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1.
PLoS One ; 19(2): e0295837, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38335214

RESUMO

Poly-(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs) are a protein family that make ADP-ribose modifications on target genes and proteins. PARP family members contribute to the pathogenesis of chronic inflammatory diseases, including atherosclerosis, in which monocytes/macrophages play important roles. PARP inhibition is protective against atherosclerosis. However, the mechanisms by which PARP inhibition exerts this beneficial effect are not well understood. Here we show that in THP-1 monocytes, inhibition of PARP by olaparib attenuated oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL)-induced protein expressions of nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain, leucine-rich repeat and pyrin domain-containing-3 (NLRP3) inflammasome components: NLRP3, apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a caspase activation and recruitment domain (ASC), and caspase-1. Consistent with this effect, olaparib decreased oxLDL-enhanced interleukin (IL)-1ß and IL-18 protein expression. Olaparib also decreased the oxLDL-mediated increase in mitochondrial reactive oxygen species. Similar to the effects of the NLRP3 inhibitor, MCC950, olaparib attenuated oxLDL-induced adhesion of monocytes to cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells and reduced foam cell formation. Furthermore, olaparib attenuated the oxLDL-mediated activation of nuclear factor (NF)-κB through the oxLDL-mediated increase in IκBα phosphorylation and assembly of NF-κB subunits, demonstrated by co-immunoprecipitation of IκBα with RelA/p50 and RelB/p52 subunits. Moreover, PARP inhibition decreased oxLDL-mediated protein expression of a NF-κB target gene, VCAM1, encoding vascular cell adhesion molecule-1. This finding indicates an important role for NF-κB activity in PARP-mediated activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome. Thus, PARP inhibition by olaparib attenuates NF-κB and NLRP3 inflammasome activities, lessening monocyte cell adhesion and macrophage foam cell formation. These inhibitory effects of olaparib on NLRP3 activity potentially protect against atherosclerosis.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose , Inflamassomos , Ftalazinas , Piperazinas , Humanos , Inflamassomos/metabolismo , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/metabolismo , Monócitos/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Inibidor de NF-kappaB alfa/metabolismo , Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerases/metabolismo , Inibidores de Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerases/farmacologia , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Adenosina Difosfato Ribose/metabolismo , Aterosclerose/metabolismo , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo
2.
BMC Neurol ; 24(1): 58, 2024 Feb 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38336633

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Arterial transit artifact (ATA) observed on arterial spin labeling (ASL) was recently suggested to be associated with improved functional outcomes following acute ischemic stroke (AIS). AIS is a heterogeneous disease with diverse pathogenic mechanisms depending on the stroke subtype. This study aimed to investigate the association between ATA and 3-month functional outcomes in AIS patients according to etiology subtypes. METHODS: Consecutive patients with AIS were included. All patients underwent ASL MRI with postlabeling delay (PLD) of 1.5 and 2.5 s. ATA was assessed from the ASL images of both PLDs. Stroke etiologic subtypes were determined according to the modified TOAST (Trial of ORG 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment) classification. Short-term functional outcomes were evaluated using the 3-month modified Rankin scale (mRS). Log-binomial regression was applied to analyze the association between ATA and functional outcomes at 3 months after stroke. RESULTS: Ninety-eight AIS patients (62.73 ± 13.05 years; 68 men) were finally included. ATA was detected in forty-six patients and most frequently seen in the large-artery atherosclerosis (LAA) subtype (35/46). The ATA group exhibited a lower percentage of patients with mRS > 2 compared to the group without ATA (36.5% vs. 19.6%; P < 0.001). ATA was independently associated with better 3-month clinical outcomes (adjusted risk ratio, 0.35[95% CI, 0.16-0.74]) in the multivariate log-binomial regression model. After stratification by TOAST subtypes, a significant association was found between ATA and better outcomes in the LAA subtype (adjusted risk ratio, 0.20[ 95% CI, 0.05-0.72]) but not in cardioembolism and small artery occlusion (SVO) subtype. CONCLUSION: ATA is associated with better outcomes at 3 months in patients with AIS, especially in the LAA subtype, but this association attenuated in the cardioembolism and SVO subtypes.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose , Isquemia Encefálica , AVC Isquêmico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Masculino , Humanos , Isquemia Encefálica/complicações , AVC Isquêmico/diagnóstico por imagem , AVC Isquêmico/complicações , Prognóstico , Artefatos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações , Aterosclerose/complicações , Artérias
3.
Nutrients ; 16(3)2024 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38337615

