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1.
Gene ; 711: 143948, 2019 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31255737

RESUMO

The incidence of atherosclerosis is greatly increased, which becomes the leading cause for the death and disability worldwide. Endothelial cells dysfunction plays a substantial role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. MicroRNA-148a-3p (miR-148a-3p) and circular RNA 0003575 (circ_0003575) modulated lipid metabolism and proliferative function of endothelial cells, respectively. However, the role of them in modulation of endothelial cell function and progression of atherosclerosis remains unknown. Endothelial cells were isolated from the aorta of Apoe-/- mice. miR-148a-3p in atherosclerosis patients and healthy controls were measured by qRT-PCR. Overexpression and knockdown of miR-148a-3p in endothelial cells were established. The proliferation, migration and apoptosis of endothelial cells were measured by MTT, Transwell, and fluorescence microscope, respectively. Online software (miRWalk 2.0 and RegRNA2.0) and databases (miRWalk, miRanda, RNA22, and Targetscan) were used to predict potential target genes of miR-148a-3p and circ_0003575. The expression of target genes was detected through western blotting. The expression of miR-148a-3p was significantly upregulated in patients with atherosclerosis as relative to healthy people. Overexpression of miR-148a-3p exhibited stimulatory effects on endothelial cell proliferation and migration and inhibited programmed cell death. Six intersection target genes, c-MAF, FOXO4, FOXO3, MITF, ETV7, and CRX, were predicted between miR-148a-3p and circ_0003575. The opposite effects of circ_0003575 and miR-148a-3p on the expression of FOXO4 and FOXO3, which are essential for lipid metabolism. We demonstrate that miR-148a-3p suppresses FOXO4 and FOXO3 expression via interruption of circ_0003575 function, which in turn impairs the proliferative and migratory function of endothelial cells, eventually exacerbating the atherosclerosis.


Assuntos
Apolipoproteínas E/deficiência , Aterosclerose/genética , Células Endoteliais/citologia , Proteína Forkhead Box O3/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/genética , RNA/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Regulação para Cima , Animais , Apolipoproteínas E/genética , Apoptose , Aterosclerose/metabolismo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Movimento Celular , Proliferação de Células , Sobrevivência Celular , Células Cultivadas , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Proteína Forkhead Box O3/genética , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Humanos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Camundongos , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
2.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(28): 7869-7879, 2019 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31287296

RESUMO

Carnitine, a dietary quaternary amine mainly from red meat, is metabolized to trimethylamine (TMA) by gut microbiota and subsequently oxidized to trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) by host hepatic enzymes, flavin monooxygenases (FMOs). The objective of this study aims to investigate the effects of flavonoids from oolong tea and citrus peels on reducing TMAO formation and protecting vascular inflammation in carnitine-feeding mice. The results showed that mice treated with 1.3% carnitine in drinking water significantly (p < 0.05) increased the plasma levels of TMAO compared to control group, whereas the plasma TMAO was remarkedly reduced by flavonoids used. Meanwhile, these dietary phenolic compounds significantly (p < 0.05) decreased hepatic FMO3 mRNA levels compared to carnitine only group. Additionally, oolong tea extract decreased mRNA levels of vascular inflammatory markers such as tissue necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and E-selectin. Polymethoxyflavones significantly lowered the expression of VCAM-1 and showed a decreasing trend in TNF-α and E-selectin mRNA expression compared to the carnitine group. Genus-level analysis of the gut microbiota in the cecum showed that these dietary phenolic compounds induced an increase in the relative abundances of Bacteroides. Oolong tea extract-treated group up-regulated Lactobacillus genus, compared to the carnitine only group. Administration of polymethoxyflavones increased Akkermansia in mice.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/tratamento farmacológico , Aterosclerose/metabolismo , Camellia sinensis/química , Carnitina/metabolismo , Citrus/química , Flavonas/administração & dosagem , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Animais , Aterosclerose/genética , Aterosclerose/microbiologia , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Bactérias/metabolismo , Biotransformação/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Flavonas/análise , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Trato Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Humanos , Metilaminas/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/genética , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo , Molécula 1 de Adesão de Célula Vascular/genética , Molécula 1 de Adesão de Célula Vascular/metabolismo
3.
Adv Clin Chem ; 91: 163-179, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31331488

