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1.
Molecules ; 26(16)2021 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34443428

RESUMO

Ellagic acid (EA) is a natural dietary polyphenol that has many beneficial properties, including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antiviral, antibacterial, and neuroprotective effects. Studies have revealed that EA may modulate seizure activity in chemically induced animal models of seizures. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of EA on the seizure threshold in two acute seizure tests in male mice, i.e., in the intravenous (i.v.) pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) seizure test and in the maximal electroshock seizure threshold (MEST) test. The obtained results showed that EA (100 mg/kg) significantly elevated the threshold for both the first myoclonic twitch and generalized clonic seizure in the i.v. PTZ seizure test. At the highest dose tested (200 mg/kg), EA increased the threshold for tonic hindlimb extension in the MEST test. EA did not produce any significant changes in motor coordination (assessed in the chimney test) or muscular strength (investigated in the grip-strength test). The plasma and total brain concentration-time profiles of EA after intraperitoneal and oral administration were also determined. Although further studies are necessary to confirm the anticonvulsant activity of EA, our findings suggest that it may modulate seizure susceptibility in animal models.


Assuntos
Ácido Elágico/uso terapêutico , Convulsões/tratamento farmacológico , Doença Aguda , Animais , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Ácido Elágico/sangue , Ácido Elágico/farmacologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Atividade Motora/efeitos dos fármacos , Força Muscular/efeitos dos fármacos , Pentilenotetrazol , Convulsões/sangue , Convulsões/induzido quimicamente
2.
BMJ ; 374: n1743, 2021 08 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34348957

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To examine multiple objective and self-reported measures of motor function for their associations with mortality. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: UK based Whitehall II cohort study, which recruited participants aged 35-55 years in 1985-88; motor function component was added at the 2007-09 wave. PARTICIPANTS: 6194 participants with motor function measures in 2007-09 (mean age 65.6, SD 5.9), 2012-13, and 2015-16. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: All cause mortality between 2007 and 2019 in relation to objective measures (walking speed, grip strength, and timed chair rises) and self-reported measures (physical component summary score of the SF-36 and limitations in basic and instrumental activities of daily living (ADL)) of motor function. RESULTS: One sex specific standard deviation poorer motor function in 2007-09 (cases/total, 610/5645) was associated with an increased mortality risk of 22% (95% confidence interval 12% to 33%) for walking speed, 15% (6% to 25%) for grip strength, 14% (7% to 23%) for timed chair rises, and 17% (8% to 26%) for physical component summary score over a mean 10.6 year follow-up. Having basic/instrumental ADL limitations was associated with a 30% (7% to 58%) increased mortality risk. These associations were progressively stronger when measures were drawn from 2012-13 (mean follow-up 6.8 years) and 2015-16 (mean follow-up 3.7 years). Analysis of trajectories showed poorer motor function in decedents (n=484) than survivors (n=6194) up to 10 years before death for timed chair rises (standardised difference 0.35, 95% confidence interval 0.12 to 0.59; equivalent to a 1.2 (men) and 1.3 (women) second difference), nine years for walking speed (0.21, 0.05 to 0.36; 5.5 (men) and 5.3 (women) cm/s difference), six years for grip strength (0.10, 0.01 to 0.20; 0.9 (men) and 0.6 (women) kg difference), seven years for physical component summary score (0.15, 0.05 to 0.25; 1.2 (men) and 1.6 (women) score difference), and four years for basic/instrumental ADL limitations (prevalence difference 2%, 0% to 4%). These differences increased in the period leading to death for timed chair rises, physical component summary score, and ADL limitations. CONCLUSION: Motor function in early old age has a robust association with mortality, with evidence of terminal decline emerging early in measures of overall motor function (timed chair rises and physical component summary score) and late in basic/instrumental ADL limitations.


