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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360839

RESUMO

Hypercholesterolemia plays a causal role in the development of atherosclerosis and is one of the main risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD), the leading cause of death worldwide especially in developed countries. Current data show that the role of microbiota extends beyond digestion by being implicated in several metabolic and inflammatory processes linked to several diseases including CVD. Studies have reported associations between bacterial metabolites and hypercholesterolemia. However, such associations remain poorly investigated and characterized. In this review, the mechanisms of microbial derived metabolites such as primary and secondary bile acids (BAs), trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO), and short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) will be explored in the context of cholesterol metabolism. These metabolites play critical roles in maintaining cardiovascular health and if dysregulated can potentially contribute to CVD. They can be modulated via nutritional and pharmacological interventions such as statins, prebiotics, and probiotics. However, the mechanisms behind these interactions also remain unclear, and mechanistic insights into their impact will be provided. Therefore, the objectives of this paper are to present current knowledge on potential mechanisms whereby microbial metabolites regulate cholesterol homeostasis and to discuss the feasibility of modulating intestinal microbes and metabolites as a novel therapeutic for hypercholesterolemia.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/metabolismo , Colesterol/metabolismo , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Animais , Aterosclerose/microbiologia , Humanos , Hipercolesterolemia
2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360659

RESUMO

Platelets are hematopoietic cells whose main function has for a long time been considered to be the maintenance of vascular integrity. They have an essential role in the hemostatic response, but they also have functional capabilities that go far beyond it. This review will provide an overview of platelet functions. Indeed, stress signals may induce platelet apoptosis through proapoptotis or hemostasis receptors, necrosis, and even autophagy. Platelets also interact with immune cells and modulate immune responses in terms of activation, maturation, recruitment and cytokine secretion. This review will also show that platelets, thanks to their wide range of innate immune receptors, and in particular toll-like receptors, and can be considered sentinels actively participating in the immuno-surveillance of the body. We will discuss the diversity of platelet responses following the engagement of these receptors as well as the signaling pathways involved. Finally, we will show that while platelets contribute significantly, via their TLRs, to immune response and inflammation, these receptors also participate in the pathophysiological processes associated with various pathogens and diseases, including cancer and atherosclerosis.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/patologia , Plaquetas/patologia , Imunidade Inata/imunologia , Neoplasias/patologia , Ativação Plaquetária , Receptores Imunológicos/metabolismo , Receptores Toll-Like/metabolismo , Animais , Aterosclerose/imunologia , Aterosclerose/metabolismo , Plaquetas/imunologia , Plaquetas/metabolismo , Humanos , Neoplasias/imunologia , Neoplasias/metabolismo
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360560

RESUMO

Among autophagy-related molecules, p62/SQSTM1 is an adaptor for identifying and delivering intracellular cargo for degradation. Since ubiquitination is reversible, it has a switch role in autophagy. Ubiquitination is also involved in regulating autophagy in a timely manner. This study aimed to elucidate how p62-mediated autophagy is regulated in human endothelial cells and macrophages under atherosclerotic conditions, focusing on the lysosomal and proteasomal pathways. Co-cultured HUVECs and THP-1 cells were exposed to oxLDL (50 µg/mL) and autophagy was assessed. To downregulate p62, siRNA was administered, and the E3 ligases were inhibited by Heclin or MLN4924 treatment under the condition that cellular inflammatory processes were stimulated by oxLDL simultaneously initiated autophagy. Downregulating p62 induced an alternative degradation system, and the E3 ligases were found to be involved in the progression of atherosclerosis. Collectively, the present study demonstrated that the endothelial lipid accumulation under atherosclerotic conditions was caused by lysosomal dysfunction associated with autophagy.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/patologia , Autofagia , Células Endoteliais/patologia , Complexo de Endopeptidases do Proteassoma/metabolismo , Proteólise , Proteína Sequestossoma-1/metabolismo , Ubiquitinação , Aterosclerose/metabolismo , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Humanos , Complexo de Endopeptidases do Proteassoma/genética , Proteína Sequestossoma-1/genética , Transdução de Sinais , Ubiquitina/metabolismo
4.
FASEB J ; 35(9): e21831, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34383982