RESUMO

Pentraxin 3 (PTX3) is involved in vascular inflammation and endothelial dysfunction through various mechanisms. Until now, most studies confirmed an important link between PTX3 and endothelial dysfunction and identified several pathogenetic pathways. PTX3 modulates inflammatory cells, thus stimulating vascular inflammation. Within endothelial cells, it decreases nitric oxide (NO) synthesis, inhibits cell proliferation and alters their functions. PTX3 blocks the effect of fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) by making a molecular complex with these molecules inactivating them. However, there are substances like the tumor necrosis factor-inducible gene 6 protein (TSG-6) that block the PTX3-FGF2 interaction. Interacting with P-selectin, it promotes vascular inflammatory response and endothelial dysfunction. PTX3 also increases the matrix metalloproteinases synthesis directly or by blocking NO synthesis. From a clinical point of view, PTX3 positively correlates with arterial hypertension, flow mediated dilation and, with intima media thickness. Therefore, the involvement of PTX3 in the pathogenesis and evaluation of endothelial dysfunction is clear, and it may become a biomarker in this direction, but further studies are needed to determine its reliability in this direction. Last but not least, PTX3 could become an effective therapeutic target for preventing this dysfunction, but further research needs to be conducted.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/metabolismo , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Inflamação/metabolismo , Componente Amiloide P Sérico/metabolismo , Aterosclerose/etiologia , Aterosclerose/patologia , Proteína C-Reativa/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Componente Amiloide P Sérico/genética
4.
Chem Biol Interact ; 311: 108772, 2019 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31351049

RESUMO

Atherosclerosis is a common type of cardiovascular disease (CVD), remaining one of the leading causes of global death. Tripartite motif-containing 28 (TRIM28) is a member of TRIM family that has been found to be involved in atherosclerosis. However, the role of TRIM28 in atherosclerosis remains unknown. This study aimed to investigate the effects of TRIM28 on the phenotypic switching of human aortic smooth muscle cells (HASMCs), which is considered as a fundamental event during the development of atherosclerosis. The results showed that TRIM28 was highly expressed in human atherosclerotic tissues, as well in cultured HASMCs stimulated by platelet-derived growth factor subunit B homodimer (PDGF-BB). Knockdown of TRIM28 by transfection with siRNA targeting TRIM28 (si-TRIM28) significantly suppressed the PDGF-BB-induced cell proliferation and migration of HASMCs. Besides, knockdown of TRIM28 inhibited the expressions of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9. The VSMC markers including α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), calponin and SM22α were upregulated in TRIM28 knocked down HASMCs. Furthermore, knockdown of TRIM28 blocked PDGF-BB-induced NF-κB activation in HASMCs. Collectively, knockdown of TRIM28 prevented PDGF-BB-induced phenotypic switching of HASMCs, which might be mediated by the regulation of NF-κB signaling pathway.


Assuntos
Becaplermina/farmacologia , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteína 28 com Motivo Tripartido/metabolismo , Aterosclerose/metabolismo , Aterosclerose/patologia , Proteínas de Ligação ao Cálcio/metabolismo , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Humanos , Proteínas dos Microfilamentos/metabolismo , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/citologia , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/efeitos dos fármacos , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/metabolismo , Interferência de RNA , RNA Interferente Pequeno/metabolismo , Fator de Transcrição RelA/metabolismo , Proteína 28 com Motivo Tripartido/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteína 28 com Motivo Tripartido/genética , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos
5.
Life Sci ; 232: 116624, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31276689

RESUMO

AIMS: Monocyte-endothelial adhesion is considered to be the primary initiator of inflammatory vascular diseases, such as atherosclerosis. Connexin 43 (Cx43) has been reported to play an important part in this process, however, the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. Intravenous anesthetics, propofol is commonly used in the perioperative period and in the intensive care unit, and considered to have good anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. Thus, we speculate that propofol could influence monocyte-endothelial adhesion, and explore whether its possible mechanism is relative with Cx43 expression in U937 monocytes influencing cell adhesion of U937 monocytes to human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). MAIN METHODS: Cx43-siRNAs or pc-DNA-Cx43 were used to alter Cx43 expression in U937 monocytes. Propofol was given as pretreatments to U937 monocytes. Then, cell adhesion, ZO-1, LFA-1, VLA-4, COX and MCP-1 were determined. PI3K/AKT/NF-κB signaling pathway was explored to clarify the possible mechanism. KEY FINDINGS: Alternation of Cx43 expression affects cell adhesion and adhesion molecules significantly, such as ZO-1, LFA-1, VLA-4, COX-2 and MCP-1, the mechanism of which is relative with Cx43 influencing the activation of PI3K/AKT/NF-κB signaling pathway. Preconditioning with propofol at its clinically relevant anesthesia concentration attenuates cell adhesion. Propofol not only decreases Cx43 expression in U937 monocytes, but also depresses the activation of PI3K/AKT/NF-κB signaling pathway. SIGNIFICANCE: Modulation Cx43 expression in U937 monocytes could affect cell adhesion via regulating the activation of PI3K/AKT/NF-κB signaling pathway. Propofol attenuates cell adhesion via inhibiting Cx43 and its downstream signaling pathway of PI3K/AKT/NF-κB.