Assuntos
Força da Mão/fisiologia , Atividade Motora/fisiologia , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Velocidade de Caminhada/fisiologia , Atividades Cotidianas , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Autorrelato , Taxa de Sobrevida , Fatores de Tempo , Reino Unido
3.
J Acoust Soc Am ; 150(1): 551, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34340511

RESUMO

The aim of the present study is to determine which acoustic components of harmonic consonance and dissonance influence automatic responses in a simple cognitive task. In a series of affective priming experiments, eight pairs of musical intervals were used to measure the influence of acoustic roughness and harmonicity on response times in a word-classification task conducted online. Interval pairs that contrasted in roughness induced a greater degree of affective priming than pairs that did not contrast in terms of their roughness. Contrasts in harmonicity did not induce affective priming. A follow-up experiment used detuned intervals to create higher levels of roughness contrasts. However, the detuning did not lead to any further increase in the size of the priming effect. More detailed analysis suggests that the presence of priming in intervals is binary: in the negative primes that create congruency effects the intervals' fundamentals and overtones coincide within the same equivalent rectangular bandwidth (i.e., the minor and major seconds). Intervals that fall outside this equivalent rectangular bandwidth do not elicit priming effects, regardless of their dissonance or negative affect. The results are discussed in the context of recent developments in consonance/dissonance research and vocal similarity.


Assuntos
Música , Acústica , Atividade Motora , Tempo de Reação
4.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1492, 2021 08 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34340663

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Research indicates that childhood motor competence (MC) can predict physical activity (PA) levels later in life and it has been argued that frequently engaging in a wide diversity of physical activities will eventually improve children's MC. However, no longitudinal or experimental studies have confirmed this theoretical rationale. The aims of this study are to explore the longitudinal associations between diversified physical activities at age six and later MC and PA (time spent in moderate-to-vigorous PA) (age nine and 13). Furthermore, we explore to what extent the longitudinal association between diversified physical activity and PA is mediated by MC. METHODS: Longitudinal data from the Copenhagen School Intervention Study were used for this analysis, where 704 participated (69% response rate). Diversified physical activity (self-reported), MC (The Körperkoordinationstest für Kinder battery of postural stability and locomotor skills) and PA (accelerometer) were assessed in the children at age six, age nine and age 13. A total of 654 participated in at least two of the measures and, therefore, were included in the analysis. Two structural equation models were constructed, with diversified physical activity at age six and MC and PA at age nine as predictors of PA and MC at age 13. RESULTS: The data from both models demonstrated good model fit. Diversified physical activity at 6 years of age was significantly associated with physical activity and MC at age 13, when adjusting for sex, age, intervention, weight, height, and previous levels of PA and MC. Diversified physical activity at age six was also positively associated with PA and MC at age nine, which were, in turn, positively related to PA at age 13 but to a lesser degree than diversified PA at age six. The association between diversified physical activity at age six and PA at age 13 was not mediated by MC at age nine. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study indicate that diversified physical activity at age six is important for the development of MC and PA in adolescence. Increasing the diversity of children's daily physical activities, not only the amount and intensity, seems important for future PA behavior and thereby health promotion in a life course perspective.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico , Destreza Motora , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Promoção da Saúde , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Atividade Motora
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360300

RESUMO

Self-determined motivation (SDT) and self-efficacy theory have been widely used for understanding individuals' physical activity motivation and self-efficacy. However, there is a gap of evidence on the relations between SDT and multidimensional self-efficacy with device-measured physical activity in healthy adults. Questionnaires including the behavior regulation in exercise questionnaire version 2 (BREQ-2) and the multidimensional self-efficacy for exercise scale (MSES) were completed by the participants at baseline. All participants wore an accelerometer for seven days to record their physical activities at baseline and eight-week follow up. In total, thirty healthy adults completed the study (12 men, 18 women). The results showed that intrinsic motivation and scheduling self-efficacy had significantly positive associations with moderate-to-vigorous physical activity energy expenditure and duration. Multiple regression analysis showed that the relative autonomy index, task and scheduling efficacy could predict physical activity at baseline, but no SDT or self-efficacy variable could predict physical activity behavior after eight weeks. These results showed that the associations between motivation and self-efficacy with physical activity might change within a short period of time, which suggests that the regular assessment of motivation and self-efficacy might be needed in interventional programs to promote continued physical activity participation in healthy adults.


