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1.
JAMA ; 329(4): 306-317, 2023 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36692561

RESUMO

Importance: Stroke is the fifth-highest cause of death in the US and a leading cause of serious long-term disability with particularly high risk in Black individuals. Quality risk prediction algorithms, free of bias, are key for comprehensive prevention strategies. Objective: To compare the performance of stroke-specific algorithms with pooled cohort equations developed for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease for the prediction of new-onset stroke across different subgroups (race, sex, and age) and to determine the added value of novel machine learning techniques. Design, Setting, and Participants: Retrospective cohort study on combined and harmonized data from Black and White participants of the Framingham Offspring, Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC), Multi-Ethnic Study for Atherosclerosis (MESA), and Reasons for Geographical and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) studies (1983-2019) conducted in the US. The 62 482 participants included at baseline were at least 45 years of age and free of stroke or transient ischemic attack. Exposures: Published stroke-specific algorithms from Framingham and REGARDS (based on self-reported risk factors) as well as pooled cohort equations for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease plus 2 newly developed machine learning algorithms. Main Outcomes and Measures: Models were designed to estimate the 10-year risk of new-onset stroke (ischemic or hemorrhagic). Discrimination concordance index (C index) and calibration ratios of expected vs observed event rates were assessed at 10 years. Analyses were conducted by race, sex, and age groups. Results: The combined study sample included 62 482 participants (median age, 61 years, 54% women, and 29% Black individuals). Discrimination C indexes were not significantly different for the 2 stroke-specific models (Framingham stroke, 0.72; 95% CI, 0.72-073; REGARDS self-report, 0.73; 95% CI, 0.72-0.74) vs the pooled cohort equations (0.72; 95% CI, 0.71-0.73): differences 0.01 or less (P values >.05) in the combined sample. Significant differences in discrimination were observed by race: the C indexes were 0.76 for all 3 models in White vs 0.69 in Black women (all P values <.001) and between 0.71 and 0.72 in White men and between 0.64 and 0.66 in Black men (all P values ≤.001). When stratified by age, model discrimination was better for younger (<60 years) vs older (≥60 years) adults for both Black and White individuals. The ratios of observed to expected 10-year stroke rates were closest to 1 for the REGARDS self-report model (1.05; 95% CI, 1.00-1.09) and indicated risk overestimation for Framingham stroke (0.86; 95% CI, 0.82-0.89) and pooled cohort equations (0.74; 95% CI, 0.71-0.77). Performance did not significantly improve when novel machine learning algorithms were applied. Conclusions and Relevance: In this analysis of Black and White individuals without stroke or transient ischemic attack among 4 US cohorts, existing stroke-specific risk prediction models and novel machine learning techniques did not significantly improve discriminative accuracy for new-onset stroke compared with the pooled cohort equations, and the REGARDS self-report model had the best calibration. All algorithms exhibited worse discrimination in Black individuals than in White individuals, indicating the need to expand the pool of risk factors and improve modeling techniques to address observed racial disparities and improve model performance.


Assuntos
Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde , Preconceito , Medição de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Aterosclerose/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Ataque Isquêmico Transitório/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etnologia , Medição de Risco/normas , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores Etários , Fatores Raciais/estatística & dados numéricos , /estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Aprendizado de Máquina/normas , Viés , Preconceito/prevenção & controle , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/etnologia , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/normas , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Simulação por Computador/normas , Simulação por Computador/estatística & dados numéricos
2.
BMC Med Res Methodol ; 23(1): 22, 2023 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36694118

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Pooled Cohort Equations (PCEs) are race- and sex-specific Cox proportional hazards (PH)-based models used for 10-year atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) risk prediction with acceptable discrimination. In recent years, neural network models have gained increasing popularity with their success in image recognition and text classification. Various survival neural network models have been proposed by combining survival analysis and neural network architecture to take advantage of the strengths from both. However, the performance of these survival neural network models compared to each other and to PCEs in ASCVD prediction is unknown. METHODS: In this study, we used 6 cohorts from the Lifetime Risk Pooling Project (with 5 cohorts as training/internal validation and one cohort as external validation) and compared the performance of the PCEs in 10-year ASCVD risk prediction with an all two-way interactions Cox PH model (Cox PH-TWI) and three state-of-the-art neural network survival models including Nnet-survival, Deepsurv, and Cox-nnet. For all the models, we used the same 7 covariates as used in the PCEs. We fitted each of the aforementioned models in white females, white males, black females, and black males, respectively. We evaluated models' internal and external discrimination power and calibration. RESULTS: The training/internal validation sample comprised 23216 individuals. The average age at baseline was 57.8 years old (SD = 9.6); 16% developed ASCVD during average follow-up of 10.50 (SD = 3.02) years. Based on 10 × 10 cross-validation, the method that had the highest C-statistics was Deepsurv (0.7371) for white males, Deepsurv and Cox PH-TWI (0.7972) for white females, PCE (0.6981) for black males, and Deepsurv (0.7886) for black females. In the external validation dataset, Deepsurv (0.7032), Cox-nnet (0.7282), PCE (0.6811), and Deepsurv (0.7316) had the highest C-statistics for white male, white female, black male, and black female population, respectively. Calibration plots showed that in 10 × 10 validation, all models had good calibration in all race and sex groups. In external validation, all models overestimated the risk for 10-year ASCVD. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrated the use of the state-of-the-art neural network survival models in ASCVD risk prediction. Neural network survival models had similar if not superior discrimination and calibration compared to PCEs.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Aterosclerose/epidemiologia , Redes Neurais de Computação , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Medição de Risco/métodos
3.
Curr Opin Cardiol ; 38(1): 32-38, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36598447