RESUMO

Atherosclerosis and resulting cardiovascular disease are the leading causes of death in the US. Hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy), or the accumulation of the intermediate amino acid homocysteine, is an independent risk factor for atherosclerosis, but the intricate biological processes mediating this effect remain elusive. Several factors regulate homocysteine levels, including the activity of several enzymes and adequate levels of their coenzymes, including pyridoxal phosphate (vitamin B6), folate (vitamin B9), and methylcobalamin (vitamin B12). To better understand the biological influence of HHcy on the development and progression of atherosclerosis, apolipoprotein-E-deficient (apoE-/- mice), a model for human atherosclerosis, were fed a hyperhomocysteinemic diet (low in methyl donors and B vitamins) (HHD) or a control diet (CD). After eight weeks, the plasma, aorta, and liver were collected to quantify methylation metabolites, while plasma was also used for a broad targeted metabolomic analysis. Aortic plaque burden in the brachiocephalic artery (BCA) was quantified via 14T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). A severe accumulation of plasma and hepatic homocysteine and an increased BCA plaque burden were observed, thus confirming the atherogenic effect of the HHD. Moreover, a decreased methylation capacity in the plasma and aorta, indirectly assessed by the ratio of S-adenosylmethionine to S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAM:SAH) was detected in HHD mice together with a 172-fold increase in aortic cystathionine levels, indicating increased flux through the transsulfuration pathway. Betaine and its metabolic precursor, choline, were significantly decreased in the livers of HHD mice versus CD mice. Widespread changes in the plasma metabolome of HHD mice versus CD animals were detected, including alterations in acylcarnitines, amino acids, bile acids, ceramides, sphingomyelins, triacylglycerol levels, and several indicators of dysfunctional lipid metabolism. This study confirms the relevance of severe HHcy in the progression of vascular plaque and suggests novel metabolic pathways implicated in the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose , Hiper-Homocisteinemia , Camundongos , Animais , Humanos , Aterosclerose/metabolismo , Dieta , S-Adenosilmetionina/metabolismo , Ácido Fólico/efeitos adversos , Apolipoproteínas E/genética , Apolipoproteínas E/metabolismo , Metaboloma , Homocisteína/metabolismo , Apolipoproteínas/metabolismo
4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(3)2024 Jan 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38338843

RESUMO

Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is a progressive disorder leading to the development of microangiopathies and macroangiopathies. Numerous cytokines and chemokines are involved in the pathogenesis of T1D complications. The study aimed to assess the presence of complications in patients with long-standing T1D and its relationship with serum biomarker concentrations. We examined 52 T1D subjects, with a disease duration ≥4 years and 39 healthy controls. The group of T1D patients was further divided into subgroups based on the duration of the disease (<7 years and ≥7 years) and the metabolic control assessed by the HbAlc level (<8% and ≥8%). We used Luminex Technology to assess a wide range of biomarker concentrations. A 24 h urine test was done to evaluate the rate of albuminuria. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) was conducted to detect early retinopathic changes. Subclinical atherosclerosis was assessed by measuring the carotid intima-media thickness (IMT). T1D patients showed remarkably higher concentrations of EGF, eotaxin/CCL11, MDC/CCL22, sCD40L, TGF-α, and TNF-α. Moreover, we reported statistically significant correlations between cytokines and IMT. Biomarker concentrations depend on numerous factors such as disease duration, metabolic control, and the presence of complications. Although the majority of pediatric T1D patients do not present signs of overt complications, it is indispensable to conduct the screening for angiopathies already in childhood, as its early recognition may attenuate the further progression of complications.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1 , Humanos , Criança , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/patologia , Citocinas , Espessura Intima-Media Carotídea , Aterosclerose/complicações , Biomarcadores
5.
J Med Chem ; 67(4): 2907-2940, 2024 Feb 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38348661

