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1.
AAPS PharmSciTech ; 25(5): 94, 2024 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38710898

RESUMO

This study introduces and assesses the potential of a Luliconazole-loaded nanofiber (LUL-NF) patch, fabricated through electrospinning, for enhancing topical drug delivery. The primary objectives involve evaluating the nanofiber structure, characterizing physical properties, determining drug loading and release kinetics, assessing antifungal efficacy, and establishing the long-term stability of the NF patch. LUL-NF patches were fabricated via electrospinning and observed by SEM at approximately 200 nm dimensions. The comprehensive analysis included physical properties (thickness, folding endurance, swelling ratio, weight, moisture content, and drug loading) and UV analysis for drug quantification. In vitro studies explored sustained drug release kinetics, while microbiological assays evaluated antifungal efficacy against Candida albicans and Aspergillus Niger. Stability studies confirmed long-term viability. Comparative analysis with the pure drug, placebo NF patch, LUL-NF patch, and Lulifod gel was conducted using agar diffusion, revealing enhanced performance of the LUL-NF patch. SEM analysis revealed well-defined LUL-NF patches (0.80 mm thickness) with exceptional folding endurance (> 200 folds) and a favorable swelling ratio (12.66 ± 0.73%). The patches exhibited low moisture uptake (3.4 ± 0.09%) and a moisture content of 11.78 ± 0.54%. Drug loading in 1 cm2 section was 1.904 ± 0.086 mg, showing uniform distribution and sustained release kinetics in vitro. The LUL-NF patch demonstrated potent antifungal activity. Stability studies affirmed long-term stability, and comparative analysis highlighted increased inhibition compared to a pure drug, LUL-NF patch, and a commercial gel. The electrospun LUL-NF patch enhances topical drug delivery, promising extended therapy through single-release, one-time application, and innovative drug delivery strategies, supported by thorough analysis.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos , Aspergillus niger , Candida albicans , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos , Imidazóis , Nanofibras , Antifúngicos/administração & dosagem , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Antifúngicos/química , Nanofibras/química , Candida albicans/efeitos dos fármacos , Aspergillus niger/efeitos dos fármacos , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/métodos , Imidazóis/química , Imidazóis/administração & dosagem , Imidazóis/farmacologia , Preparações de Ação Retardada , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana/métodos , Portadores de Fármacos/química , Estabilidade de Medicamentos
2.
Biotechnol J ; 19(5): e2400014, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38719614

RESUMO

Microbial production of L-malic acid from renewable carbon sources has attracted extensive attention. The reduced cofactor NADPH plays a key role in biotransformation because it participates in both biosynthetic reactions and cellular stress responses. In this study, NADPH or its precursors nicotinamide and nicotinic acid were added to the fermentation medium of Aspergillus niger RG0095, which significantly increased the yield of malic acid by 11%. To further improve the titer and productivity of L-malic acid, we increased the cytoplasmic NADPH levels of A. niger by upregulating the NAD kinases Utr1p and Yef1p. Biochemical analyses demonstrated that overexpression of Utr1p and Yef1p reduced oxidative stress, while also providing more NADPH to catalyze the conversion of glucose into malic acid. Notably, the strain overexpressing Utr1p reached a malate titer of 110.72 ± 1.91 g L-1 after 108 h, corresponding to a productivity of 1.03 ± 0.02 g L-1 h-1. Thus, the titer and productivity of malate were increased by 24.5% and 44.7%, respectively. The strategies developed in this study may also be useful for the metabolic engineering of fungi to produce other industrially relevant bulk chemicals.


Assuntos
Aspergillus niger , Fermentação , Malatos , Engenharia Metabólica , NADP , Aspergillus niger/metabolismo , Aspergillus niger/genética , Malatos/metabolismo , Engenharia Metabólica/métodos , NADP/metabolismo , Proteínas Fúngicas/genética , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Glucose/metabolismo , Fosfotransferases (Aceptor do Grupo Álcool)/genética , Fosfotransferases (Aceptor do Grupo Álcool)/metabolismo
3.
BMC Genom Data ; 25(1): 40, 2024 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38724915