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To provide a summary of recent literature on coronary artery calcium testing (CAC) for risk stratification in young adults <45 years old. RECENT FINDINGS: One of every ten young adults in the general population, and one out of every three young adults with traditional atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) risk factors, have CAC. While the definition of premature CAC has yet to be formally defined in guidelines, it has become increasingly clear that any prevalent CAC among adults <45 years old should be considered premature. Traditional risk factors are strong predictors of CAC in young adults; however, this association has been found to wane over the life course which suggests that the onset and severity of risk factors for calcific atherosclerosis varies as individuals age. Though CAC is a robust predictor of both ASCVD and cancer-related mortality in old age, CAC in young adults confers a stepwise higher risk uniquely for incident ASCVD mortality, and not for non-ASCVD causes. New tools are available to assist in interpretation of CAC in the young, and for estimating the ideal age to initiate CAC scoring. SUMMARY: The identification of premature CAC is important because it suggests that calcific plaque can be detected with modern imaging earlier in the natural history than previously thought. Taken together, these findings underline a utility of selective use of CAC scoring on non-contrast computed tomography among at-risk young adults to facilitate timely lifestyle modification and pharmacotherapies for the prevention of later life ASCVD.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose , Doença da Artéria Coronariana , Humanos , Adulto Jovem , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/epidemiologia , Cálcio , Vasos Coronários/diagnóstico por imagem , Medição de Risco/métodos , Aterosclerose/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco
4.
JAMA Netw Open ; 6(1): e2251156, 2023 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36656581

RESUMO

Importance: Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) continues to be highly prevalent in the US. The 2013 American College of Cardiology and American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) treatment guidelines reevaluated evidence-based practices for reduction of ASCVD in men and women from high-quality randomized trials and meta-analyses recommending the use of statin therapy, aspirin prescription, and lifestyle counseling for adults with ASCVD. Population trends in secondary prevention strategies for patients with ASCVD among primary care settings is currently lacking, limiting ability to evaluate impact of guideline implementation. Objective: To examine temporal and sociodemographic trends in secondary prevention strategies in patients with ASCVD between 2006 and 2016 in a nationally representative, ambulatory care database. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cross-sectional study analyzed data from the National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NAMCS), which is an annual survey conducted to represent the national US population and contains information on ambulatory office-based patient visits, including medical conditions, services provided, and demographic characteristics. Participants were adults aged 21 years and older with prevalent ASCVD identified via International Classification of Disease codes between 2006 and 2016. Data were extracted and analyzed in March 2021. Main Outcomes and Measures: Data were separated by calendar year pre-2013 (2006 to 2013) and post-2013 (2014 to 2016). Outcomes included statin therapy, aspirin prescription, and lifestyle counseling (eg, nutrition, exercise, weight reduction) service provided at clinic visits. Results: There were 11 033 visits for adults with ASCVD, representing a weighted total of 275.3 million visits nationwide; 40.7% (112.1 million [weighted]) were women, 9.2% (25.4 million [weighted]) were Hispanic, 9.9% (19.0 million [weighted]) were non-Hispanic Black, 90.1% (172.7 million [weighted]) were non-Hispanic White, and 40.6% (112.1 million [weighted]) were from cardiology clinics. Of 11 033 patient visits, 5507 patients (49.9%) were prescribed statin therapy, 5165 patients (46.8%) were using aspirin, 2233 patients (20.2%) received lifestyle counseling. Statin therapy increased from 9.3 million individuals (45.3%) in 2006 to 14.9 million individuals (46.5%) in 2016, and aspirin prescriptions increased from 8.5 million individuals (41.3%) in 2006 to 15.2 individuals (47.5%) in 2016. Women were less likely than men to receive medications for secondary prevention: among women, 48.8 million (43.3%) received statins (vs 85.9 million men [52.7%]), 44.7 million (39.8%) received aspirin (vs 79.1 million men [48.5%]), and 25.7 million (22.9%) received lifestyle counseling services (vs 37.5 million men [23.0%]). Conclusions and Relevance: These findings suggest only modest increases in statin and aspirin prescription since 2006; however, lifestyle counseling use decreased in recent years. Women and Black patients continued to be less likely to receive secondary prevention ASCVD treatment. Adherence to guideline-directed secondary prevention recommendations remained low (less than 50%) in patients with ASCVD, especially with regards to lifestyle counseling, suggesting the need for more implementation research.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases , Adulto , Masculino , Humanos , Feminino , Estados Unidos , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/uso terapêutico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Estudos Transversais , Aterosclerose/tratamento farmacológico , Aterosclerose/epidemiologia , Aterosclerose/prevenção & controle , Aspirina/uso terapêutico
5.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 12(2): e026694, 2023 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36625300

