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1.
BMJ Open ; 11(9): e049836, 2021 09 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34475175

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The Carlos Slim Foundation implemented the Integrated Measurement for Early Detection (MIDO), a screening strategy for non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in Mexico as part of CASALUD, a portfolio of digital health services focusing on healthcare delivery and prevention/management of NCDs. We investigated the disease profile of the screened population and evaluated MIDO's contribution to the continuum of care of the main NCDs. DESIGN: Using data from MIDO and the chronic diseases information system, we quantified the proportion of the population screened and diagnosed with NCDs, and measured care linkage/retention and level of control achieved. We analysed comorbidity patterns and estimated prevalence of predisease stages. Finally, we estimated characteristics associated with unawareness and control of NCDs, and examined efficacy of the CASALUD model in improving NCD control. SETTING: Public primary health centres in 27/32 Mexican states. PARTICIPANTS: Individuals aged ≥20 years lacking healthcare access. RESULTS: From 2014 to 2018, 743 000 individuals were screened using MIDO. A predisease or disease condition was detected in ≥70% of the population who were unaware of their NCD status. The screening identified 38 417 new cases of type 2 diabetes, 53 133 new cases of hypertension and 208 627 individuals with obesity. Dyslipidaemia was found in 77.3% of individuals with available blood samples. Comorbidities were highly prevalent, especially in people with obesity. Only 5.47% (n=17 774) of individuals were linked with their corresponding primary health centre. Factors associated with unawareness of and uncontrolled NCDs were sex, age, and social determinants, for example, rural/urban environment, access to healthcare service, and education level. Patients with type 2 diabetes treated at clinics under the CASALUD model were more likely to achieve disease control (OR: 1.32, 95% CI: 1.09 to 1.61). CONCLUSION: Patient-centred screening strategies such as MIDO are urgently needed to improve screening, access, retention and control for patients with NCDs.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Doenças não Transmissíveis , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Humanos , Programas de Rastreamento , México/epidemiologia , Doenças não Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Atenção Primária à Saúde
2.
Front Public Health ; 9: 614935, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34485207

RESUMO

Background: Aging is associated with an increase in adverse health outcomes for older people. Short screening instruments that easily and quickly identify those at highest risk can enable decision-makers to anticipate future needs, allocate scarce resources and act to minimize risk. The Risk Instrument for Screening in the Community (RISC) is a brief (2-5 min) Likert scale that scores one-year risk of institutionalization, hospitalization and death from low (1/5) to severe (5/5). Objectives: To externally validate the RISC, scored by general practitioners (GP's), in primary care in Northern Portugal. Methods: The RISC was translated and culturally adapted to Portuguese. A cohort of 457 older adults (aged ≥65) under active follow-up with their GP's were screened. Outcomes at one-year were recorded. Accuracy was determined from the area under the curve (AUC) of receiver operating curve analysis. Results: The mean age of participants was 75.2 years; 57% were female. The proportion identified as being at maximum risk (RISC scores of 3-5/5) of institutionalization, hospitalization and death, were 14.9, 52.4 and 38.4%, respectively. At follow-up 2% (10/431) were institutionalized, 18.6% (84/451) were hospitalized and 3% (14/456) died. Those who were institutionalized (p = 0.021), hospitalized (p = 0.012) or dead (p < 0.001) at one-year were significantly older. Those living alone were more likely to be institutionalized (p = 0.007). The RISC showed fair accuracy in predicting hospitalization (AUC of 0.62 [95% CI: 0.55-0.69]) and good accuracy for Institutionalization (AUC of 0.79 [95% CI: 0.62-0.96]) and death (AUC of 0.77 [95% CI: 0.65-0.88]). Conclusions: The Portuguese version of the RISC accurately predicted institutionalization and death at one-year but like most short screens was less able to predict hospitalization. Given its brevity, the RISC is useful for quickly identifying and stratifying those at increased risk in primary care.


