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1.
Clin Geriatr Med ; 39(1): 77-90, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36404034

RESUMO

Diagnosis of dementia requires a detailed history, physical examination, imaging, and sometimes neuropsychological testing or ancillary tests. Mild cognitive impairment is defined as an objective impairment in cognitive performance but preserved ability to do activities of daily living. Dementia is diagnosed once impairment in activities of daily living develops. Common types of dementia covered here include mild cognitive impairment, Alzheimer's disease, Lewy body dementia, frontotemporal dementia, the primary progressive aphasias, and vascular dementia.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Disfunção Cognitiva , Doença por Corpos de Lewy , Humanos , Atividades Cotidianas , Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Doença por Corpos de Lewy/diagnóstico , Doença de Alzheimer/diagnóstico
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36396448

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Complement regulatory proteins at the neuromuscular junction (NMJ) could offer protection against complement-mediated damage in myasthenia gravis (MG). However, there is limited information on their expression at the human NMJ. Thus, this study aimed at investigating the expression of the cluster of differentiation 59 (CD59) at the NMJ of human muscle specimens and demonstrating the overexpression of CD59 mRNA and protein in the muscles of patients with MG. METHODS: In this observational study, muscle specimens from 16 patients with MG (9 and 7 patients with and without thymoma, respectively) and 6 nonmyopathy control patients were examined. Immunohistochemical stains, Western blot analysis, and quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR were used to evaluate the CD59 expression. RESULTS: A strong localized expression of CD59 was observed at the NMJ in both patients with and without MG. Moreover, the CD59/glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase protein ratio in patients with MG was significantly higher than that in the nonmyopathy controls (MG; n = 16, median 0.16, interquartile range (IQR) 0.08-0.26 and nonmyopathy controls; n = 6, median 0.03, IQR 0.02-0.11, p = 0.01). The proportion of CD59 mRNA expression relative to AChR mRNA expression (ΔCtCD59/AChR) was associated with the quantitative MG score, MG activities of daily living score, and MG of Foundation of America Clinical Classification (r = 0.663, p = 0.01; r = 0.638, p = 0.014; and r = 0.715, p = 0.003, respectively). DISCUSSION: CD59, which acts as a complement regulator, may protect the NMJ from complement attack. Our findings could provide a basis for further research that investigates the underlying pathogenesis in MG and the immunomodulating interactions of the muscle cells.


Assuntos
Miastenia Gravis Autoimune Experimental , Neoplasias do Timo , Animais , Humanos , Miastenia Gravis Autoimune Experimental/genética , Miastenia Gravis Autoimune Experimental/metabolismo , Antígenos CD59/genética , Antígenos CD59/metabolismo , Atividades Cotidianas , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Proteínas do Sistema Complemento/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo
3.
Arch Gerontol Geriatr ; 104: 104830, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36257162

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Changes in memory can interfere with activities of daily living and may be indicative of serious health concerns such as mild cognitive impairment or dementia. Risk factors for cognitive decline and dementia have been shown to cluster around inequalities, suggesting that minority groups may be at an increased risk for cognitive decline. We sought to clarify the relationship between social determinants and change in memory function over a 3-year follow-up period, after accounting for demographic and health variables. METHODS: We used baseline and first follow-up data from the Canadian Longitudinal Study on Aging (CLSA). Our primary analysis consisted of a multivariable linear regression model (n = 30,475). Demographic, health, education and occupation, social support, social identity, and social positioning variables (predictors) were measured at baseline. We computed a reliable change index (outcome) using the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT). RESULTS: Older age and some health considerations (e.g., higher body mass index, low hearing) were associated with a greater decline in memory over the three-year period. In contrast, some physical activity and better self-rated general health were associated with improvements in memory. Having a hobby and better perceived social standing were associated with greater memory improvement. Social identities who experience minority stress (sexual orientation, gender identity, and race) did not predict change in memory. DISCUSSION: Altogether, these results contribute to a growing body of evidence that points to older members of minoritized communities exhibiting initial differences in cognitive functioning (i.e., cross-sectional differences) but not more rapid cognitive aging.