RESUMO

Background Uncertainty persists about carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) as a marker of subclinical atherosclerosis and the independent relevance of different measures of adiposity for CIMT. We assessed the independent relevance of general adiposity (body mass index), central adiposity (waist circumference), and body composition (fat mass index and fat-free mass index) with CIMT among adults in the United Kingdom. Methods and Results Multivariable linear regression of cross-sectional analyses of UK Biobank assessed the mean percentage difference in CIMT associated with equivalent differences in adiposity measures. To assess independent associations, body mass index and waist circumference were mutually adjusted, as were fat mass index and fat-free mass index. Among 39 367 participants (mean [SD] age 64 [8] years, 52% female, 97% White), median (interquartile range) CIMT was 0.65 (0.14) mm in women and 0.69 (0.18) mm in men. All adiposity measures were linearly and positively associated with CIMT after adjusting for confounders. Fat-free mass index was most strongly associated with CIMT after adjustment for fat mass index (% difference in CIMT: 1.23 [95% CI 0.93-1.53] women; 3.44 [3.01-3.86] men), while associations of fat mass index were attenuated after adjustment for fat-free mass index (0.28 [-0.02, 0.58] women; -0.59 [-0.99, -0.18] men). After mutual adjustment, body mass index remained positively associated with CIMT, but waist circumference was completely attenuated. Conclusions Fat-free mass index was the adiposity measure most strongly associated with CIMT, suggesting that CIMT may reflect vascular compensatory remodeling rather than atherosclerosis. Hence, screening for subclinical atherosclerosis should evaluate carotid plaques in addition to CIMT.


Assuntos
Adiposidade , Aterosclerose , Doenças das Artérias Carótidas , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Aterosclerose/diagnóstico por imagem , Aterosclerose/epidemiologia , Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos , Índice de Massa Corporal , Doenças das Artérias Carótidas/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças das Artérias Carótidas/epidemiologia , Espessura Intima-Media Carotídea , Estudos Transversais , Obesidade/diagnóstico , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Idoso
6.
JAMA Netw Open ; 6(1): e2250126, 2023 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36622673

RESUMO

Importance: Factors associated with the risk of dementia remain to be fully understood. Systemic infections are hypothesized to be such factors and may be targets for prevention and screening. Objective: To investigate the association between hospitalization with infection and incident dementia. Design, Setting, and Participants: Data from the community-based Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study, a prospective cohort study, were used. Enrollment occurred at 4 research centers in the US, initiated in 1987 to 1989. The present study includes data up to 2019, for 32 years of follow-up. Data analysis was performed from April 2021 to June 2022. Exposures: Hospitalizations with infections were identified via medical record review for selected International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9) and International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, Tenth Revision (ICD-10) codes, from baseline until administrative censoring or dementia diagnosis. Participants were considered unexposed until first hospitalization with infection and exposed thereafter. Selected infection subtypes were also considered. Main Outcomes and Measures: Incident dementia and time-to-event data were identified through surveillance of ICD-9 and ICD-10 hospitalization and death certificate codes, in-person assessments, and telephone interviews. A sensitivity analysis was conducted excluding cases occurring within 3 years or beyond 20 years from exposure. Data were collected before study hypothesis formulation. Results: Of the 15 792 ARIC study participants, an analytical cohort of 15 688 participants who were dementia free at baseline and of Black or White race were selected (8658 female [55.2%]; 4210 Black [26.8%]; mean [SD] baseline age, 54.7 [5.8] years). Hospitalization with infection occurred among 5999 participants (38.2%). Dementia was ascertained in 2975 participants (19.0%), at a median (IQR) of 25.1 (22.2-29.1) years after baseline. Dementia rates were 23.6 events per 1000 person-years (95% CI, 22.3-25.0 events per 1000 person-years) among the exposed and 5.7 events per 1000 person-years (95% CI, 5.4-6.0 events per 1000 person-years) among the unexposed. Patients hospitalized with infection were 2.02 (95% CI, 1.88-2.18; P < .001) and 1.70 (95% CI, 1.55-1.86; P < .001) times more likely to experience incident dementia according to unadjusted and fully adjusted Cox proportional hazards models compared with individuals who were unexposed. When excluding individuals who developed dementia less than 3 years or more than 20 years from baseline or the infection event, the adjusted hazard ratio was 5.77 (95% CI, 4.92-6.76; P < .001). Rates of dementia were significantly higher among those hospitalized with respiratory, urinary tract, skin, blood and circulatory system, or hospital acquired infections. Multiplicative and additive interactions were observed by age and APOE-ε genotype. Conclusions and Relevance: Higher rates of dementia were observed among participants who experienced hospitalization with infection. These findings support the hypothesis that infections are factors associated with higher risk of dementias.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose , Hospitalização , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Aterosclerose/epidemiologia , Incidência , Estudos Prospectivos , Masculino
7.
BMC Infect Dis ; 23(1): 17, 2023 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36627565