RESUMO

The nuclear factor of activated T-cells 5 (NFAT5) is a transcriptional regulator of macrophage activation and T-cell development, which controls stabilizing responses of cells to hypertonic and biomechanical stress. In this study, we detected NFAT5 in the media layer of arteries adjacent to human arteriosclerotic plaques and analyzed its role in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) known to contribute to arteriosclerosis through the uptake of lipids and transformation into foam cells. Exposure of both human and mouse VSMCs to cholesterol stimulated the nuclear translocation of NFAT5 and increased the expression of the ATP-binding cassette transporter Abca1, required to regulate cholesterol efflux from cells. Loss of Nfat5 promoted cholesterol accumulation in these cells and inhibited the expression of genes involved in the management of oxidative stress or lipid handling, such as Sod1, Plin2, Fabp3, and Ppard. The functional relevance of these observations was subsequently investigated in mice fed a high-fat diet upon induction of a smooth muscle cell-specific genetic ablation of Nfat5 (Nfat5(SMC)-/- ). Under these conditions, Nfat5(SMC)-/- but not Nfat5fl/fl mice developed small, focal lipid-rich lesions in the aorta after 14 and 25 weeks, which were formed by intracellular lipid droplets deposited in the sub-intimal VSMCs layer. While known for being activated by external stimuli, NFAT5 was found to mediate the expression of VSMC genes associated with the handling of lipids in response to a cholesterol-rich environment. Failure of this protective function may promote the formation of lipid-laden arterial VSMCs and pro-atherogenic vascular responses.


Assuntos
Aorta/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/fisiologia , Lipídeos/fisiologia , Músculo Liso Vascular/metabolismo , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Transportador 1 de Cassete de Ligação de ATP/metabolismo , Idoso , Animais , Aterosclerose/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , Colesterol/metabolismo , Feminino , Células Espumosas/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/fisiologia , Humanos , Hipercolesterolemia/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estresse Oxidativo/fisiologia , Túnica Íntima/metabolismo
5.
Chem Biol Interact ; 347: 109601, 2021 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34324854

RESUMO

Exploration of long-term in vivo effects of nanomaterials, particularly those with potential biomedical applications, is quite important for better understanding and evaluating their biosafety. Selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs) has been considered as a good candidate in biomedical applications due to its high bioavailability, considerable biological activity, and low toxicity. However, its long-term biological effects and biosafety remain unknown. Our previous study demonstrated that 8-week supplementation with SeNPs (50 µg Se/kg/day) was safe and had an anti-atherosclerotic activity in apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE-/-) mice, a well-known animal model of atherosclerosis. As a chronic disease, atherosclerosis needs long-term drug therapy. The aim of this study is to investigate the long-term effects of SeNPs with different sizes on atherosclerotic lesions and their biosafety in ApoE-/- mice fed with a high fat diet. Unexpectedly, the results showed that 24-week administration of SeNPs even at a low dose (50 µg Se/kg/day) aggravated atherosclerotic lesions. Furthermore, SeNPs exacerbated oxidative stress by inhibiting the activities of antioxidant enzymes and the expression of antioxidant selenoenzymes. SeNPs also exacerbated hyperlipidaemia by inducing hepatic lipid metabolic disorder. In the meanwhile, SeNPs aggravated organ injury, especially liver and kidney injury. The above adverse effects of SeNPs were size dependent: SeNPs with the size of 40.4 nm showed the highest adverse effects among the SeNPs with three sizes (23.1 nm, 40.4 nm, and 86.8 nm). In conclusion, the present work shows that long-term administration of low-dose SeNPs aggravated atherosclerotic lesions by enhancing oxidative stress and hyperlipidaemia in ApoE-/- mice, indicative of cardiovascular toxicity. Moreover, long-term administration of SeNPs led to injury to liver and kidney. These results offer novel insights for better understanding the biosafety of SeNPs and other biomedical nanomaterials.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/etiologia , Nanopartículas/toxicidade , Selênio/toxicidade , Animais , Apolipoproteínas E/deficiência , Aterosclerose/metabolismo , Aterosclerose/patologia , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/etiologia , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/metabolismo , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/patologia , Glutationa Peroxidase/metabolismo , Hiperlipidemias/etiologia , Hiperlipidemias/metabolismo , Nefropatias/etiologia , Nefropatias/metabolismo , Nefropatias/patologia , Fígado/patologia , Efeitos Adversos de Longa Duração , Masculino , Camundongos , Nanopartículas/administração & dosagem , Nanopartículas/química , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Tamanho da Partícula , Selênio/administração & dosagem , Selênio/química , Tiorredoxina Redutase 1/metabolismo , Tiorredoxina Redutase 2/metabolismo
6.
Molecules ; 26(13)2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34279384

