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1.
Food Chem ; 370: 131376, 2022 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34662793

RESUMO

Mangiferin (MGF), from Mangifera indica is well reported for its hypoglycemic activity and hypolipidemic activity. However, MGF suffers therapeutic limitation due to poor solubility causing disparaging bioavailability. Herein to address this problem, we have incorporated MGF in alginate grafted N-succinylated chitosan (NSC) nanomatrix. Characterization by molecular docking, FT-IR and 2D-NMR (COSY) has revealed that MGF could reinforce interaction with NSC. The OH and CH2OH groups of MGF may set interactions with pyranosic OH, CH2OH, NH2 (or NH-succinyl and COOH-succinyl) of NSC. The NSC-MGF nanoconjugate revealed a spherical particle geometry of 100 âˆ¼ 200 nm size. The encapsulated MGF showed 100% release in vitro. In vivo, NSC-MGF nanoconjugate revealed blood glucose lowering from 300 mg/dL to âˆ¼ 90 mg/dL as well as âˆ¼ 37% lowering of total plasma cholesterol. This is well comparative to the earlier reports which acknowledged only 1 âˆ¼ 36% lowering of plasma cholesterol with MGF. Furthermore, NSC-MGF lowered serum trigyceride to âˆ¼ 61%, while in earlier studies, only 10 âˆ¼ 40% serum triglycerides reduction was found with solitary MGF.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose , Quitosana , Diabetes Mellitus , Hiperlipidemias , Nanopartículas , Alginatos , Animais , Hiperlipidemias/tratamento farmacológico , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Nanoconjugados , Tamanho da Partícula , Ratos , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Xantonas
2.
Biol Trace Elem Res ; 200(1): 164-171, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33661473

RESUMO

Dietary cholesterol causes atherosclerosis along with a reduction of copper concentrations in the atherosclerosis wall. This study was to determine the relationship between aorta copper concentrations and the severity of atherosclerotic lesions as well as copper homeostasis in multiple organs in cholesterol-fed rabbits. Male New Zealand white rabbits, 10-week-old and averaged 2.0 kg, were fed a diet containing 1% (w/w) cholesterol or the same diet without cholesterol as controls. Twelve weeks after the feeding, aortic atherosclerotic lesions, serum cholesterol, and multiple organ copper concentrations were measured. Compared to controls, rabbits fed cholesterol-supplemented diet displayed higher serum cholesterol levels and developed atherosclerosis. Copper concentrations in the cholesterol-fed rabbits were increased in the serum and kidney but decreased in the atherosclerosis wall and multiple organs, including heart, liver, spleen, and lung. Furthermore, aorta copper concentrations negatively correlated, respectively, with the severity of the atherosclerotic lesion (r = - 0.64, p = 0.01), the microscope atherosclerotic lesion area (r = - 0.60, p = 0.02), and the stenosis of the lumen (r = - 0.54, p = 0.04). Dietary cholesterol not only causes atherosclerosis but also disturbs copper homeostasis in multiple organ systems. The negative correlation between aorta copper concentrations and the severity of atherosclerotic lesions suggests a vicious cycle between copper reduction and the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. These changes in copper homeostasis would be additive to atherosclerosis as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease in humans.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose , Colesterol na Dieta , Animais , Aorta , Aterosclerose/induzido quimicamente , Cobre , Homeostase , Masculino , Coelhos
3.
Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao ; 43(5): 677-684, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34728028

RESUMO

Objective To investigate the differences of gut microbiota between patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm and atherosclerosis.Methods From December 2018 to June 2019,20 fresh stool samples were collected respectively from the patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm and atherosclerosis treated at the Department of Vascular Surgery,Peking Union Medical College Hospital.The 16S rDNA high-throughput sequencing was employed to compare the composition,abundance,and α and ß diversities of gut microbiota between the two disease groups,and further determine the significantly differential genera.Results The two groups had great similarities in the composition of gut microbiota.There was no statistical difference in α diversity.Although ß diversity did not have statistically significant difference,certain microbial taxa showed differences between the two groups.The LEfSe demonstrated that the abdominal aortic aneurysm group had higher relative abundance of Leuconostocaceae,Ruminococcaceae,Weissella,and Faecalibacterium while lower relative abundance of Firmicuteria,Selenomonadales,and Veillonellaceae.Conclusion The structure of gut microbiota has differences between patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm and atherosclerosis,and sample size should be enlarged to validate the results.


