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2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(21): e26038, 2021 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34032727

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Most cases of primary microvascular angina pectoris (PMVA) are diagnosed clinically, but the etiology and pathological mechanisms are unknown. The effect of routine clinical medications is minimal, and PMVA can progress to serious cardiovascular events. To improve the diagnosis and effective treatment of this disease, this study was designed to diagnose PMVA via cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) and the coronary angiography thrombolysis in myocardial infarction (TIMI) blood flow grade, as well as to analyze vascular endothelial function to elucidate the pathogenesis of PMVA and compare the effects of routine clinical medications.The present randomized controlled trial including a parallel control group will be conducted on 63 PMVA patients in our cardiovascular department. The patients will be selected and randomly divided into the control, diltiazem, and nicorandil groups. The control group will be administered routine drug treatments (aspirin, atorvastatin, betaloc ZOK, perindopril, and isosorbidemononitrate sustained-release tablets). The diltiazem group will be additionally treated with 90 mg qd diltiazem sustained-release capsules. The nicorandil group was additionally given 5 mg tid nicorandil tablets. Coronary angiography will be performed before treatment, the severity and frequency of chest pain will be evaluated before and after 9 months of treatment, and homocysteine and von Willebrand factor levels will be measured. Electrocardiography, echocardiography, dynamic electrocardiography, a treadmill exercise test, and CMR will be performed. Sex, age, body mass index, complications, smoking, and family history will also be recorded. The SPSS19.0 statistical software package will be used to analyze the data. The measurements will be expressed as the mean ±â€Šstandard deviation. Measurement data will be compared between the groups using Student's t-test. A relative number description will be used for the counting data, and the chi-squaretest will be used to compare the groups. A multivariate logistic regression analysis will be performed A P-value < .05 will be considered significant.The direct indices (CMR and coronary angiographic TIMI blood flow grade) may improve after adding diltiazem or nicorandil during routine drug treatments (such as aspirin, statins, and nitrates) in PMVA patients, and indirect indices (homocysteine and von Willebrand factor levels) may be reduced. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Chinese Clinical Trial Registry (http://www.chictr.org.cn/showprojen.aspx?proj=41894), No. CHiCTR1900025319, Registered on August 23, 2019; pre initiation.


Assuntos
Sistema Cardiovascular/diagnóstico por imagem , Angiografia Coronária , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Angina Microvascular/diagnóstico , Vasodilatadores/administração & dosagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Aspirina/administração & dosagem , Sistema Cardiovascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Diltiazem/administração & dosagem , Quimioterapia Combinada/métodos , Eletrocardiografia , Feminino , Humanos , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Angina Microvascular/tratamento farmacológico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nicorandil/administração & dosagem , Nitroglicerina/administração & dosagem , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
3.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(5)2021 May 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34011649

RESUMO

This is a case report of central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) associated with COVID-19 treated with oral aspirin therapy. A 56-year-old woman reported decreased vision in her left eye. Her left eye vision was 6/18, N10. Anterior segment was within normal limits. Left eye fundus was suggestive of CRVO and macular oedema. Optical coherence tomography showed cystoid macular oedema and neurosensory detachment. Blood work-up revealed elevated D-dimer levels and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR). She was started on treatment with low-dose aspirin 150 mg/day. After 1 month, her vision improved to 6/6, N6. Left eye fundus showed reduced retinal haemorrhages and complete resolution of macular oedema. Her repeat blood work-up showed reduced D-dimer and ESR levels. The patient was asked to be reviewed after 3 months. This case highlights that specific treatment for reducing the hypercoagulable state caused by COVID-19 with oral aspirin therapy can result in complete resolution of CRVO macular oedema.