RESUMO

Curcumin, a natural polyphenolic compound present in Curcuma longa L. rhizomes, shows potent antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, and anti-atherosclerotic properties. Atherosclerosis is a comprehensive term for a series of degenerative and hyperplasic lesions such as thickening or sclerosis in large- and medium-sized arteries, causing decreased vascular-wall elasticity and lumen diameter. Atherosclerotic cerebro-cardiovascular disease has become a major concern for human health in recent years due to its clinical sequalae of strokes and heart attacks. Curcumin concoction treatment modulates several important signaling pathways related to cellular migration, proliferation, cholesterol homeostasis, inflammation, and gene transcription, among other relevant actions. Here, we provide an overview of curcumin in atherosclerosis prevention and disclose the underlying mechanisms of action of its anti-atherosclerotic effects.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/tratamento farmacológico , Curcumina/uso terapêutico , Animais , Aterosclerose/metabolismo , Curcumina/farmacologia , Humanos , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(12)2021 Jun 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34199319

RESUMO

Inflammation is an old concept that has started to be considered as an important factor in infection and chronic diseases. The role of leukocytes, the plasmatic components, then of the mediators such as prostaglandins, cytokines, and, in recent decades, of the endothelium has completed the concept of the inflammation process. The function of the endothelium appeared to be crucial as a regulator or the initiator of the inflammatory process. Culture of human endothelial cells and experimental systems made it possible to define the molecular basis of inflammation in vascular diseases, in diabetes mellitus, atherosclerosis, vasculitis and thromboembolic complications. Advanced glycation end product receptor (RAGE), present on endothelial cells (ECs) and monocytes, participates in the activation of these cells in inflammatory conditions. Inflammasome is a cytosolic multiprotein that controls the response to diverse microorganisms. It is positively regulated by stimulator of interferon response CGAMP interactor-1 (STING1). Angiogenesis and thrombotic events are dysregulated during inflammation. ECs appear to be a protector, but also a possible initiator of thrombosis.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/patologia , Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Trombose/patologia , Aterosclerose/metabolismo , Endotélio Vascular/citologia , Humanos , Inflamassomos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Neovascularização Fisiológica , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Receptor para Produtos Finais de Glicação Avançada/metabolismo , Trombose/metabolismo
8.
Molecules ; 26(12)2021 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34200914

RESUMO

Flavonoids are a group of secondary metabolites derived from plant-based foods, and they offer many health benefits in different stages of several diseases. This review will focus on their effects on ion channels expressed in vascular smooth muscle during atherosclerosis. Since ion channels can be regulated by redox potential, it is expected that during the onset of oxidative stress-related diseases, ion channels present changes in their conductive activity, impacting the progression of the disease. A typical oxidative stress-related condition is atherosclerosis, which involves the dysfunction of vascular smooth muscle. We aim to present the state of the art on how redox potential affects vascular smooth muscle ion channel function and summarize if the benefits observed in this disease by using flavonoids involve restoring the ion channel activity.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/tratamento farmacológico , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Músculo Liso Vascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Aterosclerose/metabolismo , Progressão da Doença , Humanos , Canais Iônicos/metabolismo , Músculo Liso Vascular/metabolismo , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/efeitos dos fármacos , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/metabolismo , Oxirredução/efeitos dos fármacos
9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(11)2021 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34198873