RESUMO

Bulb rot, a highly damaging disease of tulip plants, has hindered their profitable cultivation worldwide. This rot occurs in both field and storage conditions posing significant challenges. While this disease has been attributed to a range of pathogens, previous investigations have solely examined it within the framework of a single-pathogen disease model. Our study took a different approach and identified four pathogens associated with the disease: Fusarium solani, Penicillium chrysogenum, Botrytis tulipae, and Aspergillus niger. The primary objective of our research was to examine the impact of co-infections on the overall virulence dynamics of these pathogens. Through co-inoculation experiments on potato dextrose agar, we delineated three primary interaction patterns: antibiosis, deadlock, and merging. In vitro trials involving individual pathogen inoculations on tulip bulbs revealed that B. tulipae,was the most virulent and induced complete bulb decay. Nonetheless, when these pathogens were simultaneously introduced in various combinations, outcomes ranged from partial bulb decay to elongated rotting periods. This indicated a notable degree of antagonistic behaviour among the pathogens. While synergistic interactions were evident in a few combinations, antagonism overwhelmingly prevailed. The complex interplay of these pathogens during co-infection led to a noticeable change in the overall severity of the disease. This underscores the significance of pathogen-pathogen interactions in the realm of plant pathology, opening new insights for understanding and managing tulip bulb rot.


Assuntos
Fusarium , Doenças das Plantas , Tulipa , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Fusarium/patogenicidade , Tulipa/microbiologia , Botrytis/patogenicidade , Penicillium chrysogenum/patogenicidade , Aspergillus niger/patogenicidade , Virulência , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia
4.
J Agric Food Chem ; 72(20): 11652-11662, 2024 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38738910

RESUMO

Pectin lyases (PNLs) can enhance juice clarity and flavor by degrading pectin in highly esterified fruits, but their inadequate acid resistance leads to rapid activity loss in juice. This study aimed to improve the acid resistance of Aspergillus niger PNL pelA through surface charge design. A modification platform was established by fusing pelA with a protein tag and expressing the fusion enzyme in Escherichia coli. Four single-point mutants were identified to increase the surface charge using computational tools. Moreover, the combined mutant M6 (S514D/S538E) exhibited 99.8% residual activity at pH 3.0. The M6 gene was then integrated into the A. niger genome using a multigene integration system to obtain the recombinant PNL AM6. Notably, AM6 improved the light transmittance of orange juice to 45.3%, which was 8.39 times higher than that of pelA. In conclusion, AM6 demonstrated the best-reported acid resistance, making it a promising candidate for industrial juice clarification.


Assuntos
Aspergillus niger , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais , Proteínas Fúngicas , Polissacarídeo-Liases , Aspergillus niger/enzimologia , Aspergillus niger/genética , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais/análise , Polissacarídeo-Liases/genética , Polissacarídeo-Liases/metabolismo , Polissacarídeo-Liases/química , Proteínas Fúngicas/genética , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Proteínas Fúngicas/química , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Manipulação de Alimentos , Ácidos/química , Ácidos/metabolismo , Ácidos/farmacologia , Citrus sinensis/química , Pectinas/química , Pectinas/metabolismo , Estabilidade Enzimática
5.
Arch Microbiol ; 206(6): 273, 2024 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38772954

RESUMO

Acid protease is widely used in industries such as food processing and feed additives. In the study, low frequency magnetic field (LF-MF) as an aid enhances acid protease production by Aspergillus niger (A. niger). The study assessed mycelial biomass, the enzymic activity of the acidic protease and underlying mechanism. At low intensities, alternating magnetic field (AMF) is more effective than static magnetic fields (SMF). Under optimal magnetic field conditions, acid protease activity and biomass increased by 91.44% and 16.31%, as compared with the control, respectively. Maximum 19.87% increase in enzyme activity after magnetic field treatment of crude enzyme solution in control group. Transcriptomics analyses showed that low frequency alternating magnetic field (LF-AMF) treatment significantly upregulated genes related to hydrolases and cell growth. Our results showed that low-frequency magnetic fields can enhance the acid protease production ability of A. niger, and the effect of AMF is better at low intensities. The results revealed that the effect of magnetic field on the metabolic mechanism of A. niger and provided a reference for magnetic field-assisted fermentation of A. niger.