RESUMO

The matrix metalloprotease ADAMTS7 has been identified by multiple genome-wide association studies as being involved in the development of coronary artery disease. Subsequent research revealed the proteolytic function of the enzyme to be relevant for atherogenesis and restenosis after vessel injury. Based on a publicly known dual ADAMTS4/ADAMTS5 inhibitor, we have in silico designed an ADAMTS7 inhibitor of the catalytic domain, which served as a starting point for an optimization campaign. Initially our inhibitors suffered from low selectivity vs MMP12. An X-ray cocrystal structure inspired us to exploit amino acid differences in the binding site of MMP12 and ADAMTS7 to improve selectivity. Further optimization composed of employing 5-membered heteroaromatic groups as hydantoin substituents to become more potent on ADAMTS7. Finally, fine-tuning of DMPK properties yielded BAY-9835, the first orally bioavailable ADAMTS7 inhibitor. Further optimization to improve selectivity vs ADAMTS12 seems possible, and a respective starting point could be identified.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose , Doença da Artéria Coronariana , Humanos , Proteína ADAMTS7/genética , Proteína ADAMTS7/metabolismo , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Metaloproteinase 12 da Matriz
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(3)2024 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38339133

RESUMO

Atherosclerosis stands out as one of the leading causes of global mortality. The inflammatory response against vascular wall components plays a pivotal role in the atherogenic process. The initiation of this process is notably driven by oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) and a range of pro-inflammatory cytokines, with interleukin-1ß (Il-1ß) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) emerging as particularly significant in the early stages of atherosclerotic plaque formation. In recent years, researchers worldwide have been diligently exploring innovative therapeutic approaches for metabolic diseases, recognizing their impact on the atherogenesis process. Our study aimed to investigate the influence of glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RA) on cytokine concentrations associated with the initiation of atherosclerotic plaque formation in a group of patients with type 2 diabetes and dyslipidemia. The study encompassed 50 subjects aged 41-81 (mean: 60.7), all diagnosed with type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia and confirmed atherosclerosis based on B-mode ultrasound. Following a 180-day treatment with dulaglutide or semaglutide, we observed a statistically significant reduction in biochemical markers (oxLDL, TNFα and Il-1ß) associated with the initiation of the atherosclerotic process (p < 0.001) within our study group. In addition to the already acknowledged positive effects of GLP-1RA on the metabolic parameters of treated patients, these drugs demonstrated a notable reduction in proinflammatory cytokine concentrations and may constitute an important element of therapy aimed at reducing cardiovascular risk.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Dislipidemias , Placa Aterosclerótica , Humanos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Placa Aterosclerótica/tratamento farmacológico , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/uso terapêutico , Aterosclerose/tratamento farmacológico , Aterosclerose/metabolismo , Citocinas/uso terapêutico , Biomarcadores , Interleucina-1beta/uso terapêutico , Peptídeo 1 Semelhante ao Glucagon/uso terapêutico , Dislipidemias/tratamento farmacológico , Receptor do Peptídeo Semelhante ao Glucagon 1/agonistas , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico
7.
Sensors (Basel) ; 24(3)2024 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38339479

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Combination devices to monitor heart rate/rhythms and physical activity are becoming increasingly popular in research and clinical settings. The Zio XT Patch (iRhythm Technologies, San Francisco, CA, USA) is US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved for monitoring heart rhythms, but the validity of its accelerometer for assessing physical activity is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To validate the accelerometer in the Zio XT Patch for measuring physical activity against the widely-used ActiGraph GT3X. METHODS: The Zio XT and ActiGraph wGT3X-BT (Actigraph, Pensacola, FL, USA) were worn simultaneously in two separately-funded ancillary studies to Visit 6 of the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study (2016-2017). Zio XT was worn on the chest and ActiGraph was worn on the hip. Raw accelerometer data were summarized using mean absolute deviation (MAD) for six different epoch lengths (1-min, 5-min, 10-min, 30-min, 1-h, and 2-h). Participants who had ≥3 days of at least 10 h of valid data between 7 a.m-11 p.m were included. Agreement of epoch-level MAD between the two devices was evaluated using correlation and mean squared error (MSE). RESULTS: Among 257 participants (average age: 78.5 ± 4.7 years; 59.1% female), there were strong correlations between MAD values from Zio XT and ActiGraph (average r: 1-min: 0.66, 5-min: 0.90, 10-min: 0.93, 30-min: 0.93, 1-h: 0.89, 2-h: 0.82), with relatively low error values (Average MSE × 106: 1-min: 349.37 g, 5-min: 86.25 g, 10-min: 56.80 g, 30-min: 45.46 g, 1-h: 52.56 g, 2-h: 54.58 g). CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that Zio XT accelerometry is valid for measuring duration, frequency, and intensity of physical activity within time epochs of 5-min to 2-h.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose , Exercício Físico , Humanos , Feminino , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Masculino , Acelerometria , Aterosclerose/diagnóstico
8.
J. physiol. biochem ; 80(1): 27-39, Feb. 2024. ilus, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-229938

