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1.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 18(5): 459-479, sept. 2019. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1008268

RESUMO

Neuronal cell damage is often caused by prolonged misuse of Methylphenidate (MPH). Topiramate (TPM) carries neuroprotective properties but its assumed mechanism remains unclear. The present study evaluates in vivo role of various doses of TPM and its mechanism against MPH-induced motor activity and related behavior disorder. Thus, we used domoic acid (DOM), bicuculline (BIC), Ketamine (KET), Yohimibine (YOH) and Haloperidole (HAL) as AMPA/kainite, GABAA, NMDA, ɑ2 adrenergic and D2 of dopamine receptor antagonists respectively. Open Field Test (OFT), Elevated Plus Maze (EPM) and Forced Swim Test (FST) were used to study motor activity, anxiety and depression level. TPM (100 and 120 mg/kg) reduced MPH-induced rise and inhibited MPH-induced promotion in motor activity disturbance, anxiety and depression. Pretreatment of animals with KET, HAL, YOH and BIC inhibited TPM- improves anxiety and depression through the interacting with Dopaminergic, GABAA, NMDA and ɑ2-adrenergic receptors.


El daño a las células neuronales a menudo es causado por el uso prolongado de metilfenidato (MPH). El topiramato (TPM) tiene propiedades neuroprotectoras, pero su mecanismo de acción no es claro. El presente estudio evalúa el papel in vivo de varias dosis de TPM y su mecanismo contra la actividad motora inducida por MPH y el trastorno de comportamiento relacionado. Utilizamos ácido domoico (DOM), bicuculina (BIC), ketamina (KET), yohimbina (YOH) y haloperidol (HAL), así como antagonistas AMPA/kainato, GABAA, NMDA, ɑ2-adrenérgico y D2 dopaminérgicos, respectivamente. Se utilizaron las pruebas de campo abierto (OFT), elevación de laberinto (EPM) y natación forzada (FST) para estudiar la actividad motora, la ansiedad y el nivel de depresión. El TPM (100 y 120 mg/kg) redujo el aumento inducido por MPH e inhibió la promoción inducida por MPH en la alteración de la actividad motora, la ansiedad y la depresión. El tratamiento previo de animales con KET, HAL, YOH y BIC inhibió el TPM, mejora la ansiedad y la depresión a través de la interacción con los receptores dopaminérgicos, GABAA, NMDA y ɑ2-adrenérgico.


Assuntos
Animais , Masculino , Ratos , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , /farmacologia , Transtornos Mentais/prevenção & controle , Metilfenidato/efeitos adversos , Ratos Wistar , Neurotransmissores/metabolismo , Transtornos Mentais/induzido quimicamente , Atividade Motora/efeitos dos fármacos
2.
Einstein (Sao Paulo) ; 17(4): eAO4632, 2019 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31433007

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the potential value of sarcopenia and sarcopenic obesity as prognostic predictors in hospitalized elderly patients with acute myocardial infarction. METHODS: A cross-sectional study based on data collected from elderly patients with acute myocardial infarction, admitted to a public hospital located in the Northeastern region of Brazil, from April to July 2015. The diagnosis of sarcopenia was based on muscle mass, muscle strength and physical performance measurements. Cardiovascular risk and prognostic markers, such as troponin and creatine kynase MB isoenzyme values, acute myocardial infarction classification according to ST segment elevation, and thrombolysis in myocardial infarction score were used. RESULTS: The sample comprised 99 patients with mean age of 71.6 (±7.4) years. Prevalence of sarcopenia and sarcopenic obesity was 64.6% and 35.4%, respectively. Sarcopenia was more prevalent among males (p=0.017) aged >80 years (p=0.008). Thrombolysis in myocardial infarction was the only marker of cardiovascular risk significantly associated with sarcopenia (p=0.002). CONCLUSION: Prevalence of sarcopenia was high and associated with thrombolysis in myocardial infarction risk score. Sarcopenic obesity affected approximately one-third of patients and was not associated with any of the prognostic predictors.


