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1.
Int J Public Health ; 68: 1605332, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36726527

RESUMO

Objectives: We investigated the associations of mean levels of leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) and latent LTPA trajectories with all-cause mortality risk. Methods: Trajectories of LTPA were established using group-based trajectory analysis with a latent class growth model in a population-based cohort between 1996 and 2014. A Cox-proportional hazard model was conducted to examine the associations of LTPA quintiles and LTPA trajectories with all-cause mortality. Results: A total of 21,211 participants (age 18-90 years) were analyzed (median follow-up 16.8 years). The study participants were divided into five groups according to percentiles of LTPA (<20th, 20th-<40th, 40th-<60th, 60th-<80th, ≥80th) and LTPA trajectories (low/stable, medium/stable, increasing, decreasing, and fluctuating), respectively. Participants with a decreasing trajectory did not have a significantly lower risk of all-cause mortality despite having the highest baseline level of LTPA. In contrast, participants with a medium/stable (HR 0.84, 95% CI 0.72-0.98, p = 0.031) or an increasing (HR 0.57, 95% CI 0.33-0.97, p = 0.037) trajectory had a significantly lower risk of all-cause mortality. Conclusion: Promotion of maintaining stable LTPA is beneficial for public health and survival.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico , Atividades de Lazer , Humanos , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Atividade Motora , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Fatores de Risco
2.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 799, 2023 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36646781

RESUMO

The genetic mechanisms underlying fentanyl addiction, a highly heritable disease, are unknown. Identifying these mechanisms will lead to better risk assessment, early diagnosis, and improved intervention. To this end, we used intravenous fentanyl self-administration to quantify classical self-administration phenotypes and addiction-like fentanyl seeking in male and female mice from the two founder strains of the BXD recombinant inbred mouse panel (C57BL/6J and DBA/2J). We reached three primary conclusions from these experiments. First, mice from all groups rapidly acquired intravenous fentanyl self-administration and exhibited a dose-response curve, extinction burst, and extinction of the learned self-administration response. Second, fentanyl intake (during acquisition and dose response) and fentanyl seeking (during extinction) were equivalent among groups. Third, strain effects, sex effects, or both were identified for several addiction-like behaviors (cue-induced reinstatement, stress-induced reinstatement, escalation of intravenous fentanyl self-administration). Collectively, these data indicate that C57BL/6J and DBA/2J mice of both sexes were able to acquire, regulate, and extinguish intravenous fentanyl self-administration. Moreover, these data reveal novel strain and sex effects on addiction-like behaviors in the context of intravenous fentanyl self-administration in mice and indicate that the full BXD panel can be used to identify and dissect the genetic mechanisms underlying these effects.


Assuntos
Atividade Motora , Camundongos , Masculino , Feminino , Animais , Camundongos Endogâmicos DBA , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Fenótipo , Atividade Motora/fisiologia , Especificidade da Espécie
3.
Molecules ; 28(2)2023 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36677821

RESUMO

B. crassifolia is a species that grows in various areas of Latin America. It was known to be useful for the treatment of different human ailments. The present work evaluated the neuropharmacological and analgesic effects of hydroalcoholic and dichloromethane extracts of B. crassifolia. The effect on the central nervous system (CNS) of both extracts obtained from bark, administered by the intraperitoneal route in mice, was evaluated by different tests: spontaneous motor activity, hole-board, motor coordination, pentobarbital induced hypnosis, and rectal temperature. Analgesic activity was evaluated using a hot plate test. Phytochemical analysis was performed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) using reversed-phase and gradient of elution. The hydroalcoholic extract (dose 0.5 g dry plant/kg weigh) administration caused an important reduction of the head-dipping response in the hole board test. A decrease in spontaneous motor activity test and a disturbance of motor coordination in the rotarod test was observed. The hydroalcoholic extract produced a significant prolongation of pentobarbital induced sleeping time. This extract prevented hot plate test induced nociception. The phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of catechin, epicatechin, and procyanidin B12. Therefore, this study revealed that the hydroalcoholic extract of B. crassifolia possesses analgesic and sedative CNS activity.


Assuntos
Pentobarbital , Extratos Vegetais , Humanos , Camundongos , Animais , Extratos Vegetais/química , Pentobarbital/farmacologia , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Atividade Motora , Casca de Planta , Comportamento Animal , Analgésicos/farmacologia , Modelos Animais
4.
Public Health ; 215: 17-26, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36608601