Assuntos
Aspergillus niger , Campos Magnéticos , Peptídeo Hidrolases , Aspergillus niger/enzimologia , Aspergillus niger/genética , Peptídeo Hidrolases/metabolismo , Peptídeo Hidrolases/genética , Fermentação , Proteínas Fúngicas/genética , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Biomassa , Micélio/enzimologia , Micélio/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Micélio/genética
6.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0298716, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38748703

RESUMO

The purpose of current research work was to investigate the effect of mutagenesis on endoglucanase B activity of indigenous strain of Aspergillus niger and its heterologous expression studies in the pET28a+ vector. The physical and chemical mutagens were employed to incorporate mutations in A. niger. For determination of mutations, mRNA was isolated followed by cDNA synthesis and cellulase gene was amplified, purified and sequenced both from native and mutant A. niger. On comparison of gene sequences, it was observed that 5 nucleotide base pairs have been replaced in the mutant cellulase. The mutant recombinant enzyme showed 4.5 times higher activity (428.5 µmol/mL/min) as compared to activity of native enzyme (94 µmol/mL/min). The mutant gene was further investigated using Phyre2 and I-Tesser tools which exhibited 71% structural homology with Endoglucanase B of Thermoascus aurantiacus. The root mean square deviation (RMSD), root mean square fluctuation (RMSF), solvent accessible surface area (SASA), radius of gyration (Rg) and hydrogen bonds analysis were carried at 35°C and 50°C to explore the integrity of structure of recombinant mutant endoglucanase B which corresponded to its optimal temperature. Hydrogen bonds analysis showed more stability of recombinant mutant endoglucanase B as compared to native enzyme. Both native and mutant endoglucanase B genes were expressed in pET 28a+ and purified with nickel affinity chromatography. Theoretical masses determined through ExPaSy Protparam were found 38.7 and 38.5 kDa for native and mutant enzymes, respectively. The optimal pH and temperature values for the mutant were 5.0 and 50°C while for native these were found 4.0 and 35°C, respectively. On reacting with carboxy methyl cellulose (CMC) as substrate, the mutant enzyme exhibited less Km (0.452 mg/mL) and more Vmax (50.25 µmol/ml/min) as compared to native having 0.534 mg/mL as Km and 38.76 µmol/ml/min as Vmax. Among metal ions, Mg2+ showed maximum inducing effect (200%) on cellulase activity at 50 mM concentration followed by Ca2+ (140%) at 100 mM concentration. Hence, expression of a recombinant mutant cellulase from A. niger significantly enhanced its cellulytic potential which could be employed for further industrial applications at pilot scale.


Assuntos
Aspergillus niger , Celulase , Aspergillus niger/enzimologia , Aspergillus niger/genética , Celulase/genética , Celulase/metabolismo , Celulase/química , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/isolamento & purificação , Mutação , Estabilidade Enzimática , Proteínas Fúngicas/genética , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Proteínas Fúngicas/química , Temperatura , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio
7.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 11537, 2024 05 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38773211

RESUMO

The Martian surface and shallow subsurface lacks stable liquid water, yet hygroscopic salts in the regolith may enable the transient formation of liquid brines. This study investigated the combined impact of water scarcity, UV exposure, and regolith depth on microbial survival under Mars-like environmental conditions. Both vegetative cells of Debaryomyces hansenii and Planococcus halocryophilus, alongside with spores of Aspergillus niger, were exposed to an experimental chamber simulating Martian environmental conditions (constant temperatures of about - 11 °C, low pressure of approximately 6 mbar, a CO2 atmosphere, and 2 h of daily UV irradiation). We evaluated colony-forming units (CFU) and water content at three different regolith depths before and after exposure periods of 3 and 7 days, respectively. Each organism was tested under three conditions: one without the addition of salts to the regolith, one containing sodium chlorate, and one with sodium perchlorate. Our results reveal that the residual water content after the exposure experiments increased with regolith depth, along with the organism survival rates in chlorate-containing and salt-free samples. The survival rates of the three organisms in perchlorate-containing regolith were consistently lower for all organisms and depths compared to chlorate, with the most significant difference being observed at a depth of 10-12 cm, which corresponds to the depth with the highest residual water content. The postulated reason for this is an increase in the salt concentration at this depth due to the freezing of water, showing that for these organisms, perchlorate brines are more toxic than chlorate brines under the experimental conditions. This underscores the significance of chlorate salts when considering the habitability of Martian environments.