Assuntos
Avaliação Geriátrica , Institucionalização , Idoso , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Portugal , Atenção Primária à Saúde
3.
BMJ Open ; 11(9): e047054, 2021 09 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34489273

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore predictors of district nursing care utilisation for community-living (older) people in the Netherlands using claims data. To cope with growing demands in district nursing care, knowledge about the current utilisation of district nursing care is important. SETTING: District nursing care as a part of primary care. PARTICIPANTS: In this nationwide study, claims data were used from the Dutch risk adjustment system and national information system of health insurers. Samples were drawn of 5500 pairs of community-living people using district nursing care (cases) and people not using district nursing care (controls) for two groups: all ages and aged 75+ years (total N=22 000). OUTCOME MEASURES: The outcome was district nursing care utilisation and the 114 potential predictors included predisposing factors (eg, age), enabling factors (eg, socioeconomic status) and need factors (various healthcare costs). The random forest algorithm was used to predict district nursing care utilisation. The performance of the models and importance of predictors were calculated. RESULTS: For the population of people aged 75+ years, most important predictors were older age, and high costs for general practitioner consultations, aid devices, pharmaceutical care, ambulance transportation and occupational therapy. For the total population, older age, and high costs for pharmaceutical care and aid devices were the most important predictors. CONCLUSIONS: People in need of district nursing care are older, visit the general practitioner more often, and use more and/or expensive medications and aid devices. Therefore, close collaboration between the district nurse, general practitioner and the community pharmacist is important. Additional analyses including data regarding health status are recommended. Further research is needed to provide an evidence base for district nursing care to optimise the care for those with high care needs, and guide practice and policymakers' decision-making.


Assuntos
Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Idoso , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Países Baixos , Encaminhamento e Consulta
4.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 21(1): 908, 2021 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34479559

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Uncontrolled hypertension represents a substantial and growing burden in Guatemala and other low and middle-income countries. As a part of the formative phase of an implementation research study, we conducted a needs assessment to define short- and long-term needs and opportunities for hypertension services within the public health system. METHODS: We conducted a multi-method, multi-level assessment of needs related to hypertension within Guatemala's public system using the World Health Organization's health system building blocks framework. We conducted semi-structured interviews with stakeholders at national (n = 17), departmental (n = 7), district (n = 25), and community (n = 30) levels and focus groups with patients (3) and frontline auxiliary nurses (3). We visited and captured data about infrastructure, accessibility, human resources, reporting, medications and supplies at 124 health posts and 53 health centers in five departments of Guatemala. We conducted a thematic analysis of transcribed interviews and focus group discussions supported by matrix analysis. We summarized quantitative data observed during visits to health posts and centers. RESULTS: Major challenges for hypertension service delivery included: gaps in infrastructure, insufficient staffing and high turnover, limited training, inconsistent supply of medications, lack of reporting, low prioritization of hypertension, and a low level of funding in the public health system overall. Key opportunities included: prior experience caring for patients with chronic conditions, eagerness from providers to learn, and interest from patients to be involved in managing their health. The 5 departments differ in population served per health facility, accessibility, and staffing. All but 7 health posts had basic infrastructure in place. Enalapril was available in 74% of health posts whereas hydrochlorothiazide was available in only 1 of the 124 health posts. With the exception of one department, over 90% of health posts had a blood pressure monitor. CONCLUSIONS: This multi-level multi-method needs assessment using the building blocks framework highlights contextual factors in Guatemala's public health system that have been important in informing the implementation of a hypertension control trial. Long-term needs that are not addressed within the scope of this study will be important to address to enable sustained implementation and scale-up of the hypertension control approach.


Assuntos
Hipertensão , Programas Governamentais , Guatemala/epidemiologia , Humanos , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Atenção Primária à Saúde
5.
East Mediterr Health J ; 27(8): 743-744, 2021 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34486709

RESUMO

Strengthening Primary Health Care (PHC) through family practice-based model of care is an essential bedrock in achieving Universal Health Coverage (UHC), as called for in Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 3, target 3.8. However, the shortage of family practitioners worldwide and in most countries of the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR) is a daunting challenge. The current production rate of family physicians in the EMR is around 700 annually, against the needed estimate of 21 000 physicians per year based on one family physician/1300 population and the current EMR population growth rate, which reflects the huge shortage of family physicians in the Region.