Assuntos
Motivação , Autoeficácia , Adulto , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Atividade Motora , Autonomia Pessoal , Inquéritos e Questionários
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360395

RESUMO

Mass participation events are promoted in South Africa as a positive public health initiative. Parkrun has grown to be one of the most popular. The present study identifies the motives of residents in the Western Cape Province to join parkrun and how their involvement influences future physical activity levels. Participants (N = 1787) completed a survey consisting of demographic history, parkrun participation history, motivations for participation, and physical activity-related behaviour changes associated with parkrun participation. The majority of participants were female (n = 952) and over 50 years of age (median = 50; IQR = 38-59). Along with health-related benefits, the provision of a safe and organised event was reported as a key motive to participate. The social connectedness developed by parkrun encouraged continued participation and promoted uptake of more physical activity. Close to half the participants reported increases in physical activity levels after joining parkrun, which demonstrates the benefit obtained from participation in structured mass participation events. With the large diversity in socioeconomic status in South Africa related to physical activity levels, parkrun provides a protected and engaging environment that provides opportunity for increased physical activity and potentially reducing the burden on the healthcare system.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico , Motivação , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Atividade Motora , Saúde Pública , África do Sul
7.
BMJ Open ; 11(8): e049122, 2021 08 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34373307

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine height changes in middle-aged northern European women in relation to overall and cardiovascular mortality. DESIGN: Population-based cohort studies with longitudinally measured heights and register-based mortality. SETTING: Sweden and Denmark. PARTICIPANTS: Population-based samples of 2406 Swedish and Danish women born on selected years in 1908-1952, recruited to baseline examinations at ages 30-60, and re-examined 10-13 years later. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Total and cardiovascular disease (CVD) specific mortality during 17-19 years of follow-up after last height measure. RESULTS: For each 1 cm height loss during 10-13 years, the HR (95% CI) for total mortality was 1.14 (1.05 to 1.23) in Swedish women and 1.21 (1.09 to 1.35) in Danish women, independent of key covariates. Low height and high leisure time physical activity at baseline were protective of height loss, independent of age. Considering total mortality, the HR for major height loss, defined as height loss greater than 2 cm, were 1.74 (1.32 to 2.29) in Swedish women and 1.80 (1.27 to 2.54) in Danish women. Pooled analyses indicated that height loss was monotonically associated with an increased mortality, confirming a significant effect above 2 cm height loss. For cause-specific mortality, major height loss was associated with a HR of 2.31 (1.09 to 4.87) for stroke mortality, 2.14 (1.47 to 3.12) for total CVD mortality and 1.71 (1.28 to 2.29) for mortality due to causes other than CVD. CONCLUSION: Height loss is a marker for excess mortality in northern European women. Specifically the hazard of CVD mortality is increased in women with height loss during middle age, and the results suggest that the strongest cause-specific endpoint may be stroke mortality. The present findings suggest attention to height loss in early and mid-adulthood to identify women at high risk of CVD, and that regular physical activity may prevent early onset height loss.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade , Atividade Motora , Fatores de Risco , Suécia/epidemiologia
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444253

RESUMO

Sufficient daily physical activity is associated with many positive mental, physical, and societal benefits in children. Unfortunately, most children worldwide do not achieve recommended levels of daily physical activity (PA), and a majority of evidence is from Western countries and based on subjective measures. This study examined the prevalence and correlates of objectively measured PA levels among Omani children in 2017 (pre-pandemic). A two-stage cluster sampling was used to recruit the 4th grade children across five regions of Oman. A final analytic sample included 1053 children (504 boys, 549 girls) with a mean age of 9.21 years old. PA was objectively measured using a wrist-worn Polar Active Watch during three consecutive school days. Screen-based sedentary behaviors and other PA-related behaviors were subjectively measured. On average, boys were less sedentary and more active, with a greater likelihood of meeting current recommendations when compared with girls. The self-reported time spent in screen-based sedentary behaviors was relatively low for both boys and girls and was not associated with PA; however, sports team participation was associated with a greater likelihood of meeting the current recommendation. The present study provides empirical data on objectively measured PA in Omani children. The gender disparities concerning daily PA, including sports team participation, should receive further attention.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico , Esportes , Acelerometria , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Atividade Motora , Instituições Acadêmicas , Comportamento Sedentário
9.
Molecules ; 26(14)2021 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299631