Assuntos
Cloratos , Meio Ambiente Extraterreno , Marte , Percloratos , Percloratos/metabolismo , Cloratos/metabolismo , Aspergillus niger/metabolismo , Saccharomycetales/metabolismo , Água/química , Viabilidade Microbiana
8.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 268(Pt 1): 131600, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38631575

RESUMO

Hereunder, we pioneered the synthesis of Copper Oxide nanoparticles (CuO NPs) utilizing Tragacanth gum (TG). The NPs were characterized using advanced techniques and assessed for different pharmaceutical and environmental perspectives. The successful formation of a colloidal NPs solution was confirmed by the appearance of a distinct black color and a distinct peak at 260 nm in UV-Visible spectrophotometry. The FTIR analysis unveiled a spectrum of functional groups responsible for the reduction and stabilization of CuO NPs. Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) revealed size of NPs as 36.24 nm and 28 ± 04 nm respectively. Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) Analysis indicated weight percentages of 70.38 % for Cu and 18.88 % for O, with corresponding atomic percentages. The X-ray Diffraction (XRD) analysis revealed the orthorhombic crystal structure of the prepared CuO NPs. Antimicrobial assessments through disc-diffusion assays demonstrated significant zones of inhibition (ZOI) against gram-positive bacterial strains (Bacillus Halodurans and Micrococcus leutus) and a gram-negative bacterial strain (E. coli). Against the fungal strain Aspergillus niger, a ZOI of 18.5 ± 0.31 mm was observed. The NPs exhibited remarkable antioxidant potential determined through 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and H2O2 scavenging assays. At a concentration of 3 mg/mL, the NPs demonstrated biofilm inhibition rates of 96 %, 90 %, 89.60 %, and 72.10 % against Micrococcus luteus, Bacillus halodurans, MRSA and E.coli respectively. Furthermore, the CuO NPs showed a high photocatalytic potential towards the degradation of safranin dye under sunlight irradiation. In conclusion, the findings underline the promising multifunctional properties of TG-based CuO NPs for different practical applications.


Assuntos
Biofilmes , Cobre , Nanopartículas Metálicas , Tragacanto , Cobre/química , Tragacanto/química , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Catálise , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos/química , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/química , Aspergillus niger/efeitos dos fármacos , Processos Fotoquímicos
9.
Bioprocess Biosyst Eng ; 47(6): 919-929, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38644439

RESUMO

The growing need in the current market for innovative solutions to obtain lactose-free (L-F) milk is caused by the annual increase in the prevalence of lactose intolerance inside as well as the newborn, children, and adults. Various configurations of enzymes can yield two distinct L-F products: sweet (ß-galactosidase) and unsweet (ß-galactosidase and glucose oxidase) L-F milk. In addition, the reduction of sweetness through glucose decomposition should be performed in a one-pot mode with catalase to eliminate product inhibition caused by H2O2. Both L-F products enjoy popularity among a rapidly expanding group of consumers. Although enzyme immobilization techniques are well known in industrial processes, new carriers and economic strategies are still being searched. Polymeric carriers, due to the variety of functional groups and non-toxicity, are attractive propositions for individual and co-immobilization of food enzymes. In the presented work, two strategies (with free and immobilized enzymes; ß-galactosidase NOLA, glucose oxidase from Aspergillus niger, and catalase from Serratia sp.) for obtaining sweet and unsweet L-F milk under low-temperature conditions were proposed. For free enzymes, achieving the critical assumption, lactose hydrolysis and glucose decomposition occurred after 1 and 4.3 h, respectively. The tested catalytic membranes were created on regenerated cellulose and polyamide. In both cases, the time required for lactose and glucose bioconversion was extended compared to free enzymes. However, these preparations could be reused for up to five (ß-galactosidase) and ten cycles (glucose oxidase with catalase).


Assuntos
Enzimas Imobilizadas , Glucose Oxidase , Lactose , Leite , beta-Galactosidase , beta-Galactosidase/metabolismo , beta-Galactosidase/química , Leite/química , Lactose/metabolismo , Lactose/química , Glucose Oxidase/química , Glucose Oxidase/metabolismo , Enzimas Imobilizadas/química , Enzimas Imobilizadas/metabolismo , Animais , Aspergillus niger/enzimologia , Glucose/metabolismo , Glucose/química , Catalase/metabolismo , Catalase/química , Membranas Artificiais
10.
Molecules ; 29(7)2024 Mar 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38611726