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in people with HIV. The detection of subclinical atherosclerosis through vascular ultrasound allows us to identify patients at an increased risk of cardiovascular disease as a primary prevention strategy; this test is not routine. Our objective is to identify predictors of subclinical atherosclerosis in a population with HIV. METHODS: People with HIV infection were selected for primary prevention and underwent carotid and femoral ultrasound to detect atheromatous plaques. Logistic regression analysis including vascular risk factors was performed to predict the presence of atherosclerosis. RESULTS: One hundred eighty-three patients were included, 54% of whom were smokers; the mean duration of HIV infection was 9.52 years, and all patients were undergoing antiretroviral treatment. Subclinical atherosclerosis was present in 62.29% of the patients; 83.32% had plaque in the carotid territory, 57.93% in the femoral territory and 25.6% in both vascular territories. Compared to those without atherosclerosis, patients with atherosclerosis were on average 5.35 years older (53.86 vs. 48.51, p < 0.001) and had a higher prevalence of smoking (63.23% vs. 39.12%, p = 0.020) and a CD4/CD8 ratio below 0.7 (44.23% vs. 29.02%, p = 0.043). A CD4/CD8 ratio lower than 0.3 was always associated with subclinical atherosclerosis (95% confidence interval (CI): 83.9-100%). The inclusion of smoking, the CD4/CD8 ratio and age in the logistic regression analysis led to a diagnostic yield of 72% measured by the area under the receiving operator characteristic (ROC) curve (95% CI: 64-80%). CONCLUSIONS: Tobacco use, age and a CD4/CD8 ratio below 0.7 allow prediction of the presence of subclinical atherosclerosis in primary prevention. A CD4/CD8 ratio below 0.3 was a diagnostic indicator of atherosclerosis in HIV patients undergoing primary prevention in our sample.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Infecções por HIV , Humanos , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/complicações , Aterosclerose/complicações , Aterosclerose/diagnóstico por imagem , Aterosclerose/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Ultrassonografia , Espessura Intima-Media Carotídea
9.
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol ; 43(2): e94-e103, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36579650

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Animal studies have demonstrated that fetal exposure to high maternal cholesterol levels during pregnancy predisposes to aortic atheroma in the offspring. In humans, little is known about the consequences of this exposure on the development of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease later in life. We wanted to assess whether maternal/paternal inheritance of familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) gene mutation could be associated with subclinical coronary atherosclerosis. METHODS: We retrospectively included 1350 patients, followed in the French registry of FH, with a documented genetic diagnosis. We selected 556 age- and sex-matched pair of patients based on the sex of the parents who transmitted the FH gene mutation, free of coronary cardiovascular event, and with a subclinical coronary atherosclerosis evaluation assessed using coronary artery calcium (CAC) score. We performed univariate and multivariate analysis to assess the individual effect of parental inheritance of the FH gene mutation on the CAC score. RESULTS: In the whole population, patients with maternal inheritance of FH gene mutation (n=639) less frequently had a family history of premature cardiovascular events (27.7% versus 45%, P<0.0001) and were 2 years older (46.9±16.8 versus 44.7±15.9 years old, P=0.02) than those with paternal inheritance (n=711). There was no difference in the prevalence of cardiovascular events between the two groups. In the matched subgroup, maternal inheritance was significantly associated with an increase in CAC score value by 86% (95% CI, 23%-170%; P=0.003), a 1.81-fold risk of having a CAC score ≥100 Agatston units (95% CI, 1.06-3.11; P=0.03), and a 2.72-fold risk of having a CAC score ≥400 Agatston units (95% CI, 1.39-5.51; P=0.004) when compared with paternal inheritance in multivariate analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Maternal inheritance of FH gene mutation was associated with more severe subclinical coronary atherosclerosis assessed by CAC score and may be considered as a potential cardiovascular risk factor.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose , Doença da Artéria Coronariana , Hiperlipoproteinemia Tipo II , Humanos , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/epidemiologia , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/genética , Cálcio , Hiperlipoproteinemia Tipo II/diagnóstico , Hiperlipoproteinemia Tipo II/epidemiologia , Hiperlipoproteinemia Tipo II/genética , Estudos Retrospectivos , Herança Materna , Aterosclerose/epidemiologia , Aterosclerose/genética , Aterosclerose/complicações , Mutação , Fatores de Risco
10.
Ann Lab Med ; 43(3): 237-243, 2023 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36544335