RESUMO

Cardiovascular disease due to atherosclerosis is one of the leading causes of death worldwide; however, the underlying mechanism has yet to be defined. The sodium-dependent glucose transporter 2 inhibitor (SGLT2i) empagliflozin is a new type of hypoglycemic drug. Recent studies have shown that empagliflozin not only reduces high glucose levels but also exerts cardiovascular-protective effects and slows the process of atherosclerosis. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the mechanism by which empagliflozin ameliorates atherosclerosis. Male apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE−/−) mice were fed a high-fat Western diet to establish an atherosclerosis model. The area and size of atherosclerotic lesions in ApoE−/− mice were then assessed by performing hematoxylin–eosin (HE) staining after empagliflozin treatment. Concurrently, oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) was used to mimic atherosclerosis in three different types of cells. Then, following empagliflozin treatment of macrophage cells (RAW264.7), human aortic smooth muscle cells (HASMCs), and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), western blotting was applied to measure the levels of autophagy-related proteins and proinflammatory cytokines, and green fluorescent protein (GFP)-light chain 3 (LC3) puncta were detected using confocal microscopy to confirm autophagosome formation. Oil Red O staining was performed to detect the foaming of macrophages and HASMCs, and flow cytometry was used for the cell cycle analysis. 5-ethynyl-2′-deoxyuridine (EdU), cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8), and scratch assays were also performed to examine the proliferation and migration of HASMCs. Empagliflozin suppressed the progression of atherosclerotic lesions in ApoE−/− mice... (AU)


Assuntos
Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Aterosclerose/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose
9.
J. physiol. biochem ; 80(1): 67-79, Feb. 2024. tab, graf, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-229941

RESUMO

Recently, trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) has been considered a risk factor for cardiovascular disease and has a proatherogenic effect. Many studies have found that TMAO is involved in plaque oxidative stress and lipid metabolism, but the specific mechanism is still unclear. In our study, meta-analysis and bioinformatic analysis were firstly conducted in the database, and found that the effect of high plasma TMAO levels on promoting atherosclerotic plaque may be related to the expression of key antioxidant genes nuclear factor erytheroid-derived-2-like 2 (NFE2L2/Nrf2) decreased. Next, we assessed the role of Nrf2-mediated signaling pathway in TMAO-treated foam cells. Our results showed that TMAO can inhibit the expression of Nrf2 and its downstream antioxidant response element such as heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and glutathione peroxidase4 (GPX4), resulting in increased production of reactive oxygen species and decreased activity of superoxide dismutase, promoting oxidative stress. And TMAO can also promote lipid accumulation in foam cells by inhibiting cholesterol efflux protein expression. In addition, upregulation of Nrf2 expression partially rescues TMAO-induced oxidative stress and reduces ATP-binding cassette A1 (ABCA1)–mediated lipid accumulation. Therefore, TMAO promotes oxidative stress and lipid accumulation in macrophage foam cells through the Nrf2/ABCA1 pathway, which may provide a potential mechanism for the proatherogenic effect of TMAO. (AU)


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Fatores de Risco , Estresse Oxidativo , Aterosclerose , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2
10.
J. physiol. biochem ; 80(1): 27-39, Feb. 2024. ilus, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-EMG-563

RESUMO

Cardiovascular disease due to atherosclerosis is one of the leading causes of death worldwide; however, the underlying mechanism has yet to be defined. The sodium-dependent glucose transporter 2 inhibitor (SGLT2i) empagliflozin is a new type of hypoglycemic drug. Recent studies have shown that empagliflozin not only reduces high glucose levels but also exerts cardiovascular-protective effects and slows the process of atherosclerosis. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the mechanism by which empagliflozin ameliorates atherosclerosis. Male apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE−/−) mice were fed a high-fat Western diet to establish an atherosclerosis model. The area and size of atherosclerotic lesions in ApoE−/− mice were then assessed by performing hematoxylin–eosin (HE) staining after empagliflozin treatment. Concurrently, oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) was used to mimic atherosclerosis in three different types of cells. Then, following empagliflozin treatment of macrophage cells (RAW264.7), human aortic smooth muscle cells (HASMCs), and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), western blotting was applied to measure the levels of autophagy-related proteins and proinflammatory cytokines, and green fluorescent protein (GFP)-light chain 3 (LC3) puncta were detected using confocal microscopy to confirm autophagosome formation. Oil Red O staining was performed to detect the foaming of macrophages and HASMCs, and flow cytometry was used for the cell cycle analysis. 5-ethynyl-2′-deoxyuridine (EdU), cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8), and scratch assays were also performed to examine the proliferation and migration of HASMCs. Empagliflozin suppressed the progression of atherosclerotic lesions in ApoE−/− mice... (AU)