Assuntos
Atividade Motora/fisiologia , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/etiologia , Obesidade/complicações , Sarcopenia/complicações , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Avaliação Geriátrica , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/fisiopatologia , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Fatores de Risco , Sarcopenia/fisiopatologia
4.
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 32(4): 355-361, July-Aug. 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1012343

RESUMO

Depression and hypertension are highly prevalent among elderly people. Although the relationship between these conditions is well recognized, however, the factors that may influence such association are not clearly understood. Objective: To analyze the association between depression and hypertension in community-dwelling elders. Methods: Two-hundred and thirty-one community-dwelling elders provided information regarding the following variables: sex, age, ethnicity, smoking habit, physical activity level (PA), body mass index (BMI) and diabetes mellitus (DM). These variables can potentially influence depression and hypertension, as well as its relationship. Screening for depression was made using the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS). The presence of hypertension was defined based on self-reported data and/or the use of antihypertensive drugs. The logistic regression technique was applied, using hypertension as the dependent variable and depressive state as a predictive variable. Logistic regression was applied with and without adjustment for the potential intervening variables. Results: The prevalence of depressive state and hypertension in the studied population was 14% and 59%, respectively. The association between depression and hypertension without adjustments was not significant (odds ratio [OR] = 2.28, 95% confidence interval [95%CI] = 0.98 - 5.32; p = 0.06). However, after adjusting for PA, BMI and DM, the strength of association between depression and hypertension significantly increased (OR = 3.08, 95%CI = 1.12 - 8.46; p = 0.03). Conclusion: The association between depression and hypertension in the elderly is directly influenced by PA, BMI and DM. This finding may guide strategies to increase the adherence to a healthier lifestyle


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Idoso , Composição Corporal , Depressão , Diabetes Mellitus , Vida Independente , Hipertensão , Atividade Motora , Idoso , Envelhecimento , Fumar , Índice de Massa Corporal , Prevalência , Análise Estatística , Obesidade
5.
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 32(4): 384-390, July-Aug. 2019. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1012352

RESUMO

The relationship between exercise and atrial fibrillation (AF) is controversial. Objectives: To analyze the effects of physical activity on the incidence of atrial fibrillation using systematic review and meta-analysis. Methods: Systematic review and meta-analysis of studies that relate physical exercise and atrial fibrillation. The following databases were searched: PubMed, BVS Saúde and Cochrane. The following descriptors were used: "atrial fibrillation", "exercise", "physical activity" and "exercise therapy". All prospective, retrospective, cross-sectional and cohort studies were investigated. All statistical analyzes were provided using Review Manager 5.3 to provide the mean difference (MD) and relative risk (RR) ratio with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). The statistical method of heterogeneity index was used to assess heterogeneity. Level of significance was 5%. Results: Combined analysis of 11 studies totaling 276,323 participants aged between 12 and 90 years did not suggest a significant increase in AF in individuals submitted to physical exercise (RR = 0.914, 95% CI = 0.833-1.003, heterogeneity: p < 0.001). Conclusions: Physical exercise, lato sensu, without stratification by intensity, sex or age does not seem to be associated with an increase of atrial fibrillation


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Fibrilação Atrial , Metanálise como Assunto , Atividade Motora , Asma , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Exercício , Fatores de Risco , Terapia por Exercício , Aptidão Cardiorrespiratória
6.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2906, 2019 07 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31266945

RESUMO

A GGGGCC hexanucleotide repeat expansion in intron 1 of chromosome 9 open reading frame 72 (C9ORF72) gene is the most common genetic cause of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia. Repeat-associated non-ATG translation of dipeptide repeat proteins (DPRs) contributes to the neuropathological features of c9FTD/ALS. Among the five DPRs, arginine-rich poly-PR are reported to be the most toxic. Here, we generate a transgenic mouse line that expresses poly-PR (GFP-PR28) specifically in neurons. GFP-PR28 homozygous mice show decreased survival time, while the heterozygous mice show motor imbalance, decreased brain weight, loss of Purkinje cells and lower motor neurons, and inflammation in the cerebellum and spinal cord. Transcriptional analysis shows that in the cerebellum, GFP-PR28 heterozygous mice show differential expression of genes related to synaptic transmission. Our findings show that GFP-PR28 transgenic mice partly model neuropathological features of c9FTD/ALS, and show a role for poly-PR in neurodegeneration.


Assuntos
Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/fisiopatologia , Proteína C9orf72/genética , Dipeptídeos/genética , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/genética , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/metabolismo , Animais , Proteína C9orf72/metabolismo , Dipeptídeos/metabolismo , Dipeptídeos/toxicidade , Feminino , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde/genética , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Atividade Motora
7.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(27): e16315, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31277175

RESUMO

Driving is an essential activity for community engagement in patients with brain injury. However, brain injury patients have cognitive-perceptual deficits and low independence in daily activities. The aims of this study were to identify the driving errors of brain injury patients and determine their relevance to cognitive-perception function and daily activity level. This study was conducted at a single rehabilitation hospital. Thirty-one brain injury patients were included in the study. The patients underwent a driving-scene-based simulator evaluation in the rehabilitation clinic. Driving errors were checked using automatic software. Perceptual ability was measured using Motor-free Visual Perceptual Test (MVPT) and Cognitive-perceptual Assessment for Driving (CPAD). A linear relationship was found between the driving aptitude score, steering wheel and judgment, simultaneous operation items, total score of road course test, and cognitive-perceptual functions and daily activity levels of the participants (P <.05). The general factors that affected driving errors included driving experience, age, part of the hemispheric affected, and presence of vascular injury (P <.05). In addition, the Korean version of Mini-Mental State Examination (K-MMSE) score and the CPAD score correlated with driving errors (P <.05). The total error score of the participants correlated with the Korean version of the Modified Barthel Index (K-MBI) score (P <.05).These findings suggest that driving experience and age have more influence on driving error than perceptual level due to brain damage. In addition, it was found that the basic level of daily living influences overall operating errors.