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study systematically reviewed scientific evidence regarding the impact of economic growth on physical activity (PA) and sedentary behaviors. METHODS: A keyword and reference search was conducted in PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, Scopus, and EBSCO from the inception of an electronic bibliographic database to November 2021. Studies that met all of the following criteria were included in the review: (1) study designs: observational studies; (2) study subjects: people of all ages; (3) exposure: macroeconomic growth; (4) outcomes: PA or sedentary behaviors/sitting time. RESULTS: 15 studies were identified. Eight among 12 studies found economic growth positively associated with at least one domain/measure of PA, whereas the remaining four found an inverse relationship. One of two studies examined the association of economic growth and physical inactivity found a positive relationship, while another found no significant relationship. Four studies examined the associations between economic growth and sedentary behaviors, and the results were inconclusive. The impact of economic growth on PA is through three main pathways-(a) building and maintaining parks and green spaces, (b) adoption of the modern workplace and high technology, and (c) motorized transportation. CONCLUSION: Building and maintaining parks and green spaces can effectively promote leisure time physical activity and active commute in developed countries, whereas promoting workplace and transportation-related PA could be prioritized in developing nations. Future research calls for longitudinal study design and further exploration of macro-environmental factors. Policymakers and stakeholders should be informed about the potential PA reduction resulting from economic growth and develop preventive strategies to alleviate the problem.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Econômico , Comportamento Sedentário , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Exercício Físico , Atividade Motora
5.
Int. j. clin. health psychol. (Internet) ; 23(1): 1-11, ene.-abr. 2023. tab, graf, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-213090

RESUMO

Background: Evidence indicates beneficial effects of aerobic exercise on motor learning performance, which might be caused by the impact of aerobic exercise on cortical excitability. It is thus suggested that physiological effects of aerobic exercise on cortical excitability determine the effects of aerobic exercise on motor learning. Nevertheless, respective results usually come from independent studies, and a prove of the causal relationship between neurophysiological and motor learning effects is still missing. This study aims to explore the impact of a single bout of aerobic exercise on brain physiology and motor learning, and the association between these phenomena in humans Method: The study was conducted in a cross-over design. In twenty healthy subjects, cortical excitability and motor learning were assessed before and after a single bout of aerobic exercise or a control intervention Results: The results show that aerobic exercise improved motor sequence learning and enhanced cortical excitability in humans. Furthermore, a correlation between the exercise-dependent alteration of cortical excitability (short intracortical inhibition, which is determined primarily by the GABAergic system) and improvement of motor learning has been found Discussion: The study found motor learning performance-improving effects of aerobic exercise, and these results might be explained by an exercised-caused alteration of cortical excitability, especially a reduction of GABA activity. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Atividade Motora , Exercício Físico , Excitabilidade Cortical , Estudos Cross-Over , GABAérgicos , não Fumantes
6.
An. psicol ; 39(1): 145-152, Ene-Abr. 2023. graf, tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-213848

RESUMO

Different studies relateself-defining memories (SDM) to psy-chological well-being and health. This study aims toanalyse the relation be-tween the phenomenological variables (e.g., emotional intensity, vividness etc.) involved in self-defining memories associated with health (HSDMs) and healthy habits in 262 children aged between 9 and 13 years. Partici-pants’ eating habits and physical activity events are associated with the emotionality of their HSDMs. Most of the HSDMs were declared to be experienced with their family members, and greater importance was at-tributed to those memories related to mothers. Significant features of re-trieved HSDM can be detected from construction of autobiographical memories supporting the development of a robust healthy self in children. As such, families and schools should facilitate life experiences that lead to the formation of vivid and detailed HSDMs given that this is likely to promote health-related behaviours.(AU)


Diferentes estudios relacionan los recuerdos autodefinidos (SDM) con el bienestar psicológico y la salud. Este estudio tiene como objetivo analizar la relación entre las variables fenomenológicas (p. ej., intensidad emocional, viveza, etc.) implicadas en los recuerdos autodefinidos asociados a la salud (HSDM) y los hábitos saludables en 262 niños de entre 9 y 13 años. Los hábitos alimentarios y los eventos de actividad física de los participantes están asociados con la emotividad de sus HSDM. La mayoría de los HSDM declararon ser vividos con sus familiares, y se atribuyó mayor importancia a aquellos recuerdos relacionados con las madres. Se pueden detectar características significativas del HSDM recuperado a partir de la construcción de recuerdos autobiográficos que respaldan el desarrollo de un yo saludable y robusto en los niños. Como tal, las familias y las escuelas deben facilitar experiencias de vida que conduzcan a la formación de HSDM vívidos y detallados, dado que es probable que esto promueva comportamientos relacionados con la salud.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Estilo de Vida Saudável , Comportamento Alimentar , Atividade Motora , Memória , Rememoração Mental , Psicologia da Criança , Psicologia
7.
Enferm. clín. (Ed. impr.) ; 33(1): 14-21, Ene-Feb. 2023. tab, ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-214376