Assuntos
Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Aterosclerose/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose
11.
J. physiol. biochem ; 80(1): 67-79, Feb. 2024. tab, graf, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-EMG-566

RESUMO

Recently, trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) has been considered a risk factor for cardiovascular disease and has a proatherogenic effect. Many studies have found that TMAO is involved in plaque oxidative stress and lipid metabolism, but the specific mechanism is still unclear. In our study, meta-analysis and bioinformatic analysis were firstly conducted in the database, and found that the effect of high plasma TMAO levels on promoting atherosclerotic plaque may be related to the expression of key antioxidant genes nuclear factor erytheroid-derived-2-like 2 (NFE2L2/Nrf2) decreased. Next, we assessed the role of Nrf2-mediated signaling pathway in TMAO-treated foam cells. Our results showed that TMAO can inhibit the expression of Nrf2 and its downstream antioxidant response element such as heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and glutathione peroxidase4 (GPX4), resulting in increased production of reactive oxygen species and decreased activity of superoxide dismutase, promoting oxidative stress. And TMAO can also promote lipid accumulation in foam cells by inhibiting cholesterol efflux protein expression. In addition, upregulation of Nrf2 expression partially rescues TMAO-induced oxidative stress and reduces ATP-binding cassette A1 (ABCA1)–mediated lipid accumulation. Therefore, TMAO promotes oxidative stress and lipid accumulation in macrophage foam cells through the Nrf2/ABCA1 pathway, which may provide a potential mechanism for the proatherogenic effect of TMAO. (AU)


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Fatores de Risco , Estresse Oxidativo , Aterosclerose , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2
12.
Zhongguo Zhen Jiu ; 44(2): 169-174, 2024 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês, Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38373762

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To observe the effects of Lizhong Tongmai acupuncture (acupuncture for regulating middle jiao and promoting meridians) on trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO), CD36 expression, and cholesterol deposition in atherosclerotic (AS) mice, exploring potential mechanism of electroacupuncture (EA) in treating AS. METHODS: A total of 31 male SPF-grade C57BL/6J ApoE-/- mice were fed with high-fat diet for 8 weeks to establish AS model. After successful modeling, the remaining 30 mice were randomly divided into a model group, a medication group, and an EA group, with 10 mice in each group. An additional 10 normal mice of the same strain were selected as a blank group. The mice in the blank group and the model group received no intervention. The mice in the medication group were treated with intragastric administration of atorvastatin calcium. The mice in the EA group were treated with EA at "Neiguan" (PC 6), "Tianshu" (ST 25) and "Zusanli" (ST 36). The same-side "Neiguan" (PC 6) and "Zusanli" (ST 36), "Tianshu" (ST 25) and the tail of the mice were connected to the EA apparatus, with disperse-dense wave, a frequency of 2 Hz/15 Hz, and a current intensity of 0.3 mA for 10 min per session. Acupuncture was performed unilaterally per session, alternating between the left and right sides, with a frequency of once every other day. After intervention, HE staining was used to observe the pathological morphology of the aorta. Microplate assays were conducted to measure triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels in serum. Ultra high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry technique (UPLC-MS) was employed to detect TMAO level in plasma. Western blot was performed to assess CD36 protein expression level in the aorta. Microanalysis was used to measure cholesterol ester (CE) level in the aorta and the CE/TC ratio was calculated. RESULTS: Compared with the blank group, the mice in the model group exhibited significant pathological changes of atherosclerosis, serum TG, TC, LDL-C levels were increased (P<0.01), and HDL-C level was decreased (P<0.01); the plasma TMAO level, aortic CE level, and the CE/TC ratio were increased (P<0.01), along with elevated CD36 protein expression level in the aorta (P<0.01). Compared with the model group, the mice in the medication group and the EA group showed improvements in aortic pathology, serum TG, TC, LDL-C levels were reduced, HDL-C levels were increased (P<0.05); plasma TMAO levels, aortic CE levels, and the CE/TC ratio were decreased (P<0.01), and CD36 protein expression levels were lowered (P<0.05). The serum TG and TC levels in the EA group were higher than those in the medication group (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The Lizhong Tongmai acupuncture can ameliorate aortic pathological changes, regulate blood lipid levels, reduce plasma TMAO level, inhibit CD36 protein expression in the aorta, and decrease cholesterol deposition. These effects may contribute to the therapeutic mechanism of EA in treating AS.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose , Eletroacupuntura , Metilaminas , Masculino , Camundongos , Animais , Antígenos CD36/genética , LDL-Colesterol/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Pontos de Acupuntura , Camundongos Knockout para ApoE , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Aterosclerose/genética , Aterosclerose/terapia , Aterosclerose/metabolismo
13.
Front Immunol ; 15: 1340373, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38375475