Assuntos
Medicina de Família e Comunidade , Cobertura Universal do Seguro de Saúde , Humanos , Região do Mediterrâneo , Médicos de Família , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Organização Mundial da Saúde
6.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34486852

RESUMO

The purpose of the study was to analyze normative legal documents and their modifications in order to determine the labor standards of medical personnel in case of rendering and planning obstetric gynecological care in the Russian Federation, including standards of number of medical personnel in medical organizations and modes of operation of various types. The materials of the study were normative legal documents presented at the WEB-portal "garant.ru". The comparative analysis of actual normative legal set of documents concerning labor standards in the profile of "obstetrics and gynecology" demonstrated that the new order of Minzdrav of Russia № 1130n of 20.10.2020 introduced significant changes as compared with the current one. Its provisions contribute to reducing staffing by obstetricians-gynecologists of medical organizations providing primary health care, and to decreasing significantly the number of nurses for all types of considered medical organizations. The main drawback of the new order and the erroneousness of the orders on Procedures of Minzdrav of Russia in terms of staff support of round-the-clock functioning are demonstrated. The methodology of calculating the number of positions under different modes of operation of medical organizations are presented. The dynamics of general population morbidity in classes "Pregnancy, childbirth and complications of the postpartum period" and "Diseases of the genitourinary system" was analyzed.The corresponding trends were prognosticated for the period up to 2024. The results of the study testify the necessity to amend actual normative legal documents governing labor standards of medical personnel in case of providing obstetric gynecological and other types of medical care in the Russian Federation.


Assuntos
Obstetrícia , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Gravidez , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Federação Russa , Recursos Humanos
7.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34486855

RESUMO

The analysis of opinions of district pediatricians about state and perspectives of development of primary medical sanitary care for children in the Kabardino-Balkarian Republic permitted to obtain competent assessment of quality of polyclinic medical care. The positive tendencies in activities of children polyclinics were established. However, the problem of achieving higher quality of medical care of children continues to be actual. According to survey results, character and direction of organizational managerial decision making concerning improvement of material and technical equipment of children polyclinics in accordance with modern requirements (37.6%), elimination of defects in organization of free medication support (63.6%), improvement of organization of free nutrition supply of children (50%), etc. Among the priority tasks of pediatric service is the solution of the medical personnel issue and full staffing of pediatric districts with physicians (66.7%), paramedical personnel (29.6%) and medical specialists (61.7%), as well as the need to include in staff of the polyclinic positions of child psychologist (54.0%) and social worker (31.5%). One of the main problems of primary medical sanitary care of modern pediatric service remains high work overload of district pediatricians that which undoubtedly impacts quality of medical and preventive activities. The low readiness of district pediatricians to active acceptance of innovative transformations in functioning of children polyclinic, requiring psychological readjustment of medical personnel is established. This was most strikingly manifested by process of implementing information technologies and the National project "Lean Polyclinic". All issues identified by sociological survey significantly strained during coronavirus pandemic in 2020. The pandemic inputted its own adjustments in medical care support of children in the region. Despite the fact that disease did not affect children to large extent, due to prolonged absence of physicians suffering from coronavirus, quality of dynamic monitoring and treatment of children suffered. Factually, no dispensarization activities were implemented and prevention measures as well. The results of survey contributes to the formation of monitoring of quality of out-patient care of children at the regional level and makes the research data highly relevant.


