochaeta sp. 2T2.1 consistently had a key role in the degradation process, with the two bacteria having additional roles. Whereas temperature exerted only minor effects on the degradation, pH and shaking speed were key determinants of both organismal growth and WS degradation levels. In detail, the three-partner degrader consortium showed significantly higher WS degradation values at pH 6.2 and 5.2 than at pH 7.2. Moreover, the two bacteria revealed up to tenfold enhanced final cell densities (ranging from log8.0 to log9.0 colony forming unit (CFU)/mL) in the presence of Coniochaeta sp. 2T2.1 than when growing alone or in a bacterial bi-culture, regardless of pH range or shaking speed. Conversely, at 180 rpm, fungal growth was clearly suppressed by the presence of the bacteria at pH 5.2 and pH 6.2, but not at pH 7.2. In contrast, at 60 rpm, the presence of the bacteria fostered fungal growth. In these latter cultures, oxygen levels were significantly lowered as compared to the maximal levels found at 180 rpm (about 5.67 mg/L, ~ 62% of saturation). Conspicuous effects on biomass appearance pointed to a fungal biofilm-modulating role of the bacteria.Key points• Coniochaeta sp. 2T2.1 has a key role in wheat straw (WS) degradation.• Bacterial impact shifts when conditions change.• pH and shaking speed are key drivers of the growth dynamics and WS degradation.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos , Consórcios Microbianos , Lignina , Sphingobacterium
4.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(41): 12143-12147, 2021 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34623150

RESUMO

The phytopathogenic fungus Truncatella angustata, associated with grapevine trunk diseases (GTDs) in Iran, produces the well-known secondary metabolite isocoumumarin (+)-6-hyroxyramulosin and surprisingly also phenazine-1-carboxylic acid (PCA). PCA, identified by spectroscopic (essentially 1H NMR and ESI MS) spectra, is a bacterial metabolite well known for its antifungal activity and was found for the first time in T. angustata culture filtrates. The antifungal activity of PCA was assayed against four different fungi responsible for GTDs, Phaeoacremonium minimum, Phaeoacremonium italicum, Fomitiporia mediterranea, involved in grapevine esca disease, and Neofusicoccum parvum, responsible for Botryosphaeria dieback. The activity was compared with that of the known commercial fungicide, pentachloronitrobenzene, and the close phenazine. PCA and phenazine exhibited strong antifungal activity against all phytopathogenic fungi, inhibiting the fungal growth by about 90-100% and 80-100%, respectively. These results suggested that T. angustata could use PCA to compete with other phytopathogenic fungi that attack grapevine and thus PCA could be proposed as a biofungicide against the fungi responsible for grapevine esca and Botryosphaeria dieback diseases.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos , Vitis , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Basidiomycota , Irã (Geográfico) , Fenazinas , Doenças das Plantas
5.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(40): 11878-11889, 2021 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34605647

RESUMO

Fourteen eremophilane sesquiterpenoids (1-14), including nine new congeners, septoreremophilanes A-I (1-9), together with three known sesquiterpenes (15-17), two known tetralone derivatives (18, 19), and two known cholesterol analogues (20, 21), were isolated from the endophytic fungus Septoria rudbeckiae. Compounds 1-6 and 7a belong to the family of the highly oxygenated eremophilane sesquiterpenoids with a 6/6/5 tricyclic system and bearing a hemiacetal moiety. The inhibitions of all metabolites against eight bacteria were estimated in vitro, and nine new metabolites (1-9) were tested for antineuroinflammatory activity. Notably, the effects of 4 against Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidae and 20 against Bacillus cereus displayed potent inhibitory, with the MIC values of 6.25 and 6.25 µM, respectively. Further, scanning electron microscopy analyses indicated that 4 and 20 were to change the outer configuration of bacterial cells, respectively, and the investigations demonstrated that 4 and 20 may act as potential structure templates for the development of the agrochemical bactericides. Additionally, compound 6 displayed potent inhibition of NO generation in lipopolysaccharide-induced BV-2 microglial cells (IC50 = 12.0 ± 0.32 µM), and the conceivable anti-inflammatory mechanisms implicated were also investigated by molecular docking. Thus, the bioactive metabolites of the strain S. rudbeckiae may serve as a novel resource to be developed.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos , Sesquiterpenos , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Estrutura Molecular , Sesquiterpenos Policíclicos , Sesquiterpenos/farmacologia
6.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 105(20): 7997-8007, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34596723