Assuntos
Atividades Cotidianas , Condução de Veículo/psicologia , Lesões Encefálicas/fisiopatologia , Lesões Encefálicas/psicologia , Cognição/fisiologia , Percepção/fisiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Atividade Motora/fisiologia
8.
Einstein (Sao Paulo) ; 17(3): eAO4619, 2019 Jun 27.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31271609

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine sociodemographic characteristics, lifestyle perception and physical activity levels in obese prebariatric surgery patients. METHODS: A quantitative, cross-sectional study. The sample comprised 96 male and female morbidly obese prebariatric surgery patients. Questionnaires addressing sociodemographic profile, lifestyle perception and physical activity levels were applied. RESULTS: Patients were aged 40.3±11.45 years. Inadequate levels of physical activity were reported by 47.8% of patients; most respondents (79.2%) attributed scores defined as inadequate to the physical activity domain of the lifestyle questionnaire. Time spent on physical activity practice per week differed significantly between patients reporting being physically active or physically inactive in adolescence (p=0.046). CONCLUSION: Most obese prebariatric surgery patients perceive their lifestyle as inadequate, in spite of eligibility for bariatric surgery. Results also indicate that physical activity practice and nutrition are the domains with greatest impacts on patient lifestyle, and that physical activity practice in adolescence may contribute to adoption of a more active behavior in adulthood, which may represent a vital tool for health promotion in patients undergoing bariatric surgery.


Assuntos
Cirurgia Bariátrica , Exercício/fisiologia , Estilo de Vida , Atividade Motora/fisiologia , Obesidade Mórbida/cirurgia , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Brasil , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Autoimagem , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
9.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 28(9): 2537-2542, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31235378

RESUMO

AIM: To examine the association of the amount of rehabilitation with functional gains of elderly stroke patients at a convalescent rehabilitation ward using propensity score analysis methods and the Japan Rehabilitation Database. METHODS: This study was a retrospective cohort study. From the database, 6875 patients who were admitted to the convalescent rehabilitation wards with stroke were identified. After excluding 4586 patients, 2325 were eligible for the study. Intensive rehabilitation therapy (IRT) was defined as rehabilitation therapy of more than 15 hours per week by a physical therapist, an occupational therapist, and/or a speech therapist. Functional Independence Measure (FIM) gain, discharge rate to home, and FIM efficiency were examined using student's t test and the χ2 test after inverse probability weighting (IPW). RESULTS: IRT was provided to 862 patients (37.1%). The unadjusted data showed that patients in the IRT group had a longer hospital stay, more physical therapy, occupational therapy, and speech and language therapy. After adjustment for IPW, the baseline characteristics were found to be closely matched between the 2 groups. The IRT group showed significantly higher motor FIM gain, cognitive FIM gain, FIM gain, and discharge rate to home. CONCLUSIONS: The present study demonstrated that a longer rehabilitation time per week was associated with increased functional gain in elderly stroke patients at convalescent rehabilitation wards.


Assuntos
Reabilitação do Acidente Vascular Cerebral/métodos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/terapia , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Cognição , Terapia Combinada , Bases de Dados Factuais , Avaliação da Deficiência , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Japão , Terapia da Linguagem , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Atividade Motora , Terapia Ocupacional , Alta do Paciente , Modalidades de Fisioterapia , Pontuação de Propensão , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fonoterapia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/psicologia , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 28(8): 2351-2357, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31204204