Assuntos
Pediatras , Médicos , Criança , Família , Humanos , Assistência ao Paciente , Atenção Primária à Saúde
8.
Trials ; 22(1): 605, 2021 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34496930

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many non-COVID-19 trials were disrupted in 2020 and either struggled to recruit participants or stopped recruiting altogether. In December 2019, just before the pandemic, we were awarded a grant to conduct a randomised controlled trial, the Should I Take Aspirin? (SITA) trial, in Victoria, the Australian state most heavily affected by COVID-19 during 2020. MAIN BODY: We originally modelled the SITA trial recruitment method on previous trials where participants were approached and recruited in general practice waiting rooms. COVID-19 changed the way general practices worked, with a significant increase in telehealth consultations and restrictions on in person waiting room attendance. This prompted us to adapt our recruitment methods to this new environment to reduce potential risk to participants and staff, whilst minimising any recruitment bias. We designed a novel teletrial model, which involved calling participants prior to their general practitioner appointments to check their eligibility. We delivered the trial both virtually and face-to-face with similar overall recruitment rates to our previous studies. CONCLUSION: We developed an effective teletrial model which allowed us to complete recruitment at a high rate. The teletrial model is now being used in our other primary care trials as we continue to face the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Austrália , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Atenção Primária à Saúde , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Tijdschr Gerontol Geriatr ; 52(2)2021 Jun 09.
Artigo em Holandês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34498438

RESUMO

The increasing number of elderly people living at home demands a strengthening of primary care for (vulnerable) older adults. Therefore, in 2015 the VU University Medical Centre in Amsterdam founded the Universitaire Praktijk Ouderengeneeskunde (UPO) (University Practice for Elderly Care). This practice makes the expertise of the Elderly Care physician (SO) available in primary care through a close and easy accessible collaboration between the SO and the General Practitioner. The aim of this research is an evaluation of the UPO, in order to determine the added value of this care innovation and to identify areas for improvement. This research consists of a quantitative part in which the characteristics of the 190 treated UPO patients have been assessed. Also, costs have been estimated of UPO care compared to expected usual care. The qualitative part of this study consists of 22 interviews with the most important UPO stakeholders. The results of this study show  that 1) the UPO seems to meet a demand from general practitioners to support them in the care of vulnerable elderly people with mostly cognitive disorders, 2) this care seems to save costs and 3) the UPO was appreciated by most of those involved. The current results call for applying this care innovation in other regions and to evaluate it on a larger scale.


Assuntos
Clínicos Gerais , Universidades , Idoso , Idoso Fragilizado , Humanos , Atenção Primária à Saúde
11.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 21(1): 911, 2021 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34479554

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The introduction of new health professional roles, such as that of the nurse practitioner and pharmacist prescriber in primary health care can lead to changes in health service delivery. Consumers, having used these roles, often report high satisfaction. However, there is limited knowledge of how these individuals position nurse practitioner and pharmacist prescriber roles within existing practice structures. METHODS: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 21 individuals receiving services from these practitioners in New Zealand primary health care. Interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim for thematic analysis. RESULTS: Participant views reflect established practice hierarchies, placing advanced practitioners 'below' general practitioners. Participants are unable to articulate what it was about these practitioners that meant they operated at lower tiers and often considered practitioners to act as 'their doctor'. They also highlight structural barriers impairing the ability of these providers to operate within their full scope of practice. CONCLUSIONS: While seeing value in the services they receive, consumers are often unable to position nurse practitioner and pharmacist prescriber roles within health system contexts or to articulate how they value their practitioner's skills. Embedded structural barriers may be more visible to consumers than their interactions with the health system suggest. This may influence peoples' ability to receive intended or optimal health services. Consumer 'health professional literacy' around the functions of distinct health practitioners should be supported so that they may make informed service provision choices.


Assuntos
Clínicos Gerais , Profissionais de Enfermagem , Humanos , Percepção , Farmacêuticos , Atenção Primária à Saúde
12.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 21(1): 922, 2021 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34488741