RESUMO

Agaricus bisporus is the most widely cultivated edible mushroom in the world. Strain quality has an important influence on the yield of A. bisporus, with strains that exhibit aging being a common problem during cultivation. However, little is known about the aging mechanisms of A. bisporus strain. In this study, the normal A. bisporus As2796 strain was compared to the aging A. bisporus As2796Y strain (which was previously discovered during cultivation). In the aging As2796Y mycelia, the mycelial growth rate and fruiting body yield were decreased and the chitin level and cell wall thickness were increased. Additionally, intracellular vacuoles increased, there was cytoplasmic shrinkage, and the sterol level which stabilizes the cell membrane decreased, which led to cytoplasmic outflow and the exudation of a large amount of yellow water from the mycelia. Additionally, there was increased electrolyte leakage. Furthermore, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) was used to profile the metabolic changes in the aging As2796Y mycelia compared to the normal As2796 mycelia. A total of 52 differential metabolites were identified (75% were downregulated and 25% were upregulated in As2796Y). The reduction of many metabolites decreased the mycelial viability and the ability to maintain cell stability. Overall, this study is the first to report on the morphologic and metabolic changes in aged A. bisporus mycelia, which will aid future research on the mechanisms underlying A. bisporus mycelial aging.Key points• Aging of Agaricus bisporus strains will greatly reduce the fruiting body yield.• Aging of Agaricus bisporus strains can significantly change the cell structure of mycelia.• Many metabolites in the mycelium of aging spawn As2796Y significantly changed.


Assuntos
Agaricus , Ascomicetos , Parede Celular , Micélio
7.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(38): 11395-11405, 2021 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34523907

RESUMO

Plant pathogenic fungi seriously threaten agricultural production. There is an urgent need to develop novel fungicides with low toxicity and high efficiency. In this study, we designed and synthesized 44 pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-4-one derivatives and evaluated them for their fungicidal activities. The bioassay data revealed that most of the target compounds possessed moderate to high in vitro antifungal activities. Especially compound g22 exhibited remarkable antifungal activity against Sclerotinia sclerotiorum with an EC50 value of 1.25 mg/L, close to that of commercial fungicide boscalid (EC50 = 0.96 mg/L) and fluopyram (EC50 = 1.91 mg/L). Moreover, compound g22 possessed prominent protective activity against S. sclerotiorum in vivo for 24 h (95.23%) and 48 h (93.78%), comparable to positive control boscalid (24 h (96.63%); 48 h (93.23%)). Subsequent studies indicated that compound g22 may impede the growth and reproduction of S. sclerotiorum by affecting the morphology of mycelium, destroying cell membrane integrity, and increasing cell membrane permeability. In addition, the application of compound g22 did not injure the growth or reproduction of Italian bees. This study revealed that compound g22 is expected to be developed for efficient and safe agricultural fungicides.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos , Fungicidas Industriais , Animais , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Fungicidas Industriais/farmacologia , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
8.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(38): 11216-11224, 2021 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34541846

RESUMO

Six new xanthone dimers, diaporxanthones A-F (1-6), and an unusual xanthone monomer diaporxanthone G (7), in addition to seven known analogues (8-14), were isolated and identified from endophytic Diaporthe goulteri L17 harbored in the fruits of the salt-tolerant plant Vitex trifolia. The chemical structures of these metabolites were elucidated on the basis of nuclear magnetic resonance, high-resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, and reported data in the literature. Their absolute configurations were established by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis together with time-dependent density functional theory electronic circular dichroism calculations. Among these compounds, compounds 1 and 6 exhibited moderate antifungal activities against Nectria sp. and Colletotrichum musae and compound 4 showed significant cytotoxicity against all selected five cancer cell lines.