Assuntos
Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal , Aterosclerose , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Fezes , Humanos
4.
J Cardiothorac Surg ; 16(1): 324, 2021 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34742341

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: SCIRT has been characterized as a key player in cancer biology, while its role in other human diseases is unclear. This study explored its role in atherosclerosis, with a specific focus on its interaction with SCIRT and miR-146a. METHODS: The expression of SCIRT and miR-146a in atherosclerosis-affected tissues and healthy tissues from 56 atherosclerosis patients were analyzed by RT-qPCR. The expression of SCIRT in nuclear and cytoplasm samples was detected by RNA fractionation assay. The direct interaction between SCIRT and miR-146a was detected by RNA pull-down assay. SCIRT and miR-146a were overexpressed in human aortic smooth muscle cells (HAOSMCs) to study the crosstalk between them. The role of SCIRT and miR-146a in the proliferation of HAOSMCs was analyzed with BrdU assay. RESULTS: SCIRT was downregulated by atherosclerosis, while miR-146a was upregulated by atherosclerosis. SCIRT was detected in both cytoplasm and nuclear samples, and it directly interacted with miR-146a. In HAOSMCs, overexpression of SCIRT and miR-146a did not affect the expression of each other. Interestingly, SCIRT suppressed the proliferation of HAOSMCs and reduced the enhancing effects of miR-146a on cell proliferation. CONCLUSION: Therefore, SCIRT is downregulated in atherosclerosis and it suppresses the proliferation of HAOSMCs by sponging miR-146a in cytoplasm.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose , MicroRNAs , RNA Longo não Codificante , Aterosclerose/genética , Proliferação de Células , Citoplasma , Humanos , MicroRNAs/genética , Miócitos de Músculo Liso , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética
5.
Phytomedicine ; 93: 153812, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34753029

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Atherosclerosis is a progressive chronic disease characterised by aberrant lipid metabolism and a maladaptive inflammatory response. As atherosclerosis-driven cardiovascular disease remains the major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, more effective clinical therapies are urgently needed. Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) has demonstrated efficacy against atherosclerosis, with Qing-Xue-Xiao-Zhi formula (QXXZF) having been approved for clinical treatment of patients with atherosclerosis. However, the mechanisms underlying the anti-atherosclerotic activity of QXXZF remain unknown. PURPOSE: To investigate the anti-atherosclerotic effect of QXXZF and reveal its mechanisms using preclinical models. METHODS: In vivo, apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE-/-) mice were fed a high-fat and high-choline diet (HHD) to induce atherosclerosis. Serum metabolomic profiling was used to identify the concentration of trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) in mice. In vitro, RAW264.7 macrophages and bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) from WT and TLR4-/- C57BL/6 mice were used to explore the effects of QXXZF on macrophages. After confirming the therapeutic effects of QXXZF, mass spectrometry and network pharmacology analyses were used to predict and investigate the main components and the anti-atherogenic mechanisms of QXXZF in the context of atherosclerosis. RESULTS: Our results showed QXXZF significantly suppressed the development of atherosclerosis, as evidenced by the decreased atherosclerotic plaques in the aorta and aortic root, reduced plasma lipid levels and decreased serum TMAO content in HHD-fed ApoE-/- mice. Meanwhile, QXXZF effectively reduced foam cell formation in oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) and TMAO-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages and BMDMs. Moreover, QXXZF facilitated reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) in macrophages by upregulating the expression of cholesterol efflux-related genes PPARγ/LXRα/ABCA1/ABCG1. Mechanistic studies revealed that QXXZF influenced cholesterol metabolism by inhibiting the TLR4-mediated nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) axis. Importantly, TLR4 knockout abolished the influence of QXXZF on macrophages. CONCLUSION: QXXZF promotes lipid efflux and inhibits macrophage-mediated inflammation, producing a therapeutic effect against atherosclerosis. Our study provides new insight into the mechanism of QXXZF against atherosclerosis.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose , NF-kappa B , Transportador 1 de Cassete de Ligação de ATP , Animais , Apolipoproteínas E/genética , Aterosclerose/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Fator 88 de Diferenciação Mieloide , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/metabolismo
6.
J Assoc Physicians India ; 69(11): 11-12, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34781605