RESUMO

Efficient repetitive clinical use of morphine is limited by its numerous side effects, whereas analgesic tolerance necessitates subsequent increases in morphine dose to achieve adequate levels of analgesia. While many studies focused on analgesic tolerance, the effect of morphine dosing on non-analgesic effects has been overlooked. This study aimed to characterize morphine-induced behavior and the development and progression of morphine-induced behavioral tolerance. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were repetitively treated with subcutaneous morphine for 14 days in two dose groups (A: 5 mg/kg/day (b.i.d.) → 10 mg/kg/day; B: 10 mg/kg/day (b.i.d.) → 20 mg/kg/day). Motor behavior was assessed daily (distance traveled, speed, moving time, rearing, rotation) in an open-field arena, before and 30 min post-injections. Antinociception was measured using tail-flick and hot-plate assays. All measured parameters were highly suppressed in both dosing groups on the first treatment day, followed by a gradual manifestation of behavioral tolerance as the treatment progressed. Animals in the high-dose group showed increased locomotor activity after 10 days of morphine treatment. This excitatory phase converted to an inhibition of behavior when a higher morphine dose was introduced. We suggest that the excitatory locomotor effects of repetitive high-dose morphine exposure represent a signature of its behavioral and antinociceptive tolerance.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides/farmacologia , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Morfina/farmacologia , Atividade Motora/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Masculino , Dor/tratamento farmacológico , Dor/fisiopatologia , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
10.
Eur J Neurosci ; 54(4): 5327-5340, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34273137

RESUMO

Dopamine D1 receptors play an important role in the effects of cocaine. Here, we investigated the role of neurons which express these receptors (D1-neurons) in the acute locomotor effects of cocaine and the locomotor sensitization observed after a second injection of this drug, using the previously established two-injection protocol of sensitization. We inhibited D1-neurons using double transgenic mice conditionally expressing the inhibitory Gi-coupled designer receptor exclusively activated by designer drugs (Gi-DREADD) in D1-neurons. Chemogenetic inhibition of D1-neurons by a low dose of clozapine (0.1 mg/kg) decreased the cocaine-induced expression of Fos in striatal neurons. It diminished the basal locomotor activity and acute hyper-locomotion induced by cocaine (20 mg/kg). Clozapine 0.1 mg/kg had no effect by itself and did not alter cocaine effects in wild-type mice. Inhibition of D1-neurons during the first cocaine administration prevented the sensitization of the locomotor response in response to a second cocaine administration 10 days later. On Day 11, inhibition of D1-neurons by clozapine stimulation of Gi-DREADD blocked cocaine-induced locomotion including in sensitized mice, whereas on Day 12, in the absence of clozapine and D1-neurons inhibition, all mice displayed a sensitized response to cocaine. These results show that chemogenetic inhibition of D1-neurons decreases spontaneous and cocaine-induced locomotor activity. It prevents sensitization induction and blocks sensitized locomotion in a two-injection protocol of sensitization but does not reverse established sensitization. Our study further supports the central role of D1-neurons in mediating the acute locomotor effects of cocaine and its sensitization.