Assuntos
Colletotrichum , Xantonas , Ascomicetos , Dicroísmo Circular , Estrutura Molecular , Xantonas/farmacologia
9.
Planta ; 254(4): 73, 2021 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34529190

RESUMO

MAIN CONCLUSION: A maize receptor kinase controls defense response to fungal pathogens by regulating jasmonic acid and antimicrobial phytoalexin production. Plants use a range of pattern recognition receptors to detect and respond to biotic threats. Some of these receptors contain leucine-rich repeat (LRR) domains that recognize microbial proteins or peptides. Maize (Zea mays) has 226 LRR-receptor like kinases, making it challenging to identify those important for pathogen recognition. In this study, co-expression analysis with genes for jasmonic acid and phytoalexin biosynthesis was used to identify a fungal induced-receptor like protein kinase (FI-RLPK) likely involved in the response to fungal pathogens. Loss-of-function mutants in fi-rlpk displayed enhanced susceptibility to the necrotrophic fungal pathogen Cochliobolus heterostrophus and reduced accumulation of jasmonic acid and the anti-microbial phytoalexins -kauralexins and zealexins- in infected tissues. In contrast, fi-rlpk mutants displayed increased resistance to stem inoculation with the hemibiotrophic fungal pathogen Fusarium graminearum. These data indicate that FI-RLPK is important for fungal recognition and activation of defenses, and that F. graminearum may be able to exploit FI-RLPK function to increase its virulence.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos , Zea mays , Bipolaris , Fusarium , Leucina , Doenças das Plantas , Proteínas Quinases , Zea mays/genética
10.
Environ Sci Technol ; 55(18): 12337-12351, 2021 09 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34486373

RESUMO

Decomposition by microorganisms of plastics in soils is almost unexplored despite the fact that the majority of plastics released into the environment end up in soils. Here, we investigate the decomposition process and microbiome of one of the most promising biobased and biodegradable plastics, poly(butylene succinate-co-adipate) (PBSA), under field soil conditions under both ambient and future predicted climates (for the time between 2070 and 2100). We show that the gravimetric and molar mass of PBSA is already largely reduced (28-33%) after 328 days under both climates. We provide novel information on the PBSA microbiome encompassing the three domains of life: Archaea, Bacteria, and Eukarya (fungi). We show that PBSA begins to decompose after the increase in relative abundances of aquatic fungi (Tetracladium spp.) and nitrogen-fixing bacteria. The PBSA microbiome is distinct from that of surrounding soils, suggesting that PBSA serves as a new ecological habitat. We conclude that the microbial decomposition process of PBSA in soil is more complex than previously thought by involving interkingdom relationships, especially between bacteria and fungi.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos , Plásticos Biodegradáveis , Microbiota , Biodegradação Ambiental , Solo , Microbiologia do Solo
11.
Acta Virol ; 65(3): 313-319, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34565160

RESUMO

Mycoviruses widely exist in diverse lineages of fungi, yet there are only a few studies on mycovirus infection in uncultivated fungi. We here report the presence of a dsRNA mycovirus in saprotrophic spring orange peel fungus Caloscypha fulgens. A novel dsRNA virus, named "Caloscypha fulgens fusagravirus 1" (CfFV1), was isolated from a single ascocarp of C. fulgens, and its molecular features were revealed. The full-length cDNA of CfFV1 comprises 9,548 nucleotides with a calculated GC content of 47.9% and two discontinuous open reading frames (ORF 1 and 2). A-1 ribosomal frameshift region with two distinctive elements, including a canonical slippery heptanucleotide (AAAAAAC) and a pseudoknot structure, predicted as a Recoding Stimulatory Element, was detected in the junction region of ORF1 and ORF2. The deduced amino acid sequence of ORF1 and ORF2 showed the highest similarity to the putative structural protein and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) of Rosellinia necatrix fusagravirus 4 (RnFGV4). Genome organization, sequence similarity, and phylogenetic analysis indicate that this virus belongs to a new member of the proposed family Fusagraviridae. This is the first report of the presence of a mycovirus in the spring orange peel fungus C. fulgens. Keywords: mycovirus; dsRNA; proposed Fusagraviridae; uncultivated fungi; Caloscypha fulgens.


Assuntos
Citrus sinensis , Micovírus , Ascomicetos , Micovírus/genética , Filogenia
12.
G3 (Bethesda) ; 11(9)2021 09 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34544120