Assuntos
Demência , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , Estudos Longitudinais , Estudos Transversais , Seguimentos , Atividades Cotidianas , Identidade de Gênero , Canadá/epidemiologia , Envelhecimento/psicologia
4.
Arch Gerontol Geriatr ; 104: 104804, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36084607

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Since there is limited knowledge with regard to the frequency and correlates of mild cognitive impairment and dementia among the oldest old based on large representative data (including institutionalized individuals), our objective was to fill this research gap. METHODS: For our study, data came from the representative "Survey on quality of life and subjective well-being of the very old in North Rhine-Westphalia (NRW80+)". This study included community-dwelling and institutionalized individuals aged 80 years and over (n = 1,173, mean age: 86 years) residing in the most populous state of Germany (North Rhine-Westphalia). The DemTect was used to quantify cognitive impairment (i.e., probable mild cognitive impairment and probable dementia). RESULTS: Overall, 73.1% of the individuals were not cognitively impaired, 17.0% of the individuals had probable mild cognitive impairment and 9.9% of the individuals had probable dementia. Compared to individuals without cognitive impairment, individuals with probable mild cognitive impairment were more likely to be male, live in an institutionalized setting, have a lower educational level, have a smaller network size, and have lower functional abilities. Moreover, compared to individuals without cognitive impairment, individuals with probable dementia were more likely to be older, live in an institutionalized setting, have a lower educational level, have a smaller network size, not be multimorbid, and have lower functional abilities. CONCLUSIONS: Our study identified several sociodemographic and health-related factors which are associated with probable mild cognitive impairment and probable dementia among the oldest old. This knowledge may help to address individuals at risk for mild cognitive impairment and dementia.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva , Demência , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Masculino , Humanos , Feminino , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Demência/epidemiologia , Demência/psicologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Atividades Cotidianas
5.
Arch Gerontol Geriatr ; 104: 104803, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36088747

RESUMO

The Japan-Multimodal Intervention Trial for Prevention of Dementia PRIME Tamba (J-MINT PRIME Tamba) is a randomised controlled trial to prevent cognitive decline in community-dwelling cognitively ordinary older people at risk of dementia. Participants are aged 65-85 years living in a rural area in Japan, aware of very mild decline in cognitive function or abilities of activities of daily living, have at least one vascular risk (e.g. hypertension or diabetes), and have a Mini-Mental State Examination score of 24 or higher. Approximately 200 participants are randomly divided into two groups, with the intervention group receiving a multi-modal intervention, including lifestyle-related disease management, physical exercise, cognitive training, and nutritional counselling, over 18 months. The primary outcome is change in the composite score of seven neuropsychological tests, including the Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test, Logical Memory I and II subsets of the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised, and Digit Symbol Substitution Test of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale. In addition, changes in a wide range of other parameters such as physical function, blood test results, sleep, and frailty are also analysed as secondary outcomes. We believe that this study's results will contribute significantly to the development of dementia prevention measures in Japan. Clinical trial registration number: UMIN000041938.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva , Demência , Mentha , Humanos , Idoso , Atividades Cotidianas , Japão , Disfunção Cognitiva/terapia , Cognição , Demência/prevenção & controle , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
6.
Health Aff (Millwood) ; 41(2): 219-227, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35130073

RESUMO

Theoretical research suggests that racialized felony disenfranchisement-a form of structural racism-is likely to undermine the health of Black people, yet empirical studies on the topic are scant. We used administrative data on disproportionate felony disenfranchisement of Black residents across US states, linked to geocoded individual-level health data from the 2016 Health and Retirement Study, to estimate race-specific regression models describing the relationship between racialized disenfranchisement and health among middle-aged and older adults, adjusting for other individual- and state-level factors. Results show that living in states with higher levels of racialized disenfranchisement is associated with more depressive symptoms, more functional limitations, more difficulty performing instrumental activities of daily living, and more difficulty performing activities of daily living among Black people. However, there are no statistically significant relationships between racialized disenfranchisement and health among White people. These findings suggest that policies aiming to mitigate disproportionate Black felony disenfranchisement not only are essential for political inclusion but also may be valuable tools for improving population health equity.


Assuntos
Equidade em Saúde , Saúde da População , Racismo , Atividades Cotidianas , Idoso , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estados Unidos
7.
Diagn. tratamento ; 27(4): 143-9, out-dez. 2022. tab, tab, tab, tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1399052