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Collaborative Care Model is a well-established, evidence-based approach to treating depression and other common behavioral health conditions in primary care settings. Despite a robust evidence base, real world implementation of Collaborative Care has been limited and very slow. The goal of this analysis is to better describe and understand the progression of implementation in the largest state-led Collaborative Care program in the nation-the New York State Collaborative Care Medicaid Program. Data are presented using the RE-AIM model, examining the proportion of clinics in each of the model's five steps from 2014 to 2019. METHODS: We used the RE-AIM model to shape our data presentation, focusing on the proportion of clinics moving into each of the five steps of this model over the years of implementation. Data sources included: a New York State Office of Mental Health clinic tracking database, billing applications, quarterly reports, and Medicaid claims. RESULTS: A total of 84% of clinics with which OMH had an initial contact [n = 611clinics (377 FQHCs and 234 non-FQHCs)] received some form of training and technical assistance. Of those, 51% went on to complete a billing application, 41% reported quarterly data at least once, and 20% were able to successfully bill Medicaid. Of clinics that reported data prior to the first quarter of 2019, 79% (n = 130) maintained Collaborative Care for 1 year or more. The receipt of any training and technical assistance was significantly associated with our implementation indices: (completed billing application, data reporting, billing Medicaid, and maintaining Collaborative Care). The average percent of patient improvement for depression and anxiety across 155 clinics that had at least one quarter of data was 44.81%. Training and technical assistance source (Office of Mental Health, another source, or both) and intensity (high/low) were significantly related to implementation indices and were observed in FQHC versus non-FQHC samples. CONCLUSIONS: Offering Collaborative Care training and technical assistance, particularly high intensity training and technical assistance, increases the likelihood of implementation. Other state-wide organizations might consider the provision of training and technical assistance when assisting clinics to implement Collaborative Care.


Assuntos
Medicaid , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Instituições de Assistência Ambulatorial , Humanos , Saúde Mental , New York/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
13.
Trials ; 22(1): 590, 2021 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34488841

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is no strong evidence that any drug is beneficial either for the treatment of SARS-CoV-2 disease or for post-exposure prophylaxis. Therefore, clinical research is crucial to generate results and evaluate strategies against COVID-19. Primary care (PC) centers, the first level of care in the health system, are in a favorable position to carry out clinical trials (CD), as they work with a large volume of patients with varied profiles (from acute to chronic pathologies). During the COVID-19 pandemic, the need for hospital admission and mortality is higher in people > 60 years. Therefore, this is a target population to try to reduce the serious complications and lethality of COVID pneumonia and to avoid overloading the hospital system. Given the pharmacological properties of colchicine (anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic, possible inhibition of viral replication, and inhibitory effect on coagulation activation), early treatment with colchicine may reduce the rate of death and serious pulmonary complications from COVID-19 in vulnerable patients. METHODS: The COLCHICOVID study is a randomized, multicenter, controlled, open-label parallel group (2:1 ratio), phase III clinical trial to investigate the efficacy of early administration of colchicine in reducing the development of severe pulmonary complications associated with COVID-19 infection in patients over 60 years of age with at-risk comorbidities. DISCUSSION: This is a pragmatic clinical trial, adapted to usual clinical practice. The demonstration that early administration of colchicine has clinical effectiveness in reducing the complications of SARS-CoV-2 infection in a population highly susceptible may mitigate the health crisis and prevent the collapse of the health system in the successive waves of the coronavirus pandemic. In addition, colchicine is a well-known medicine, simple to use in the primary care setting and with a low cost for the health system. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04416334 . Registered on 4 June 2020. Protocol version: v 3.0, dated 22 September 2020.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Idoso , Colchicina/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto , Pandemias , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
Cad Saude Publica ; 37(8): e00247820, 2021.
Artigo em Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34495095

RESUMO

The article aims to analyze the work process for community health agents (ACS in Portuguese) in remote rural municipalities (counties) and identify specificities and contributions to primary healthcare. The qualitative study included 23 interviews with ACS and nurses in the family health teams in five remote rural counties in western Pará State, Brazil. Analysis of the work process for ACS covered two interconnected dimensions: scope of practices and qualification for the work. The scope of practices proved to be comprehensive, involving family follow-up, individual care and preventive measures, collective approach, and administrative activities. Home visits are the main activity by ACS and an important form of contact between health services and the clientele, meeting different objectives of enrollment, care, and information. ACS in remote rural communities, usually the only available health resource, display a broader scope of practices than in the municipal seats, including individual procedures. The qualification of ACS for the work can either enhance or limit the development of their practices and was expressed by the high motivation of the ACS, insufficient supervision and continuing education, and low integration with the larger health team. Policies are needed that acknowledge the specificities and guarantee greater support (materials, transportation, and continuing education) for full development of work by ACS in remote rural communities in the Amazon. The expanded set of practices by ACS suggests that they are relevant actors for providing care, facilitating the population's access to the healthcare network, and as a real link between rural populations and health services in remote rural communities.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde Rural , População Rural , Brasil , Recursos em Saúde , Humanos , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Saúde Pública
15.
Rev Esc Enferm USP ; 55: e20200529, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34528995