Assuntos
Cocaína , Animais , Cocaína/farmacologia , Corpo Estriado/metabolismo , Inibidores da Captação de Dopamina/farmacologia , Camundongos , Atividade Motora , Neurônios/metabolismo , Receptores de Dopamina D1/metabolismo
11.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(14)2021 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34300515

RESUMO

Combining accelerometry from multiple independent activity monitors worn by the same subject have gained widespread interest with the assessment of physical activity behavior. However, a difference in the real time clock accuracy of the activity monitor introduces a substantial temporal misalignment with long duration recordings which is commonly not considered. In this study, a novel method not requiring human interaction is described for the temporal alignment of triaxial acceleration measured with two independent activity monitors and evaluating the performance with the misalignment manually identified. The method was evaluated with free-living recordings using both combined wrist/hip (n = 9) and thigh/hip device (n = 30) wear locations, and descriptive data on initial offset and accumulated day 7 drift in a large-scale population-based study (n = 2513) were calculated. The results from the Bland-Altman analysis show good agreement between the proposed algorithm and the reference suggesting that the described method is valid for reducing the temporal misalignment and thus reduce the measurement error with aggregated data. Applying the algorithm to the n = 2513 samples worn for 7-days suggest a wide and substantial issue with drift over time when each subject wears two independent activity monitors.


Assuntos
Acelerometria , Monitores de Aptidão Física , Aceleração , Humanos , Atividade Motora , Punho
12.
Redox Biol ; 45: 102054, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34198070

RESUMO

Nucleoredoxin is a thioredoxin-like redoxin that has been recognized as redox modulator of WNT signaling. Using a Yeast-2-Hybrid screen, we identified calcium calmodulin kinase 2a, Camk2a, as a prominent prey in a brain library. Camk2a is crucial for nitric oxide dependent processes of neuronal plasticity of learning and memory. Therefore, the present study assessed functions of NXN in neuronal Nestin-NXN-/- deficient mice. The NXN-Camk2a interaction was confirmed by coimmunoprecipitation, and by colocalization in neuropil and dendritic spines. Functionally, Camk2a activity was reduced in NXN deficient neurons and restored with recombinant NXN. Proteomics revealed reduced oxidation in the hippocampus of Nestin-NXN-/- deficient mice, including Camk2a, further synaptic and mitochondrial proteins, and was associated with a reduction of mitochondrial respiration. Nestin-NXN-/- mice were healthy and behaved normally in behavioral tests of anxiety, activity and sociability. They had no cognitive deficits in touchscreen based learning & memory tasks, but omitted more trials showing a lower interest in the reward. They also engaged less in rewarding voluntary wheel running, and in exploratory behavior in IntelliCages. Accuracy was enhanced owing to the loss of exploration. The data suggested that NXN maintained the oxidative state of Camk2a and thereby its activity. In addition, it supported oxidation of other synaptic and mitochondrial proteins, and mitochondrial respiration. The loss of NXN-dependent pro-oxidative functions manifested in a loss of exploratory drive and reduced interest in reward in behaving mice.


Assuntos
Comportamento Exploratório , Atividade Motora , Oxirredutases/genética , Animais , Proteína Quinase Tipo 2 Dependente de Cálcio-Calmodulina , Hipocampo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Nestina , Neurônios
13.
Gene ; 799: 145811, 2021 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34224829

RESUMO

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common neurodegenerative disorder with motor symptoms linked to the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the brain. α-Synuclein is an aggregation-prone neural protein that plays a role in the pathogenesis of PD. In our previous paper, we found that saffron; the stigma of Crocus sativus Linné (Iridaceae), and its constituents (crocin and crocetin) suppressed aggregation of α-synuclein and promoted the dissociation of α-synuclein fibrils in vitro. In this study, we investigated the effect of dietary saffron and its constituent, crocetin, in vivo on a fly PD model overexpressing several mutant α-synuclein in a tissue-specific manner. Saffron and crocetin significantly suppressed the decrease of climbing ability in the Drosophila overexpressing A30P (A30P fly PD model) or G51D (G51D fly PD model) mutated α-synuclein in neurons. Saffron and crocetin extended the life span in the G51D fly PD model. Saffron suppressed the rough-eyed phenotype and the dispersion of the size histogram of the ocular long axis in the eye of A30P fly PD model. Saffron had a cytoprotective effect on a human neuronal cell line with α-synuclein fibrils. These data showed that saffron and its constituent crocetin have protective effects on the progression of PD disease in animals in vivo and suggest that saffron and crocetin can be used to treat PD.