Assuntos
Adesão Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Monócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Propofol/farmacologia , Aterosclerose/metabolismo , Moléculas de Adesão Celular/metabolismo , Conexina 43/efeitos dos fármacos , Conexina 43/genética , Conexina 43/metabolismo , Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/metabolismo , Humanos , Molécula 1 de Adesão Intercelular/metabolismo , Monócitos/fisiologia , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Propofol/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células U937/metabolismo , Molécula 1 de Adesão de Célula Vascular/metabolismo
7.
Biochimie ; 163: 152-162, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31199942

RESUMO

Extra-cellular signal regulated kinase-5 (Erk-5), a transcriptional activator and regulator of endothelial cells (ECs) homeostasis, has been implicated in shear stress-induced endothelial dysfunction (ED), however its role in oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL)- induced ED during metabolic stress is not known. Herein, regulation and function of Erk-5 in oxLDL-induced EC death, inflammation and dysfunction has been investigated. Primary Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells (pHUVECs) were stimulated with oxLDL. MTT and Trypan blue exclusion assays to assess cell viability, RT-qPCR and Western blotting assays to determine expression of endothelial and inflammatory markers and ED mediators at mRNA and protein levels, respectively were performed. Monocyte adhesion assay was performed to examine monocytes adherence to oxLDL-stimulated pHUVECs. The exposure of oxLDL induced a dose- and time-dependent decrease in pHUVECs viability, which concurred with decreased Erk-5 expression. Further, oxLDL (100 µg/ml) decreased the expression of endothelial markers eNOS and vWF, and increased the expression of ICAM-1, at both mRNA and protein levels. SiRNA-mediated silencing of Erk-5 or its inhibition showed that changes in eNOS, vWF and ICAM-1 expression could be mediated through Erk-5. Furthermore, oxLDL decreased the levels of Erk-5's upstream regulator MEK5 and downstream regulators Mef2c and KLF2, which were similar to their expressions in Erk-5 silenced cells. Fisetin, a phytochemical and bioflavonoid, could reduce the effect of oxLDL in ECs by upregulating the expression of endothelial markers including Erk-5, and downregulating the expression of inflammation markers. These results suggest that Erk-5 could be a critical regulator of oxLDL-induced EC death, inflammation and dysfunction via downregulation of Erk-5/Mef2c-KLF2 signaling pathway, which can be ameliorated by a bioflavonoid, fisetin.


Assuntos
Flavonoides/farmacologia , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/efeitos dos fármacos , Lipoproteínas LDL/toxicidade , Proteína Quinase 7 Ativada por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Monócitos/fisiologia , Transdução de Sinais , Aterosclerose/induzido quimicamente , Aterosclerose/genética , Aterosclerose/metabolismo , Aterosclerose/prevenção & controle , Células Cultivadas , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/metabolismo , Humanos , Inflamação/induzido quimicamente , Inflamação/genética , Inflamação/metabolismo , Inflamação/prevenção & controle , Fatores de Transcrição Kruppel-Like/genética , Fatores de Transcrição Kruppel-Like/metabolismo , Lipoproteínas LDL/farmacologia , Fatores de Transcrição MEF2/genética , Fatores de Transcrição MEF2/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo III/genética , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia
8.
Life Sci ; 232: 116590, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31228514