RESUMO

Objetivo: Aunque la actividad física (AF) es un comportamiento clave para el control de la diabetes tipo 2 (DT2), los problemas de adopción-adherencia a la AF dificultan el manejo de la enfermedad. Este estudio tiene como objetivo entender cómo los pacientes con DT2 experimentan la promoción de la AF durante las consultas de enfermería en centros de atención primaria de Cataluña. Método: Estudio cualitativo. Entre 2019-2020, en pre-COVID-19, 22 pacientes con DT2 de la provincia de Barcelona participaron en cinco grupos focales y/o cuatro entrevistas semiestructuradas. Todas las reuniones fueron registradas, transcritas y analizadas usando el enfoque de análisis de contenido convencional a través del método comparativo constante. Resultados: El análisis de datos reveló dos temas principales con 16 subtemas. Los dos temas principales fueron: «Procesos conscientes intrapersonales de adopción de la AF» y «Procesos inconscientes estructurales de (no)adherencia a la AF». Conclusión: La experiencia de los pacientes refleja dos problemas concurrentes e interconectados. En primer lugar, la mayoría adoptan rápidamente la AF después del apoyo de las enfermeras, los cuales fueron los principales promotores de la AF. En efecto, según los pacientes, la adopción de la AF parece ser la prioridad de la mayoría de las enfermeras. En segundo lugar, los pacientes perciben que pocas enfermeras dedican tiempo a la adherencia, lo que la convierte en un problema casi universal y una fuente de decepción para el paciente. Para la adherencia, los pacientes experimentan que la atención de las enfermeras debe centrarse en la activación de procesos y habilidades que apoyen la participación continua en la AF ya adoptada.(AU)


Objective: Although physical activity (PA) is a key behaviour for controlling Type 2 Diabetes, problematic adoption and/or adherence continues to impair disease management. This study aims to understand how patients with T2D live and experience nurses PA promotion during consultations in Spanish context. Method: The present study is a qualitative research. In 2019-2020, pre-COVID-19, 22 people living with T2D from Barcelona province contributed either to focus groups (n = 5) or to semi-structured interviews (n = 4). All interviews were recorded, transcribed, and analysed using conventional content analysis approach through constant comparative method. Results: Data analysis revealed two major themes with 16 subthemes. The two major themes include: «Intra-personal conscious PA adoption processes» and «Structural unconscious PA (non)adherence processes». Conclusion: Patients’ experiences reflect two concurrent and interconnected issues. First, most patients readily adopted new PA after encouragement from nurses, who were the main proponents of PA. Indeed, adoption seemed to be most nurses’ PA priority and it was effective for most patients. Second, few nurses discussed adherence, making it an almost universal problem and source of disappointment. For adherence, patients experience that nurses’ attention needs to focus on activating processes and skills that support continued involvement in already-adopted PA.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Diabetes Mellitus , Atividade Motora , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Enfermagem , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros , Espanha , Pesquisa Qualitativa
8.
Sportis (A Coruña) ; 9(1): 60-80, ene. 2023. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-214513

RESUMO

Desde los primeros años de vida, el desarrollo cognitivo está estrechamente relacionado con la habilidad motriz o el desarrollo motor. El principal objetivo fue analizar las relaciones existentes entre el rendimiento académico en edad escolar y la habilidad del lanzamiento. La muestra estuvo conformada por 152 estudiantes, 66 chicas y 86 chicos con edad media de 8,54 ± 0,61 años. La intervención constó de cuatro sesiones destinadas a la recogida de datos, la realización de test de evaluación del lanzamiento y la mejora de la habilidad de lanzamiento. Los resultados obtenidos muestran que tras la intervención se produjo una mejora en la ejecución técnica de los lanzamientos (Una mano (t (139) = 3,23; diff mean = 0,200; p < 0,01); Dos manos (t (139) = 5,636; diff mean = 0,307; p < 0,01)), aunque no así en la distancia (Una mano (t (139) = -0,187; diff mean = - 0,026; p > 0,05); Dos manos (t (139) = - 4,604; diff mean = - 0,434; p < 0,01)). La práctica deportiva se relaciona con un mejor rendimiento académico en la nota media general y asignaturas como Francés, Educación Física o Educación Artística. Por último, la habilidad de lanzamiento se relaciona significativamente con el rendimiento académico en distintas asignaturas, especialmente con Educación Física. Podemos concluir que una intervención a corto plazo puede mejorar la ejecución técnica del lanzamiento, y que la práctica deportiva y la habilidad de lanzamiento se relaciona significativamente con el rendimiento académico en algunas áreas curriculares de Educación Primaria. (AU)


From the earliest years of life, cognitive development is closely related to motor ability or motor development. The aim of this study was to analyze the relationships between academic performance at school age and the basic motor skill of throwing. The sample consisted of 152 students, 66 girls and 86 boys with a mean age of 8.54 ± 0.61 years. The intervention consisted of four sessions aimed at data collection, performance of throwing evaluation tests, and improvement and refinement of throwing skills. The results obtained show that after the intervention there was an improvement in the technical execution of throws (one hand (t (139) = 3.23; diff mean = 0.200; p < 0.01); two hands (t (139) = 5.636; diff mean = 0.307; p < 0.01), but not in distance (one hand t (139) = -0.187; diff mean = - 0.026; p > 0.05); two hands t (139) = - 4.604; diff mean = - 0.434; p < 0.01). Sport practice has been related to better academic performance in the overall average grade and in some subjects such as French, Physical Education or Art Education. Finally, throwing skill is significantly related to academic performance in some of the curricular areas, especially Physical Education. We can conclude that a short-term intervention can improve the technical execution of throwing, and that sports practice and throwing ability is significantly related to academic performance in some curricular areas of Primary Education. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Atividade Motora , Desempenho Acadêmico , Destreza Motora , Cognição , Estudos Longitudinais , Ensino Fundamental e Médio
10.
Cuad. psicol. deporte ; 23(1): 38-52, ene.-abr. 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-214808