RESUMO

Nicotinamide nucleotide transhydrogenase (NNT) is a proton pump in the inner mitochondrial membrane that generates reducing equivalents in the form of NAPDH, which can be used for anabolic pathways or to remove reactive oxygen species (ROS). A number of studies have linked NNT dysfunction to cardiomyopathies and increased risk of atherosclerosis; however, biallelic mutations in humans commonly cause a phenotype of adrenal insufficiency, with rare occurrences of cardiac dysfunction and testicular tumours. Here, we compare the transcriptomes of the hearts, adrenals and testes from three mouse models: the C57BL/6N, which expresses NNT; the C57BL/6J, which lacks NNT; and a third mouse, expressing the wild-type NNT sequence on the C57BL/6J background. We saw enrichment of oxidative phosphorylation genes in the C57BL/B6J in the heart and adrenal, possibly indicative of an evolved response in this substrain to loss of Nnt. However, differential gene expression was mainly driven by mouse background with some changes seen in all three tissues, perhaps reflecting underlying genetic differences between the C57BL/B6J and -6N substrains.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/genética , Cardiomiopatias/genética , Miocárdio/metabolismo , NADP Trans-Hidrogenase Específica para A ou B/genética , Fosforilação Oxidativa , Glândulas Suprarrenais/metabolismo , Animais , Aterosclerose/metabolismo , Aterosclerose/patologia , Cardiomiopatias/patologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Mitocôndrias/genética , Membranas Mitocondriais/metabolismo , Proteínas Mitocondriais/genética , Fenótipo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Testículo/metabolismo
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(11)2021 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34204153

RESUMO

Chromogranin A (CgA), B (CgB), and C (CgC), the family members of the granin glycoproteins, are associated with diabetes. These proteins are abundantly expressed in neurons, endocrine, and neuroendocrine cells. They are also present in other areas of the body. Patients with diabetic retinopathy have higher levels of CgA, CgB, and CgC in the vitreous humor. In addition, type 1 diabetic patients have high CgA and low CgB levels in the circulating blood. Plasma CgA levels are increased in patients with hypertension, coronary heart disease, and heart failure. CgA is the precursor to several functional peptides, including catestatin, vasostatin-1, vasostatin-2, pancreastatin, chromofungin, and many others. Catestatin, vasostain-1, and vasostatin-2 suppress the expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 in human vascular endothelial cells. Catestatin and vasostatin-1 suppress oxidized low-density lipoprotein-induced foam cell formation in human macrophages. Catestatin and vasostatin-2, but not vasostatin-1, suppress the proliferation and these three peptides suppress the migration in human vascular smooth muscles. Chronic infusion of catestatin, vasostatin-1, or vasostatin-2 suppresses the development of atherosclerosis of the aorta in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice. Catestatin, vasostatin-1, vasostatin-2, and chromofungin protect ischemia/reperfusion-induced myocardial dysfunction in rats. Since pancreastatin inhibits insulin secretion from pancreatic ß-cells, and regulates glucose metabolism in liver and adipose tissues, pancreastatin inhibitor peptide-8 (PSTi8) improves insulin resistance and glucose homeostasis. Catestatin stimulates therapeutic angiogenesis in the mouse hind limb ischemia model. Gene therapy with secretoneurin, a CgC-derived peptide, stimulates postischemic neovascularization in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice and streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice, and improves diabetic neuropathy in db/db mice. Therefore, CgA is a biomarker for atherosclerosis, diabetes, hypertension, and coronary heart disease. CgA- and CgC--derived polypeptides provide the therapeutic target for atherosclerosis and ischemia-induced tissue damages. PSTi8 is useful in the treatment of diabetes.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/metabolismo , Cromograninas/metabolismo , Doença das Coronárias/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus/metabolismo , Peptídeos/metabolismo , Animais , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Humanos
11.
Cardiovasc Ther ; 2021: 6615400, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34221126

RESUMO

Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is defined as a progressive segmental dilation of the abdominal aorta and is associated with high mortality. The characterized features of AAA indicate several underlying mechanisms of AAA formation and progression, including reactive oxygen species production, inflammation, and atherosclerosis. Mitochondrial functions are critical for determining cell fate, and mitochondrial dynamics, especially selective mitochondrial autophagy, which is termed as mitophagy, has emerged as an important player in the pathogenesis of several cardiovascular diseases. The PARKIN/PARIS/PGC1α pathway is associated with AAA formation and has been proposed to play a role in mitochondrial dynamics mediated by the PINK/PARKIN pathway in the pathogenesis underlying AAA. This review is aimed at deepening our understanding of AAA formation and progression, which is vital for the development of potential medical therapies for AAA.