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Stroke is a major cause of motor incapacity in adults and the elderly population, requiring effective interventions capable of contributing to rehabilitation. Different interventions such as use of exergames are being adopted in the motor rehabilitation and balance area, as they act as motivating instruments, making therapies more pleasurable. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of exergame on patients' balance and upper limb motor function after stroke. METHODS: This study is a randomized controlled trial. Thirty-one participants of both genders, mean age of 76 years, were assigned to the experimental or control groups; the experimental group (n = 16) underwent exergame rehabilitation using Motion Rehab AVE 3D, and the control group (n = 15) underwent conventional physiotherapy. Both EG and GC sessions happened twice a week, for 30 minutes each, over a 12 weeks period, resulting in 24 sessions. All sessions were composed of similar exercises, with same purpose and elapsed time (5 minutes). Instruments applied to verify inclusion criteria were a sociodemographic questionnaire and clinical aspects and a Mini-Mental State Examination. At baseline and after 12 weeks of intervention, the Modified Ashworth Scale, the Fugl-Meyer Assessment, and the Berg Balance Scale were used. RESULTS: In both groups, patients obtained significant improvement from baseline values in all analyzed variables (shoulder, elbow, and forearm; wrist; hand; and balance) (P < .001). In the intergroup comparison, there were significant differences between the 2 groups for changes in values from preintervention to postintervention of shoulder, elbow and forearm (P = .001), and total (P = .002). CONCLUSION: Exergame rehabilitation in poststroke patients can be an efficient alternative for restoring balance and upper limb motor function and might even reduce treatment time.


Assuntos
Terapia por Exercício/métodos , Atividade Motora , Equilíbrio Postural , Reabilitação do Acidente Vascular Cerebral/métodos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/terapia , Extremidade Superior/inervação , Jogos de Vídeo , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Brasil , Avaliação da Deficiência , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 28(8): 2343-2350, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31208821

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD) is related to motor function disturbance. It includes several types: lacunar infarction, white matter hyperintensity, cerebral microbleeds (CMBs), and enlarged perivascular spaces (EPVS). Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) has been successfully used to evaluate the function of the pyramidal tract. Central motor conduction time (CMCT) is one of the indicators of pyramidal tract dysfunction in motor evoked potential (MEP). The aim of this study was to investigate the association between each type of CSVD and CMCT. METHODS: We enrolled 350 patients with vascular risk factors or a history of cerebrovascular events, who showed signs of CSVD in magnetic resonance imaging in the prospective registry. Among them, 138 patients agreed to the evaluation of MEP. CMCT, resting motor threshold (RMT), and silent period are indicators of the function of motor pathways in MEP. A total of 276 hemispheres were divided into 45 symptomatic hemispheres with a history of pyramidal tract dysfunction and 231 without it. Correlation between each type of CSVD and CMCT were examined in total, symptomatic, and asymptomatic hemispheres. RESULTS: The mean age was 70.5 ± 10.3 (mean ± SD) years, and 89 (65%) were men. In the symptomatic hemisphere, CMCT and RMT were significantly higher than in the asymptomatic hemisphere. In the symptomatic hemisphere, significant association was observed between the number of EPVS in the white matter and CMCT (R2 = 0.201, p < .01). CONCLUSIONS: In the symptomatic hemispheres, CMCT was associated with the number of EPVS in the white matter. The EPVS in the white matter may be involved in the motor disturbance due to CSVD.


Assuntos
Doenças de Pequenos Vasos Cerebrais/fisiopatologia , Potencial Evocado Motor , Atividade Motora , Córtex Motor/fisiopatologia , Músculo Esquelético/inervação , Condução Nervosa , Tratos Piramidais/fisiopatologia , Substância Branca/fisiopatologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doenças de Pequenos Vasos Cerebrais/diagnóstico por imagem , Estudos Transversais , Eletromiografia , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Córtex Motor/diagnóstico por imagem , Contração Muscular , Tratos Piramidais/diagnóstico por imagem , Sistema de Registros , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Estimulação Magnética Transcraniana , Substância Branca/diagnóstico por imagem
12.
Sci Total Environ ; 684: 587-596, 2019 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31158622

RESUMO

Pasture-based livestock production is largely centered on monoculture systems that degrade grasslands. In integrated crop-livestock-forestry systems a synergy is supposed to occur between its components, contributing to global food production. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the effects of the microclimate on integrated crop-livestock-forestry (CLF) and crop-livestock (CL) systems on the behavior and body surface temperatures of beef cattle in a tropical climate. The experiment was carried from December/2016 to June/2017. Adult beef cows were maintained in CL (n = 11) or CLF (n = 12) systems, permanently monitored by automatic weather stations. The microclimatic conditions indicated that CLF was more effective in mitigating the environmental heat load. Animals maintained in CLF showed favorable behavior, longer rumination (42.9 ±â€¯2.2 vs 36.6 ±â€¯2.2 min) and shorter resting time (57.6 ±â€¯2.7 vs 65.9 ±â€¯2.8 min) during the morning. The grazing time and other activities did not differ between treatments (P > 0.05) in the afternoon. Animals in CLF exhibited lower surface temperatures of the back (TBack: 31.9 ±â€¯0.2 vs 32.8 ±â€¯0.2 °C, P < 0.05) and of the trunk (TTrunk: 32.0 ±â€¯0.1 vs 32.5 ±â€¯0.1 °C, P < 0.05) measured by infrared thermography. Animals maintained in CLF showed a significant preferential use of shade and a 23% reduction in the frequency of the animals searching for water troughs. It is evident from the study that integrated crop-livestock-forestry systems can be used to provide a more favorable microclimate within grasslands. Thus, beef cattle benefits from the milder environment and exhibits a higher thermal comfort, which favors food production and the rational use of natural resources.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos , Temperatura Corporal , Bovinos/fisiologia , Atividade Motora , Árvores , Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Animais , Brasil , Feminino , Árvores/crescimento & desenvolvimento
13.
Adv Gerontol ; 32(1-2): 76-84, 2019.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31228371