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the production of meanings on interventions considered as Harm Reduction in the discourses of nursing professionals working in Primary Health Care. METHOD: Qualitative study based on the theoretical-methodological framework of French Discourse Analysis. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 14 nursing professionals working in Primary Health Care, from February to October 2019. RESULTS: Most Harm Reduction practices performed by nursing professionals aim to minimize risks and physical damage. Harm Reduction actions that require welcoming, non-judgment and qualified listening were observed. Some nursing professionals perform Harm Reduction actions, but do not recognize them as such. CONCLUSION: The production of meanings in the discourses of nursing professionals presented evidence of biomedical and/or disease discursive formations, health prevention, interpersonal relationships and health promotion.


Assuntos
Redução do Dano , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Humanos , Pesquisa Qualitativa
16.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 21(1): 975, 2021 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34530826

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Screening in primary care for unmet individual social needs (e.g., housing instability, food insecurity, unemployment, social isolation) is critical to addressing their deleterious effects on patients' health outcomes. To our knowledge, this is the first study to apply an implementation science framework to identify implementation factors and best practices for social needs screening and response. METHODS: Guided by the Health Equity Implementation Framework (HEIF), we collected qualitative data from clinicians and patients to evaluate barriers and facilitators to implementing the Protocol for Responding to and Assessing Patients' Assets, Risks, and Experiences (PRAPARE), a standardized social needs screening and response protocol, in a federally qualified health center. Eligible patients who received the PRAPARE as a standard of care were invited to participate in semi-structured interviews. We also obtained front-line clinician perspectives in a semi-structured focus group. HEIF domains informed a directed content analysis. RESULTS: Patients and clinicians (i.e., case managers) reported implementation barriers and facilitators across multiple domains (e.g., clinical encounters, patient and provider factors, inner context, outer context, and societal influence). Implementation barriers included structural and policy level determinants related to resource availability, discrimination, and administrative burden. Facilitators included evidence-based clinical techniques for shared decision making (e.g., motivational interviewing), team-based staffing models, and beliefs related to alignment of the PRAPARE with patient-centered care. We found high levels of patient acceptability and opportunities for adaptation to increase equitable adoption and reach. CONCLUSION: Our results provide practical insight into the implementation of the PRAPARE or similar social needs screening and response protocols in primary care at the individual encounter, organizational, community, and societal levels. Future research should focus on developing discrete implementation strategies to promote social needs screening and response, and associated multisector care coordination to improve health outcomes and equity for vulnerable and marginalized patient populations.


Assuntos
Equidade em Saúde , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Ciência da Implementação , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Pesquisa Qualitativa
17.
Arq Neuropsiquiatr ; 79(7): 565-570, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468501

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cognitive decline is a common condition, but is still underrepresented in studies conducted in developing countries. OBJECTIVE: To calculate the prevalence of cognitive decline and depression in an elderly community-dwelling population in a city in southern Brazil. METHODS: We calculated the prevalences of dementia, cognitive impairment with no dementia (CIND) and symptoms of depression in an elderly population relying on the public healthcare system. This epidemiological study in Pelotas, Brazil, was conducted within the primary care setting. It included 299 older adults (mean age = 69.75 ± 7.6 years) who presented low levels of education (mean = 4.16 ± 3.17 years of education). They underwent cognitive screening and their medical records were analyzed. RESULTS: Among these older adults, 142 (47.5%) presented cognitive decline: 104 (34.8%) matching the cognitive criteria for CIND and 38 (12.7%) matching the cognitive criteria for dementia. Among all the individuals who completed the cognitive screening, 141 (48.4%) were positive for symptoms of depression, of whom 99 (34%) did not have any previous diagnosis in their medical records. CONCLUSION: There was high prevalence of cognitive impairment among these older adults in a primary care setting. A large number of older adults were found to have symptoms of depression without any diagnosis.