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to compare serum levels of Transthyretin in prediabetics and controls and to correlate levels of same with HOMA-IR and mean CIMT Method: It was a case control study in which 60 prediabetic patients and 60 controls (age, sex, BMI matched) were employed. Plasma levels of glucose (fasting and postprandial), glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), and serum levels of insulin (fasting) were measured in both cases and controls. HOMA-IR values in both the groups were calculated using fasting plasma glucose and serum insulin levels. Serum Transthyretin levels were measured using ELISA. The values obtained were compared between cases and controls. In cases, obtained serum levels of Transthyretin were correlated with HOMA-IR values and mean CIMT (measured in cases only using B-mode ultrasonography). RESULTS: Median (IQR) of serum levels of insulin (fasting in µIU/ml) in cases {11.3 (10.175-13.505)} was significantly higher than that of controls {5.73 (4.3-7.1)}. HOMA-IR median (IQR) in cases and controls was 3.12 (2.73-3.595) and 1.21(0.918- 1.505) respectively. Median (IQR) for serum levels of Transthyretin was also significantly higher in cases as compared to controls [46.74 (30.43-81.225) and 22.38 (16.628-27.89) respectively]. Significant positive correlations were observed between serum levels of Transthyretin with both HOMA-IR and mean CIMT (with correlation coefficients being 0.288 and 0.536 respectively). Univariate linear regression analysis showed that with increase in serum Transthyretin by 1 mg/ dl, mean CIMT increases by 0.001 mm. CONCLUSION: Individuals with impaired glucose tolerance have been found to have increased risk of atherosclerosis as compared to normoglycemics after excluding other risk factors. Assessment for the risk of same with the help of novel markers can help in diagnosis and intervention at an early stage and thereby preventing risk of further complications.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose , Resistência à Insulina , Pré-Albumina , Estado Pré-Diabético , Aterosclerose/diagnóstico , Aterosclerose/epidemiologia , Biomarcadores , Glicemia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Humanos , Insulina , Pré-Albumina/genética , Pré-Albumina/metabolismo
8.
Drug Des Devel Ther ; 15: 4503-4525, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34754179

RESUMO

Curcumin is a natural compound with great potential for disease treatment. A large number of studies have proved that curcumin has a variety of biological activities, among which anti-inflammatory effect is a significant feature of it. Inflammation is a complex and pervasive physiological and pathological process. The physiological and pathological mechanisms of inflammatory bowel disease, psoriasis, atherosclerosis, COVID-19 and other research focus diseases are not clear yet, and they are considered to be related to inflammation. The anti-inflammatory effect of curcumin can effectively improve the symptoms of these diseases and is expected to be a candidate drug for the treatment of related diseases. This paper mainly reviews the anti-inflammatory effect of curcumin, the inflammatory pathological mechanism of related diseases, the regulatory effect of curcumin on these, and the latest research results on the improvement of curcumin pharmacokinetics. It is beneficial to the further study of curcumin and provides new ideas and insights for the development of curcumin anti-inflammatory preparations.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Curcumina/farmacologia , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , SARS-CoV-2 , Animais , Aterosclerose/tratamento farmacológico , Curcumina/uso terapêutico , Depressão/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos
9.
J Assoc Physicians India ; 69(11): 11-12, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34781616