RESUMO

Background: Despite the superiority of non-HDL cholesterol (non-HDL-C) and apolipoprotein B (ApoB) as lipid markers for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD), these are only suitable as secondary markers. We compared LDL cholesterol (LDL-C), non-HDL-C, and ApoB concentrations with respect to the occurrence of cardiovascular disease in adults enrolled in the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study (KoGES). Methods: We used information on age; sex; medical history; family history of ASCVD; current lipid-lowering therapy; current smoking status; and creatinine, total cholesterol, HDL-C, LDL-C, triglyceride, and ApoB concentrations from 5,872 KoGES participants without ASCVD. New ASCVD development was monitored during the 8-year follow-up period. Adjusted hazard ratios (aHRs) for ASCVD of LDL-C, non-HDL-C, and ApoB concentrations were calculated based on the multivariate Cox regression analyses. The participants were also grouped as low and high according to the median values for each lipid marker, and calculated aHRs of each group combined by two lipid makers. Results: ApoB showed the highest aHR per 1-SD for ASCVD (1.26; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.11-1.43), followed by non-HDL-C (1.25; 95% CI, 1.11-1.41) and LDL-C (1.20; 95% CI, 1.06-1.37). The group with low LDL-C and high ApoB concentrations had a significantly higher aHR for ASCVD (1.61; 95% CI, 1.05-2.48) compared to the reference group values (low LDL-C and low ApoB concentrations). The aHR for the group with high LDL-C and low ApoB concentrations was not significant (1.30; 95% CI, 0.79-2.16). Conclusions: ApoB, non-HDL-C, and LDL-C are independent risk factors for ASCVD. Increases in the aHR per 1-SD for ASCVD were more strongly affected by ApoB, followed by non-HDL-C and LDL-C. Participants with low LDL-C and high ApoB concentrations showed increased ASCVD risk. For individuals with ASCVD risk factors, even those presenting normal LDL-C concentrations, measuring ApoB concentrations can provide useful information for better evaluation of ASCVD risk.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Adulto , Humanos , LDL-Colesterol , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Colesterol , Apolipoproteínas B/genética , Aterosclerose/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , HDL-Colesterol
11.
Am J Cardiol ; 189: 11-21, 2023 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36481374

RESUMO

In 2022, the Vietnamese population in the United States (US) comprises 2.2 million individuals, and Vietnam ranks as the sixth most frequent country of origin among immigrants in the US. The American Heart Association and the National Institutes of Health have called for research to define the burden of cardiovascular risk factors, cardiovascular disease, and their determinants across Asian American subgroups, including Vietnamese Americans. Despite these calls, Vietnamese Americans remain remarkably overlooked in cardiovascular research in the US. Studies in Vietnam, small cross-sectional surveys in the US, and research using US mortality data point to a high prevalence of hypertension and tobacco use among men and a high incidence of gestational diabetes among women. Moreover, Vietnamese Americans have one of the highest rates of cerebrovascular mortality in the country. Adverse social determinants of health-including frequent language barriers, limited health literacy, and low average income-have been suggested as important factors that contribute to cardiovascular risk in this group. In this narrative review, we summarize the existing knowledge in this space, highlight the distinct characteristics of cardiac risk in both Vietnamese and Vietnamese American individuals, discuss upstream determinants, and identify key knowledge gaps. We then outline several proposed interventions and emphasize the need for further studies in this underrepresented population. Our aim is to increase awareness of the significant burden of risk factors and cardiovascular disease shouldered by this large-but thus far overlooked-population in the US, boost research in this space, and help inform tailored, effective preventive interventions.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Masculino , Humanos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Feminino , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde , Estudos Transversais , Fatores de Risco de Doenças Cardíacas , Aterosclerose/epidemiologia
13.
BMJ Open ; 12(12): e067191, 2022 12 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36572501

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Eligibility criteria definition for a lung cancer screening (LCS) is an unmet need. We hypothesised that patients with a history of atheromatous cardiovascular disease (ACVD) associated with tobacco consumption are at risk of lung cancer (LC). The main objective is to assess LC prevalence among patients with ACVD and history of tobacco consumption by using low-dose chest CT scan. Secondary objectives include the evaluation LCS in this population and the constitution of a biological biobank to stratify risk of LC. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We are performing a monocentric 'single-centre' prospective study among patients followed up in adult cardiovascular programmes of vascular surgery, cardiology and cardiac surgery recruited from 18 November 2019 to 18 May 2021. The inclusion criteria are (1) age 45-75 years old, (2) history of ACVD and (3) history of daily tobacco consumption for 10 years prior to onset of ACVD. Exclusion criteria are symptoms of LC, existing follow-up for pulmonary nodule, fibrosis, pulmonary hypertension, resting dyspnoea and active pulmonary infectious disease. We targeted the inclusion of 500 patients. After inclusion (V0), patients are scheduled for a low-dose chest CT and blood and faeces harvesting within 7 months (V1). Each patient is scheduled for a follow-up by telephonic visits at month 3 (V2), month 6 (V3) and month 12 (V4) after V1. Each patient is followed up until 1 year after V1 (14 February 2023). We measure LC prevalence and quantify the National Lung Screening Trial and Dutch-Belgian Randomized Lung Cancer Screening Trial (NELSON) trial eligibility criteria, radiation, positive screening, false positivity, rate of localised LC diagnosis, quality of life with the Short Form 12 (SF-12) and anxiety with the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory A and B (STAI-YA and STAI-YB, respectively), smoking cessation and onset of cardiovascular and oncological events within 1 year of follow-up. A case-control study nested in the cohort is performed to identify clinical or biological candidate biomarkers of LC. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The study was approved according the French Jardé law; the study is referenced at the French 'Agence Nationale de Sécurité du Médicament et des Produits de Santé' (reference ID RCB: 2019-A00262-55) and registered on clinicaltrial.gov. The results of the study will be presented after the closure of the follow-up scheduled on 14 February 2023 and disseminated through peer-reviewed journals and national and international conferences. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT03976804.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Adulto , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Pulmonares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos Prospectivos , Prevalência , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Qualidade de Vida , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Fumar/epidemiologia , Aterosclerose/diagnóstico , Aterosclerose/epidemiologia , Aterosclerose/etiologia
14.
BMJ Open ; 12(12): e064502, 2022 12 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36581433