Assuntos
Oclusão da Veia Retiniana , Aspirina/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Angiofluoresceinografia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oclusão da Veia Retiniana/diagnóstico , Oclusão da Veia Retiniana/tratamento farmacológico , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica
4.
Ann Palliat Med ; 10(4): 4632-4641, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33966411

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Meta-analysis was used to evaluate the efficacy and safety of aspirin combined with letrozole in the treatment of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). METHODS: Through comprehensive searches of the China Knowledge Network (CNKI), the VIP database (VIP), the Wanfang database, the China Biomedical Database (CBM), PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library, the clinical randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published on aspirin combined with letrozole in the treatment of PCOS were collected. According to the inclusion and exclusion criteria, the included studies were screened and quality evaluated, and RevMan 5.3 software was used for meta-analysis. RESULTS: A total of 10 RCTs and 948 patients with PCOS were included. Meta-analysis results showed that compared with letrozole monotherapy, aspirin combined with letrozole could significantly increase the thickness of the endometrium [MD=1.98, 95% CI: 1.63-2.34, P<0.00001], cervical mucus scores (MD =1.65, 95% CI: 1.32-1.98, P<0.00001), the ovulation rate (OR=3.50, 95% CI: 2.08-5.91, P<0.00001), the number of mature follicles (MD=0.65, 95% CI: 0.51-0.78, P<0.00001), and the pregnancy rate (OR=3.06, 95% CI: 2.28-4.12, P<0.00001), and significantly reduced the abortion rate (OR=0.20, 95% CI: 0.11-0.38, P<0.00001). There was no statistically significant difference in the incidence of adverse reactions between the 2 groups (OR=0.76, 95% CI: 0.44-1.32, P=0.33). CONCLUSIONS: Aspirin combined with letrozole in the treatment of PCOS is safe and effective. Due to the limitations in the number and quality of the included studies, further verification with multi-center, large-sample, high-quality RCTs is still needed.


Assuntos
Síndrome do Ovário Policístico , Aspirina/uso terapêutico , China , Feminino , Humanos , Letrozol/uso terapêutico , Indução da Ovulação , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/tratamento farmacológico , Gravidez
5.
Curr Cardiol Rep ; 23(6): 67, 2021 05 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33961154

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The utility of aspirin and statins for primary prevention of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease remains ambiguous in older adults. Current guidelines and recent data are vague and inconclusive. This review seeks to summarize the landscape of primary prevention of cardiovascular disease in older adults and explore the role of shared decision making. RECENT FINDINGS: Observational data suggest potential benefit of statin therapy in older adults. Aspirin is presently not recommended for primary prevention based on evidence from recent clinical trials. The implementation of shared decision making and decision aids in routine clinical practice remains challenging but may rise in coming years. Clinical trial data on the horizon may aid in solidifying guideline therapy for statin use. However, in the face of uncertainty, shared decision making between provider and patient should be utilized to determine whether pharmacotherapy may benefit older adults. Decision aids are an effective tool to guide this process.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases , Idoso , Aspirina/uso terapêutico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Tomada de Decisões , Tomada de Decisão Compartilhada , Humanos , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/uso terapêutico , Prevenção Primária , Incerteza
6.
N Engl J Med ; 384(21): 1981-1990, 2021 05 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33999548

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The appropriate dose of aspirin to lower the risk of death, myocardial infarction, and stroke and to minimize major bleeding in patients with established atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease is a subject of controversy. METHODS: Using an open-label, pragmatic design, we randomly assigned patients with established atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease to a strategy of 81 mg or 325 mg of aspirin per day. The primary effectiveness outcome was a composite of death from any cause, hospitalization for myocardial infarction, or hospitalization for stroke, assessed in a time-to-event analysis. The primary safety outcome was hospitalization for major bleeding, also assessed in a time-to-event analysis. RESULTS: A total of 15,076 patients were followed for a median of 26.2 months (interquartile range [IQR], 19.0 to 34.9). Before randomization, 13,537 (96.0% of those with available information on previous aspirin use) were already taking aspirin, and 85.3% of these patients were previously taking 81 mg of daily aspirin. Death, hospitalization for myocardial infarction, or hospitalization for stroke occurred in 590 patients (estimated percentage, 7.28%) in the 81-mg group and 569 patients (estimated percentage, 7.51%) in the 325-mg group (hazard ratio, 1.02; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.91 to 1.14). Hospitalization for major bleeding occurred in 53 patients (estimated percentage, 0.63%) in the 81-mg group and 44 patients (estimated percentage, 0.60%) in the 325-mg group (hazard ratio, 1.18; 95% CI, 0.79 to 1.77). Patients assigned to 325 mg had a higher incidence of dose switching than those assigned to 81 mg (41.6% vs. 7.1%) and fewer median days of exposure to the assigned dose (434 days [IQR, 139 to 737] vs. 650 days [IQR, 415 to 922]). CONCLUSIONS: In this pragmatic trial involving patients with established cardiovascular disease, there was substantial dose switching to 81 mg of daily aspirin and no significant differences in cardiovascular events or major bleeding between patients assigned to 81 mg and those assigned to 325 mg of aspirin daily. (Funded by the Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute; ADAPTABLE ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02697916.).