RESUMO

Endothelial cell (EC) apoptosis is fundamental for the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis, in which microRNAs (miRNAs) emerge as critical regulators. miR-122 has been shown to regulate the apoptosis of various cell types, however, whether miR-122 is associated with atherosclerosis and EC apoptosis remains unknown. In this study, we found that miR-122 expression was increased in the aortic ECs of ApoE-/- mice fed with a high-fat diet (HFD), as compared to normal-diet (ND), implying a potential association between miR-122 elevation and atherogenesis. In addition, in vitro, miR-122 expression was also induced in human aortic ECs (HAECs) by the treatment of oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL), a common atherogenic factor. Functionally, miR-122 knockdown suppressed ox-LDL-induced apoptosis of HAECs, suggesting a pro-apoptotic role of miR-122 in HAECs under this pro-atherogenic condition. Further evidence revealed that the X-linked inhibitor-of-apoptosis protein (XIAP) was directly targeted and suppressed by miR-122 in HAECs, and more importantly, XIAP knockdown diminished miR-122 effect on apoptosis, thus establishing XIAP as a prominent target that mediates miR-122 regulation of the apoptosis of HAECs. Together, these results may identify miR-122 as a novel regulator in EC apoptosis, which offers it as a possible target for therapeutic interventions of atherosclerosis.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Proteínas Inibidoras de Apoptose Ligadas ao Cromossomo X/metabolismo , Animais , Aorta/metabolismo , Apolipoproteínas E/metabolismo , Apoptose/fisiologia , Aterosclerose/genética , Aterosclerose/patologia , Linhagem Celular , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Células Endoteliais/patologia , Humanos , Proteínas Inibidoras de Apoptose/genética , Proteínas Inibidoras de Apoptose/metabolismo , Lipoproteínas LDL/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Camundongos Transgênicos , MicroRNAs/genética , Transdução de Sinais , Proteínas Inibidoras de Apoptose Ligadas ao Cromossomo X/genética
9.
Life Sci ; 232: 116601, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31252000

RESUMO

AIMS: Tet1, Tet2, and interleukin-6 (IL-6) have been linked to atherosclerosis. Whether Tet3 has a relationship with atherosclerosis and IL-6 was unknown. This study aims to determine the link between Tet3 and IL-6, and the role of Tet3 in prenatal hypoxia-induced atherosclerosis in offspring rats. MAIN METHODS: Pregnant rats were divided into hypoxia and control group. Their male offspring were tested at 20 months old. Hematoxylin-eosin staining and transmission electron microscopic staining were used. Gene mRNA and protein levels were measured with q-PCR or Western blotting. Cell viability and migration was tested with MTT or cell scratch assay. 5-hmC and 5-mC expression were obtained by qGlucMS-PCR; 5-hmC and 5-mC activity were obtained by dot blotting. KEY FINDINGS: Chronic prenatal hypoxia increased Tet3 and IL-6 expression, and decreased Tet3 activity in offspring rats. GlucMS-qPCR showed the percentage of 5-hmC was significantly up-regulated in the promoter of IL-6 in both the rats and cells. Moreover, 5-hmC percentage also was increased in the A7r5 cells transfected with Tet3. Furthermore, Tet3 promoted proliferation and migration of A7r5 cells. However, Tet3 was not sensitive to acute hypoxia, while influenced by HIF-1α DNA element. SIGNIFICANCE: Tet3 enhanced IL-6 expression though up-regulating 5-hmC percentage in the IL-6 promoter.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/metabolismo , Desoxicitidina/análogos & derivados , Dioxigenases/metabolismo , Hipóxia/metabolismo , Interleucina-6/biossíntese , Animais , Aterosclerose/genética , Aterosclerose/patologia , Movimento Celular/fisiologia , Sobrevivência Celular/fisiologia , Desoxicitidina/metabolismo , Epigênese Genética , Feminino , Hipóxia/genética , Hipóxia/patologia , Subunidade alfa do Fator 1 Induzível por Hipóxia/genética , Subunidade alfa do Fator 1 Induzível por Hipóxia/metabolismo , Interleucina-6/genética , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Masculino , Oxigenases de Função Mista/metabolismo , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/metabolismo , Complicações na Gravidez/patologia , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Ratos , Ativação Transcricional , Regulação para Cima
10.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2631, 2019 06 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31201301

RESUMO

Men and women differ in circulating lipids and coronary artery disease (CAD). While sex hormones such as estrogens decrease CAD risk, hormone replacement therapy increases risk. Biological sex is determined by sex hormones and chromosomes, but effects of sex chromosomes on circulating lipids and atherosclerosis are unknown. Here, we use mouse models to separate effects of sex chromosomes and hormones on atherosclerosis, circulating lipids and intestinal fat metabolism. We assess atherosclerosis in multiple models and experimental paradigms that distinguish effects of sex chromosomes, and male or female gonads. Pro-atherogenic lipids and atherosclerosis are greater in XX than XY mice, indicating a primary effect of sex chromosomes. Small intestine expression of enzymes involved in lipid absorption and chylomicron assembly are greater in XX male and female mice with higher intestinal lipids. Together, our results show that an XX sex chromosome complement promotes the bioavailability of dietary fat to accelerate atherosclerosis.