Assuntos
Aneurisma Dissecante/fisiopatologia , Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal/fisiopatologia , Dinâmica Mitocondrial/fisiologia , Animais , Aterosclerose/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Humanos , Inflamação/metabolismo , Masculino , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/patologia , Coativador 1-alfa do Receptor gama Ativado por Proliferador de Peroxissomo/fisiologia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/fisiologia
12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(14)2021 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34298929

RESUMO

Dyslipidemia is characterized by increasing plasma levels of low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), triglycerides (TGs) and TG-rich lipoproteins (TGRLs) and is a major risk factor for the development of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disorders (ASCVDs). It is important to understand the metabolic mechanisms underlying dyslipidemia to develop effective strategies against ASCVDs. Angiopoietin-like 3 (ANGPTL3), a member of the angiopoietin-like protein family exclusively synthesized in the liver, has been demonstrated to be a critical regulator of lipoprotein metabolism to inhibit lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity. Genetic, biochemical, and clinical studies in animals and humans have shown that loss of function, inactivation, or downregulated expression of ANGPTL3 is associated with an obvious reduction in plasma levels of TGs, LDL-C, and high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), atherosclerotic lesions, and the risk of cardiovascular events. Therefore, ANGPTL3 is considered an alternative target for lipid-lowering therapy. Emerging studies have focused on ANGPTL3 inhibition via antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) and monoclonal antibody-based therapies, which have been carried out in mouse or monkey models and in human clinical studies for the management of dyslipidemia and ASCVDs. This review will summarize the current literature on the important role of ANGPTL3 in controlling lipoprotein metabolism and dyslipidemia, with an emphasis on anti-ANGPTL3 therapies as a potential strategy for the treatment of dyslipidemia and ASCVDs.


Assuntos
Proteínas Semelhantes a Angiopoietina/metabolismo , Dislipidemias/metabolismo , Lipoproteínas/metabolismo , Animais , Aterosclerose/metabolismo , HDL-Colesterol/metabolismo , LDL-Colesterol , Humanos , Triglicerídeos/metabolismo
13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(13)2021 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34203309

RESUMO

The prevalence of NAFLD (non-alcoholic fatty liver disease) is a rapidly increasing problem, affecting a huge population around the globe. However, CVDs (cardiovascular diseases) are the most common cause of mortality in NAFLD patients. Atherogenic dyslipidemia, characterized by plasma hypertriglyceridemia, increased small dense LDL (low-density lipoprotein) particles, and decreased HDL-C (high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) levels, is often observed in NAFLD patients. In this review, we summarize recent genetic evidence, proving the diverse nature of metabolic pathways involved in NAFLD pathogenesis. Analysis of available genetic data suggests that the altered operation of fatty-acid ß-oxidation in liver mitochondria is the key process, connecting NAFLD-mediated dyslipidemia and elevated CVD risk. In addition, we discuss several NAFLD-associated genes with documented anti-atherosclerotic or cardioprotective effects, and current pharmaceutical strategies focused on both NAFLD treatment and reduction of CVD risk.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/metabolismo , Doenças Cardiovasculares/metabolismo , Dislipidemias/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Animais , Humanos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/genética , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/fisiologia
14.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4452, 2021 07 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34294713