Assuntos
Aspirina/administração & dosagem , Doenças Cardiovasculares/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores da Agregação Plaquetária/administração & dosagem , Idoso , Aspirina/efeitos adversos , Aterosclerose/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Hospitalização , Humanos , Masculino , Adesão à Medicação/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/prevenção & controle , Inibidores da Agregação Plaquetária/efeitos adversos , Prevenção Secundária , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle
7.
BMC Med Inform Decis Mak ; 21(1): 165, 2021 05 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34016116

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Several epidemiological and cohort studies suggest that regular low-dose aspirin use independently reduces the long-term incidence and risk of colorectal cancer deaths by approximately 20%. However, there are also risks to aspirin use, mainly gastrointestinal bleeding and haemorrhagic stroke. Making informed decisions depends on the ability to understand and weigh up benefits and risks of available options. A decision aid to support people to consider aspirin therapy alongside participation in the NHS bowel cancer screening programme may have an additional impact on colorectal cancer prevention. This study aims to develop and user-test a brief decision aid about aspirin to enable informed decision-making for colorectal screening-eligible members of the public. METHODS: We undertook a qualitative study to develop an aspirin decision aid leaflet to support bowel screening responders in deciding whether to take aspirin to reduce their risk of colorectal cancer. The iterative development process involved two focus groups with public members aged 60-74 years (n = 14) and interviews with clinicians (n = 10). Interviews (n = 11) were used to evaluate its utility for decision-making. Analysis was conducted using a framework approach. RESULTS: Overall, participants found the decision aid acceptable and useful to facilitate decision-making. They expressed a need for individualised risk information, more detail about the potential risks of aspirin, and preferred risk information presented in pictograms when offered different options. Implementation pathways were discussed, including the possibility of involving different clinicians in the process such as GPs and/or community pharmacists. A range of potentially effective timepoints for sending out the decision aid were identified. CONCLUSION: An acceptable and usable decision aid was developed to support decisions about aspirin use to prevent colorectal cancer.


Assuntos
Aspirina , Neoplasias Colorretais , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Colorretais/prevenção & controle , Tomada de Decisões , Técnicas de Apoio para a Decisão , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Humanos , Programas de Rastreamento
8.
Bone Joint J ; 103-B(6 Supple A): 18-22, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34053277

RESUMO

AIMS: The optimal management of an infrapopliteal deep venous thrombosis (IDVT) following total knee arthroplasty (TKA) remains unknown. The risk of DVT propagation and symptom progression must be balanced against potential haemorrhagic complications associated with administration of anticoagulation therapy. The current study reports on a cohort of patients diagnosed with IDVT following TKA who were treated with aspirin, followed closely for development of symptoms, and scanned with ultrasound to determine resolution of IDVT. METHODS: Among a cohort of 5,078 patients undergoing TKA, 532 patients (695 TKAs, 12.6%) developed an IDVT between 1 January 2014 to 31 December 2019 at a single institution, as diagnosed using Doppler ultrasound at the first postoperative visit. Of the entire cohort of 532 patients with IDVT, 91.4% (486/532) were treated with aspirin (325 mg twice daily) and followed closely. Repeat lower limb ultrasound was performed four weeks later to evaluate the status of IDVT. RESULTS: Follow-up Doppler ultrasound was performed on 459/486 (94.4%) patients and demonstrated resolution of IDVT in 445/459 cases (96.9%). Doppler diagnosed propagation of IDVT to the popliteal vein had occurred in 10/459 (2.2%) cases. One patient with an IDVT developed a pulmonary embolus six weeks postoperatively. CONCLUSION: The results of this study demonstrate a low rate of IDVT propagation in patients managed with aspirin. Additionally, no significant bleeding episodes, wound-related complications, or other adverse events were noted from aspirin therapy. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2021;103-B(6 Supple A):18-22.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Artroplastia do Joelho , Aspirina/uso terapêutico , Veia Poplítea , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Tromboembolia Venosa/prevenção & controle , Idoso , Distinções e Prêmios , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Ultrassonografia Doppler , Tromboembolia Venosa/diagnóstico por imagem
9.
N Engl J Med ; 384(21): 2065-2066, 2021 05 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33999542
10.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 2043415, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33969115