Assuntos
Transtornos 46, XX do Desenvolvimento Sexual/metabolismo , Aterosclerose/genética , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/genética , Lipídeos/sangue , Cromossomo X/fisiologia , Transtornos 46, XX do Desenvolvimento Sexual/sangue , Animais , Aterosclerose/sangue , Aterosclerose/metabolismo , Dieta Aterogênica/efeitos adversos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/metabolismo , Humanos , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Intestino Delgado/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Ovário/metabolismo , Fatores Sexuais , Proteína da Região Y Determinante do Sexo/genética , Testículo/metabolismo
11.
Curr Med Chem ; 26(9): 1525-1543, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31096892

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dyslipidaemias is a recognized risk factor for atherosclerosis, however, new evidence brought to light by trials investigating therapies to enhance HDLcholesterol have suggested an increased atherosclerotic risk when HDL-C is high. RESULTS: Several studies highlight the central role in atherosclerotic disease of dysfunctional lipoproteins; oxidised LDL-cholesterol is an important feature, according to "oxidation hypothesis", of atherosclerotic lesion, however, there is today a growing interest for dysfunctional HDL-cholesterol. The target of our paper is to review the functions of modified and dysfunctional lipoproteins in atherogenesis. CONCLUSION: Taking into account the central role recognized to dysfunctional lipoproteins, measurements of functional features of lipoproteins, instead of conventional routine serum evaluation of lipoproteins, could offer a valid contribution in experimental studies as in clinical practice to stratify atherosclerotic risk.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/metabolismo , Lipoproteínas/metabolismo , Animais , Humanos
12.
Wiad Lek ; 72(4): 584-588, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31055537

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Introduction: Atherosclerosis is a trigger in the development of cardiovascular disease. Complications of atherosclerosis give reason to search for new criteria, diagnostic concepts, treatment methods and active preventive measures. The aim of our work is to study of the structural changes in the intima-media complex of the common carotid artery, pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6) secreted by mononuclear cells; the level of the intercellular adhesion molecule (according to sICAM-1), the level of the C-peptide of the blood, as well as the study of the relationship between these factors affecting the development of atherosclerosis. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Materials and methods: In the group of 110 patients are studied the levels of secretion of TNF-α, IL-6, the soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1, the level of blood C-peptide, performed of duplex scanning of the brachiocephalic vessels, studied of biopsy of the skin. RESULTS: Results and conclusions: In the group of patients with atherosclerosis and the accompanying metabolic syndrome, endothelial activation is noted under the influence of risk factors (hyperinsulinemia, arterial hypertension, hypercholesterolemia), accompanied with the activation of mononuclear cells (with marked hyperproduction of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-6) and thickening of the intima-media complex of the common carotid artery with an increase in body weight. Patients with metabolic syndrome develop microangiopathy (edema of endothelial cells, thickening and reduplication of the basement membranes, focal reaction of the pericytes).


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/patologia , Peptídeo C/sangue , Leucócitos Mononucleares/metabolismo , Aterosclerose/metabolismo , Biomarcadores , Artérias Carótidas , Espessura Intima-Media Carotídea , Citocinas/metabolismo , Humanos , Molécula 1 de Adesão Intercelular/metabolismo , Túnica Íntima
13.
DNA Cell Biol ; 38(7): 597-606, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31095428

RESUMO

Mitochondria are highly dynamic organelles beyond powerhouses of a cell. These components also play important roles in cell homeostasis by regulating cell function and phenotypic modulation. Atherosclerosis is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in developed and developing countries. Mitochondrial dysfunction has been increasingly associated with the initiation and progression of atherosclerosis by elevating the production of reactive oxygen species and mitochondrial oxidative stress damage, mitochondrial dynamics dysfunction, and energy supply. In this review, we describe the progression of the link between mitochondrial dysfunction and atherosclerosis and its potential regulation mechanisms.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Animais , Aterosclerose/patologia , Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Humanos , Ativação de Macrófagos , Músculo Liso Vascular/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(9)2019 May 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31060209