RESUMO

A fungal isolate Aspergillus terreus PDB-B (accession number: MT774567.1), which could tolerate up to 500 mg/L of cypermethrin, was isolated from the lake sediments of Kulamangalam tropical lake, Madurai, and identified by internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequencing followed by phylogenetic analysis. The biotransformation potential of the strain was compared with five other strains (A, J, UN2, M1 and SM108) as a consortium, which were tentatively identified as Aspergillus glaucus, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus terreus, and Aspergillus flavus, respectively. Batch culture and soil microcosm studies were conducted to explore biotransformation using plate-based enzymatic screening and GC-MS. A mycotransformation pathway was predicted based on a comparative analysis of the transformation products (TPs) obtained. The cytotoxicity assay revealed that the presence of (3-methylphenyl) methanol and isopropyl ether could be relevant to the high rate of lethality.


Assuntos
Aspergillus niger , Aspergillus , Lagos , Piretrinas , Filogenia , Índia
11.
World J Gastroenterol ; 30(11): 1545-1555, 2024 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38617446

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The gluten-free diet (GFD) has limitations, and there is intense research in the development of adjuvant therapies. AIM: To examine the effects of orally administered Aspergillus niger prolyl endopeptidase protease (AN-PEP) on inadvertent gluten exposure and symptom prevention in adult celiac disease (CeD) patients following their usual GFD. METHODS: This was an exploratory, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial that enrolled CeD patients on a long-term GFD. After a 4-wk run-in period, patients were randomized to 4 wk of two AN-PEP capsules (GliadinX; AVI Research, LLC, United States) at each of three meals per day or placebo. Outcome endpoints were: (1) Average weekly stool gluten immunogenic peptides (GIP) between the run-in and end of treatments and between AN-PEP and placebo; (2) celiac symptom index (CSI); (3) CeD-specific serology; and (4) quality of life. Stool samples were collected for GIP testing by ELISA every Tuesday and Friday during run-ins and treatments. RESULTS: Forty patients were randomized for the intention-to-treat analysis, and three were excluded from the per-protocol assessment. Overall, 628/640 (98.1%) stool samples were collected. GIP was undetectable (< 0.08 µg/g) in 65.6% of samples, and no differences between treatment arms were detected. Only 0.5% of samples had GIP concentrations sufficiently high (> 0.32 µg/g) to potentially cause mucosal damage. Median GIP concentration in the AN-PEP arm was 44.7% lower than in the run-in period. One-third of patients exhibiting GIP > 0.08 µg/g during run-in had lower or undetectable GIP after AN-PEP treatment. Compared with the run- in period, the proportion of symptomatic patients (CSI > 38) in the AN-PEP arm was significantly lower (P < 0.03). AN-PEP did not result in changes in specific serologies. CONCLUSION: This exploratory study conducted in a real-life setting revealed high adherence to the GFD. The AN-PEP treatment did not significantly reduce the overall GIP stool concentration. However, given the observation of a significantly lower prevalence of patients with severe symptoms in the AN-PEP arm, further clinical research is warranted.


Assuntos
Aspergillus niger , Aspergillus , Doença Celíaca , Adulto , Humanos , Doença Celíaca/diagnóstico , Dieta Livre de Glúten , Glutens , Prolil Oligopeptidases , Qualidade de Vida
12.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 108(1): 302, 2024 Apr 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38639796

RESUMO

Alternative splicing (AS) greatly expands the protein diversity in eukaryotes. Although AS variants have been frequently reported existing in filamentous fungi, it remains unclear whether lignocellulose-degrading enzyme genes in industrially important fungi undergo AS events. In this work, AS events of lignocellulose-degrading enzymes genes in Aspergillus niger under two carbon sources (glucose and wheat straw) were investigated by RNA-Seq. The results showed that a total of 23 out of the 56 lignocellulose-degrading enzyme genes had AS events and intron retention was the main type of these AS events. The AS variant enzymes from the annotated endo-ß-1,4-xylanase F1 gene (xynF1) and the endo-ß-1,4-glucanase D gene (eglD), noted as XYNF1-AS and EGLD-AS, were characterized compared to their normal splicing products XYNF1 and EGLD, respectively. The AS variant XYNF1-AS displayed xylanase activity whereas XYNF1 did not. As for EGLD-AS and EGLD, neither of them showed annotated endo-ß-1,4-glucanase activity. Instead, both showed lytic polysaccharide monooxygenase (LPMO) activity with some differences in catalytic properties. Our work demonstrated that the AS variants in A. niger were good sources for discovering novel lignocellulose-degrading enzymes. KEY POINTS: • AS events were identified in the lignocellulose-degrading enzyme genes of A. niger. • New ß-1,4-xylanase and LPMO derived from AS events were characterized.