RESUMO

The protective effect of aspirin against myocardial hypertrophy (MH) was studied. Model rats of pressure overload MH were prepared by abdominal aortic coarctation. Rats were randomly divided into the sham group (n = 9), MH model group (n = 9), and MH+aspirin group (n = 9), which was, respectively, divided into the 4-week group and 8-week group according to the time of intragastric administration. Arterial blood pressure and left ventricular mass index (LVMI) were measured. Changes in myocardial tissue structure were observed by HE staining, Masson staining, and reticular fiber staining. Cardiomyocyte apoptosis was detected by TUNEL assay. The levels of TNF-α, IL-10, TXA2, and PGI2 in myocardium and plasma were detected by ELISA. The arterial blood pressure in the MH model group was significantly higher than that in the 4- and 8-week sham groups, but that in the MH+aspirin group was significantly lower than that in the MH model group. At 4 and 8 weeks, the LVWI in the MH model group was significantly higher than that in the sham group, but it was significantly reduced after aspirin treatment. The myocardial cell hypertrophy was obvious, collagen fibers were proliferated, and reticular fibers were reduced in the 4- and 8-week MH model groups. Compared with the MH model groups, myocardial cells in the MH+aspirin groups were significantly reduced, the collagen fiber content was significantly reduced, and the reticular fiber content was increased. The apoptotic cardiomyocytes in the 4- and 8-week MH model groups were obviously increased. The apoptosis of myocardial cells in the MH+aspirin groups was obviously decreased. The TNF-α levels in the myocardial tissue of the 4- and 8-week MH model groups were significantly increased, while those of the MH+aspirin groups were significantly decreased. There was no significant change in the IL-10 level or PGI2 level at 4 weeks. At 8 weeks, the PGI2 level was significantly decreased in the MH model group while significantly increased in the MH+aspirin group. The TXA2 levels were significantly increased in the 4- and 8-week MH model groups and those in the 4- and 8-week MH+aspirin groups were significantly lower. Aspirin has an anti-inflammatory effect, can effectively reduce the expression of inflammatory factors, inhibit myocardial apoptosis, and has a certain protective effect against MH.


Assuntos
Aspirina/farmacologia , Cardiotônicos/farmacologia , Miocárdio/patologia , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Colágenos Fibrilares/metabolismo , Ventrículos do Coração/efeitos dos fármacos , Ventrículos do Coração/patologia , Hipertrofia , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Interleucina-10/sangue , Masculino , Miócitos Cardíacos/efeitos dos fármacos , Miócitos Cardíacos/patologia , Tamanho do Órgão/efeitos dos fármacos , Prostaglandinas/sangue , Ratos Wistar , Tromboxano A2/sangue , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/sangue
11.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 8848686, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33954200