RESUMO

Legumain, a recently discovered cysteine protease, is increased in both carotid plaques and plasma of patients with carotid atherosclerosis. Legumain increases the migration of human monocytes and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). However, the causal relationship between legumain and atherosclerosis formation is not clear. We assessed the expression of legumain in aortic atheromatous plaques and after wire-injury-induced femoral artery neointimal thickening and investigated the effect of chronic legumain infusion on atherogenesis in Apoe-/- mice. We also investigated the associated cellular and molecular mechanisms in vitro, by assessing the effects of legumain on inflammatory responses in HUVECs and THP-1 monocyte-derived macrophages; macrophage foam cell formation; and migration, proliferation, and extracellular matrix protein expression in human aortic smooth muscle cells (HASMCs). Legumain was expressed at high levels in atheromatous plaques and wire injury-induced neointimal lesions in Apoe-/- mice. Legumain was also expressed abundantly in THP-1 monocytes, THP-1 monocyte-derived macrophages, HASMCs, and HUVECs. Legumain suppressed lipopolysaccharide-induced mRNA expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM1), but potentiated the expression of interleukin-6 (IL6) and E-selectin (SELE) in HUVECs. Legumain enhanced the inflammatory M1 phenotype and oxidized low-density lipoprotein-induced foam cell formation in macrophages. Legumain did not alter the proliferation or apoptosis of HASMCs, but it increased their migration. Moreover, legumain increased the expression of collagen-3, fibronectin, and elastin, but not collagen-1, in HASMCs. Chronic infusion of legumain into Apoe-/- mice potentiated the development of atherosclerotic lesions, accompanied by vascular remodeling, an increase in the number of macrophages and ASMCs, and increased collagen-3 expression in plaques. Our study provides the first evidence that legumain contributes to the induction of atherosclerotic vascular remodeling.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/metabolismo , Aterosclerose/patologia , Cisteína Endopeptidases/metabolismo , Remodelação Vascular , Animais , Apoptose , Aterosclerose/etiologia , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Cisteína Endopeptidases/genética , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo , Células Espumosas/metabolismo , Células Espumosas/patologia , Expressão Gênica , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/metabolismo , Humanos , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Macrófagos/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Neointima/metabolismo , Neointima/patologia
15.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 1801, 2019 04 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30996248

RESUMO

Macrophage-orchestrated, low-grade chronic inflammation plays a pivotal role in obesity and atherogenesis. However, the underlying regulatory mechanisms remain incompletely understood. Here, we identify major vault protein (MVP), the main component of unique cellular ribonucleoprotein particles, as a suppressor for NF-κB signaling in macrophages. Both global and myeloid-specific MVP gene knockout aggravates high-fat diet induced obesity, insulin resistance, hepatic steatosis and atherosclerosis in mice. The exacerbated metabolic disorders caused by MVP deficiency are accompanied with increased macrophage infiltration and heightened inflammatory responses in the microenvironments. In vitro studies reveal that MVP interacts with TRAF6 preventing its recruitment to IRAK1 and subsequent oligomerization and ubiquitination. Overexpression of MVP and its α-helical domain inhibits the activity of TRAF6 and suppresses macrophage inflammation. Our results demonstrate that macrophage MVP constitutes a key constraint of NF-κB signaling thereby suppressing metabolic diseases.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/imunologia , Fígado Gorduroso/imunologia , Inflamação/imunologia , Macrófagos/imunologia , Obesidade/imunologia , Partículas de Ribonucleoproteínas em Forma de Abóbada/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo/patologia , Animais , Aterosclerose/etiologia , Aterosclerose/metabolismo , Biópsia , Células da Medula Óssea , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Fígado Gorduroso/etiologia , Fígado Gorduroso/metabolismo , Feminino , Técnicas de Inativação de Genes , Humanos , Quinase I-kappa B/metabolismo , Inflamação/etiologia , Quinases Associadas a Receptores de Interleucina-1/metabolismo , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout para ApoE , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Obesidade/etiologia , Obesidade/metabolismo , Obesidade/patologia , Cultura Primária de Células , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia , Fator 6 Associado a Receptor de TNF/metabolismo , Ubiquitinação , Partículas de Ribonucleoproteínas em Forma de Abóbada/genética , Partículas de Ribonucleoproteínas em Forma de Abóbada/imunologia
16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(7)2019 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30959963

RESUMO

Lifestyle choices play a significant role in the etiology of atherosclerosis. Male Apoe-/- mice that develop spontaneous atherosclerotic lesions were fed 0%, 0.3%, and 0.4% mangosteen extracts, composed largely of α-mangostin (MG), for 17 weeks. Body weight gains were significantly decreased in both MG-treated groups compared to the control, but the general condition remained good throughout the study. The levels of total cholesterol (decreased very-low-density lipoprotein in lipoprotein profile) and triglycerides decreased significantly in the MG-treated mice in conjunction with decreased hepatic HMG-CoA synthase and Fatty acid transporter. Additionally, increased serum lipoprotein lipase activity and histopathology further showed a significant reduction in atherosclerotic lesions at both levels of MG exposure. Real-time PCR analysis for macrophage indicators showed a significant elevation in the levels of Cd163, an M2 macrophage marker, in the lesions of mice receiving 0.4% MG. However, the levels of Nos2, associated with M1 macrophages, showed no change. In addition, quantitative immunohistochemical analysis of macrophage subtypes showed a tendency for increased M2 populations (CD68⁺/CD163⁺) in the lesions of mice given 0.4% MG. In further analysis of the cytokine-polarizing macrophage subtypes, the levels of Interleukin13 (Il13), associated with M2 polarization, were significantly elevated in lesions exposed to 0.4% MG. Thus, MG could suppress the development of atherosclerosis in Apoe-/- mice, possibly through an M2 macrophage-mediated mechanism.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/tratamento farmacológico , Aterosclerose/metabolismo , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Xantonas/uso terapêutico , Animais , Apolipoproteínas E/genética , Apolipoproteínas E/metabolismo , Aterosclerose/sangue , Aterosclerose/genética , Colesterol/sangue , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Placa Aterosclerótica/sangue , Placa Aterosclerótica/tratamento farmacológico , Placa Aterosclerótica/genética , Placa Aterosclerótica/metabolismo , Xantonas/química
17.
Mol Med Rep ; 19(5): 4222-4228, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30942415