Assuntos
Processamento Alternativo , Aspergillus niger , Aspergillus niger/metabolismo , Lignina/metabolismo
13.
Food Res Int ; 184: 114273, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38609250

RESUMO

Soy sauce is a traditional fermented food produced from soybean and wheat under the action of microorganisms. The soy sauce brewing process mainly involves two steps, namely koji fermentation and moromi fermentation. In the koji fermentation process, enzymes from starter molds, such as protease, aminopeptidase, carboxypeptidase, l-glutaminase, amylase, and cellulase, hydrolyze the protein and starch in the raw ingredients to produce short-chain substances. However, the enzymatic reactions may be diminished after being subjected to moromi fermentation due to its high NaCl concentration. These enzymatically hydrolyzed products are further metabolized by lactic acid bacteria and yeasts during the moromi fermentation process into organic acids and aromatic compounds, giving soy sauce a unique flavor. Thus, the starter molds, such as Aspergillus oryzae, Aspergillus sojae, and Aspergillus niger, and their secreted enzymes play crucial roles in soy sauce brewing. This review comprehensively covers the characteristics of the starter molds mainly used in soy sauce brewing, the enzymes produced by starter molds, and the roles of enzymes in the degradation of raw material. We also enumerate current problems in the production of soy sauce, aiming to offer some directions for the improvement of soy sauce taste.


Assuntos
Alimentos de Soja , Fermentação , Peptídeo Hidrolases , Aspergillus niger , Catálise
14.
Molecules ; 29(8)2024 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38675509

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate the phytochemical profile, bioactivity, and release mechanism of bound polyphenols (BPs) released from Rosa roxburghii fruit pomace insoluble dietary fiber (RPDF) through solid-state fermentation (SSF) with Aspergillus niger. The results indicated that the amount of BPs released from RPDF through SSF was 17.22 mg GAE/g DW, which was significantly higher than that achieved through alkaline hydrolysis extraction (5.33 mg GAE/g DW). The BPs released through SSF exhibited superior antioxidant and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities compared to that released through alkaline hydrolysis. Chemical composition analysis revealed that SSF released several main compounds, including ellagic acid, epigallocatechin, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, quercetin, and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylpropionic acid. Mechanism analysis indicated that the disruption of tight structure, chemical bonds, and hemicellulose was crucial for the release of BPs from RPDF. This study provides valuable information on the potential application of SSF for the efficient release of BPs from RPDF, contributing to the utilization of RPDF as a functional food ingredient.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Aspergillus niger , Fibras na Dieta , Fermentação , Frutas , Compostos Fitoquímicos , Polifenóis , Rosa , Aspergillus niger/metabolismo , Polifenóis/química , Polifenóis/metabolismo , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Rosa/química , Frutas/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Inibidores de Glicosídeo Hidrolases/farmacologia , Inibidores de Glicosídeo Hidrolases/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia
15.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 417: 110685, 2024 Jun 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38579546

RESUMO

Cinnamaldehyde displays strong antifungal activity against fungi such as Aspergillus niger, but its precise molecular mechanisms of antifungal action remain inadequately understood. In this investigation, we applied chemoproteomics and bioinformatic analysis to unveil the target proteins of cinnamaldehyde in Aspergillus niger cells. Additionally, our study encompassed the examination of cinnamaldehyde's effects on cell membranes, mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase activity, and intracellular ATP levels in Aspergillus niger cells. Our findings suggest that malate dehydrogenase could potentially serve as an inhibitory target of cinnamaldehyde in Aspergillus niger cells. By disrupting the activity of malate dehydrogenase, cinnamaldehyde interferes with the mitochondrial tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, leading to a significant decrease in intracellular ATP levels. Following treatment with cinnamaldehyde at a concentration of 1 MIC, the inhibition rate of MDH activity was 74.90 %, accompanied by an 84.5 % decrease in intracellular ATP content. Furthermore, cinnamaldehyde disrupts cell membrane integrity, resulting in the release of cellular contents and subsequent cell demise. This study endeavors to unveil the molecular-level antifungal mechanism of cinnamaldehyde via a chemoproteomics approach, thereby offering valuable insights for further development and utilization of cinnamaldehyde in preventing and mitigating food spoilage.