RESUMO

There is strong correlation between coronary artery disease (CAD) and Type II Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM). This can be attributed to early atherosclerosis in diabetic subset as compared to non-diabetic population. However, owing to neuropathy and other metabolic milieu, which exists in patients with diabetes mellitus, many patients present late to the health care for atherosclerosis and its complications. CAD being one of the commonest complication of atherosclerosis process, it comprises a huge number of patients suffering from T2DM. And many such patients are asymptomatic for longer period of time. Here in this review we will discuss about importance of various risk factors and their roles in detecting subclinical atherosclerosis and silent ischemia in asymptomatic patients with diabetes. We will also discuss about various imaging modalities and their role in asymptomatic CAD patients with T2DM.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose , Doença da Artéria Coronariana , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Doenças Assintomáticas , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/epidemiologia , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/etiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Humanos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
10.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(20): 5320-5329, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34738436

RESUMO

In this study, ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry(UPLC-Q-TOF-MS)-based liver metabolomics approach was used to explore the mechanism of "Trichosanthis Fructus-Allii Macrostemonis Bulbus" in improving atherosclerosis(AS) of mice with apolipoprotein E gene knockout(ApoE~(-/-)). AS mouse model was induced by high-fat diet. The pathological and biochemical indexes such as the histopathological changes, body weight, liver weight, blood lipid level and inflammatory factors in the liver of mice were determined. The metabolic profiling of mice liver samples was performed with UPLC-Q-TOF-MS. Multiple statistical analysis methods including partial least squares discriminant analysis(PLS-DA) and orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis(OPLS-DA) were employed to screen and identify biomarkers. The levels of related enzymes including LCAT, sPLA2, EPT1 and ACER1 were detected. The results showed that "Trichosanthis Fructus-Allii Macrostemonis Bulbus" significantly reduced the areas of aortic plaque and fat vacuoles of liver in AS mice and decreased the accumulation of lipid droplets and liver coefficient. "Trichosanthis Fructus-Allii Macrostemonis Bulbus" also regulated the levels of blood lipid and inflammatory injury in the liver. The metabolites of the control group, the model group and the "Trichosanthis Fructus-Allii Macrostemonis Bulbus" group could be distinguished significantly. Fifteen potential biomarkers related to AS were discovered and preliminarily identified, seven of which could be regulated by "Trichosanthis Fructus-Allii Macrostemonis Bulbus" in a trend of returning to normal. Metabolic pathway analysis screened out two major metabolic pathways. "Trichosanthis Fructus-Allii Macrostemonis Bulbus" obviously regulated the levels of LCAT, sPLA2, EPT1 and ACER1. It was inferred that "Trichosanthis Fructus-Allii Macrostemonis Bulbus" could play a major role in AS treatment by regulating glycerophospholipid and sphingolipid metabolism disorders in the liver, with the mechanism probably relating to the intervention of the expression of LCAT, sPLA2, EPT1 and ACER1.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Animais , Apolipoproteínas E/genética , Aterosclerose/genética , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Fígado , Metabolômica , Camundongos
11.
BMC Genomics ; 22(1): 790, 2021 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34732130

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The complexity of physical activity (PA) and DNA methylation interaction in the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD) is rarely simultaneously investigated in one study. We examined the role of DNA methylation on the association between PA and CVD. RESULTS: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) cohort Exam 5 data with 1065 participants free of CVD were used for final analysis. The quartile categorical total PA variable was created by activity intensity (METs/week). During a median follow-up of 4.0 years, 69 participants developed CVD. Illumina HumanMethylation450 BeadChip was used to provide genome-wide DNA methylation profiles in purified human monocytes (CD14+). We identified 23 candidate DNA methylation loci to be associated with both PA and CVD. We used the structural equation modeling (SEM) approach to test the complex relationships among multiple variables and the roles of mediators. Three of the 23 identified loci (corresponding to genes VPS13D, PIK3CD and VPS45) remained as significant mediators in the final SEM model along with other covariates. Bridged by the three genes, the 2nd PA quartile (ß = - 0.959; 95%CI: - 1.554 to - 0.449) and the 3rd PA quartile (ß = - 0.944; 95%CI: - 1.628 to - 0.413) showed the greatest inverse associations with CVD development, while the 4th PA quartile had a relatively weaker inverse association (ß = - 0.355; 95%CI: - 0.713 to - 0.124). CONCLUSIONS: The current study is among the first to simultaneously examine the relationships among PA, DNA methylation, and CVD in a large cohort with long-term exposure. We identified three DNA methylation loci bridged the association between PA and CVD. The function of the identified genes warrants further investigation in the pathogenesis of CVD.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Aterosclerose/genética , Doenças Cardiovasculares/genética , Metilação de DNA , Grupos Étnicos , Exercício Físico , Humanos , Fatores de Risco
13.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(39): e27310, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34596129