RESUMO

El desarrollo de la inteligencia emocional se ha relacionado en estudios previos con la práctica deportiva y la actividad física.El propósito de esta investigaciónfue analizar los efectos de la práctica de deporte extraescolar, del agrupamiento deportivo (colectivo o individual) y del sexo en la inteligencia emocional de los adolescentes. La muestra estuvo compuesta por 384 estudiantes de educación secundaria. La edad media de las personas participantes fue de 14.1 años y su distribución por sexos: 53.5% de chicas y 46.5% de chicos. La medida de la inteligencia emocional se llevó a cabo utilizando el Inventario de Inteligencia Emocional de Bar-On en su versión para jóvenes (EQ-I: YV, Bar-On y Parker, 2000). Los resultados mostraron que existe un desarrollo desigual en las diferentes dimensiones de la inteligencia emocional entre el alumnado español de educación secundaria (h2=.478), siendo el estado de ánimo general y la inteligencia interpersonal los rasgos más destacados. Además, se han encontrado diferencias estadísticamente significativas a favor de las chicas en las inteligencias interpersonal (h2=.014) e intrapersonal (h2=.023), superándolas los chicos en la adaptabilidad (h2=.016). Paralelamente se detectó un impacto de la práctica deportiva extraescolar y, en particular, de los deportes colectivos en el estado de ánimo general del alumnado (h2=.028), mientras que la inteligencia intrapersonal está relacionada directamente con la práctica de deportes individuales. Finalmente, se observó un efecto de interacción (h2=.032) entre el agrupamiento deportivo y el sexo que indica que las chicas podrían presentar una ventaja en el desarrollo de su inteligencia intrapersonal mediante la práctica de deportes individuales. (AU)


The development of emotional intelligence has been related in previous studies to sports practice and physical activity. The purpose of this research was to analyze the effects of extracurricular sports practice, sports grouping (collective or individual),and gender on the emotional intelligence of adolescents. The sample comprised 384 secondary school students. Students averaged 14.1 years, being 53.5% girls and 46.5% boys. The measurement of emotional intelligence was carried out using the Bar-On’s Emotional Intelligence Inventory Youth Version (EQ-I: YV, Bar-On and Parker, 2000). Results showed that there is an uneven development in the different dimensions of emotional intelligence among Spanish secondary school students (h2=.478), with general mood andinterpersonal intelligence being the most prominent features. In addition, girls outperformed boys in interpersonal (h2=.014) and intrapersonal intelligences (h2=.023), reaching boys higher scores in adaptability (h2=.016). At the same time, an impact of extracurricular sports practice and, in particular, of team sports on the students’ general state of mind was detected (h2=.028), while intrapersonal intelligence is directly related to the practice of individual sports. Finally, an interaction effect (h2=.032) between sport grouping and sex was observed in intrapersonal intelligence, indicating that girls could present an advantage in the development of this trait when practicing individual sports. (AU)


O desenvolvimento de a inteligência emocional tem sido previamente relacionada com a prática desportiva e com a atividade física. Esta investigação teve como objetivo analisar os efeitos da prática desportiva extracurricular e do agrupamento desportivo (coletivo ou individual) nos tipos de inteligência emocional em adolescentes. A amostra foi composta por 384 estudantes do ensino médio. A idade média dos participantes foi de 14,1 anos e sua distribuição por sexo: 53,5% meninas e 46,5% meninos. O nível de inteligência emocional foi medido através do Inventário de Inteligência Emocional Bar-On, utilizando asua versão para jovens (EQ-I: YV, Bar-On e Parker, 2000). Os resultados sugeriram que há um desenvolvimento desigual nas diferentes dimensões da inteligência emocional nos alunos espanhóis de ensino médio (h2=.478); o humor geral e a inteligência interpessoal foram as características que mais se destacaram. Além disso, foram encontradas diferenças estatisticamente significativas a favor das meninas na inteligência interpessoal (h2=.023)e intrapessoal (h2=.023), superando os meninos na adaptabilidade (h2=.016). Paralelamente, detetou-se um impacto da prática desportiva extracurricular e, em particular, dos desportos coletivos no estado de espírito geral dos alunos (h2=.028), enquanto a inteligência intrapessoal está diretamente relacionada com a prática desportiva individual. Por fim, observou-se um efeito de interação (h2=.032) entre agrupamento desportivo e sexo, indicando que as meninas poderiam ter vantagemno desenvolvimento da sua inteligência intrapessoal através da prática de desportos individuais. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Esportes , Inteligência Emocional , Atividade Motora , Inquéritos e Questionários , Espanha , Ensino Fundamental e Médio
11.
Cuad. psicol. deporte ; 23(1): 53-62, ene.-abr. 2023. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-214809