RESUMO

The purpose of the work on normotensive rats of different age groups (3, 15 and 22 months) to study the synchronism between the functioning of the cardiovascular system and the locomotor activity of animals in the «open field¼ test by a single injection of exogenous melatonin in different doses (1 and 10 mg/kg). Studies have revealed the unidirectional dose-dependent effect of exogenous melatonin on the locomotor activity of rats of different ages and the age-dependent effect of melatonin on the parameters of the cardiovascular system. It shows the possibility desynchronization of the circadian rhythms of locomotor activity and the functioning of the cardiovascular system with aging, which can lead to a discrepancy between hemodynamic parameters and the level of locomotor activity.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Sistema Cardiovascular , Melatonina , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Pressão Sanguínea , Sistema Cardiovascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Ritmo Circadiano , Melatonina/farmacologia , Atividade Motora , Ratos
14.
Neurología (Barc., Ed. impr.) ; 34(5): 300-308, jun. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-180846

RESUMO

Introducción: La acetona cianohidrina (ACH) es una sustancia tóxica resultante de la hidrólisis enzimática de linamarina, contenido en las raíces de yuca (Manihot esculenta Crantz); su consumo a largo plazo se asocia con 2 trastornos neurológicos: konzo y la neuropatía atáxica tropical. Estudios anteriores han evaluado las alteraciones conductuales después del consumo de esta sustancia, pero los efectos tóxicos sobre los procesos fisiológicos se desconocen. Método: Se asignaron 32 ratas Wistar macho a 4 grupos experimentales (n = 8): un grupo vehículo (solución salina 0,3 ml/rata, ip) y 3 grupos con ACH (PubChem CID: 6406) a concentraciones de 10, 15 y 20 mM, durante 28 días, cada 24 h. Se evaluó la actividad motora espontánea en campo abierto y la coordinación motora en pruebas de rotarod y nado a 0, 7, 14, 21 y 28 días de tratamiento. Al final de las pruebas conductuales (día 28) se tomaron muestras de sangre por punción transcardiaca para evaluar la función renal y hepática. Resultados: La ACH promovió alteraciones en la actividad locomotora y promovió tanto el nado lateral como la conducta de giro en la prueba de nado los días 21 y 28 del tratamiento. La ACH incrementó los parámetros de la función renal y hepática de una manera dependiente de la concentración, excepto la glucosa y la bilirrubina total. Conclusión: Estos datos indican que el contenido de este compuesto tóxico contenido en las raíces de yuca podría ser potencialmente peligroso bajo el consumo a largo plazo en sujetos vulnerables


Introduction: Acetone cyanohydrin (ACH) is a toxic substance present in cassava roots (Manihot esculenta Crantz) which results from enzymatic hydrolysis of linamarin. Long-term consumption is associated with 2 neurological disorders: konzo and tropical ataxic neuropathy. Previous studies have evaluated behavioural alterations linked to ACH consumption, but the toxic effects of this substance on physiological processes remain unknown. Method: 32 male Wistar rats were assigned to 4 experimental groups (n = 8 per group): a vehicle group (0.3 mL saline solution, IP) and 3 ACH groups (PubChem CID: 6406) dosed at 10, 15, and 20 mM/24h for 28 days. We evaluated spontaneous motor activity with the open field test and motor coordination with the rotarod and forced swimming tests at 0, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days of treatment. At the end of the assessment period (day 28), blood samples were collected by transcardiac puncture to evaluate kidney and liver function. Results: ACH caused alterations in locomotor activity and promoted both lateral swimming and spinning in the forced swimming test at 21 and 28 days of treatment. Furthermore, it led to an increase in the levels of the parameters of kidney and liver function in a concentration-dependent manner, except for glucose and total bilirubin. Conclusion: Our results suggest that long-term consumption of this toxic compound present in cassava roots may be potentially dangerous for vulnerable subjects