RESUMO

Background: The incidence of small intestinal injury caused by low-dose aspirin (LDA) is high, but the pathogenesis and intervention measures of it have not been elucidated. Recent studies have found gut microbiota to be closely associated with onset and development of NSAID-induced intestinal injury. However, studies of the changes in the gut microbiota of rats with LDA-related intestinal injury have been lacking recently. In this study, we investigated fecal 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis of changes in the gut microbiota of rats with LDA-related intestinal injury. Methods: Sprague-Dawley (SD) rat models of small intestinal injury were established by intragastric administration of LDA. The small intestinal tissues and the fecal samples were harvested. The fecal samples were then analyzed using high-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA V3-V4 amplicons. The gut microbiota composition and diversity were analyzed and compared using principal coordinate analysis (PCoA), nonmetric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) analysis, the unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA) clustering analysis, multivariate statistical analysis (ANOSIM, MetaStats, and LEfSe), and spatial statistics. Results: The LDA rat model was successfully established. Decreased Firmicutes and increased Bacteroidetes abundances in rats with LDA-induced small intestinal injury were revealed. MetaStats analysis between the before administration of LDA (CG) and after administration of LDA (APC) groups showed that the intestinal floras exhibiting significant differences (P < 0.05, q < 0.1) were Firmicutes, Bacteroides, Cyanobacteria, Melainabacteria, Coriobacteriia, Bacteroidia, Bacteroidales, Eubacteriaceae, and Streptococcaceae. In addition, the bacterial taxa showing significant differences between the control (NS) and APC groups were Firmicutes, Bacteroides, Verrucomicrobiaceae and Peptococcaceae. Conclusions: The alterations in the gut microbiota composition and diversity of rats with LDA-related intestinal injury were found in the present study. The change of gut microbiota in LDA-related intestinal injury will lay the foundation for further research on the function and signaling pathways of the intestinal flora and promote the use of intestinal flora as drug targets to treat LDA-induced small intestinal injury.


Assuntos
Aspirina/efeitos adversos , Fezes/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Intestinos/lesões , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Animais , Biodiversidade , Análise por Conglomerados , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Mucosa Intestinal/patologia , Intestinos/patologia , Masculino , Filogenia , Análise de Componente Principal , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Coloração e Rotulagem , Aderências Teciduais/patologia , Úlcera/patologia
12.
Wiad Lek ; 74(2): 228-235, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33813477

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim: Was to characterize the morphological peculiarities of the gastric mucosa at early stage of prescription of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) and clopidogrel as well as to study the impact of pantoprazole on the gastric mucosa to optimize the prophylaxis and treatment of gastropathies induced by ASA and clopidogrel. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Materials and methods: The experiments were performed on 77 non-linear white male rats with the average weight of 150-180 g. Depending on the aim of research, the animals were divided into 7 groups. RESULTS: Results: The administration of pantoprazole in combination with ASA and clopidogrel presented positive trends in neutral glycoproteins amount and contributes to preventing GM necrotic lesions by amplification of protective properties of mucus and stabilization of apoptotic activity of gastric epithelial cells. CONCLUSION: Conclusions: 1. According to our study findings, administration of ASA in combination with clopidogrel results in 2,5 times higher risk of GM erosive lesions. 2. One of the most significant morphological manifestations of gastropathy in ASA and clopidogrel regimen is the development of microerosions, which are poorly diagnosed by macroscopic examination. 3. The use of PAS-reaction makes possible to identify damage to the basal membrane of superficial epitheliocytes, which may be a top-priority morphological criterion of gastropathy induced by ASA or clopidogrel in the absence of an inflammatory reaction. 4. Administration of pantoprazole in combination with ASA and clopidogrel contributes to preventing GM necrotic lesions by amplification of protective properties of mucus and stabilization of apoptotic activity of gastric epithelial cells.


Assuntos
Aspirina , Ticlopidina , Animais , Aspirina/efeitos adversos , Clopidogrel , Mucosa Gástrica , Masculino , Pantoprazol , Ratos
13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(8)2021 Apr 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33919943

RESUMO

Photodegradation of the aqueous solutions of acetylsalicylic acid, in the absence (ASA) and the presence of excipients (ASE), is demonstrated by the photoluminescence (PL). A shift of the PL bands from 342 and 338 nm to 358 and 361-397 nm for ASA and ASE in solid state and as aqueous solutions was reported. By exposure of the solution of ASA 0.3 M to UV light, a decrease in the PL band intensity was highlighted. This behavior was revealed for ASA in the presence of phosphate buffer (PB) having the pH equal to 6.4, 7, and 8 or by the interaction with NaOH 0.3 M. A different behavior was reported in the case of ASE. In the presence of PB, an increase in the intensity of the PL band of ASE simultaneously with a change of the ratio between the intensities of the bands at 361-364 and 394-397 nm was highlighted. The differences between PL spectra of ASA and ASE have their origin in the presence of salicylic acid (SAL). The interaction of ASE with NaOH induces a shift of the PL band at 405-407 nm. Arguments for the reaction of ASA with NaOH are shown by Raman scattering and FTIR spectroscopy.