RESUMO

Hoy en día se sabe que la actividad física influye positivamente en la salud tanto física como mental. Por ello, este estudio pretende arrojar luz sobre hasta qué punto la inteligencia emocional y el autoconcepto pueden ser útiles para reducir las conductas violentas en los deportistas españoles. Se realizó un estudio transversal sobre una muestra formada por 457 estudiantes universitarios (23,86 ± 12,24), que cursaban diferentes titulaciones en la Universidad de Granada. Los instrumentos utilizados fueron un cuestionario demográfico, la versión española de la Forma 5 de Autoconcepto, la versión española de la Escala de Violencia Escolar y la versión española del Inventario de Autoinforme de Schutte (ISIS). Los resultados revelan que casi la totalidad de la muestra practicaba actividad física con regularidad; además, las dimensiones mejor valoradas fueron la gestión de la autoestima en cuanto a la inteligencia emocional, la agresión relacional pura en cuanto al tipo de violencia, y la académica en cuanto al autoconcepto. Por último, se observó una correlación negativa entre la inteligencia emocional general y todos los tipos de violencia, así como entre todos los tipos de violencia y el autoconcepto académico. (AU)


Nowadays, physical activity is known to have a positive influence on both physical and mental health. Therefore, this study aims at shedding light on the extent to which emotional intelligence and self-concept may be useful to reduce violent behaviours in Spanish sportspeople. A cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample consisted of 457 undergraduates (23.86 ± 12.24), who were studying different degrees in University of Granada. Instruments used were a demographic questionnaire, the Spanish version of the Self-Concept Form 5, the Spanish version of the School Violence Scale, and the Spanish version of the Schutte Self-Report Inventory (SSRI). Results reveal that nearly all of the sample regularly practised physical activity; moreover, the highest-rated dimension were Self-Emotional management as regards emotional intelligence, Pure Relational Aggression as for the type of violence, and academic with regards to self-concept. Lastly, there was a negative correlation between general emotional intelligence and all types of violence, as well as between all the types of violence and academic self-concept. (AU)


Hoje em dia, sabe-se que a actividade física tem uma influência positiva tanto na saúde física como mental. Por conseguinte, este estudo visa lançar luz sobre até que ponto a inteligência emocional e o auto-conceito podem ser úteis para reduzir comportamentos violentos nos desportistas espanhóis. Foi realizado um estudo transversal sobre uma amostra constituída por 457 estudantes universitários (23,86 ± 12,24), que estavam a estudar diferentes graus na Universidade de Granada. Os instrumentos utilizados foram um questionário demográfico, a versão espanhola do Formulário de Auto-Conceito 5, a versão espanhola da Escala de Violência Escolar, e a versão espanhola do Inventário de Auto-Relatórios Schutte (SSRI). Os resultados revelam que quase toda a amostra praticava regularmente actividade física; além disso, a dimensão mais elevada foi a gestão auto-mocional no que diz respeito à inteligência emocional, Pura Agressão Relacional no que diz respeito ao tipo de violência, e académica no que diz respeito ao auto-conceito. Finalmente, houve uma correlação negativa entre a inteligência emocional geral e todos os tipos de violência, bem como entre todos os tipos de violência e o auto-conceito académico. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Atividade Motora , Violência , Inteligência Emocional , Epidemiologia Descritiva , Estudos Transversais , Universidades , Autoimagem
12.
Nefrología (Madrid) ; 43(1): 81-90, ene.-feb. 2023. tab, ilus, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-EMG-443

RESUMO

Background: Pulmonary congestion is a strong predictor of mortality and cardiovascular events in chronic kidney disease (CKD); however, the effects of the mild form on functionality have not yet been investigated. The objective of this study was to assess the influence of mild pulmonary congestion on diaphragmatic mobility (DM) and activities of daily living (ADL) in hemodialysis (HD) subjects, as well as compare ADL behavior on dialysis and non-dialysis days. In parallel, experimentally induce CKD in mice and analyze the resulting pulmonary and functional repercussions. Methods: Thirty subjects in HD underwent thoracic and abdominal ultrasonography, anthropometric assessment, lung and kidney function, respiratory muscle strength assessment and symptoms analysis. To measure ADL a triaxial accelerometer was used over seven consecutive days. Twenty male mice were randomized in Control and CKD group. Thoracic ultrasonography, TNF-α analysis in kidney and lung tissue, exploratory behavior and functionality assessments were performed. Results: Mild pulmonary congestion caused a 26.1% decline in DM (R2=.261; P=.004) and 20% reduction in walking time (R2=.200; P=.01), indicating decreases of 2.23mm and 1.54min, respectively, for every unit increase in lung comet-tails. Regarding ADL, subjects exhibited statistically significant differences for standing (P=.002), walking (P=.034) and active time (P=.002), and number of steps taken (P=.01) on days with and without HD. In the experimental model, CKD resulted in increased levels of TNF-α on kidneys (P=.037) and lungs (P=.02), attenuation of exploratory behavior (P=.01) and significant decrease in traveled distance (P=.034). Thoracic ultrasonography of CKD mice showed presence of B-lines. (AU)