RESUMO

Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) are specialized monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that target immune checkpoints and their ligands, counteracting cancer cell-induced T-cell suppression. Approved ICIs like cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4), programmed death-1 (PD-1), its ligand PD-L1, and lymphocyte activation gene-3 (LAG-3) have improved cancer patient outcomes by enhancing anti-tumor responses. However, some patients are unresponsive, and others experience immune-related adverse events (irAEs), affecting organs like the lung, liver, intestine, skin and now the cardiovascular system. These cardiac irAEs include conditions like myocarditis, atherosclerosis, pericarditis, arrhythmias, and cardiomyopathy. Ongoing clinical trials investigate promising alternative co-inhibitory receptor targets, including T cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain-containing protein 3 (Tim-3) and T cell immunoreceptor with immunoglobulin and ITIM domain (TIGIT). This review delves into the mechanisms of approved ICIs (CTLA-4, PD-1, PD-L1, and LAG-3) and upcoming options like Tim-3 and TIGIT. It explores the use of ICIs in cancer treatment, supported by both preclinical and clinical data. Additionally, it examines the mechanisms behind cardiac toxic irAEs, focusing on ICI-associated myocarditis and atherosclerosis. These insights are vital as ICIs continue to revolutionize cancer therapy, offering hope to patients, while also necessitating careful monitoring and management of potential side effects, including emerging cardiac complications.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Imunológicos , Aterosclerose , Sistema Cardiovascular , Miocardite , Neoplasias , Humanos , Antígeno CTLA-4 , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/efeitos adversos , Antígeno B7-H1/metabolismo , Receptor Celular 2 do Vírus da Hepatite A , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/efeitos adversos , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/metabolismo , Miocardite/etiologia , Imunoterapia/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias/terapia , Anticorpos Monoclonais/efeitos adversos , Receptores Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Pulmão/patologia , Sistema Cardiovascular/metabolismo , Aterosclerose/etiologia
15.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 3992, 2024 02 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38368442

RESUMO

Evidence shows that primary gout is prone to develop to atherosclerosis, but the mechanism of its occurrence is still not fully clarified. The aim of this study was to explore the molecular mechanism of the occurrence of this complication in gout. The gene expression profiles of primary gout and atherosclerosis were downloaded from the gene expression omnibus database. Overlapping differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between gout and atherosclerosis were identified. The biological roles of common DEGs were explored through enrichment analyses. Hub genes were identified using protein-protein interaction networks. The immune infiltrations of 28 types of immune cells in gout and control samples from GSE160170 were evaluated by the ssGSEA method. Transcription factors (TFs) were predicted using Transcriptional Regulatory Relationships Unraveled by Sentence Based Text Mining (TRRUST) database. A total of 168 overlapping DEGs were identified. Functional enrichment analyses indicated that DEGs were mostly enriched in chemokine signaling pathway, regulation of actin cytoskeleton, and TNF signaling pathway. CytoScape demonstrated 11 hub genes and two gene cluster modules. The immune infiltration analysis showed that the expression of DEGs in gout was significantly upregulated in activated CD4 T cells, gamma delta T cells, T follicular helper cell, CD56dim natural killer cells, and eosinophil. TRRUST predicted one TF, RUNX family transcription factor 1. Our study explored the pathogenesis of gout with atherosclerosis and discovered the immune infiltration of gout. These results may guide future experimental research and clinical transformation.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose , Gota , Humanos , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Aterosclerose/complicações , Aterosclerose/genética , Pacientes , Citoesqueleto de Actina , Gota/complicações , Gota/genética , Biologia Computacional , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica
16.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 3964, 2024 02 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38368495