RESUMO

Atherosclerosis-associated cardiovascular disease is one of the main causes of death and disability among patients with diabetes mellitus. However, little is known about the impact of S-nitrosylation in diabetes-accelerated atherosclerosis. Here, we show increased levels of S-nitrosylation of guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(i) subunit alpha-2 (SNO-GNAI2) at Cysteine 66 in coronary artery samples from diabetic patients with atherosclerosis, consistently with results from mice. Mechanistically, SNO-GNAI2 acted by coupling with CXCR5 to dephosphorylate the Hippo pathway kinase LATS1, thereby leading to nuclear translocation of YAP and promoting an inflammatory response in endothelial cells. Furthermore, Cys-mutant GNAI2 refractory to S-nitrosylation abrogated GNAI2-CXCR5 coupling, alleviated atherosclerosis in diabetic mice, restored Hippo activity, and reduced endothelial inflammation. In addition, we showed that melatonin treatment restored endothelial function and protected against diabetes-accelerated atherosclerosis by preventing GNAI2 S-nitrosylation. In conclusion, SNO-GNAI2 drives diabetes-accelerated atherosclerosis by coupling with CXCR5 and activating YAP-dependent endothelial inflammation, and reducing SNO-GNAI2 is an efficient strategy for alleviating diabetes-accelerated atherosclerosis.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/etiologia , Aterosclerose/metabolismo , Angiopatias Diabéticas/etiologia , Angiopatias Diabéticas/metabolismo , Subunidade alfa Gi2 de Proteína de Ligação ao GTP/metabolismo , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/metabolismo , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Cisteína/química , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/metabolismo , Subunidade alfa Gi2 de Proteína de Ligação ao GTP/química , Subunidade alfa Gi2 de Proteína de Ligação ao GTP/genética , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana , Humanos , Masculino , Melatonina/farmacologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Mutagênese Sítio-Dirigida , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/metabolismo , Compostos Nitrosos/química , Compostos Nitrosos/metabolismo , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/metabolismo , Receptores CXCR5/deficiência , Receptores CXCR5/genética , Receptores CXCR5/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
15.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(14)2021 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299240

RESUMO

Glucocorticoids are steroid hormones with key roles in the regulation of many physiological systems including energy homeostasis and immunity. However, chronic glucocorticoid excess, highlighted in Cushing's syndrome, is established as being associated with increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Atherosclerosis is the major cause of CVD, leading to complications including coronary artery disease, myocardial infarction and heart failure. While the associations between glucocorticoid excess and increased prevalence of these complications are well established, the mechanisms underlying the role of glucocorticoids in development of atheroma are unclear. This review aims to better understand the importance of glucocorticoids in atherosclerosis and to dissect their cell-specific effects on key processes (e.g., contractility, remodelling and lesion development). Clinical and pre-clinical studies have shown both athero-protective and pro-atherogenic responses to glucocorticoids, effects dependent upon their multifactorial actions. Evidence indicates regulation of glucocorticoid bioavailability at the vasculature is complex, with local delivery, pre-receptor metabolism, and receptor expression contributing to responses linked to vascular remodelling and inflammation. Further investigations are required to clarify the mechanisms through which endogenous, local glucocorticoid action and systemic glucocorticoid treatment promote/inhibit atherosclerosis. This will provide greater insights into the potential benefit of glucocorticoid targeted approaches in the treatment of cardiovascular disease.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/tratamento farmacológico , Aterosclerose/fisiopatologia , Glucocorticoides/farmacologia , Aterosclerose/metabolismo , Doenças Cardiovasculares/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/fisiopatologia , Síndrome de Cushing , Glucocorticoides/metabolismo , Humanos , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Receptores de Glucocorticoides/metabolismo , Fatores de Risco
16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(13)2021 Jun 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34201488

RESUMO

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) ranks among the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. COPD rarely occurs in isolation and is often combined with various diseases. It is considered that systemic inflammation underlies the comorbid course of COPD. The data obtained in recent years have shown the importance of violations of the cross-links of lipid metabolism and the immune response, which are links in the pathogenesis of both COPD and atherosclerosis. The role of lipid metabolism disorders in the pathogenesis of the comorbid course of COPD and atherosclerosis and the participation of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters in these processes is discussed in this article. It is known that about 20 representatives of a large family of ABC transporters provide lipid homeostasis of cells by moving lipids inside the cell and in its plasma membrane, as well as removing lipids from the cell. It was shown that some representatives of the ABC-transporter family are involved in various links of the pathogenesis of COPD and atherosclerosis, which can determine their comorbid course.