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality among United Arab Emirates (UAE) nationals. Recent studies have shown that current tools are poor in predicting the risk of incident ASCVD in Emiratis. To improve ASCVD risk prediction in this high-risk population, this study sought to develop and validate a novel and practical 10-year ASCVD risk nomogram using risk factors known to be significant in UAE nationals. DESIGN: A 10-year retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Outpatient clinics at a large public tertiary care hospital in Al-Ain, UAE. PARTICIPANTS: Emiratis aged ≥18 years without prior cardiovascular disease (CVD) who had presented to Tawam Hospital's clinics between 1 April 2008 and 31 December 2008, were included. Patients' data were collected retrospectively until 31 January 2020. EXPOSURE: Cox proportional hazards models were developed to estimate the 10-year ASCVD risk. PRIMARY OUTCOME MEASURE: Model discrimination and calibration were assessed using the Harrell C-statistic and the Greenwood-Nam-D'Agostino (GND) χ2 test, respectively. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was used to determine the optimal cut-off point of the nomogram for elevated ASCVD risk. RESULTS: The study included 1245 patients, of whom 117 developed ASCVD within 10 years. The ASCVD risk nomogram comprised age, sex, family history of CVD, hypertension treatment, systolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, glycosylated haemoglobin A1c and estimated glomerular filtration rate. The Harrell C-statistic was 0.826 and the GND χ2 was 2.83 (p=0.830), which indicated good discrimination and calibration of the nomogram model, respectively. The optimal cut-off point was determined to be 10% (sensitivity=79%; specificity=77%). The nomogram can be freely accessed as an online calculator at (https://ascvdriskuae.shinyapps.io/ASCVDrisk/). CONCLUSIONS: The developed nomogram provides an accurate prognostic tool for 10-year ASCVD risk prediction in UAE nationals. These findings may help guide future research on CVD prevention in this high-risk population.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Humanos , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores de Risco , Estudos Retrospectivos , Emirados Árabes Unidos/epidemiologia , Nomogramas , Medição de Risco , Aterosclerose/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco de Doenças Cardíacas
15.
BMC Cardiovasc Disord ; 22(1): 536, 2022 12 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36494811

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coronary artery calcium (CAC) density is inversely associated with coronary heart disease (CHD) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. We examined this relation in those with diabetes mellitus (DM) or metabolic syndrome (MetS). METHODS: We studied 3,818 participants with non-zero CAC scores from the Multiethnic Study of Atherosclerosis and classified them as DM, MetS (without DM) or neither DM/MetS. Risk factor-adjusted CAC density was calculated and examined in relation to incident CHD and CVD events over a median follow-up of 15 years among these three disease groups. RESULTS: Adjusted CAC density was 2.54, 2.61 and 2.69 among those with DM, MetS or neither DM/MetS. Hazard ratios (HRs) for CHD per 1 SD increase of CAC density was 0.91 (95% CI: 0.72-1.16), 0.70 (95% CI: 0.56-0.87) and 0.79 (95% CI: 0.66-0.95) for those with DM, MetS or neither DM/MetS groups and were 0.77 (95% CI: 0.64-0.94), 0.83 (95% CI: 0.70-0.99) and 0.82 (95% CI: 0.71-0.95) for CVD, respectively. Adjustment for CAC density increased the HRs of CAC volume for CHD/CVD events. Compared to prediction models with or without single CAC measures, c-statistics of models with CAC volume and density were the highest ranging 0.67-0.72. CONCLUSION: CAC density is lower among patients with DM or MetS than those with neither DM/MetS and is inversely associated with future CHD/CVD risk among them. Including CAC density in risk assessment among those with MetS may improve prediction of CHD and CVD.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Doença da Artéria Coronariana , Diabetes Mellitus , Síndrome Metabólica , Adulto , Humanos , Síndrome Metabólica/diagnóstico , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Síndrome Metabólica/complicações , Cálcio/metabolismo , Doenças Cardiovasculares/complicações , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/epidemiologia , Aterosclerose/diagnóstico , Aterosclerose/epidemiologia , Aterosclerose/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Vasos Coronários/diagnóstico por imagem , Vasos Coronários/metabolismo , Fatores de Risco , Medição de Risco
16.
BMJ Open ; 12(11): e066971, 2022 11 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36368762