Antecedentes: La congestión pulmonar es un fuerte predictor de mortalidad y eventos cardiovasculares en la enfermedad renal crónica (ERC); sin embargo, aún no se han investigado los efectos de la forma leve sobre la funcionalidad. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la influencia de la congestión pulmonar leve en la movilidad diafragmática (MD) y las actividades de la vida diaria (AVD) en sujetos en hemodiálisis (HD), así como comparar el comportamiento de las AVD en los días de diálisis y no diálisis. Paralelamente, inducir de forma experimental la ERC en ratones y analizar las repercusiones pulmonares y funcionales resultantes. Métodos: Treinta sujetos en HD fueron sometidos a ecografía torácica y abdominal, evaluación antropométrica, función pulmonar y renal, evaluación de la fuerza de los músculos respiratorios y análisis de síntomas. Para medir las AVD se utilizó un acelerómetro triaxial durante 7 días consecutivos. Se aleatorizaron 20 ratones machos en el grupo control y con ERC. Se realizó ecografía torácica, análisis de TNF-α en tejido renal y pulmonar, comportamiento exploratorio y evaluaciones de funcionalidad. Resultados: La congestión pulmonar leve provocó una disminución del 26,1% en la MD (R2=,261; P=,004) y una reducción del 20% en el tiempo de caminata (R2=0,200; P=,01), lo que indica disminuciones de 2,23mm y 1,54minutos, respectivamente, por cada unidad de aumento de las colas de cometa pulmonares. En cuanto a las AVD los sujetos mostraron diferencias estadísticamente significativas para estar de pie (P=,002), caminar (P=,034) y tiempo activo (P=,002) y número de pasos dados (P=,01) en los días con y sin HD. En el modelo experimental la ERC resultó en un aumento de los niveles de TNF-α en los riñones (P=,037) y los pulmones (P=,02), la atenuación del comportamiento exploratorio (P=,01) y una disminución significativa en la distancia recorrida (P=,034). La ecografía torácica de ratones con ERC mostró la presencia de líneas B. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Animais , Camundongos , Edema Pulmonar , Insuficiência Renal Crônica , Atividade Motora , Atividades Cotidianas , Epidemiologia Descritiva , Estudos de Intervenção , Estudos Transversais , Experimentação Animal
13.
Sensors (Basel) ; 23(2)2023 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36679580

RESUMO

Driver identification refers to the process whose primary purpose is identifying the person behind the steering wheel using collected information about the driver him/herself. The constant monitoring of drivers through sensors generates great benefits in advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS), to learn more about the behavior of road users. Currently, there are many research works that address the subject in search of creating intelligent models that help to identify vehicle users in an efficient and objective way. However, the different methodologies proposed to create these models are based on data generated from sensors that include different vehicle brands on routes established in real environments, which, although they provide very important information for different purposes, in the case of driver identification, there may be a certain degree of bias due to the different situations in which the route environment may change. The proposed method seeks to intelligently and objectively select the most outstanding statistical features from motor activity generated in the main elements of the vehicle with genetic algorithms for driver identification, this process being newer than those established by the state-of-the-art. The results obtained from the proposal were an accuracy of 90.74% to identify two drivers and 62% for four, using a Random Forest Classifier (RFC). With this, it can be concluded that a comprehensive selection of features can greatly optimize the identification of drivers.


Assuntos
Condução de Veículo , Humanos , Masculino , Acidentes de Trânsito , Aprendizagem , Atividade Motora
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36674327

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: University students sit too much, which is detrimental to their physical and mental health. Academic schedules, including scheduled education time and self-study time, may influence their physical activity behaviors. OBJECTIVES: To investigate (1) the association between scheduled education time and students' physical activity levels during weekdays; (2) the association between self-study time and students' physical activity levels during the weekdays and weekends. METHODS: 126 (68 Maastricht University (UM); 58 KU Leuven (KUL)) first-year undergraduate students in biomedical sciences (mean ± SD age: 19.3 ± 1.0, BMI: 22.0 ± 3.0, 17% men, 83% women) completed a demographics questionnaire and reported their academic activities with a 7-day logbook. Furthermore, their physical activity behavior was measured with the activPAL monitor for 7 days. Linear mixed models were used to examine the associations between university (UM versus KUL), academic activities (scheduled education time and self-study time), and students' activity levels. RESULTS: During weekdays, each hour of scheduled education time per day was significantly associated with a 1.3 min decrease of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) per day. Scheduled education time was not significantly associated with the sedentary time, light-intensity physical activity (LPA), and active sedentary behavior ratio. Each hour of self-study per day was significantly associated with 8 min more of sedentary time per day, 6 min less LPA per day, and 1.3 min less MVPA per day. Self-study time was not significantly associated with active sedentary behavior ratio. During the weekend, each hour of self-study time per day was associated with an additional 17.8 min of sedentary time per day and a reduction of 15.2 min of LPA per day. Self-study time was not significantly associated with the time spent doing MVPA and active sedentary behavior ratio. CONCLUSIONS: It could be more effective to change students' physical activity behaviors during self-study than during scheduled education time. Therefore, offering a study environment that reduces sedentary behavior and promotes light-intensity physical activity, is crucial.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico , Atividade Motora , Masculino , Humanos , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Universidades , Estudantes , Inquéritos e Questionários , Acelerometria
15.
BMJ Open ; 13(1): e068486, 2023 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36720567