Assuntos
Carotenoides/farmacologia , Crocus/química , Atividade Motora/efeitos dos fármacos , Doença de Parkinson/etiologia , Degeneração Retiniana/tratamento farmacológico , Vitamina A/análogos & derivados , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados , Linhagem Celular , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Drosophila melanogaster/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Longevidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Mutação , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurônios/patologia , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Doença de Parkinson/tratamento farmacológico , Degeneração Retiniana/etiologia , Degeneração Retiniana/fisiopatologia , Vitamina A/farmacologia , alfa-Sinucleína/genética , alfa-Sinucleína/metabolismo , alfa-Sinucleína/toxicidade
14.
Soc Sci Med ; 284: 114235, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34311392

RESUMO

The increasing ubiquity of smartphones provides a potential new data source to capture physical activity behaviours. Though not designed as a research tool, these secondary data have the potential to capture a large population over a more extensive spatial area and with longer temporality than current methods afford. This paper uses one such secondary data source from a commercial app designed to incentivise activity. We explore the new insights these data provide, alongside the sociodemographic profile of those using physical activity apps, to gain insight into both physical activity behaviour and determinants of app usage in order to evaluate the suitability of the app in providing insights into the physical activity of the population. We find app usage to be higher in females, those aged 25-50, and users more likely to live in areas where a higher proportion of the population are of a lower socioeconomic status. We ascertain longer-term patterns of app usage with increasing age and more male users reaching physical activity guideline recommendations despite longer daily activity duration recorded by female users. Additionally, we identify key weekly and seasonal trends in physical activity. This is one of the first studies to utilise a large volume of secondary physical activity app data to co-investigate usage alongside activity behaviour captured.


Assuntos
Aplicativos Móveis , Smartphone , Demografia , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Atividade Motora
15.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(14)2021 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299230

RESUMO

The precise neural mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of depression are largely unknown, though stress-induced brain inflammation and serotonergic plasticity are thought to be centrally involved. Moreover, we previously demonstrated that neuropeptide FF receptor 2 (NPFFR2) overexpression provokes depressive-like behaviors in mice. Here, we assess whether NPFFR2 is involved in priming of depressive-like behaviors and downregulation of serotonergic 1A receptor (5HT1AR) after lipopolysaccharide (LPS) treatment. The forced swimming test (FST) and sucrose preference test (SPT) were used to quantify depressive-like phenotypes in wild-type (WT) and NPFFR2-knockout (KO) mice. A single dose of LPS (i.p. 1 mg/kg) readily caused increases in toll-like receptor 4 and tumor necrosis factor-α along with decreases in 5-HT1AR mRNA in the ventral hippocampus of WT mice. Furthermore, LPS treatment of WT mice increased immobility time in FST and decreased sucrose preference in SPT. In contrast, none of these effects were observed in NPFFR2-KO mice. While WT mice injected with lentiviral 5-HT1AR shRNA in the ventral hippocampus displayed an unaltered response after LPS challenge, LPS-challenged NPFFR2-KO mice displayed a profound decrease in sucrose preference when pretreated with 5-HT1AR shRNA. Taken together, these results suggest that NPFFR2 modulates LPS-induced depressive-like behavioral phenotypes by downregulating 5HT1AR in the ventral hippocampus.


Assuntos
Depressão/genética , Receptor 5-HT1A de Serotonina/metabolismo , Receptores de Neuropeptídeos/genética , Animais , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Depressão/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Lipopolissacarídeos/efeitos adversos , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Atividade Motora/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptor 5-HT1A de Serotonina/genética , Receptores de Neuropeptídeos/metabolismo , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
16.
Curr Sports Med Rep ; 20(7): 374-383, 2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34234093