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: The association between serum total cholesterol (TC) level and incident atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) in patients with follicular thyroid cancer postthyroidectomy is unknown.This was a retrospective study and patients (n = 384) were divided into low and high TC groups according to the median TC level. Incidence of composite ASCVD (myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, and cardiovascular death) was compared between these 2 groups and factors contributing to the association of TC and ASCVD were evaluated.Patients in the high TC group were older and more likely to have diabetes and have higher C-reactive protein level. After thyroidectomy, serum levels of free triiodothyronine and free thyroxine were lower while thyroid-stimulating hormone level was higher in the high TC group. 31.6% and 39.7% of patients developed hypothyroidism in the low and high TC groups (P < .05) postthyroidectomy. The incidence rate of composite ASCVD was higher in the high TC versus low TC groups, with incidence rate ratio of 1.69 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.07-2.69), which was mainly driven by a higher incidence rate of myocardial infarction in the high TC group (incidence rate ratio: 2.11 and 95% CI: 1.10-4.20). In unadjusted model, higher TC was associated with 73% higher risk of composite ASCVD. After adjustment for hypothyroidism, the association of higher TC and composite ASCVD was attenuated into insignificance, with hazard ratio of 0.92 and 95% CI: 0.81 to 1.34.Increased TC level was associated with composite ASCVD, which might be attributed to hypothyroidism postthyroidectomy. The use of levothyroxine might help to prevent hypercholestemia and reduce the incidence of ASCVD.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma Folicular/epidemiologia , Aterosclerose/epidemiologia , Colesterol/sangue , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/epidemiologia , Adenocarcinoma Folicular/cirurgia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Hormônios Tireóideos/sangue , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/cirurgia
14.
J Med Microbiol ; 70(10)2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34623232

RESUMO

Alteration in the composition of the gut microbiota can lead to a number of chronic clinical diseases. Akkermansia muciniphila is an anaerobic bacteria constituting 3-5% of the gut microbial community in healthy adults. This bacterium is responsible for degenerating mucin in the gut; its scarcity leads to diverse clinical disorders. In this review, we focus on the role of A. muciniphila in diabetes, obesity and atherosclerosis, as well as the use of this bacterium as a next-generation probiotic. In regard to obesity and diabetes, human and animal trials have shown that A. muciniphila controls the essential regulatory system of glucose and energy metabolism. However, the underlying mechanisms by which A. muciniphila alleviates the complications of obesity, diabetes and atherosclerosis are unclear. At the same time, its abundance suggests improved metabolic disorders, such as metabolic endotoxemia, adiposity insulin resistance and glucose tolerance. The role of A. muciniphila is implicated in declining aortic lesions and atherosclerosis. Well-characterized virulence factors, antigens and cell wall extracts of A. muciniphila may act as effector molecules in these diseases. These molecules may provide novel mechanisms and strategies by which this bacterium could be used as a probiotic for the treatment of obesity, diabetes and atherosclerosis.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/microbiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/microbiologia , Obesidade/microbiologia , Probióticos , Akkermansia/fisiologia , Animais , Aterosclerose/tratamento farmacológico , Aterosclerose/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus/metabolismo , Metabolismo Energético , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Humanos , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Obesidade/metabolismo , Probióticos/uso terapêutico
15.
J Clin Sleep Med ; 17(10): 2009-2018, 2021 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34606438