RESUMO

Colletotrichum species are known to engage in unique sexual behaviors that differ significantly from the mating strategies of other filamentous ascomycete species. For example, most ascomycete fungi require the expression of both the MAT1-1-1 and MAT1-2-1 genes to induce sexual reproduction. In contrast, all isolates of Colletotrichum harbor only the MAT1-2-1 gene and yet, are capable of recognizing suitable mating partners and producing sexual progeny. The molecular mechanisms contributing to mating types and behaviors in Colletotrichum are, however, unknown. A comparative genomics approach analyzing 35 genomes, representing 31 Colletotrichum species and two Verticillium species, was used to elucidate a putative molecular mechanism underlying the unique sexual behaviors observed in Colletotrichum species. The existence of only the MAT1-2 idiomorph was confirmed across all species included in this study. Comparisons of the loci harboring the two mating pheromones and their cognate receptors revealed interesting patterns of gene presence and absence. The results showed that these genes have been lost multiple, independent times over the evolutionary history of this genus. These losses indicate that the pheromone pathway no longer plays an active role in mating type determination, suggesting an undiscovered mechanism by which mating partner recognition is controlled in these species. This further suggests that there has been a redirection of the underlying genetic mechanisms that regulate sexual development in Colletotrichum species. This research thus provides a foundation from which further interrogation of this topic can take place.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos , Colletotrichum , Ascomicetos/genética , Colletotrichum/genética , Genes Fúngicos Tipo Acasalamento , Feromônios , Reprodução/genética
13.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 11: 708827, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34589441

RESUMO

Understanding the dynamics of lung microbiota in tuberculosis patients, especially those who cannot be confirmed bacteriologically in clinical practice, is imperative for accurate diagnosis and effective treatment. This study aims to characterize the distinct lung microbial features between bacteriologically confirmed and negative tuberculosis patients to understand the influence of microbiota on tuberculosis patients. We collected specimens of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from 123 tuberculosis patients. Samples were subjected to metagenomic next-generation sequencing to reveal the lung microbial signatures. By combining conventional bacterial detection and metagenomic sequencing, 101/123 (82%) tuberculosis patients were bacteriologically confirmed. In addition to Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Staphylococcus aureus, Kluyveromyces lactis, and Pyricularia pennisetigena were also enriched in the bacteriological confirmation group. In contrast, Haemophilus parainfluenzae was enriched in the bacteriologically negative group. Besides, microbial interaction exhibits a different state between bacteriologically confirmed and negative tuberculosis patients. Mycobacterium tuberculosis was confirmed correlated with clinical characteristics such as albumin and chest cavities. Our study comprehensively demonstrates the correlation between unique features of lung microbial dynamics and the clinical characteristics of tuberculosis patients, suggesting the importance of studying the pulmonary microbiome in tuberculosis disease and providing new insights for future precision diagnosis and treatment.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Tuberculose , Ascomicetos , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar , Humanos , Kluyveromyces , Pulmão , Metagenômica , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genética
14.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5462, 2021 09 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34526503

RESUMO

Salicylic acid is a phenolic phytohormone which controls plant growth and development. A methyl ester (MSA) derivative thereof is volatile and involved in plant-insect or plant-plant communication. Here we show that the nematode-trapping fungus Duddingtonia flagrans uses a methyl-salicylic acid isomer, 6-MSA as morphogen for spatiotemporal control of trap formation and as chemoattractant to lure Caenorhabditis elegans into fungal colonies. 6-MSA is the product of a polyketide synthase and an intermediate in the biosynthesis of arthrosporols. The polyketide synthase (ArtA), produces 6-MSA in hyphal tips, and is uncoupled from other enzymes required for the conversion of 6-MSA to arthrosporols, which are produced in older hyphae. 6-MSA and arthrosporols both block trap formation. The presence of nematodes inhibits 6-MSA and arthrosporol biosyntheses and thereby enables trap formation. 6-MSA and arthrosporols are thus morphogens with some functions similar to quorum-sensing molecules. We show that 6-MSA is important in interkingdom communication between fungi and nematodes.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos/fisiologia , Caenorhabditis elegans/fisiologia , Hifas/fisiologia , Comportamento Predatório/fisiologia , Ácido Salicílico/metabolismo , Animais , Ascomicetos/genética , Ascomicetos/metabolismo , Quimiotaxia/fisiologia , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Hifas/genética , Hifas/metabolismo , Policetídeo Sintases/metabolismo , Ácido Salicílico/química , Esporos Fúngicos/genética , Esporos Fúngicos/metabolismo
15.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(40): 11781-11793, 2021 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34582205