Assuntos
Aspirina/química , Fotólise/efeitos da radiação , Soluções/efeitos da radiação , Água/química , Aspirina/efeitos da radiação , Compostos de Cádmio/química , Luminescência , Pontos Quânticos/química , Análise Espectral Raman , Raios Ultravioleta/efeitos adversos
14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(8)2021 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33923802

RESUMO

Thromboembolic complications are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in cancer patients. Cancer patients often present with an increased risk for thrombosis including hypercoagulation, so the application of antiplatelet strategies to oncology warrants further investigation. This study investigated the effects of anastrozole and antiplatelet therapy (aspirin/clopidogrel cocktail or atopaxar) treatment on the tumour responses of luminal phenotype breast cancer cells and induced hypercoagulation. Ethical clearance was obtained (M150263). Blood was co-cultured with breast cancer cell lines (MCF7 and T47D) pre-treated with anastrozole and/or antiplatelet drugs for 24 h. Hypercoagulation was indicated by thrombin production and platelet activation (morphological and molecular). Gene expression associated with the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) was assessed in breast cancer cells, and secreted cytokines associated with tumour progression were evaluated. Data were analysed with the PAST3 software. Our findings showed that antiplatelet therapies (aspirin/clopidogrel cocktail and atopaxar) combined with anastrozole failed to prevent hypercoagulation and induced evidence of a partial EMT. Differences in tumour responses that modulate tumour aggression were noted between breast cancer cell lines, and this may be an important consideration in the clinical management of subphenotypes of luminal phenotype breast cancer. Further investigation is needed before this treatment modality (combined hormone and antiplatelet therapy) can be considered for managing tumour associated-thromboembolic disorder.


Assuntos
Anastrozol/efeitos adversos , Antineoplásicos Hormonais/efeitos adversos , Coagulação Sanguínea , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal , Inibidores da Agregação Plaquetária/efeitos adversos , Trombofilia/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Anastrozol/administração & dosagem , Anastrozol/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos Hormonais/administração & dosagem , Antineoplásicos Hormonais/uso terapêutico , Aspirina/administração & dosagem , Aspirina/efeitos adversos , Aspirina/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias da Mama/complicações , Células Cultivadas , Clopidogrel/administração & dosagem , Clopidogrel/efeitos adversos , Clopidogrel/uso terapêutico , Interações Medicamentosas , Feminino , Humanos , Iminas/administração & dosagem , Iminas/efeitos adversos , Iminas/uso terapêutico , Células MCF-7 , Inibidores da Agregação Plaquetária/administração & dosagem , Inibidores da Agregação Plaquetária/uso terapêutico , Piridinas/administração & dosagem , Piridinas/efeitos adversos , Piridinas/uso terapêutico , Trombina/metabolismo , Trombofilia/tratamento farmacológico , Trombofilia/etiologia
15.
16.
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33879541