Assuntos
Animais , Ratos , Atividade Motora/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurotoxinas/isolamento & purificação , Acetona/efeitos adversos , Manihot/efeitos adversos , Ratos Wistar , Extratos Vegetais/farmacocinética , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Testes de Função Renal/estatística & dados numéricos , Testes de Função Hepática/estatística & dados numéricos , Testes de Toxicidade Aguda/métodos
15.
Arch. prev. riesgos labor. (Ed. impr.) ; 22(2): 72-75, abr.-jun. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-181178

RESUMO

Objetivos: Evaluar los cambios en la actividad física de los participantes de un programa de actividad física (Mueve-T) implantado en el medio laboral. Métodos: En marzo del 2014, se iniciaron las actividades del programa Mueve-T con los objetivos de sensibilizar a los trabajadores en la práctica de la actividad física y conseguir una mejora en el nivel de actividad. Para evaluar su efectividad se utilizó el Cuestionario IPAQ (International Physical Activity Questionnaire) antes de iniciarse el programa (2014) y a los dos años (2016). Se realiza la comparación entre años ajustando un modelo logístico de medidas repetidas de dos poblaciones de trabajadores de distintos centros de trabajo de la misma empresa con respuesta ordinal politómica para IPAQ (nivel bajo o inactivo, moderado y alto), para toda la población y estratificado por sexo, centro de trabajo y puesto de trabajo. Resultados: Se incluyen los 314 trabajadores que respondieron el cuestionario en los dos años. En 2014 un 35,35% de los encuestados reportaron un nivel bajo de actividad, un 39,50% moderado y un 25,15 un nivel alto. En 2016 un 36,30% reportaron nivel bajo de actividad, un 39,80% nivel moderado y un 23, 90% un nivel alto. El análisis de respuesta entre años no ha mostrado evidencia de cambio entre años (p=ns). No se han encontrado diferencias por sexo, pero sí una menor actividad en determinados centros y puestos de trabajo. Conclusiones: Si valoramos los resultados del programa y su efectividad con el cuestionario IPAQ, observamos que estadísticamente no muestran cambio en actividad física estadísticamente significativo; pero si hay cambios en el nivel de actividad manteniéndose y aumentando en un grupo de trabajadores, a su vez consideran el programa efectivo y desean continuar con las actividades. Para obtener un aumento del nivel de actividad física se precisaría de un periodo más largo de evaluación


Objective: To analyze the effectiveness of a company-based physical activity program using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) questionnaire. Methods: In March 2014 we implemented a company-based physical activity program (Mueve-T, by its Spanish acronym) with the objective of increasing awareness of physical activity among employees, and measuring improvements in activity level. To evaluate the effectiveness of the program, we administered the IPAQ Questionnaire, before the program began in 2014 and two years later, in 2016. Descriptive summary statistics included frequencies, percentages and bar charts. To compare pre- and post-intervention results, we used a logistic repeated measures model, adjusted for two populations, with an ordinal polytomous response for IPAQ (low or inactive, moderate and high), applied to the overall study population and further examined by sex, workplace and job. Results: A total of 746 participants responded in 2014 and 563 in 2016. Only 314 respondents completed both surveys. In 2014, 35.4% of the respondents reported a low level of activity, moderate was 39.5% and highwas, 25.2%. In 2016, 36.3% reported a low level of activity, moderate was 39.8% and a high level was indicated by 23.9%. Overall, there were no significant differences in physical activity levels between the pre- and post-intervention period, among those who participated in both surveys. Likewise, there were no significant differences when this result was examined by sex, although employees sales or commercial tasks has lower levels of physical activity as compared to other centers or jobs. Conclusions: The results did not find this intervention program to be effective in increasing levels of physical activity. The differences found among the sales and commercial task employees could have been due to differences in the effect on awareness achieved by companywide information dissemination (e.g., newsletters, talks, intranet notes, etc.) as compared to specific individual activities (e.g., (yoga classes, zumba, cycling, walks, etc.). A longer evaluation period is needed to confirm these findings


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Atividade Motora , Promoção da Saúde/organização & administração , Eficácia/estatística & dados numéricos , Avaliação de Eficácia-Efetividade de Intervenções , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Saúde do Trabalhador/estatística & dados numéricos , Promoção da Saúde/tendências , Local de Trabalho/psicologia
16.
Nat Neurosci ; 22(7): 1132-1139, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31182867

RESUMO

An approaching predator and self-motion toward an object can generate similar looming patterns on the retina, but these situations demand different rapid responses. How central circuits flexibly process visual cues to activate appropriate, fast motor pathways remains unclear. Here we identify two descending neuron (DN) types that control landing and contribute to visuomotor flexibility in Drosophila. For each, silencing impairs visually evoked landing, activation drives landing, and spike rate determines leg extension amplitude. Critically, visual responses of both DNs are severely attenuated during non-flight periods, effectively decoupling visual stimuli from the landing motor pathway when landing is inappropriate. The flight-dependence mechanism differs between DN types. Octopamine exposure mimics flight effects in one, whereas the other probably receives neuronal feedback from flight motor circuits. Thus, this sensorimotor flexibility arises from distinct mechanisms for gating action-specific descending pathways, such that sensory and motor networks are coupled or decoupled according to the behavioral state.