Assuntos
Transtornos Cognitivos , Disfunção Cognitiva , Demência , Idoso , Brasil/epidemiologia , Transtornos Cognitivos/epidemiologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/epidemiologia , Demência/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Atenção Primária à Saúde
18.
Einstein (Sao Paulo) ; 19: eGS5914, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468592

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate a p-median model for health care services accessibility based on decentralization and optimal allocation of Primary Health Care Units in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: Using geographical data of Primary Health Care Units located in the State of São Paulo, potential support and supply facility allocations were simulated by means of a random approach. Several constraints were then imposed on the system to simulate different scenarios. Results were assessed according to geographic disposition. RESULTS: Using a fixed number of supply facilities, ten as a constraint, the p-median approach allocated three facilities near the state capital (the area with the highest concentration of Primary Health Care Units), while remaining facilities were spread throughout the west of the state. A second round of tests assessed the impact of fixed costs alone on optimization, ranging from 71 optimal locations with a fixed unit cost to six optimal locations at a cost 300-fold higher. This finding was relevant to decision-making, since it encompassed scenarios in which only the final number of facilities or only the budget was known. A third set of simulations contemplates an intermediate scenario. CONCLUSION: The p-median approach was capable of optimizing a wide range of scenarios with an average running time of less than 2 hours and 30 minutes while considering a large dataset of more than 4,000 locations. In spite of some shortcomings, such as estimation of Euclidean distances, the method is simple yet powerful enough to be considered a useful tool to assist decision makers in the distribution of resources, and facilities across large areas with high number of locations to be supplied.


Assuntos
Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Brasil , Humanos , Política
19.
Cien Saude Colet ; 26(suppl 2): 3397-3408, 2021.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468637

RESUMO

The paper presents the relationship between the allocation of financial resources and the type of local basic health infrastructure in an initial sample of 5,570 Brazilian municipalities. This is an explanatory research using multiple correspondence analysis and quantile regression between expenditure/control variables and the type of structure of PHC Units. The correspondence between the type and the representative variables of expenditure shows that inferior typologies are related to lower per capita expenditure in these variables, and vice versa. Quantile regression showed a positive relationship with the type of infrastructure in the two cycles evaluated. There is evidence that expenditure variables are positively related to infrastructure, which allows us to understand that allocating more resources leads to better infrastructure. Results point to the need to improve the governance of financial resources for health, as municipalities with lower socioeconomic indicators have an infrastructure in the lower categories. We can conclude that there are multiple actors, and the various criteria for allocating and decentralizing resources bring about difficulties of coordination and integration between the entities, restricting the appropriate prioritization in the distribution of resources.


Assuntos
Gastos em Saúde , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Brasil , Cidades , Humanos , Fatores Socioeconômicos
20.
Cien Saude Colet ; 26(suppl 2): 3567-3579, 2021.
Artigo em Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468652

RESUMO

Health services, the access to which is a right of all citizens and the duty of the state, must be efficiently provided, as public resources are scarce and there is a growing demand called for by the population. In this context, the objective was to evaluate the efficiency of public spending on Primary Health Care in the municipalities of Rio de Janeiro (n = 70) in 2015. Initially, the jackstrap procedure was used to identify possible outliers, and Data Envelopment Analysis was then applied to calculate robust efficiency scores. In the second stage, the efficiency scores were regressed into non-discretionary variables using the Tobit method, that may affect the efficiency of municipalities. The results show that 63.9% of municipalities efficiently applied ABS resources, however, given the expenses incurred, ABS outputs could have been, on average, 6% higher. In addition, no evidence was found that wealthier, more socially developed and/or populous municipalities, were more (or less) efficient in public spending on ABS than not.


Assuntos
Eficiência , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Brasil , Cidades
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