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To review the pathophysiology of COVID-19 disease, potential aspirin targets on this pathogenesis and the potential role of aspirin in patients with COVID-19. DESIGN: Narrative review. SETTING: The online databases PubMed, OVID Medline and Cochrane Library were searched using relevant headlines from 1 January 2016 to 1 January 2021. International guidelines from relevant societies, journals and forums were also assessed for relevance. PARTICIPANTS: Not applicable. RESULTS: A review of the selected literature revealed that clinical deterioration in COVID-19 is attributed to the interplay between endothelial dysfunction, coagulopathy and dysregulated inflammation. Aspirin has anti-inflammatory effects, antiplatelet aggregation, anticoagulant properties as well as pleiotropic effects on endothelial function. During the COVID-19 pandemic, low-dose aspirin is used effectively in secondary prevention of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, prevention of venous thromboembolism after total hip or knee replacement, prevention of pre-eclampsia and postdischarge treatment for multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children. Prehospital low-dose aspirin therapy may reduce the risk of intensive care unit admission and mechanical ventilation in hospitalised patients with COVID-19, whereas aspirin association with mortality is still debatable. CONCLUSION: The authors recommend a low-dose aspirin regimen for primary prevention of arterial thromboembolism in patients aged 40-70 years who are at high atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk, or an intermediate risk with a risk-enhancer and have a low risk of bleeding. Aspirin's protective roles in COVID-19 associated with acute lung injury, vascular thrombosis without previous cardiovascular disease and mortality need further randomised controlled trials to establish causal conclusions.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides , Aspirina , Tromboembolia , Adulto , Idoso , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/administração & dosagem , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/efeitos adversos , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/uso terapêutico , Aspirina/administração & dosagem , Aspirina/efeitos adversos , Aspirina/uso terapêutico , /fisiopatologia , Humanos , Inflamação , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Tromboembolia/tratamento farmacológico , Tromboembolia/etiologia , Tromboembolia/prevenção & controle
18.
JAMA ; 325(15): 1545-1555, 2021 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33877270

RESUMO

Importance: Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States with an annual incidence of approximately 1 million. Dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT), consisting of aspirin and a P2Y12 inhibitor (clopidogrel, ticagrelor, or prasugrel) reduces cardiovascular event rates after ACS. Observations: In 2016, the updated guidelines from the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) recommended aspirin plus a P2Y12 inhibitor for at least 12 months for patients with ACS. Since these recommendations were published, new randomized clinical trials have studied different regimens and durations of antiplatelet therapy. Recommendations vary according to the risk of bleeding. If bleeding risk is low, prolonged DAPT may be considered, although the optimal duration of prolonged DAPT beyond 1 year is not well established. If bleeding risk is high, shorter duration (ie, 3-6 months) of DAPT may be reasonable. A high risk of bleeding traditionally is defined as a 1-year risk of serious bleeding (either fatal or associated with a ≥3-g/dL drop in hemoglobin) of at least 4% or a risk of an intracranial hemorrhage of at least 1%. Patients at higher risk are 65 years old or older; have low body weight (BMI <18.5), diabetes, or prior bleeding; or take oral anticoagulants. The newest P2Y12 inhibitors, prasugrel and ticagrelor, are more potent, with high on-treatment residual platelet reactivity of about 3% vs 30% to 40% with clopidogrel and act within 30 minutes compared with 2 hours for clopidogrel. Clinicians should avoid prescribing prasugrel to patients with a history of stroke or transient ischemic attack because of an increased risk of cerebrovascular events (6.5% vs 1.2% with clopidogrel, P = .002) and should avoid prescribing it to patients older than 75 years or who weigh less than 60 kg. The ISAR-REACT-5 trial found that prasugrel reduced rates of death, myocardial infarction, or stroke at 1 year compared with ticagrelor among patients with ACS undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (9.3% vs 6.9%, P = .006) with no significant difference in bleeding. Recent trials suggested that discontinuing aspirin rather than the P2Y12 inhibitor may be associated with better outcomes. Conclusions and Relevance: Dual antiplatelet therapy reduces rates of cardiovascular events in patients with acute coronary syndrome. Specific combinations and duration of dual antiplatelet therapy should be based on patient characteristics-risk of bleeding myocardial ischemia.


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Aspirina/uso terapêutico , Inibidores da Agregação Plaquetária/uso terapêutico , Antagonistas do Receptor Purinérgico P2Y/uso terapêutico , Administração Oral , Aspirina/farmacologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Clopidogrel/uso terapêutico , Quimioterapia Combinada , Humanos , Cloridrato de Prasugrel/uso terapêutico , Antagonistas do Receptor Purinérgico P2Y/farmacologia , Ticagrelor/uso terapêutico
19.
Am J Med ; 134(4): e300, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33888226
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