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Children with obesity experience musculoskeletal pain and reduced physical function and well-being, which collectively impact their fitness, strength, motor skills, and even their ability to undertake simple tasks, like walking and climbing stairs. Disrupting obesity-related disability may be critical to increasing children's physical activity. Thus, barriers to movement should be considered by health practitioners to improve the efficacy of prescribed physical activity. This applied clinical review highlights key subjective and objective findings from a hypothetical case scenario, linking those findings to the research evidence, before exploring strategies to enhance movement and increase physical activity.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico , Obesidade Pediátrica/reabilitação , Aptidão Física , Actigrafia/estatística & dados numéricos , Ciclismo , Criança , Teste de Esforço , Feminino , Pé Chato/diagnóstico , Análise da Marcha , Geno Valgo/diagnóstico , Letramento em Saúde , Humanos , Atividade Motora , Destreza Motora , Movimento , Força Muscular , Dor Musculoesquelética/diagnóstico , Obesidade Pediátrica/complicações , Exame Físico , Família de Pais Solteiros , Natação
17.
Commun Biol ; 4(1): 863, 2021 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34267313

RESUMO

Organisms comprise multiple interacting parts, but few quantitative studies have analysed multi-element systems, limiting understanding of phenotypic evolution. We investigate how disparity of vertebral morphology varies along the axial column of mammalian carnivores - a chain of 27 subunits - and the extent to which morphological variation have been structured by evolutionary constraints and locomotory adaptation. We find that lumbars and posterior thoracics exhibit high individual disparity but low serial differentiation. They are pervasively recruited into locomotory functions and exhibit relaxed evolutionary constraint. More anterior vertebrae also show signals of locomotory adaptation, but nevertheless have low individual disparity and constrained patterns of evolution, characterised by low-dimensional shape changes. Our findings demonstrate the importance of the thoracolumbar region as an innovation enabling evolutionary versatility of mammalian locomotion. Moreover, they underscore the complexity of phenotypic macroevolution of multi-element systems and that the strength of ecomorphological signal does not have a predictable influence on macroevolutionary outcomes.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica/fisiologia , Evolução Biológica , Carnivoridade/fisiologia , Locomoção/fisiologia , Mamíferos/fisiologia , Coluna Vertebral/fisiologia , Análise de Variância , Animais , Atividade Motora/fisiologia , Coluna Vertebral/anatomia & histologia , Coluna Vertebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Fatores de Tempo , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Microtomografia por Raio-X
18.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 30(9): 105961, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34247054

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Oral problems affect rehabilitation outcomes. This study aimed to examine the association between improvement in oral health and functional outcomes in patients after stroke. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective cohort study included post-acute rehabilitation patients who presented with oral problems at admission. Oral problems were assessed using the Revised Oral Assessment Guide (ROAG). The ROAG score change during hospitalization was calculated by subtracting the score at admission from the score at discharge; oral problems were defined as "improved", when the score change value was lower than the median value. Study outcomes were the activities of daily living assessed by the motor domain of the Functional Independence Measure (FIM-motor) scores and dysphagia as assessed by the Food Intake Level Scale (FILS). Multivariate regression analyses were used to determine whether improved oral problems were associated with study outcomes. P-values of <0.05 were considered statistically significant. RESULTS: This study included 300 patients (mean age, 72.0 years; 51.7% men). The median [IQR] baseline ROAG score and its change value during hospitalization were 11 [10, 14] and -1[-3, 0] points, respectively. Multivariate analyses showed that improved oral problems was independently associated with FIM-motor score (ß = 0.144, p = 0.001) and FILS score (ß = 0.227, p < 0.001) at discharge, after adjusting for potential confounders. CONCLUSIONS: Improvement in oral health was positively associated with recovery of the ADL and dysphagia after stroke. Early detection of oral problems and oral treatment should be implemented in these patients to maximize functional recovery.


Assuntos
Atividades Cotidianas , Transtornos de Deglutição/terapia , Deglutição , Saúde Bucal , Higiene Bucal , Reabilitação do Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/terapia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Transtornos de Deglutição/diagnóstico , Transtornos de Deglutição/etiologia , Transtornos de Deglutição/fisiopatologia , Ingestão de Alimentos , Feminino , Estado Funcional , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Atividade Motora , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Estudos Retrospectivos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 30(9): 105987, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34273708