Assuntos
Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/metabolismo , Aterosclerose/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/metabolismo , Animais , Aterosclerose/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Humanos , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/epidemiologia
17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(14)2021 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299213

RESUMO

The MEK5/ERK5 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) cascade is a unique signaling module activated by both mitogens and stress stimuli, including cytokines, fluid shear stress, high osmolarity, and oxidative stress. Physiologically, it is mainly known as a mechanoreceptive pathway in the endothelium, where it transduces the various vasoprotective effects of laminar blood flow. However, it also maintains integrity in other tissues exposed to mechanical stress, including bone, cartilage, and muscle, where it exerts a key function as a survival and differentiation pathway. Beyond its diverse physiological roles, the MEK5/ERK5 pathway has also been implicated in various diseases, including cancer, where it has recently emerged as a major escape route, sustaining tumor cell survival and proliferation under drug stress. In addition, MEK5/ERK5 dysfunction may foster cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis. Here, we highlight the importance of the MEK5/ERK5 pathway in health and disease, focusing on its role as a protective cascade in mechanical stress-exposed healthy tissues and its function as a therapy resistance pathway in cancers. We discuss the perspective of targeting this cascade for cancer treatment and weigh its chances and potential risks when considering its emerging role as a protective stress response pathway.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/fisiopatologia , MAP Quinase Quinase 5/metabolismo , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases , Proteína Quinase 7 Ativada por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Animais , Aterosclerose/metabolismo , Humanos , Neoplasias/enzimologia , Neoplasias/metabolismo
18.
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol ; 41(9): e427-e439, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34261328

RESUMO

Objective: Atheromatous fibrous caps are produced by smooth muscle cells (SMCs) that are recruited to the subendothelial space. We tested whether the recruitment mechanisms are the same as in embryonic artery development, which relies prominently on Notch signaling to form the subendothelial medial SMC layers. Approach and Results: Notch elements were expressed in regions of fibrous cap in human and mouse plaques. To assess the causal role of Notch signaling in cap formation, we studied atherosclerosis in mice where the Notch pathway was inactivated in SMCs by conditional knockout of the essential effector transcription factor RBPJ (recombination signal-binding protein for immunoglobulin kappa J region). The recruitment of cap SMCs was significantly reduced without major effects on plaque size. Lineage tracing revealed the accumulation of SMC-derived plaque cells in the cap region was unaltered but that Notch-defective cells failed to re-acquire the SMC phenotype in the cap. Conversely, to analyze whether the loss of Notch signaling is required for SMC-derived cells to accumulate in atherogenesis, we studied atherosclerosis in mice with constitutive activation of Notch signaling in SMCs achieved by conditional expression of the Notch intracellular domain. Forced Notch signaling inhibited the ability of medial SMCs to contribute to plaque cells, including both cap SMCs and osteochondrogenic cells, and significantly reduced atherosclerosis development. Conclusions: Sequential loss and gain of Notch signaling is needed to build the cap SMC population. The shared mechanisms with embryonic arterial media assembly suggest that the cap forms as a neo-media that restores the connection between endothelium and subendothelial SMCs, transiently disrupted in early atherogenesis.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/metabolismo , Músculo Liso Vascular/metabolismo , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/metabolismo , Placa Aterosclerótica , Receptores Notch/metabolismo , Túnica Média/metabolismo , Actinas/genética , Actinas/metabolismo , Animais , Artérias/metabolismo , Artérias/patologia , Aterosclerose/genética , Aterosclerose/patologia , Linhagem da Célula , Células Cultivadas , Progressão da Doença , Fibrose , Humanos , Proteína de Ligação a Sequências Sinal de Recombinação J de Imunoglobina/genética , Proteína de Ligação a Sequências Sinal de Recombinação J de Imunoglobina/metabolismo , Proteína Jagged-1/genética , Proteína Jagged-1/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Músculo Liso Vascular/patologia , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/patologia , Fenótipo , Ratos , Receptores Notch/genética , Transdução de Sinais , Túnica Média/patologia
19.
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol ; 41(9): 2399-2416, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34289702