RESUMO

Plant pathogenic fungi seriously affect agricultural production and are difficult to control. The discovery of new leads based on natural products is an important way to innovate fungicides. In this study, 30 natural-product-based magnolol derivatives were synthesized and characterized on the basis of NMR and mass spectroscopy. Bioactivity tests on phytopathogenic fungi (Rhizoctonia solani, Fusarium graminearum, Botrytis cinerea, and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum) in vitro of these compounds were performed systematically. The results showed that 11 compounds were active against four kinds of phytopathogenic fungi with EC50 values in the range of 1.40-20.00 µg/mL, especially compound L5 that exhibited excellent antifungal properties against B. cinerea with an EC50 value of 2.86 µg/mL, approximately 2.8-fold more potent than magnolol (EC50 = 8.13 µg/mL). Moreover, compound L6 showed the highest antifungal activity against F. graminearum and Rhophitulus solani with EC50 values of 4.39 and 1.40 µg/mL, respectively, and compound L7 showed good antifungal activity against S. sclerotiorum. Then, an in vivo experiment of compound L5 against B. cinerea was further investigated in vivo using infected tomatoes (curative effect, 50/200 and 36%/100 µg/mL). The physiological and biochemical studies illustrated that the primary action mechanism of compound L5 on B. cinerea might change the mycelium morphology, increase cell membrane permeability, and destroy the function of mitochondria. Furthermore, structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies revealed that hydroxyl groups play a key role in antifungal activity. To sum up, this study provides a reference for understanding the application of magnolol-based antifungal agents in crop protection.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos , Fungicidas Industriais , Animais , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Ascomicetos , Compostos de Bifenilo , Botrytis , Fungicidas Industriais/farmacologia , Fusarium , Lignanas , Estrutura Molecular , Rhizoctonia , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
16.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 105(19): 7395-7410, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34536105

RESUMO

In eukaryotes, myosin provides the necessary impetus for a series of physiological processes, including organelle movement, cytoplasmic flow, cell division, and mitosis. Previously, three members of myosin were identified in Magnaporthe oryzae, with class II and class V myosins playing important roles in intracellular transport, fungal growth, and pathogenicity. However, limited is known about the biological function of the class I myosin protein in the rice blast fungus. Here, we found that Momyo1 is highly expressed during conidiation and infection. Functional characterization of this gene via RNA interference (RNAi) revealed that Momyo1 is required for vegetative growth, conidiation, melanin pigmentation, and pathogenicity of M. oryzae. The Momyo1 knockdown mutant is defective in formation of appressorium-like structures (ALS) at the hyphal tips. In addition, Momyo1 also displays defects on cell wall integrity, hyphal hydrophobicity, extracellular enzyme activities, endocytosis, and formation of the Spitzenkörper. Furthermore, Momyo1 was identified to physically interact with the MoShe4, a She4p/Dim1p orthologue potentially involved in endocytosis, polarization of the actin cytoskeleton. Overall, our findings provide a novel insight into the regulatory mechanism of Momyo1 that is involved in fungal growth, cell wall integrity, endocytosis, and virulence of M. oryzae. KEY POINTS: • Momyo1 is required for vegetative growth and pigmentation of M. oryzae. • Momyo1 is essential for cell wall integrity and endocytosis of M. oryzae. • Momyo1 is involved in hyphal surface hydrophobicity of M. oryzae.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos/patogenicidade , Endocitose , Miosinas , Ascomicetos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Miosinas/genética , Virulência
17.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(37): 10807-10818, 2021 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34505777

RESUMO

A multifunctional surface, subsurface and systemic therapeutic (MS3T) formulation comprised of two bactericides, both didecyldimethylammonium chloride (DDAC) and a zinc (Zn)-chelate, was developed as an alternative to copper pesticides for crop protection. Agricultural grade chemicals were used to prepare MS3T formulations. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined to be tested in vitro against Xanthomonas alfalfae subsp. citrumelonis (herein called Xa), Escherichia coli (E. coli), and Pseudomonas syringae (Ps). Assessment of the phytotoxic potential was carried out on tomato under greenhouse conditions. Moreover, field trials were conducted during three consecutive years on grapefruit (Chrysopelea paradise) groves to evaluate efficacy against citrus canker (Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri), scab (Elsinoe fawcetti), and melanose (Diaporthe citri). In addition to disease control, improvements to both fruit yield and quality were observed likely due to the nutritional activity of MS3T via the sustained release of plant nutrients (Zn and nitrogen). Zn residues of leaf tissues were analyzed via atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) at various time points before and after MS3T foliar applications throughout the duration of the 2018 field trial. Field trial results demonstrated MS3T to be an effective alternative to copper (Cu)-based formulations for the control of citrus canker.