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The burden of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and AD-related dementias (ADRD) is increasing nationally and globally, with disproportionate impacts on lower-income, lower education and systematically marginalised older adults. Presence of inequalities in neighbourhood factors (eg, social context, physical and built environments) may affect risk of cognitive decline and be key for intervening on AD/ADRD disparities at the population level. However, existing studies are limited by a dearth of longitudinal, detailed neighbourhood measures linked to rich, prospective cohort data. Our main objective is to identify patterns of neighbourhood change related to prevalence of-and disparities in-cognitive decline and dementia. METHODS AND ANALYSES: We describe the process of collecting, processing and linking extensive neighbourhood data to the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA), creating a 25+ years dataset. Within the MESA parent study, the MESA Neighborhoods and Aging cohort study will characterise dynamic, longitudinal neighbourhood social and built environment variables relevant to cognition for residential addresses of MESA participants. This includes administering new surveys, expanding residential address histories, calculating new measures derived from spatial data and implementing novel deep learning algorithms on street-level imagery. Applying novel statistical techniques, we will examine associations of neighbourhood environmental characteristics with cognition and clinically relevant AD/ADRD outcomes. We will investigate determinants of disparities in outcomes by socioeconomic position and race/ethnicity and assess the contribution of neighbourhood environments to these disparities. This project will provide new evidence about pathways between neighbourhood environments and cognitive outcomes, with implications for policies to support healthy ageing. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This project was approved by the University of Washington and Drexel University Institutional Review Boards (protocols #00009029 and #00014523, and #180900605). Data will be distributed through the MESA Coordinating Center. Findings will be disseminated in peer-reviewed scientific journals, briefs, presentations and on the participant website.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose , Demência , Humanos , Idoso , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos de Coortes , Características de Residência , Aterosclerose/epidemiologia , Cognição , Demência/epidemiologia
17.
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis ; 32(12): 2839-2847, 2022 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36404479

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is associated with increased cardiovascular (CV) risk. However, it is unclear whether NAFLD contributes independently to the development of CV disease. Our study aimed at assessing the differences in several indices of atherosclerosis, arterial stiffness and cardiac morphology among patients with isolated NAFLD, isolated hypertension (HT) or a combination of the two conditions. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 169 participants (mean age = 50.4 ± 10.2 yrs; males = 73.6%) were divided according to the presence of NAFLD and HT into three groups: only NAFLD (55 patients), only HT (49 patients), and NAFLD + HT (65 patients). Exclusion criteria were a BMI≥35 kg/m2 and a diagnosis of diabetes mellitus. Carotid ultrasonography was performed to measure markers of atherosclerosis and arterial stiffness. Cardiac remodeling was analyzed using echocardiography. The prevalence of subclinical and overt atherosclerosis was significantly higher in the NAFLD + HT patients as compared to the other two groups (atherosclerotic plaques: 43.1%, 10.9%, and 22.4% (p < 0.001) in NAFLD + HT, NAFLD, and HT groups, respectively). No differences were found among indices of arterial stiffening and cardiac remodeling across the three groups. In multivariate regression analysis, the coexistence of NAFLD and HT was an independent risk factor for overt atherosclerosis (OR = 4.88, CI 95% 1.14-20.93), while no association was found when either NAFLD or HT was considered alone. CONCLUSION: Overt atherosclerosis was significantly present only in NAFLD + HT patients, but not in patients with isolated NAFLD. This implies that the impact of NAFLD on vascular structure and function could depend on the coexistence of other major CV risk factors, such as HT.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose , Hipertensão , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica , Placa Aterosclerótica , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/diagnóstico por imagem , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/epidemiologia , Remodelação Ventricular , Aterosclerose/diagnóstico por imagem , Aterosclerose/epidemiologia , Placa Aterosclerótica/complicações , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/complicações
18.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 80(21): 1998-2010, 2022 11 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36396201

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genetically elevated plasma lipoprotein(a) and familial hypercholesterolemia each result in premature atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD); however, a direct comparison in the same population is needed of these 2 genetic traits on the risk of ASCVD. OBJECTIVES: We determined the level of plasma lipoprotein(a) that is equivalent to low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol in clinically and genetically diagnosed familial hypercholesterolemia on risk of myocardial infarction and ASCVD. METHODS: We examined the CGPS (Copenhagen General Population Study) with determination of lipoprotein(a) and familial hypercholesterolemia in 69,644 individuals followed for 42 years, during which time, 4,166 developed myocardial infarction and 11,464, ASCVD. RESULTS: For risk of myocardial infarction, the plasma lipoprotein(a) level equivalent to LDL cholesterol in clinical familial hypercholesterolemia was 67 mg/dL (142 nmol/L) for MEDPED (Make Early Diagnosis to Prevent Early Death), 110 mg/dL (236 nmol/L) for Simon Broome, 256 mg/dL (554 nmol/L) for possible DLCN (Dutch Lipid Clinic Network), and 402 mg/dL (873 nmol/L) for probable+definite DLCN, whereas it was 180 mg/dL (389 nmol/L) for genetic familial hypercholesterolemia. Corresponding values for ASCVD were 130 mg/dL (280 nmol/L), 150 mg/dL (323 nmol/L), 227 mg/dL (491 nmol/L), 391 mg/dL (849 nmol/L), and 175 mg/dL (378 nmol/L), respectively. Individuals with both elevated lipoprotein(a) and either familial hypercholesterolemia or a family history of premature myocardial infarction had a higher risk of myocardial infarction and ASCVD compared with individuals with only 1 of these genetic traits, with the highest HRs being for lipoprotein(a) upper 20% vs lower 50% of 14.0 (95% CI: 9.15-21.3) for myocardial infarction and 5.05 (95% CI: 3.41-7.48) for ASCVD. CONCLUSIONS: Lipoprotein(a) levels equivalent to LDL cholesterol in clinical and genetic familial hypercholesterolemia were 67 to 402 mg/dL and 180 mg/dL, respectively, for myocardial infarction and 130 to 391 mg/dL and 175 mg/dL, respectively, for ASCVD.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Hiperlipoproteinemia Tipo II , Infarto do Miocárdio , Humanos , LDL-Colesterol , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Hiperlipoproteinemia Tipo II/complicações , Hiperlipoproteinemia Tipo II/diagnóstico , Hiperlipoproteinemia Tipo II/epidemiologia , Lipoproteína(a) , Aterosclerose/epidemiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia
19.
J Trop Pediatr ; 68(6)2022 10 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36375036