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The 10-O-(N N-dimethylaminoethyl)-ginkgolide B methane-sulfonate (XQ-1H) is an effective novel drug for the treatment of ischemic cerebrovascular disease derived from Ginkgolide B, a traditional Chinese medicine, has been widely used in the treatment of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. However, whether XQ-1H exerts neuroprotective effect via regulating neuronal apoptosis and the underlying mechanism remain to be elucidated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study was aimed to investigate the neuroprotective effect of XQ-1H in rats subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion/reperfusion (MCAO/R) and the oxygen glucose deprivation/reoxygenation (OGD/R) induced neuronal apoptosis on pheochromocytoma (PC-12) cells. RESULTS: The results showed that administration of XQ-1H at different dosage (7.8, 15.6, 31.2 mg/kg) reduced the brain infarct and edema, attenuated the neuro-behavioral dysfunction, and improved cell morphology in brain tissue after MCAO/R in rats. Moreover, incubation with XQ-1H (1 µM, 3 µM, 10 µM, 50 µM, 100 µM) could increase the cell viability, and showed no toxic effect to PC-12 cells. XQ-1H at following 1 µM, 10 µM, 100 µM decreased the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity and suppressed the cell apoptosis in PC-12 cells exposed to OGD/R. In addition, XQ-1H treatment could significantly inhibit caspase-3 activation both in vivo and in vitro, reciprocally modulate the expression of apoptosis related proteins, bcl-2, and bax via activating PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. For mechanism verification, LY294002, the inhibitor of PI3K/Akt pathway was introduced the expressions of bcl-2 and phosphorylated Akt were down-regulated, the expression of bax was up-regulated, indicating that XQ-1H could alleviate the cell apoptosis through activating the PI3K/Akt pathway. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings demonstrated that XQ-1H treatment could provide a neuroprotective effect against ischemic stroke induced by cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury in vivo and in vitro through regulating neuronal survival and inhibiting apoptosis. The findings of the study confirmed that XQ-1H could be develop as a potential drug for treatment of cerebral ischemic stroke.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Ginkgolídeos/farmacologia , Infarto da Artéria Cerebral Média/tratamento farmacológico , Lactonas/farmacologia , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/prevenção & controle , Animais , Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/metabolismo , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Encéfalo/patologia , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Edema Encefálico/metabolismo , Edema Encefálico/patologia , Edema Encefálico/prevenção & controle , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Infarto da Artéria Cerebral Média/metabolismo , Infarto da Artéria Cerebral Média/patologia , Infarto da Artéria Cerebral Média/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Atividade Motora/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurônios/metabolismo , Neurônios/patologia , Células PC12 , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/metabolismo , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/patologia , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/fisiopatologia , Transdução de Sinais
20.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 30(9): 105984, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34311419

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Arm reaching training in standing for several weeks affects the postural control of individuals recovering from cerebrovascular accident (CVA). Whether these effects differ with the side of the brain lesion are unknown. OBJECTIVES: To examine the immediate effects of a training session of arm reaching movements on the balance and trunk motion of individuals who suffered a right or left CVA. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-six adults divided into four groups (i.e., right CVA, left CVA, right control, and left control) performed 120 reaches in a standing position toward one of three target heights. Before and after the reaching trials, participants stood as quiet as possible on two force plates and had their postural sway, trunk motion, and body weight distribution assessed. RESULTS: CVA groups showed greater postural sway regardless of the brain lesion's side compared to the control groups. After the session of reaching movements, the left stroke group reduced the postural sway and trunk displacements. Larger ranges of weight-bearing asymmetry were more frequent after the training session, mainly for the right stroke group. CONCLUSIONS: A single session training of reaching movements affects mostly the postural control of left stroke survivors. More training sessions may be needed for individuals after right stroke to show balance improvements. The current findings support the hemispheric specialization for postural control and suggest that the training involving arm movements in standing can benefit the motor rehabilitation of stroke individuals.


Assuntos
Terapia por Exercício , Lateralidade Funcional , Atividade Motora , Equilíbrio Postural , Posição Ortostática , Reabilitação do Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/terapia , Extremidade Superior/inervação , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Suporte de Carga
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