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVES: Short sleep duration (SD) is associated with cardiovascular disease. We investigated the relationship between objective SD and subclinical atherosclerosis employing hybrid positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance imaging with 18F-FDG tracer in the MESA cohort. METHODS: We utilized data from Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis-SLEEP and Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis-PET ancillary studies. SD and sleep fragmentation index (SFI) were assessed using 7-day actigraphy. The primary and secondary outcomes were carotid inflammation, defined using target-to-background ratios, and measures of carotid wall remodeling (carotid wall thickness), summarized by SD category. Multivariable linear regression was performed to assess the association between SD and SFI with the primary/secondary outcomes, adjusting for several covariates including apnea-hypopnea index, and cardiovascular disease risk. RESULTS: Our analytical sample (n = 58) was 62% female (mean age 68 ± 8.4 years). Average SD was 5.1 ± 0.9 hours in the short SD group (≤ 6 h/night, 31%), and 7.1 ± 0.8 hours in the normal SD group (69%). Prevalence of pathologic vascular inflammation (maximal target-to-background ratio > 1.6) was higher in the short SD group (89% vs 53%, P = .01). Those with short SD had a higher maximal target-to-background ratio (1.77 vs 1.71), although this was not statistically significant (P = .39). Carotid wall thickness was positively associated with SFI even after adjusting for covariates (Beta [standard error] = 0.073 ± [0.032], P = .03). CONCLUSIONS: Prevalence of pathologic vascular inflammation was higher among those who slept ≤ 6 hours, and vascular inflammation was higher among those with a SD of ≤ 6 hours. Interestingly, SFI was positively associated with carotid wall thickness even after adjustment for covariates. Our results are hypothesis generating but suggest that both habitual SD and SFI should be investigated in future studies as potential risk factors for subclinical atherosclerosis. CITATION: Kundel V, Reid M, Fayad Z, et al. Sleep duration and vascular inflammation using hybrid positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance imaging: results from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. J Clin Sleep Med. 2021;17(10):2009-2018.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose , Idoso , Aterosclerose/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Fluordesoxiglucose F18 , Humanos , Inflamação/diagnóstico por imagem , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Sono
16.
J Clin Sleep Med ; 17(10): 2075-2083, 2021 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34606441

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVES: Evaluate the association between obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), coronary artery calcium (CAC) density, and cardiovascular events in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA). METHODS: We analyzed 1,041 participants with nonzero CAC scores who had polysomnography and CAC density data from the fifth examination of the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. OSA was defined as apnea-hypopnea index ≥ 15 events/h. Multivariable linear regression models were used to evaluate the independent association between OSA and CAC density. Additionally, we evaluated the impact of OSA on associations of CAC measures with incident cardiovascular disease events by testing for interaction in Cox proportional hazard regression models. RESULTS: Our analytical sample was 45% female with a mean age of 70.6 +/- 9 years. Of this sample, 36.7% (n = 383/1041) had OSA (apnea-hypopnea index ≥ 15 events/h). OSA was inversely and weakly associated with CAC density (ß = -0.09; 95% CI, -0.17 to -0.02; P = .014) and remained significantly associated after controlling for traditional cardiovascular risk factors (ß = -0.08; 95% CI, -0.16 to 0; P = .043). However, this inverse association was attenuated after controlling for body mass index (ß = -0.05; 95% CI, -0.13 to 0.02; P = .174). The mean follow-up period for cardiovascular disease events was 13.3 +/- 2.8 years. Additionally, exploratory analysis demonstrated that CAC density was independently and inversely associated with cardiovascular disease events only in the non-OSA subgroup (apnea-hypopnea index ≤ 15 events/h) (hazard ratio, 0.509; 95% CI, 0.323-0.801); P = .0035). CONCLUSIONS: OSA was associated with lower CAC density, but this association was attenuated by body mass index. Further, increased CAC density was associated with a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease events only in individuals within the non-OSA group in exploratory analysis. CITATION: Newman SB, Kundel V, Matsuzaki M, et al. Sleep apnea, coronary artery calcium density, and cardiovascular events: results from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. J Clin Sleep Med. 2021;17(10):2075-2083.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Doença da Artéria Coronariana , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono , Idoso , Aterosclerose/complicações , Aterosclerose/epidemiologia , Cálcio , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/complicações , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/epidemiologia
17.
G Ital Nefrol ; 38(5)2021 Oct 26.
Artigo em Italiano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34713643