RESUMO

Contexto: Há alta prevalência de dependência funcional entre os idosos institucionalizados, entretanto, poucos estudos utilizaram testes de desempenho físico para mensurar a capacidade funcional do idoso. Objetivo: Analisar a prevalência e os fatores associados à baixa capacidade funcional em idosos institucionalizados. Tipo de estudo e local: Estudo transversal, com amostra por conveniência composta por 153 idosos residentes de seis instituições de longa permanência filantrópica do município de São Caetano do Sul. Métodos: Para determinar a escala de capacidade funcional, foi utilizada a circunferência da perna, flexão de cotovelo, velocidade de andar e marcha estacionária. As variáveis independentes foram sexo, idade, tempo de internação, medicamentos, depressão, estado cognitivo e nível de atividade física. Utilizou-se análise de regressão de Poisson com variância robusta para estimar a razão de prevalência (RP). Resultados: A prevalência de baixa capacidade funcional foi de 57%. A faixa etária > 80 anos (RP: 1,66; intervalo de confiança, IC 95%: 1,13­2,44), presença de déficit cognitivo (RP: 2,19; IC 95%:1,08­4,41), e baixo número de passos (RP: 5,39; IC 95%: 1,44­20,10) se associaram diretamente com a baixa capacidade funcional. No entanto, o excesso de peso (RP: 0,59; IC 95%: 0,39­0,89) e a obesidade (RP: 0,42; IC 95%:0,22­0,81) se associaram inversamente com a baixa capacidade funcional. Conclusão: O nível de atividade física, o estado cognitivo e a idade foram associados à baixa capacidade funcional. O índice de massa corporal foi inversamente associado com a baixa capacidade funcional.


Assuntos
Atividades Cotidianas , Envelhecimento , Exercício Físico , Aptidão Física , Instituição de Longa Permanência para Idosos
8.
Breastfeed Med ; 17(11): 926-931, 2022 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36378819

RESUMO

Background: Breastfeeding has various benefits for infants and mothers. However, if not performed in the correct posture, prolonged breastfeeding could cause musculoskeletal-related symptoms such as shoulder, neck, and upper back pain. In Jordan, nursing mothers do not have access to a breastfeeding midwifery team, a breastfeeding dietician, or a breastfeeding nurse for advice and education. The primary aim of this study was to explore nursing mothers' experiences of breastfeeding-related musculoskeletal pain; secondary aims were to explore nursing mothers' awareness of recommended breastfeeding postures and their experience of education and advice about breastfeeding postures. Methods: A cross-sectional mixed methods study was conducted with nursing mothers in Jordan who have breastfed their babies for 6 months or more following normal delivery, using an online survey questionnaire and semi-structured interviews. Participants were recruited through general practitioner clinics. Results: Four hundred ninety-three nursing mothers submitted the online questionnaire, and 12 interviews were completed. Nursing mothers reported experiencing nonspecific pain in lower back, neck, shoulder, and hand, attributed to breastfeeding. Pain in these joints affected mood, sleep, working ability, and quality of life by limiting activities of daily living. Findings showed that the majority of Jordanian nursing mothers did not receive education about safe or optimal breastfeeding positioning from health professionals. Conclusions: Nursing mothers in Jordan are not receiving appropriate education or advice about optimal postures for breastfeeding and have reported experiencing musculoskeletal pain, attributed to breastfeeding, that interferes with activities of daily living and affects quality of life. Postural education and advice should be provided to nursing mothers to prevent or avoid development of musculoskeletal pain.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno , Dor Musculoesquelética , Lactente , Feminino , Humanos , Dor Musculoesquelética/etiologia , Estudos Transversais , Qualidade de Vida , Atividades Cotidianas , Mães , Postura
9.
J Orthop Trauma ; 36(12): 658-664, 2022 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36399679

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate reliability of measurement techniques for syndesmosis position after operative fixation of distal tibia plafond fracture on weight-bearing computed tomography (WBCT), identify risk factors for syndesmosis malposition, and determine if syndesmosis malposition is associated with higher pain and lower physical function. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: Three Level 1 trauma centers. PARTICIPANTS: Twenty-six subjects who underwent open reduction and internal fixation of distal tibia plafond fractures with bilateral ankle WBCT 1 year or greater after injury were included in the study. INTERVENTION: Operative fixation of distal tibia plafond fracture. MAIN OUTCOME MEASUREMENT: Fibula position in the tibia incisura, injury characteristics, and patient-reported outcomes were the main outcome measurements. RESULTS: Interrater reliability for syndesmosis position measurements were excellent for the Phisitkul technique on both injured and healthy ankles (intraclass correlation coefficients [ICCs]: 0.93-0.98). The Nault technique demonstrated moderate-to-excellent interrater reliability (ICCs: 0.67-0.98), apart from the angle of rotation measurement (ICCs: 0.18-0.67). Sixteen of 26 subjects (62%) had syndesmosis malposition defined as >2 mm difference comparing the tibial-fibular relationship in injured and uninjured ankles using these 2 methods. Patients with syndesmosis malposition reported lower Foot and Ankle Ability Measure: Activities of Daily Living scores; other recorded patient-reported outcomes were not significantly different. CONCLUSIONS: Measurement techniques for syndesmosis position on WBCT were reliable after operative fixation of distal tibia plafond fracture. Syndesmosis malposition is common after these injuries and predicted impaired physical function. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Therapeutic Level IV. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.