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Atherosclerosis is a cardiovascular disease, highly predictable, and associated with different atherogenic indices (AI) in adults. However, such indexes in the pediatric population are far less explored. The objective of this study was to evaluate the AI and the cardiovascular factors in the pediatric population in the South-Southeast of México. METHODS: A total of 481 children between 2 and 17 years old were recruited. Anthropometric evaluation, blood pressure (BP), lipid profile, apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I) and apolipoprotein B (ApoB) were measured, and AI were calculated. The population was grouped by age, binary logistic regression analysis was performed to analysis for associations of AI and cardiovascular risk factors. Sensibility and specificity of AI to detect metabolic alteration were evaluated for curve ROC. RESULTS: The atherogenic risk presented a high prevalence in the pediatric population, such as LDL-c/ApoB (86.9%), AIP (78%) and AC (36.6%). Preschoolers showed a higher risk of ApoB/ApoA-I and ApoB/LDL-c, while adolescents have a high risk of AIP. CRI-I and AC were associated with elements of lipid profile and body mass index (BMI). ROC curves analysis shows that AIP is the best index evaluating metabolic syndrome (MS) (0.87) and dyslipidemia (0.91). CONCLUSION: Such pediatric population showed a high risk of AI, mainly by LDL-c/ApoB and AIP. The BMI was the cardiovascular risk factors most frequently related to AI, AIP is the best index for detecting cases of MS and dyslipidemia. This is the first study carried out in the pediatric population from the South-Southeast of Mexico that evaluated the AI.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose , Dislipidemias , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Apolipoproteína A-I , Apolipoproteínas B , Aterosclerose/epidemiologia , LDL-Colesterol , Dislipidemias/epidemiologia , México/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco
20.
BMJ Open ; 12(11): e058777, 2022 11 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36343998

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Examine whether the relationship between the pooled cohort equations (PCE) predicted 10-year risk for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) and absolute risk for ASCVD is modified by socioeconomic status (SES). DESIGN: Population-based longitudinal cohort study-Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC)-investigating the development of cardiovascular disease across demographic subgroups. SETTING: Four communities in the USA-Forsyth County, North Carolina, Jackson, Mississippi, suburbs of Minneapolis, Minnesota and Washington County, Maryland. PARTICIPANTS: We identified 9782 ARIC men and women aged 54-73 without ASCVD at study visit 4 (1996-1998). PRIMARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Risk ratio (RR) differences in 10-year incident hospitalisations or death for ASCVD by SES and PCE predicted 10-year ASCVD risk categories to assess for risk modification. SES measures included educational attainment and census-tract neighbourhood deprivation using the Area Deprivation Index. PCE risk categories were 0%-5%, >5%-10%, >10%-15% and >15%. SES as a prognostic factor to estimate ASCVD absolute risk categories was further investigated as an interaction term with the PCE. RESULTS: ASCVD RRs for participants without a high school education (referent college educated) increased at higher PCE estimated risk categories and was consistently >1. Results indicate education is both a risk modifier and delineates populations at higher ASCVD risk independent of PCE. Neighbourhood deprivation did modify association but was less consistent in direction of effect. However, for participants residing in the most deprived neighbourhoods (referent least deprived neighbourhoods) with a PCE estimated risk >10%-15%, risk was significantly elevated (RR 1.65, 95% CI 1.05 to 2.59). Education and neighbourhood deprivation inclusion as an interaction term on the PCE risk score was statistically significant (likelihood ratio p≤0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: SES modifies the association between PCE estimated risk and absolute risk of ASCVD. SES added into ASCVD risk prediction models as an interaction term may improve our ability to predict absolute ASCVD risk among socially disadvantaged populations.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Masculino , Humanos , Feminino , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Medição de Risco/métodos , Estudos Longitudinais , Aterosclerose/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Classe Social
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