RESUMO

The increase in patients' average age, the enhancement of anticoagulation therapy and the growth of vascular interventions represent the perfect conditions for the onset of atheroembolic renal disease. AERD is observed in patients with diffuse atherosclerosis, generally after a triggering event such as surgery on the aorta, invasive procedures (angiography, catheterization of the left ventricle, coronary angioplasty) and anticoagulant or fibrinolytic therapy. The clinical signs are heterogeneous, a consequence of the occlusion of downstream small arterial vessels by cholesterol emboli coming from atheromatous plaques of the aorta, or one of its main branches. The proximity of the kidneys to the abdominal aorta, and the high flow of blood they receive, make them a major target organ. For this reason, AERD represents a pathological condition that always needs to be taken into account in the nephropathic patient, although its systemic nature makes the diagnosis difficult. This manuscript presents a review of the existing literature on this pathology, to provide an updated summary of the state of the art: risk factors, diagnostics, histology and therapeutic approaches.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose , Embolia de Colesterol , Nefropatias , Aterosclerose/complicações , Embolia de Colesterol/complicações , Embolia de Colesterol/diagnóstico , Embolia de Colesterol/terapia , Humanos , Rim , Nefropatias/etiologia , Nefropatias/terapia , Fatores de Risco
18.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(19)2021 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34638650

RESUMO

Reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced vascular endothelial cell apoptosis is strongly associated with atherosclerosis progression. Herein, we aimed to examine whether Kansuinine A (KA), extracted from Euphorbia kansui L., prevents atherosclerosis development in a mouse model and inhibits cell apoptosis through oxidative stress reduction. Atherosclerosis development was analyzed in apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE-/-) mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD) using Oil Red O staining and H&E staining. Human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs) were treated with KA, followed by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), to investigate the KA-mediated inhibition of ROS-induced oxidative stress and cell apoptosis. Oil Red O staining and H&E staining showed that atherosclerotic lesion size was significantly smaller in the aortic arch of ApoE-/- mice in the HFD+KA group than that in the aortic arch of those in the HFD group. Further, KA (0.1-1.0 µM) blocked the H2O2-induced death of HAECs and ROS generation. The H2O2-mediated upregulation of phosphorylated IKKß, phosphorylated IκBα, and phosphorylated NF-κB was suppressed by KA. KA also reduced the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and cleaved caspase-3 expression, preventing H2O2-induced vascular endothelial cell apoptosis. Our results indicate that KA may protect against ROS-induced endothelial cell apoptosis and has considerable clinical potential in the prevention of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular diseases.


Assuntos
Aorta/efeitos dos fármacos , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Aterosclerose/tratamento farmacológico , Diterpenos/farmacologia , Células Endoteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Aorta/metabolismo , Apolipoproteínas E/metabolismo , Aterosclerose/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Humanos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Quinase I-kappa B/metabolismo , Camundongos , Inibidor de NF-kappaB alfa/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos
19.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(19)2021 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34638860

RESUMO

(1) Background: Sepsis is one of the most common critical care illnesses with increasing survivorship. The quality of life in sepsis survivors is adversely affected by several co-morbidities, including increased incidence of dementia, stroke, cardiac disease and at least temporary deterioration in cognitive dysfunction. One of the potential explanations for their progression is the persistence of lipid profile abnormalities induced during acute sepsis into recovery, resulting in acceleration of atherosclerosis. (2) Methods: This is a targeted review of the abnormalities in the long-term lipid profile abnormalities after sepsis; (3) Results: There is a well-established body of evidence demonstrating acute alteration in lipid profile (HDL-c ↓↓, LDL-C -c ↓↓). In contrast, a limited number of studies demonstrated depression of HDL-c levels with a concomitant increase in LDL-C -c in the wake of sepsis. VLDL-C -c and Lp(a) remained unaltered in few studies as well. Apolipoprotein A1 was altered in survivors suggesting abnormalities in lipoprotein metabolism concomitant to overall lipoprotein abnormalities. However, most of the studies were limited to a four-month follow-up and patient groups were relatively small. Only one study looked at the atherosclerosis progression in sepsis survivors using clinical correlates, demonstrating an acceleration of plaque formation in the aorta, and a large metanalysis suggested an increase in the risk of stroke or acute coronary event between 3% to 9% in sepsis survivors. (4) Conclusions: The limited evidence suggests an emergence and persistence of the proatherogenic lipid profile in sepsis survivors that potentially contributes, along with other factors, to the clinical sequel of atherosclerosis.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/metabolismo , Colesterol/metabolismo , Lipoproteínas/metabolismo , Sepse/metabolismo , Apolipoproteínas/metabolismo , Aterosclerose/complicações , HDL-Colesterol/metabolismo , LDL-Colesterol/metabolismo , Progressão da Doença , Humanos , Sepse/complicações , Triglicerídeos/metabolismo
20.
Artigo em Inglês, Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34707006