Assuntos
Fraturas do Tornozelo , Traumatismos do Tornozelo , Fraturas da Tíbia , Humanos , Tíbia , Traumatismos do Tornozelo/diagnóstico por imagem , Traumatismos do Tornozelo/cirurgia , Suporte de Carga , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Atividades Cotidianas , Estudos Prospectivos , Fraturas do Tornozelo/diagnóstico por imagem , Fraturas do Tornozelo/cirurgia , Fraturas da Tíbia/diagnóstico por imagem , Fraturas da Tíbia/cirurgia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos
10.
BMJ Open ; 12(11): e062089, 2022 11 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36379644

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The global prevalence of Parkinsonism continues to rise given ageing populations. Individuals with Parkinsonism who have moderate or severe symptoms typically require a high level of care, including assistance with activities of daily living. This care is often provided across the 24-hour period by a family member or friend. It is likely that providing care significantly impacts the sleep duration and quality of the caregiver given overnight caring responsibilities, in addition to worry and stress associated with the caregiving role. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to investigate whether providing care to an individual with Parkinsonism was associated with disturbed caregiver sleep, and to identify associated factors that may contribute to disturbed sleep in this population. SETTING: Five databases were electronically searched on 30 June 2021 including CINAHL, PubMed, PsycINFO, CENTRAL and EMBASE. PARTICIPANTS: Eligibility criteria included a population of caregivers whose care recipient has a form of Parkinsonism. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: To be included in this systematic review, outcome measures of caregiver sleep (eg, sleep duration, sleep quality) were required. RESULTS: Eighteen studies (n=1998) were included. Findings indicated that caregivers of individuals with Parkinsonism typically experience poor sleep quality (mean (95% CI): 5.6 (4.8 to 6.4) points on the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index), increased sleep latency and poor sleep efficiency. CONCLUSIONS: The degree of poor sleep quality was clinically significant. However, further investigation of sleep outcomes is required using sleep measurement tools tailored for this population (eg, measures that capture overnight sleep disruption by care recipient/s). Additionally, there is a need for appropriate individual and societal-level interventions to improve caregiver sleep. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42021274529.


Assuntos
Transtornos Parkinsonianos , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília , Humanos , Cuidadores , Atividades Cotidianas , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/etiologia , Sono
11.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0277541, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36395145

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Stroke survivors often experience impaired mobility and physical functions. Tai Chi and Qigong have been shown to have physical and psychological benefits for stroke patients. PURPOSE: To summarize the evidence on Tai Chi and Qigong for improving mobility in stroke survivors, specifically the ability to walk, dynamic balance, and activities of daily living (ADL). METHODS: Independent searches of 16 electronic databases in English, Korean, and Chinese from their inception until December 2021 were conducted by two research teams. Methodological quality was assessed using Cochrane's risk of bias tool 2.0. Comprehensive Meta-Analysis 3.0 software was used to calculate effect sizes with subgroup analysis and to assess heterogeneity and publication bias. RESULTS: The meta-analysis included 27 randomized trials (18 with Tai Chi and 9 with Qigong) on stroke survivors (N = 1,919). None of the studies were considered at high risk of bias, about 70% had some concerns, and 30% were considered low risk. Meta-analysis of 27 randomized controlled trials with random-effects models indicated that Tai Chi and Qigong effectively improved mobility, specifically on the ability to walk (Hedges'g = 0.81), dynamic balance (Hedges'g = 1.04), and ADL (Hedges'g = 0.43). The effects of Tai Chi and Qigong were significant for short-term and long-term programs (Hedges'g 0.91 vs. 0.75), and when compared with active controls and no treatment group (Hedges'g 0.81 vs. 0.73). CONCLUSION: Tai Chi and Qigong performed for 12 weeks or less were effective in improving the mobility of stroke survivors. Further studies are warranted to assess whether Tai Chi and Qigong work best as an adjunct to rehabilitation, an effective alternative to rehabilitation or as a maintenance strategy, and whether the results could be further optimized by assessing different schools of Tai Chi and Qigong, different types of stroke patients, and different points in the post-stroke recovery process. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: This study has been registered on the UK National Institute for Health Research (http://www.crd.york.ac.uk/PROSPERO) PROSPERO registration number: CRD42020220277.