RESUMO

The identification of circulating biomarkers of endothelial dysfunction (ED), a precursor to atherosclerosis, in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) would facilitate early risk stratification and prevention strategies. Ischemia-modified albumin (IMA) has emerged as a potential biomarker of oxidative stress, ischemia, and ED. However, studies examining the relationship between IMA and ED in RA patients are lacking. We measured serum IMA concentrations by using an albumin cobalt binding test and peripheral vasodilatory capacity by EndoPAT in 113 RA patients without previous cardiovascular events enrolled in the EDRA study (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02341066). The mean peripheral vasodilatory capacity, expressed by the log of reactive hyperemia index (logRHI), was 0.82, corresponding to 27% RA patients having ED. The mean plasma concentrations of IMA were 0.478 absorbance units. We observed a significant and inverse association between peripheral vasodilatory capacity and serum IMA concentrations (rho = - 0.22, p = 0.02). In univariate logistic regression, ED was significantly associated with serum IMA concentrations [OR 1173 (95% CI 1.3568 to 101,364), p = 0.040) and higher disease activity. In multivariate logistic regression, the independent association between ED and IMA remained significant after correction for disease activity and other RA-confounders [OR 2252 (95% CI 1.0596 to 4,787,505), p = 0.048 in Model 1; OR 7221 (95% CI 4.1539 to 12,552,859), p = 0.02 in Model 2]. Conclusions: This study suggests that IMA is a promising biomarker of ED in RA. Further research is needed to confirm our findings and determine the clinical utility of IMA in detecting and managing early atherosclerosis in RA patients.


Assuntos
Artrite Reumatoide , Aterosclerose , Humanos , Biomarcadores , Albumina Sérica , Albumina Sérica Humana
17.
Carbohydr Polym ; 330: 121834, 2024 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38368111

RESUMO

Endothelial dysfunction induced by oxidative stress is an early predictor of atherosclerosis, which can cause various cardiovascular diseases. The glycocalyx layer on the endothelial cell surface acts as a barrier to maintain endothelial biological function, and it can be impaired by oxidative stress. However, the mechanism of glycocalyx damage during the development of atherosclerosis remains largely unclear. Herein, we established a novel strategy to address these issues from the glycomic perspective that has long been neglected. Using countercharged fluorescence protein staining and quantitative mass spectrometry, we found that heparan sulfate, a major component of the glycocalyx, was structurally altered by oxidative stress. Comparative proteomics and protein microarray analysis revealed several new heparan sulfate-binding proteins, among which alpha-2-Heremans-Schmid glycoprotein (AHSG) was identified as a critical protein. The molecular mechanism of AHSG with heparin was characterized through several methods. A heparan analog could relieve atherosclerosis by protecting heparan sulfate from degradation during oxidative stress and by reducing the accumulation of AHSG at lesion sites. In the present study, the molecular mechanism of anti-atherosclerotic effect of heparin through interaction with AHSG was revealed. These findings provide new insights into understanding of glycocalyx damage in atherosclerosis and lead to the development of corresponding therapeutics.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose , Glicocálix , Humanos , Heparitina Sulfato/metabolismo , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Aterosclerose/tratamento farmacológico , Heparina/farmacologia
18.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 97(4): 1901-1911, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38339934

RESUMO

Background: Psychosocial factors are modifiable risk factors for Alzheimer's disease (AD). One mechanism linking psychosocial factors to AD risk may be through biological measures of brain amyloid; however, this association has not been widely studied. Objective: To determine if mid-life measures of social support and social isolation in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study cohort are associated with late life brain amyloid burden, measured using florbetapir positron emission tomography (PET). Methods: Measures of social support and social isolation were assessed in ARIC participants (visit 2: 1990-1992). Brain amyloid was evaluated with florbetapir PET standardized uptake value ratios (SUVRs; visit 5: 2012-2014). Results: Among 316 participants without dementia, participants with intermediate (odds ratio (OR), 0.47; 95% CI, 0.25-0.88), or low social support (OR, 0.43; 95% CI, 0.22-0.83) in mid-life were less likely to have elevated amyloid SUVRs, relative to participants with high social support. Participants with moderate risk for social isolation in mid-life (OR, 0.32; 95% CI, 0.14-0.74) were less likely to have elevated amyloid burden than participants at low risk for social isolation. These associations were not significantly modified by sex or race. Conclusions: Lower social support and moderate risk of social isolation in mid-life were associated with lower odds of elevated amyloid SUVR in late life, compared to participants with greater mid-life psychosocial measures. Future longitudinal studies evaluating mid-life psychosocial factors, in relation to brain amyloid as well as other health outcomes, will strengthen our understanding of the role of these factors throughout the lifetime.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Aterosclerose , Disfunção Cognitiva , Etilenoglicóis , Humanos , Amiloide/metabolismo , Compostos de Anilina , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons/métodos , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Doença de Alzheimer/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença de Alzheimer/epidemiologia , Doença de Alzheimer/psicologia , Proteínas Amiloidogênicas , Fatores de Risco , Aterosclerose/diagnóstico por imagem , Aterosclerose/epidemiologia , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/metabolismo
19.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 103(7): e37171, 2024 Feb 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38363908