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains a high morbidity in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), and atherosclerosis (AS) is the main pathological basis of CVD. Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) is one of the major complications and causes of death in CKD patients. Monitoring and paying attention to the risk of AS is the manifestation of multidisciplinary comprehensive treatment. Through continuous monitoring the risk factors of AS, patients with high AS risk can be detected early, and then risk factors can be treated to improve the prognosis and life quality of CKD patients and reduce the CVD mortality of CKD. The Framingham risk prediction model and Chinese 10-year ASCVD risk prediction model can comprehensively evaluate the AS risk. The predictive value of the 2 risk prediction models has been widely confirmed in the general population, but the application in CKD population needs to be further explored. Thus, the aim of this study is to analyze the value of the 2 risk prediction models in predicting AS risk of CKD population and to find a simple and reliable method to predict AS risk of CKD population. METHODS: This study was a cross-sectional study and 146 CKD patients (CKD group) and 14 healthy controls (control group) were recruited. Carotid ultrasound examination was performed to measure the intima-media thickness of left and right carotid arteries to evaluate the prevalence of AS. Medical history, physical examination, and clinical laboratory test data were collected to calculate Framingham Risk Score (FRS) and ASCVD score for all participants. We compared baseline data and AS positive rate between the CKD group and the control group. The AS positive rates detected by FRS, ASCVD score, and carotid ultrasound examination were compared in terms of Kappa consistency test, authenticity, reliability, and benefits. RESULTS: There were no significant differences in sex, age, and BMI between the CKD group and the control group (all P>0.05). The levels of systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, pulse pressure, total cholesterol, triglyceride, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, blood urea nitrogen, serum creatinine, and glycosylated hemoglobin in the CKD group were significantly higher than those in the control group (all P<0.05), while high density lipoprotein cholesterol and glomerular filtration rate were significantly lower than those in the control group (both P<0.05). The positive rates of AS in the CKD group detected by FRS, ASCVD score, and carotid ultrasound examination (43.84%, 53.42%, and 46.58%, respectively) were all significant higher than those in the control group (all P<0.01). There was no significant difference in the positive rate of AS in the CKD group among the 3 methods (P=0.24). The AS positive rate detected by FRS was highly consistent with ASCVD score (Kappa value was 0.647, P<0.001), FRS was moderately consistent with carotid ultrasound examination (Kappa value was 0.447, P<0.001), and ASCVD score was consistent with carotid ultrasound examination (Kappa value was 0.373, P<0.001). The sensitivities of FRS and ASCVD score were 67.65% and 73.53%, respectively, the specificities were 76.92% and 64.10%, respectively. The sensitivity was 91.44% and specificity was 49.31% when FRS and ASCVD score were used in parallel. And the sensitivity was 49.74% and the specificity was 91.71% when FRS and ASCVD score were used in series. CONCLUSIONS: The positive rates of AS in CKD patients detected by risk prediction models are not different from that detected by carotid artery ultrasound, and there are good consistency and coincidence rate among risk prediction models and carotid artery ultrasound. Risk prediction models are suitable for predicting the risk of AS in patients with CKD, and the combined application of them can further improve the sensitivity or specificity of diagnosis.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose , Insuficiência Renal Crônica , Aterosclerose/complicações , Aterosclerose/epidemiologia , Espessura Intima-Media Carotídea , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/complicações , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
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