Assuntos
Qigong , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Tai Chi Chuan , Humanos , Atividades Cotidianas , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Sobreviventes , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/terapia
12.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0276967, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36395173

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Fear of falling has serious implications for health and is an important threat to autonomy. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to investigate risk factors for fear of falling among Palestinian older adults in Hebron district. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted among Palestinians > 60 years living in Hebron, West Bank. The Falls Efficacy Scale-International was used to predict falls among Palestinian older adults. Moreover, socio-demographic data, medical history, lifestyle habits, body composition, nutritional status, cognitive status (using the Montreal cognitive assessment tool), and functional status (using activities of daily living and instrumental activities of daily living scale), the presence of depressive symptoms (using geriatric depression scale), and physical fitness performance (using senior fitness test) were collected through an interview-based questionnaire. Data were analyzed using univariate and multivariate approach. RESULTS: A total of 200 participants were included in the study; 137 (68.5%) females and 63 (31.5%) males. Mean age was 70.5 ± 5.7 years, ranged from 65 to 98 years old. Fear of falling was significantly higher among older adults with advanced aged, living in villages or camps, low educational level, and being married (p < 0.05). Functional status (ADL and IADL), physical fitness status (timed up and go), and depression symptoms were significantly related to fear of falling (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: High concern of falling is significantly associated with advanced age, low education level, being married, and living in villages or camps. ADLs were among the factors that had a significant relationship with increased fear of falling. Predictors of fear of falling among Palestinian older adults were IADL scores, body fat percentage, rapid gait speed, timed up and go test. Future studies could investigate further correlates of fear of falling among older adults.


Assuntos
Medo , Vida Independente , Masculino , Feminino , Humanos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Medo/psicologia , Acidentes por Quedas/prevenção & controle , Estudos Transversais , Atividades Cotidianas/psicologia , Árabes , Equilíbrio Postural , Estudos de Tempo e Movimento
13.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 101(45): e31703, 2022 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36397362

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Motor dysfunction is a common sequela of ischemic stroke. This study aimed to explore the effective treatment of ischemic stroke by combining acupuncture and modern rehabilitation training. METHODS: This study was a single-center, randomized controlled clinical trial conducted at the First Affiliated Hospital of Anhui University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, 90 cases were finally included, divided into 45 cases each in the body acupuncture group and the head acupuncture group. INTERVENTIONS: Both groups received basic drug treatment, modern rehabilitation training, and basic life care guidance; the body acupuncture group was treated with reference to acupuncture points from the classic textbook of acupuncture and moxibustion, and the head acupuncture group was given Zhu's scalp acupuncture treatment based on the body acupuncture group. Primary outcome index: unassisted muscle strength grading scale; secondary outcome index: assessment of activities of daily living; simplified Fugl-Meyer motor function rating scale. RESULTS: The Barthel scale score, Manual Muscle Testing scale score (upper and lower limbs), and simplified Fugl-Meyer scale score (upper and lower limbs) in the 2 groups were improved (P ≤ .05), and the efficacy of the head-acupuncture group was better than that of the body-acupuncture group (P ≤ .05); there was no significant improvement in the simplified Fugl-Meyer scale (hand) score in both groups (P ≥ .05). There was no significant improvement in these scores (P ≥ .05). The difference in efficiency between the 2 groups was not statistically significant (P ≤ .05), and the apparent efficiency in the cephalic needle group was higher than that in the body needle group (P ≤ .05). CONCLUSIONS: Simultaneous treatment with Zhu's scalp acupuncture and body acupuncture combined with modern rehabilitation training can significantly improve limb motor function in patients with ischemic stroke, and its efficacy is better than that of body acupuncture alone combined with modern rehabilitation training.