RESUMO

Carotid atherosclerotic plaques are the manifestation of atherosclerosis in the carotid arteries and can significantly increase the incidence of cerebrovascular disease. Macrophages and smooth muscle cells are crucial for their development. To reveal the mechanism of carotid atherosclerotic plaque formation, we performed single-nucleus RNA sequencing of the carotid plaque tissue and identified 11 cell types, and the macrophages were divided into 5 different macrophage subpopulations. The macrophages and smooth muscle cells in the patients with symptomatic carotid atherosclerotic plaques caused intraplaque cell death via the mitochondrial autophagic pathway, resulting in plaque instability and rupture, which in turn led to clinical cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events. The findings provide new insights into carotid atherosclerosis formation, and this may provide new directions for the prevention and treatment of carotid atherosclerosis.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose , Doenças das Artérias Carótidas , Placa Aterosclerótica , Humanos , Aterosclerose/metabolismo , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Autofagia/genética , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/metabolismo , Análise de Sequência de RNA
20.
Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes ; 17(2): e009960, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38318702

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is unclear how the type of an atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) event potentially influences patients' likelihood of smoking cessation. METHODS: Using 2013 to 2018 data from the US based National Cardiovascular Data Registry Practice Innovation and Clinical Excellence outpatient cardiac registry, we identified patients who were current smokers at a clinic visit and followed them over time for a subsequent ASCVD event. Self-reported smoking status was assessed at each consecutive visit and used to determine smoking cessation after each interim ASCVD event (myocardial infarction, percutaneous coronary intervention, coronary artery bypass graft, stroke/transient ischemic attack, peripheral artery disease). We constructed separate multivariable Cox models with nonproportional hazards to examine the association of each interim ASCVD event with smoking cessation, compared with not having an interim ASCVD event. We estimated the relative association of ASCVD event type with smoking cessation using contrast tests. Analyses were stratified by presence versus absence of ASCVD at baseline. RESULTS: Across 530 cardiology practices, we identified 1 933 283 current smokers (mean age 62±15, male 54%, ASCVD at baseline 50%). Among the 322 743 patients who had an interim ASCVD event and were still smoking, 41 336 (12.8%) quit smoking by their first subsequent clinic visit, which was higher among those with baseline ASCVD (13.4%) as compared with those without baseline ASCVD (11.5%). Each type of ASCVD event was associated with an increased likelihood of smoking. Patients who had an myocardial infarction, underwent coronary artery bypass graft (hazard ratio, 1.60 [95% CI, 1.55-1.65]), or had a stroke or transient ischemic attack were more likely to quit smoking as compared with those who underwent elective percutaneous coronary intervention or had a new diagnosis of peripheral artery disease (hazard ratio, 1.20 [95% CI, 1.17-1.22]). CONCLUSIONS: Only 13% of patients reported smoking cessation after an ASCVD event, with the type of event being associated with the likelihood of smoking cessation, prompting the need for patient-centered interventions.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Ataque Isquêmico Transitório , Infarto do Miocárdio , Doença Arterial Periférica , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Pacientes Ambulatoriais , Ataque Isquêmico Transitório/diagnóstico , Ataque Isquêmico Transitório/epidemiologia , Ataque Isquêmico Transitório/terapia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/terapia , Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/terapia , Doença Arterial Periférica/diagnóstico , Doença Arterial Periférica/epidemiologia , Doença Arterial Periférica/terapia , Sistema de Registros , Fatores de Risco
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