Assuntos
Acroleína , Acroleína/análogos & derivados , Antifúngicos , Aspergillus niger , Proteínas Fúngicas , Malato Desidrogenase , Acroleína/farmacologia , Aspergillus niger/efeitos dos fármacos , Malato Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Trifosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo , Proteômica , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Ciclo do Ácido Cítrico/efeitos dos fármacos
16.
Food Microbiol ; 121: 104523, 2024 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38637085

RESUMO

This study investigated the fungicidal efficiency and mechanism of action of dielectric barrier discharge cold atmosphere plasma (DBD-CAP) in inactivating Aspergillus niger (A. niger) spores. The disinfection efficacy and quality of dried jujube used as the processing application object were also studied. The results indicated that the Weibull + Tail model performed better for spore inactivation curves at different voltages among various treatment times, and the spore cells were reduced by 4.05 log (cfu/mL) in spores suspension at 70 kV after 15 min of treatment. This disinfection impact was further supported by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images, which showed that the integrity of the cell membrane was damaged, and the intracellular content leaked out after DBD-CAP treatment. Elevated levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) during the treatment increased the relative conductivity of cells, and leakage of nucleic acids and proteins further supported the disinfection impact. Additionally, the growth and toxicity of surviving A. niger spores after treatment were also greatly reduced. When DBD-CAP was applied to disinfecting dried jujube, the spore number exhibited a 2.67 log cfu/g reduction after treatment without significant damage observed onto the quality (P > 0.05).


Assuntos
Aspergillus , Gases em Plasma , Ziziphus , Aspergillus niger , Gases em Plasma/farmacologia , Desinfecção/métodos
17.
Fungal Biol ; 128(2): 1705-1713, 2024 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38575244

RESUMO

The effects of acoustic waves on growth inhibition of food spoilage fungi (Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus parasiticus and Botrytis cinerea) on the medium and strawberry surfaces were investigated. Firstly, single-frequency sound waves (250, 500, 1000, 2000, 4000, 8000, 12,000 and 16,000 Hz) were induced on inoculated medium with fungi spores for 24 h and growth diameter of each mold was evaluated during the incubation period. In the second stage, the sound waves with two frequencies of 250 Hz and 16,000 Hz were induced on inoculated strawberries with fungi spores at 5 °C for different times (2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 days). The results from the first stage indicated that the sound waves inhibited the growth of A. niger (20.02%) at 250 Hz and B. cinerea (4/64%) at 4000 Hz on potato dextrose agar (PDA) surface. Also, comparison of the growth diameter of some species of Aspergillus revealed various responses in presence of 250 Hz frequency. In the second stage, applying a frequency of 250 Hz over a period of 10 days proved to be more effective in inhibiting the growth of A. niger and B. cinerea on strawberries inoculated with fungal spores. Consequently, the shelf lives of the strawberries significantly increased to 26 days and 18 days, respectively, under this treatment. Based on the findings, it is concluded that sounding with acoustic waves can be used as a green and cheap technology along with other technologies to improve food safety.


Assuntos
Fragaria , Fragaria/microbiologia , Frutas/microbiologia , Esporos Fúngicos , Aspergillus niger , Som
18.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 417: 110710, 2024 Jun 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38643598

RESUMO

Postharvest loss caused by a range of pathogens necessitates exploring novel antifungal compounds that are safe and efficient in managing the pathogens. This study evaluated the antifungal activity of ethyl ferulate (EF) and explored its mechanisms of action against Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus niger, Botrytis cinerea, Penicillium expansum, Penicillium digitatum, Geotrichum candidum and evaluated its potential to inhibit postharvest decay. The results demonstrated that EF exerts potent antifungal activity against a wide board of postharvest pathogens. Results also revealed that its antifungal mechanism is multifaceted: EF may be involved in binding to and disturbing the integrity of the fungal plasma membrane, causing leakage of intracellular content and losing normal morphology and ultrastructure. EF also induced oxidative stress in the pathogen, causing membrane lipid peroxidation and malondialdehyde accumulation. EF inhibited the critical gene expression of the pathogen, affecting its metabolic regulation, antioxidant metabolism, and cell wall degrading enzymes. EF exhibited antifungal inhibitory activity when applied directly into peel wounds or after incorporation with chitosan coating. Due to its wide board and efficient antifungal activity, EF has the potential to provide a promising alternative to manage postharvest decay.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos , Botrytis , Ácidos Cafeicos , Penicillium , Penicillium/efeitos dos fármacos , Penicillium/metabolismo , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Botrytis/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácidos Cafeicos/farmacologia , Alternaria/efeitos dos fármacos , Aspergillus niger/efeitos dos fármacos , Conservação de Alimentos/métodos , Geotrichum/efeitos dos fármacos , Fungos/efeitos dos fármacos , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Frutas/microbiologia , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos
19.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 40(6): 175, 2024 Apr 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38647735