Assuntos
Drosophila melanogaster/fisiologia , Reação de Fuga/fisiologia , Voo Animal/fisiologia , Atividade Motora/fisiologia , Vias Neurais/fisiologia , Neurônios/fisiologia , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Potenciais de Ação , Animais , Vias Eferentes/fisiologia , Octopamina/farmacologia , Técnicas de Patch-Clamp , Estimulação Luminosa
17.
Nat Neurosci ; 22(7): 1061-1065, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31209378

RESUMO

A key assumption of optogenetics is that light only affects opsin-expressing neurons. However, illumination invariably heats tissue, and many physiological processes are temperature-sensitive. Commonly used illumination protocols increased the temperature by 0.2-2 °C and suppressed spiking in multiple brain regions. In the striatum, light delivery activated an inwardly rectifying potassium conductance and biased rotational behavior. Thus, careful consideration of light-delivery parameters is required, as even modest intracranial heating can confound interpretation of optogenetic experiments.


Assuntos
Córtex Cerebral/fisiologia , Corpo Estriado/fisiologia , Hipocampo/fisiologia , Neurônios/fisiologia , Temperatura Ambiente , Potenciais de Ação/efeitos dos fármacos , Potenciais de Ação/efeitos da radiação , Animais , Compostos de Bário/farmacologia , Córtex Cerebral/citologia , Cloretos/farmacologia , Corpo Estriado/citologia , Hipocampo/citologia , Temperatura Alta , Transporte de Íons/efeitos dos fármacos , Transporte de Íons/efeitos da radiação , Luz , Camundongos , Atividade Motora/efeitos da radiação , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurônios/efeitos da radiação , Optogenética/métodos , Técnicas de Patch-Clamp , Potássio/metabolismo , Canais de Potássio Corretores do Fluxo de Internalização/efeitos dos fármacos , Canais de Potássio Corretores do Fluxo de Internalização/metabolismo , Canais de Potássio Corretores do Fluxo de Internalização/efeitos da radiação , Projetos de Pesquisa
18.
N Engl J Med ; 380(26): 2497-2505, 2019 06 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31242361

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Brain activation in response to spoken motor commands can be detected by electroencephalography (EEG) in clinically unresponsive patients. The prevalence and prognostic importance of a dissociation between commanded motor behavior and brain activation in the first few days after brain injury are not well understood. METHODS: We studied a prospective, consecutive series of patients in a single intensive care unit who had acute brain injury from a variety of causes and who were unresponsive to spoken commands, including some patients with the ability to localize painful stimuli or to fixate on or track visual stimuli. Machine learning was applied to EEG recordings to detect brain activation in response to commands that patients move their hands. The functional outcome at 12 months was determined with the Glasgow Outcome Scale-Extended (GOS-E; levels range from 1 to 8, with higher levels indicating better outcomes). RESULTS: A total of 16 of 104 unresponsive patients (15%) had brain activation detected by EEG at a median of 4 days after injury. The condition in 8 of these 16 patients (50%) and in 23 of 88 patients (26%) without brain activation improved such that they were able to follow commands before discharge. At 12 months, 7 of 16 patients (44%) with brain activation and 12 of 84 patients (14%) without brain activation had a GOS-E level of 4 or higher, denoting the ability to function independently for 8 hours (odds ratio, 4.6; 95% confidence interval, 1.2 to 17.1). CONCLUSIONS: A dissociation between the absence of behavioral responses to motor commands and the evidence of brain activation in response to these commands in EEG recordings was found in 15% of patients in a consecutive series of patients with acute brain injury. (Supported by the Dana Foundation and the James S. McDonnell Foundation.).