RESUMO

Objective: Vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) plasticity plays a critical role in the development of atherosclerosis. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are emerging as important regulators in the vessel wall and impact cellular function through diverse interactors. However, the role of lncRNAs in regulating VSMCs plasticity and atherosclerosis remains unclear. Approach and Results: We identified a VSMC-enriched lncRNA cardiac mesoderm enhancer-associated noncoding RNA (CARMN) that is dynamically regulated with progression of atherosclerosis. In both mouse and human atherosclerotic plaques, CARMN colocalized with VSMCs and was expressed in the nucleus. Knockdown of CARMN using antisense oligonucleotides in Ldlr−/− mice significantly reduced atherosclerotic lesion formation by 38% and suppressed VSMCs proliferation by 45% without affecting apoptosis. In vitro CARMN gain- and loss-of-function studies verified effects on VSMC proliferation, migration, and differentiation. TGF-ß1 (transforming growth factor-beta) induced CARMN expression in a Smad2/3-dependent manner. CARMN regulated VSMC plasticity independent of the miR143/145 cluster, which is located in close proximity to the CARMN locus. Mechanistically, lncRNA pulldown in combination with mass spectrometry analysis showed that the nuclear-localized CARMN interacted with SRF (serum response factor) through a specific 600­1197 nucleotide domain. CARMN enhanced SRF occupancy on the promoter regions of its downstream VSMC targets. Finally, knockdown of SRF abolished the regulatory role of CARMN in VSMC plasticity. Conclusions: The lncRNA CARMN is a critical regulator of VSMC plasticity and atherosclerosis. These findings highlight the role of a lncRNA in SRF-dependent signaling and provide implications for a range of chronic vascular occlusive disease states.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/metabolismo , Plasticidade Celular , Músculo Liso Vascular/metabolismo , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/metabolismo , RNA Longo não Codificante/metabolismo , Fator de Resposta Sérica/metabolismo , Animais , Aterosclerose/genética , Aterosclerose/patologia , Linhagem Celular , Movimento Celular , Proliferação de Células , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Músculo Liso Vascular/patologia , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/patologia , Fenótipo , Placa Aterosclerótica , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , Receptores de LDL/deficiência , Receptores de LDL/genética , Fator de Resposta Sérica/genética , Transdução de Sinais
20.
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol ; 41(9): 2387-2398, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34320835

RESUMO

Objective: CD4 T cells are important regulators of atherosclerotic progression. The metabolic profile of CD4 T cells controls their signaling and function, but how atherosclerosis affects T-cell metabolism is unknown. Here, we sought to determine the impact of atherosclerosis on CD4 T-cell metabolism and the contribution of such metabolic alterations to atheroprogression. Approach and Results: Using PCR arrays, we profiled the expression of metabolism genes in CD4 T cells from atherosclerotic apolipoprotein-E knockout mice fed a Western diet. These cells exhibited dysregulated expression of genes critically involved in glycolysis and fatty acid degradation, compared with those from animals fed a standard laboratory diet. We examined how T-cell metabolism was changed in either Western diet­fed apolipoprotein-E knockout mice or samples from patients with cardiovascular disease by measuring glucose uptake, activation, and proliferation in CD4 T cells. We found that naive CD4 T cells from Western diet­fed apolipoprotein-E knockout mice failed to uptake glucose and displayed impaired proliferation and activation, compared with CD4 T cells from standard laboratory diet­fed animals. Similarly, we observed that naive CD4 T-cell frequencies were reduced in the circulation of human subjects with high cardiovascular disease compared with low cardiovascular disease. Naive T cells from high cardiovascular disease subjects also showed reduced proliferative capacity. Conclusions: These results highlight the dysfunction that occurs in CD4 T-cell metabolism and immune responses during atherosclerosis. Targeting metabolic pathways within naive CD4 T cells could thus yield novel therapeutic approaches for improving CD4 T-cell responses against atheroprogression.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/metabolismo , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/metabolismo , Glicólise , Placa Aterosclerótica , Idoso , Animais , Aterosclerose/genética , Aterosclerose/imunologia , Aterosclerose/patologia , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Proliferação de Células , Células Cultivadas , Dieta Ocidental , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Glicólise/genética , Humanos , Ativação Linfocitária , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout para ApoE , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oxirredução , Fenótipo
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