RESUMO

The demand for environment-friendly cleanup techniques has arisen due to an increase in environmental pollutants. Fungi is the most prevalent and effective class of heavy metal-resistant microorganisms with the ability to leach metals. The objective of the present study was to isolate the fungi from the agricultural soil of Kashmir valley, investigate their multi-metal tolerance to heavy metals and evaluate the metal uptake capacities of the resistant fungi. The fungi were isolated and identified on the basis of morphological and molecular approach (ITS1 and ITS4). The tolerance limits of the isolated fungal strains to various doses of lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), zinc (Zn), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni), and cobalt (Co) was evaluated. Five fungal strains, Aspergillus niger, Fusarium oxysporum, Fusarium verticillioides, Aspergillus fischeri, Epicoccum mackenziei were isolated from the soil samples. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the study of metal resistance of Aspergillus fischeri and Epicoccum mackenziei. Among the identified fungal species, Aspergillus niger and Fusarium oxysporum were found to be most tolerant with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 600 ppm against Cu and Cr respectively. Results indicated removal of considerable amount of heavy metals by some of the fungi. The highest metal uptake of 8.31 mg/g was found in Fusarium verticillioides for Zn. Surprisingly, these fungal strains demonstrated resistance to metal concentrations above the levels that are universally acceptable for polluted soils, and hence prove to be appealing contenders for use as bioremediation agents for cleaning up heavy metal-polluted environments.


Assuntos
Fungos , Fusarium , Metais Pesados , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Microbiologia do Solo , Poluentes do Solo , Metais Pesados/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Fungos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fungos/isolamento & purificação , Fungos/classificação , Fungos/metabolismo , Fusarium/isolamento & purificação , Fusarium/efeitos dos fármacos , Fusarium/metabolismo , Biodegradação Ambiental , Aspergillus niger/isolamento & purificação , Aspergillus niger/efeitos dos fármacos , Aspergillus niger/metabolismo , Solo/química , Aspergillus/efeitos dos fármacos , Aspergillus/metabolismo , Aspergillus/isolamento & purificação
20.
Curr Biol ; 34(10): 2077-2084.e3, 2024 05 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38663397

RESUMO

Fungal biomineralization plays an important role in the biogeochemical cycling of metals in the environment and has been extensively explored for bioremediation and element biorecovery. However, the cellular and metabolic responses of fungi in the presence of toxic metals during biomineralization and their impact on organic matter transformations are unclear. This is an important question because co-contamination by toxic metals and organic pollutants is a common phenomenon in the natural environment. In this research, the biomineralization process and oxidative stress response of the geoactive soil fungus Aspergillus niger were investigated in the presence of toxic metals (Co, Cu, Mn, and Fe) and the azo dye orange II (AO II). We have found that the co-existence of toxic metals and AO II not only enhanced the fungal biomineralization of toxic metals but also accelerated the removal of AO II. We hypothesize that the fungus and in situ mycogenic biominerals (toxic metal oxalates) constituted a quasi-bioreactor, where the biominerals removed organic pollutants by catalyzing reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation resulting from oxidative stress. We have therefore demonstrated that a fungal/biomineral system can successfully achieve the goal of toxic metal immobilization and organic pollutant decomposition. Such findings inform the potential development of fungal-biomineral hybrid systems for mixed pollutant bioremediation as well as provide further understanding of fungal organic-inorganic pollutant transformations in the environment and their importance in biogeochemical cycles.


Assuntos
Aspergillus niger , Biodegradação Ambiental , Biomineralização , Aspergillus niger/metabolismo , Metais Pesados/metabolismo , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Estresse Oxidativo
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