RESUMO

Transforming growth factor (TGF)­ß1 is reported to be associated with the occurrence of atherosclerosis, although the mechanism remains unclear. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the involvement of TGF­ß1 signaling in atherosclerosis. A total of 56 patients with atherosclerosis and 44 healthy volunteers were involved in this study. Serum expression of TGF­ß1 and long non­coding RNA­ATB was detected by ELISA and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was performed to analyze the diagnostic value of serum TGF­ß1 and lncRNA­ATB for atherosclerosis. A human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) line overexpressing lncRNA­ATB was constructed. The effects of TGF­ß1 treatment and lncRNA­ATB overexpression on HUVEC cell proliferation and viability was detected with Cell Counting Kit­8 and MTT assays, respectively. Expression of TGF­ß1 and pro­apoptotic Caspase­3 in lncRNA­ATB­overexpressing HUVECs was detected by western blotting. In addition, the expression of lncRNA­ATB in TGF­ß1­treated HUVECs was detected by qPCR. It was demonstrated that serum TGF­ß1 and lncRNA­ATB expression was significantly higher in atherosclerosis patients, compared with controls, and could be used to effectively distinguish patients from healthy individuals. TGF­ß1 treatment and lncRNA­ATB overexpression reduced HUVEC viability and proliferation. TGF­ß1 treatment increased the expression of lncRNA­ATB in HUVECs, while lncRNA­ATB overexpression had no significant effect on TGF­ß1 expression. LncRNA­ATB silencing with small interfering RNA significantly reduced the effects of TGF­ß1 treatment on the proliferation and viability of HUVECs. Furthermore, LncRNA­ATB overexpression upregulated the expression of caspase­3 in HUVECs. Therefore, it was concluded that TGF­ß1 may have upregulated the expression of lncRNA­ATB to promote atherosclerosis, and lncRNA­ATB may serve as a potential therapeutic target for atherosclerosis. However, the mechanism remains to be further investigated.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/genética , Aterosclerose/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/metabolismo , Adolescente , Adulto , Aterosclerose/diagnóstico , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Caspase 3/metabolismo , Proliferação de Células , Sobrevivência Celular , Feminino , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Interferência de RNA , RNA Interferente Pequeno , Adulto Jovem
18.
Environ Toxicol ; 34(7): 825-835, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30963716

RESUMO

Galectin-3, a biomarker linking oxidative stress and inflammation, participates in different mechanisms related to atherothrombosis, such as inflammation, proliferation, or macrophage chemotaxis. Accumulating evidence indicates that galectin-3 may also promote atherogenesis through inducing endothelial dysfunction. Lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) receptor-1 (LOX-1), a receptor for oxLDL uptake, contributes to oxLDL-induced endothelial dysfunction. Whether galectin-3 induces endothelial dysfunction through modulation of LOX-1-mediated signaling remains unclear. In the present study, we explored the mechanisms underlying galectin-3 enhanced cytotoxicity of oxLDL in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and the role of LOX-1. Incubation of HUVECs with galectin-3 increased the expression of LOX-1 in RNA and protein levels. In addition, the expression of LOX-1 induced by oxLDL was promoted by galectin-3. However, pretreatment of LOX-1 antibody reduced LOX-1 mRNA expression level in cells with oxLDL plus galectin-3 incubation. Compared to cells treated with oxLDL alone, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation via nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase activation and subsequent activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases followed by nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) activation and related inflammatory responses including adhesion molecule expression, adhesiveness of monocytic cells, and IL-8 release were also aggravated in cells treated with galectin-3 combined with oxLDL. Compared to cells treated with galectin-3 plus oxLDL group. We found that LOX-1 antibody mitigated NADPH oxidase activity, p-38 up-regulation, NF-κB activation, and proinflammatory responses in cells treated with galectin-3 combined with oxLDL. We conclude that galectin-3 enhances endothelial LOX-1 expression and propose a new mechanism by which galectin-3 may promote endothelial dysfunction by inducing inflammation via LOX-1/ROS/p38/NF-κB-mediated signaling pathway.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/induzido quimicamente , Endotélio Vascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Galectina 3/farmacologia , Lipoproteínas LDL/toxicidade , Receptores Depuradores Classe E/fisiologia , Aterosclerose/metabolismo , Aterosclerose/patologia , Células Cultivadas , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/fisiologia , Humanos , Inflamação/induzido quimicamente , Inflamação/metabolismo , Inflamação/patologia , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/fisiologia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células THP-1 , Proteínas Quinases p38 Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo
19.
Acta Diabetol ; 56(7): 749-754, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30980187