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is a need to investigate relevant, acceptable and feasible approaches that promote participation in leisure-time physical activity for children with cerebral palsy (CP). The aim of this study is to assess the feasibility of a randomised controlled trial comparing a peer-group intervention focused on improving physical literacy (Sports Stars) with the combination of Sports Stars and a context-focused intervention (Pathways and Resources for Engagement and Participation, PREP) for ambulant children with CP in Brazil. METHODS: In this feasibility trial, 18 ambulant children (aged 6-12 years) with CP will be randomised into two groups (nine per group): (1) Sports Stars and (2) Sports Stars plus PREP. The Sports Stars group will receive 8 weekly group sessions, focusing on developing the physical, social, cognitive and psychological skills required to participate in popular Brazilian sports. The combined Sports Stars and PREP group will receive Sports Stars in addition to eight individual PREP sessions focused on overcoming environmental barriers to participation. The primary outcome will include feasibility measures: willingness to participate in an RCT, eligibility and recruitment rates, maintenance of evaluator blinding, acceptability of screening procedures and random allocation, feasibility of evaluating outcomes, contamination between the groups, intervention adherence, treatment satisfaction, understanding of the intervention and implementation resources. Additional instruments will be applied to obtain data related to leisure-time physical activity participation goals, overall participation (home, school and community), physical literacy, level of physical activity and family empowerment. Outcomes will be assessed before, after and 12 weeks after intervention. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This feasibility trial has been approved by ethical Federal University of Minas Gerais' Ethics Review Committee (CAAE: 33238520.5.0000.5149). All potential subjects will provide written informed consent. The results of this study will be published in peer-reviewed journals and be presented at academic conferences. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBERS: RBR-4m3b4b6, U1111-1256-4998.


Assuntos
Paralisia Cerebral , Esportes , Criança , Humanos , Estudos de Viabilidade , Atividade Motora , Exercício Físico , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
16.
Nature ; 614(7946): 36-37, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36653602
17.
J Exp Child Psychol ; 228: 105609, 2023 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36587438

RESUMO

Young children share equally when they acquire resources through collaboration with a partner, yet it is unclear whether they do so because in such contexts resources are encountered as common and distributed in front of the recipient or because collaboration promotes a sense of work-based fairness. In the current studies, 5- and 8-year-old children from Germany (N = 193) acquired resources either by working individually alongside or by collaborating with a peer. After finding out that the partner's container was empty, they decided in private whether they wanted to donate some resources to the peer. When both partners had worked with equal efforts (Study 1), children shared more after collaboration than after individual work. When one partner had worked with much more effort than the other (Study 2), children shared more with a harder-working partner than with a less-working partner independently of whether they had collaborated or worked individually. Younger children were more generous than older children, in particular after collaboration. These findings support the view that collaboration promotes a genuine sense of fairness in young children, but they also indicate that merit-based notions of fairness in the context of work may develop independently of collaboration, at least by the beginning of middle childhood and in Western societies.


Assuntos
Comportamento Cooperativo , Grupo Associado , Humanos , Criança , Adolescente , Pré-Escolar , Alemanha , Atividade Motora
18.
Psychopharmacology (Berl) ; 240(2): 373-389, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36645465

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Depression is a mental disorder that affects approximately 280 million people worldwide. In the search for new treatments for mood disorders, compounds containing selenium and indolizine derivatives show promising results. OBJECTIVES AND METHODS: To evaluate the antidepressant-like effect of 1-(phenylselanyl)-2-(p-tolyl)indolizine (MeSeI) (0.5-50 mg/kg, intragastric-i.g.) on the tail suspension test (TST) and the forced swim test (FST) in adult male Swiss mice and to elucidate the role of the serotonergic system in this effect through pharmacological and in silico approaches, as well to evaluate acute oral toxicity at a high dose (300 mg/kg). RESULTS: MeSeI administered 30 min before the FST and the TST reduced immobility time at doses from 1 mg/kg and at 50 mg/kg and increased the latency time for the first episode of immobility, demonstrating an antidepressant-like effect. In the open field test (OFT), MeSeI did not change the locomotor activity. The antidepressant-like effect of MeSeI (50 mg/kg, i.g.) was prevented by the pre-treatment with p-chlorophenylalanine (p-CPA), a selective tryptophan hydroxylase inhibitor (100 mg/kg, intraperitoneally-i.p. for 4 days), with ketanserin, a 5-HT2A/2C receptor antagonist (1 mg/kg, i.p.), and with GR113808, a 5-HT4 receptor antagonist (0.1 mg/kg, i.p.), but not with WAY100635, a selective 5-HT1A receptor antagonist (0.1 mg/kg, subcutaneous-s.c.) and ondansetron, a 5-HT3 receptor antagonist (1 mg/kg, i.p.). MeSeI showed a binding affinity with 5-HT2A, 5 -HT2C, and 5-HT4 receptors by molecular docking. MeSeI (300 mg/kg, i.g.) demonstrated low potential to cause acute toxicity in adult female Swiss mice. CONCLUSION: In summary, MeSeI exhibits an antidepressant-like effect mediated by the serotonergic system and could be considered for the development of new treatment strategies for depression.