Assuntos
Citrus , Xanthomonas , Ascomicetos , Escherichia coli , Doenças das Plantas/prevenção & controle
18.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 105(19): 7379-7393, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34536100

RESUMO

Ste12 transcription factors, downstream of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signalling pathways, are exclusively found in the fungal kingdom and regulate fungal mating, development, and pathogenicity. The nematode-trapping fungus Drechslerella dactyloides can capture free-living nematodes using constricting rings by cell inflation within 1 s when stimulated by nematodes entering the rings. The MAPK signalling pathways are involved in the trap formation of nematode-trapping fungi, but their downstream regulation is not clearly understood. In this study, disruption of the DdaSTE12 gene in D. dactyloides disabled cell inflation of constricting rings and led to an inability to capture nematodes. The number of septa of constricting rings and the ring cell vacuoles were changed in ΔDdaSTE12. Compared with the wild type, ΔDdaSTE12 reduced trap formation, conidiation, and vegetative growth by 79.3%, 80.3%, and 21.5%, respectively. The transcriptomes of ΔDdaSTE12-3, compared with those of the wild type, indicated that the expression of genes participating in trap formation processes, including signal transduction (Gpa2 and a 7-transmembrane receptor), vesicular transport and cell fusion (MARVEL domain-containing proteins), and nematode infection (PEX11 and CFEM domain-containing proteins), is regulated by DdaSTE12. The results suggest that DdaSTE12 is involved in trap formation and ring cell inflation, as well as conidiation and vegetative growth, by regulating a wide range of downstream functions. Our findings expanded the roles of Ste12 homologous transcription factors in the development of constricting rings and provided new insights into the downstream regulation of the MAPK signalling pathway involved in nematode predation. KEY POINTS: • DdaSTE12 was the first gene disrupted in D. dactyloides. • DdaSTE12 is related to ring cell inflation, vegetative growth, and conidiation. • DdaSTE12 deletion resulted in defects in trap formation and ring development.


Assuntos
Nematoides , Animais , Ascomicetos , Fungos
19.
J Coll Physicians Surg Pak ; 31(9): 1114-1116, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34500534

RESUMO

Cerebral phaeohyphomycosis refers to central nervous system infection caused by dematiaceous molds, which have many genuses. Cladophialophora bantiana is a member of the phylum ascomycota, which is found in soil samples from all over the world. This organism typically infects immunocompromised patients and associated with 70% mortality rate even after weeks of antifungal agent administration and surgical debridement. Two such cases of fungal brain abscess caused by cladophialophora bantiana were presented here. Both patients presented with complaints of headache, vomiting, drowsiness and impaired cognition. A brain biopsy together with microbiological culture and VITEK 2 helped in reaching to a final diagnosis. Key Words: Cladophialophora bantiana, Dematiaceous, Intracerebral, Phaeohyphomycosis.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos , Abscesso Encefálico , Feoifomicose , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Abscesso Encefálico/diagnóstico , Abscesso Encefálico/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Feoifomicose/tratamento farmacológico
20.
G3 (Bethesda) ; 11(10)2021 09 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34568928

RESUMO

Plant diseases caused by the Cercospora genus of ascomycete fungi are a major concern for commercial agricultural practices. Several Cercospora species can affect soybeans, such as Cercospora kikuchii which causes soybean leaf blight. Speciation in Cercospora on soybean has not been adequately studied. Some cryptic groups of Cercospora also cause diseases on soybean. Moreover, it has been known C. kikuchii population genetic structure is different between countries. Consequently, further genomic information could help to elucidate the covert differentiation of Cercospora diseases in soybean. Here, we report for the first time, a chromosome-level genome assembly for C. kikuchii. The genome assembly of 9 contigs was 34.44 Mb and the N50 was 4.19 Mb. Based on ab initio gene prediction, several candidates for pathogenicity-related genes, including 242 genes for putative effectors, 55 secondary metabolite gene clusters, and 399 carbohydrate-active enzyme genes were identified. The genome sequence and the features described in this study provide a solid foundation for comparative and evolutionary genomic analysis for Cercospora species that cause soybean diseases worldwide.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos , Soja , Ascomicetos/genética , Cercospora , Doenças das Plantas , Soja/genética , Virulência
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