RESUMO

AIM: The impact of cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) on atherosclerotic development in humans remains unclear. Plasma cholesteryl ester transfer was shown to be associated with carotid intima-media thickness in type 2 diabetic (T2D) patients with adequate metabolic control. Since glycation of CETP may influence cholesteryl ester transfer processes, it is important to determine if plasma cholesteryl ester transfer is still a determinant of carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) in patients with poorly controlled diabetes. The aim of the present study was to determine whether CETP activity influences carotid IMT in T2D patients with poor metabolic control. METHODS: In 110 individuals with T2D, we measured CETP mass concentration with ELISA, CETP activity with a radioactivity method and carotid intima-media thickness with high-resolution real-time B-mode ultrasonography. RESULTS: The mean HbA1C was 8.8 ± 1.7%. Carotid IMT did not correlate with CETP activity in the total population. In T2D patients with HbA1C < 8% (n = 33), mean HbA1C was 6.9% and the correlation between carotid IMT and CETP activity was not significant (p = 0.09). In a multivariable analysis that included the total population, carotid intima-media thickness was positively associated with diabetes duration (p = 0.02) but not with CETP activity or HbA1C. CONCLUSIONS: We observed no correlation between carotid intima-media thickness, a marker of early atherosclerosis, and CETP activity in T2D patients with poor metabolic control. Disease duration, which reflects accumulated metabolic abnormalities, may have blunted the potential effect of CETP on atherosclerosis. Metabolic control appears essential to determine the pro- or anti-atherogenic influence of CETP in patients with T2D.


Assuntos
Glicemia/metabolismo , Espessura Intima-Media Carotídea , Proteínas de Transferência de Ésteres de Colesterol/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Angiopatias Diabéticas/diagnóstico , Idoso , Aterosclerose/complicações , Aterosclerose/diagnóstico , Aterosclerose/metabolismo , Aterosclerose/fisiopatologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/fisiopatologia , Angiopatias Diabéticas/metabolismo , Angiopatias Diabéticas/fisiopatologia , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Hemoglobina A Glicada/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Ultrassonografia
20.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30970398

RESUMO

Objective:Recent studies have demonstrated that obstructive sleep apnoea(OSA) may lead to atherosclerosis(AS), but the underlying mechanism remains unclear. MicroRNA(miRNA) may be involved in the gene regulation of AS and also in the occurrence and progression of OSA. The purpose of our study was to investigate the expression of atherosclerosis related serum miRNAs in OSA patients.Method: We screened 116 participants including normal controls(n=24), OSA alone(n=32),OSA patients with AS(n=32),and patients with AS but without OSA(n=28).qRT-PCR to analyze the microRNA profile was performed in these subjects.Clinical and blood test with lipid parameters were analysed using Spearman correlations.Result:Compared to normal controls, miRNA-148a-5p, miRNA-378c, miRNA-127-3p and miRNA-365a-3p were upregulated in the OSA, OSA-AS, and AS groups; miRNA-134-5p was only upregulated in the AS group, miRNA-365a-3p in the OSA-AS group was higher than that in the OSA alone group. The circulating atherosclerosis related miRNAs, including miRNA-148a-5p, miRNA-378c, miRNA-127-3p, miRNA-134-5p and miRNA-365a-3p all correlated with the carotid intima media thickness. Conclusion: Upregulation of miRNA-148a-5p, miRNA-365a-3p, miRNA-378c, miRNA-127-3p may be an early warning marker of atherosclerosis in OSA patients.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose , MicroRNAs , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono , Aterosclerose/complicações , Aterosclerose/metabolismo , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Espessura Intima-Media Carotídea , Humanos , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/complicações , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/metabolismo
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