Assuntos
Lesões Encefálicas/fisiopatologia , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Cognição/fisiologia , Eletroencefalografia , Atividade Motora/fisiologia , Máquina de Vetores de Suporte , Adulto , Idoso , Área Sob a Curva , Lesões Encefálicas/psicologia , Feminino , Escala de Coma de Glasgow , Escala de Resultado de Glasgow , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Exame Neurológico , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Valores de Referência , Inconsciência/fisiopatologia
19.
Sci Data ; 6(1): 88, 2019 06 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31197156

RESUMO

Multi-organ dysfunction is a major complication after spinal cord injury (SCI). In addition to local injury within the spinal cord, SCI causes major disruption to the peripheral organ innervation and regulation. The liver contains sympathetic, parasympathetic, and small sensory axons. The bi-directional signaling of sensory dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons that provide both efferent and afferent information is of key importance as it allows sensory neurons and peripheral organs to affect each other. SCI-induced liver inflammation precedes and may exacerbate intraspinal inflammation and pathology after SCI, which may be modulated by activity and exercise. In this study, we collected comprehensive gene expression data through RNA sequencing of liver tissue from rats with chronic SCI to determine the effects of activity and exercise on those expression patterns. The sequenced data are of high quality and show a high alignment rate to the Rn6 genome. Gene expression is demonstrated for genes associated with known liver pathologies. UCSC Genome Browser expression tracks are provided with the data to facilitate exploration of the samples.


Assuntos
Fígado/metabolismo , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal , Transcriptoma , Animais , Doença Crônica , Atividade Motora , Condicionamento Físico Animal , Ratos , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/metabolismo , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/fisiopatologia
20.
Horiz. méd. (Impresa) ; 19(2): 77-83, Jun. 2019. tab, ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, LIPECS | ID: biblio-1007096

RESUMO

Objetivo: Investigar el cambio en la concentración de adiponectina circulante en plasma en 23 mujeres obesas premenopáusicas de la ciudad de Lima luego de la reducción de la masa corporal como resultado de un programa de actividad física aeróbica y una dieta baja en calorías.Materiales y métodos: Se llevó a cabo un estudio analítico y cuasi-experimental con el grupo de mujeres obesas. Adicionalmente, 24 mujeres se consideraron como control o de referencia de la concentración de adiponectina y otros marcadores bioquímicos. La cuantificación de adiponectina se realizó mediante la prueba de ELISA. La concentración de glucosa en ayunas en sangre, colesterol, lipoproteína de alta densidad y triglicéridos fueron cuantificados mediante análisis clínicos de rutina.Resultados: Antes del programa el grupo control mostró altos valores de adiponectina (mediana: 8,54 µg/mL; rango: 6,14 µg/mL a 13,49 µg/mL) en comparación con el grupo obesidad (mediana: 7,03 µg/mL, rango: 3;77 µg/mL a 17,23 µg/mL); sin embargo, la diferencia no fue estadísticamente significativa (P = 0.0563). Luego de la finalización del programa se observó que el grupo obesidad presentó una reducción estadísticamente significativa del índice de masa corporal (P = 5.98e-08) y de la circunferencia abdominal (P = 1.55e-08) así como un incremento estadísticamente significativo de los niveles de adiponectina (mediana, 8.79 µg/mL; rango, 5.50 µg/mL a 19.37 µg/mL) (P = 0.0127). Conclusiones: Basándonos en los resultados, concluimos que en mujeres obesas premenopáusicas la concentración de adiponectina se incrementa cuando la masa corporal se reduce como resultado de actividad física aeróbica y una dieta baja en calorías.


Objective: To investigate the changes in the plasma-circulating adiponectin concentration in 23 premenopausal obese women living in Lima after a body mass reduction as a result of an aerobic physical activity program and a low-calorie diet.Materials and methods: An analytical and quasi-experimental study was conducted in a group of obese women. In addition, another 24 women were considered as control or reference group for comparing their adiponectin concentration and other biochemical markers. The quantification of adiponectin was carried out using the ELISA test. Fasting blood glucose concentration, cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein and triglycerides levels were quantified by routine clinical analysis.Results: Before beginning the program, the control group showed high adiponectin levels (median, 8.54 µg/mL; range, 6.14 µg/mL to 13.49 µg/mL) compared to the obesity group (median, 7.03 µg/mL; range, 3.77 µg/mL to 17.23 µg/mL). However, the difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.0563). Once the program was finished, the obesity group showed a statistically significant reduction in the body mass index (P = 5.98e-08) and abdominal circumference (P = 1.55e-08), and a statistically significant increase in the adiponectin levels (median, 8.79 µg/mL; range, 5.50 µg/mL to 19.37 µg/mL) (P = 0.0127). Conclusions: Based on the results, we conclude that the adiponectin concentration in premenopausal obese women increases when the body mass is reduced as a result of aerobic physical activity and a low-calorie diet.


Assuntos
Feminino , Adiponectina , Índice de Massa Corporal , Dieta Redutora , Programas de Redução de Peso , Atividade Motora
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