Assuntos
Depressão , Indolizinas , Masculino , Feminino , Animais , Camundongos , Depressão/tratamento farmacológico , Depressão/metabolismo , Serotonina/metabolismo , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Atividade Motora , Antidepressivos/farmacologia , Antidepressivos/uso terapêutico , Natação , Indolizinas/farmacologia , Elevação dos Membros Posteriores
19.
Physiol Rep ; 11(1): e15567, 2023 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36636780

RESUMO

The speed of pellet propulsion through the isolated guinea pig distal colon in vitro significantly exceeds in vivo measurements, suggesting a role for inhibitory mechanisms from sources outside the gut. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of sympathetic nerve stimulation on three different neurogenic motor behaviors of the distal colon: transient neural events (TNEs), colonic motor complexes (CMCs), and pellet propulsion. To do this, segments of guinea pig distal colon with intact connections to the inferior mesenteric ganglion (IMG) were set up in organ baths allowing for simultaneous extracellular suction electrode recordings from smooth muscle, video recordings for diameter mapping, and intraluminal manometry. Electrical stimulation (1-20 Hz) of colonic nerves surrounding the inferior mesenteric artery caused a statistically significant, frequency-dependent inhibition of TNEs, as well as single pellet propulsion, from frequencies of 5 Hz and greater. Significant inhibition of CMCs required stimulation frequencies of 10 Hz and greater. Phentolamine (3.6 µM) abolished effects of colonic nerve stimulation, consistent with a sympathetic noradrenergic mechanism. Sympathetic inhibition was constrained to regions with intact extrinsic nerve pathways, allowing normal motor behaviors to continue without modulation in adjacent extrinsically denervated regions of the same colonic segments. The results demonstrate differential sensitivities to sympathetic input among distinct neurogenic motor behaviors of the colon. Together with findings indicating CMCs activate colo-colonic sympathetic reflexes through the IMG, these results raise the possibility that CMCs may paradoxically facilitate suppression of pellet movement in vivo, through peripheral sympathetic reflex circuits.


Assuntos
Gânglios Simpáticos , Sistema Nervoso Simpático , Cobaias , Animais , Gânglios Simpáticos/fisiologia , Reflexo/fisiologia , Colo/inervação , Atividade Motora , Estimulação Elétrica
20.
Curr Biol ; 33(2): 351-363.e3, 2023 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36610393

RESUMO

Circadian clocks align various behaviors such as locomotor activity, sleep/wake, feeding, and mating to times of day that are most adaptive. How rhythmic information in pacemaker circuits is translated to neuronal outputs is not well understood. Here, we used brain-wide, 24-h in vivo calcium imaging in the Drosophila brain and searched for circadian rhythmic activity among identified clusters of dopaminergic (DA) and peptidergic neurosecretory (NS) neurons. Such rhythms were widespread and imposed by the PERIOD-dependent clock activity within the ∼150-cell circadian pacemaker network. The rhythms displayed either a morning (M), evening (E), or mid-day (MD) phase. Different subgroups of circadian pacemakers imposed neural activity rhythms onto different downstream non-clock neurons. Outputs from the canonical M and E pacemakers converged to regulate DA-PPM3 and DA-PAL neurons. E pacemakers regulate the evening-active DA-PPL1 neurons. In addition to these canonical M and E oscillators, we present evidence for a third dedicated phase occurring at mid-day: the l-LNv pacemakers present the MD activity peak, and they regulate the MD-active DA-PPM1/2 neurons and three distinct NS cell types. Thus, the Drosophila circadian pacemaker network is a polyphasic rhythm generator. It presents dedicated M, E, and MD phases that are functionally transduced as neuronal outputs to organize diverse daily activity patterns in downstream circuits.


Assuntos
Relógios Circadianos , Proteínas de Drosophila , Animais , Drosophila melanogaster/fisiologia , Atividade Motora/fisiologia , Ritmo Circadiano/fisiologia , Drosophila/fisiologia , Proteínas de Drosophila/genética , Proteínas de Drosophila/metabolismo , Neurônios Dopaminérgicos/metabolismo
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