Assuntos
Terapia por Acupuntura , AVC Isquêmico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Humanos , Atividades Cotidianas , Extremidade Superior
14.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 101(45): e31584, 2022 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36397397

RESUMO

Patellar resurfacing (PR) and peripheral patellar denervation (PD) are common surgical treatments for knee osteoarthritis (KOA) in total knee arthroplasty (TKA). The aim of study was to compare preventive effect on postoperative anterior knee pain (AKP) between PR and peripheral PD in TKA. A total of 202 patients who underwent unilateral TKA were randomized into 3 groups: T, TPD, and TPR. Patients in T group received simple TKA, patients in TPD group received TKA combined PD while patients in TPR group received TKA combined PR. Incidence, intensity, and presentation time of AKP and clinical outcomes were evaluated at 3, 6, 9, 12, 18, and 24 months postoperatively. The incidence of AKP was significantly lower and the intensity of AKP and patients' satisfaction score were significantly better at 3 months after surgery in group TPD and TPR compared with group T. Compared with group TPR, the intensity of AKP was significantly better at 3 months after surgery in group TPD. There were no significant difference in Oxford knee score, range of motion (ROM), patellar score, knee society score (KSS) and activities of daily living (ADL) score among 3 groups in the follow-up period. Both PD and PR can effectively reduce the intensity and incidence of AKP after TKA and improve patients' satisfaction at 3 months after TKA. Additionally, PD is more effective on alleviating AKP than PR.


Assuntos
Artroplastia do Joelho , Humanos , Artroplastia do Joelho/efeitos adversos , Atividades Cotidianas , Resultado do Tratamento , Dor , Denervação
15.
J Health Care Poor Underserved ; 33(4): 1844-1864, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36341666

RESUMO

In the United States, eight million people have disabilities related to self-care (having serious difficulty with bathing and dressing). Of these, approximately 2.3 million receive paid personal assistance services (PAS) to assist with activities of daily living. The National Survey on Health and Disability asked a series of questions about the impacts of COVID-19 for disabled people including disruptions in PAS. We used data from an open-ended question "How did you manage without the help you needed in your home?" to bring light to both the importance of, and vulnerabilities associated with, receipt of PAS. Themes from qualitative responses (n = 108) included (1) causes of unmet need, (2) consequences of unmet need, and (3) adaptations to overcome the loss of PAS. Results provide compelling evidence about the importance of the personal care attendant workforce and needed policies to address worker shortages to support community-based living options.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pessoas com Deficiência , Humanos , Atividades Cotidianas , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/psicologia , Autocuidado , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
16.
J Med Internet Res ; 24(11): e37614, 2022 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36342763

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Typing on smartphones, which has become a near daily activity, requires both upper limb and cognitive function. Analysis of keyboard interactions during regular typing, that is, keystroke dynamics, could therefore potentially be utilized for passive and continuous monitoring of function in patients with multiple sclerosis. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether passively acquired smartphone keystroke dynamics correspond to multiple sclerosis outcomes, we investigated the association between keystroke dynamics and clinical outcomes (upper limb and cognitive function). This association was investigated longitudinally in order to study within-patient changes independently of between-patient differences. METHODS: During a 1-year follow-up, arm function and information processing speed were assessed every 3 months in 102 patients with multiple sclerosis with the Nine-Hole Peg Test and Symbol Digit Modalities Test, respectively. Keystroke-dynamics data were continuously obtained from regular typing on the participants' own smartphones. Press-and-release latency of the alphanumeric keys constituted the fine motor score cluster, while latency of the punctuation and backspace keys constituted the cognition score cluster. The association over time between keystroke clusters and the corresponding clinical outcomes was assessed with linear mixed models with subjects as random intercepts. By centering around the mean and calculating deviation scores within subjects, between-subject and within-subject effects were distinguished. RESULTS: Mean (SD) scores for the fine motor score cluster and cognition score cluster were 0.43 (0.16) and 0.94 (0.41) seconds, respectively. The fine motor score cluster was significantly associated with the Nine-Hole Peg Test: between-subject ß was 15.9 (95% CI 12.2-19.6) and within-subject ß was 6.9 (95% CI 2.0-11.9). The cognition score cluster was significantly associated with the Symbol Digit Modalities Test between subjects (between-subject ß -11.2, 95% CI -17.3 to -5.2) but not within subjects (within-subject ß -0.4, 95% CI -5.6 to 4.9). CONCLUSIONS: Smartphone keystroke dynamics were longitudinally associated with multiple sclerosis outcomes. Worse arm function corresponded with longer latency in typing both across and within patients. Worse processing speed corresponded with higher latency in using punctuation and backspace keys across subjects. Hence, keystroke dynamics are a potential digital biomarker for remote monitoring and predicting clinical outcomes in patients with multiple sclerosis. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Netherlands Trial Register NTR7268; https://trialsearch.who.int/Trial2.aspx?TrialID=NTR7268.


Assuntos
Esclerose Múltipla , Smartphone , Humanos , Atividades Cotidianas , Cognição , Extremidade Superior
17.
Age Ageing ; 51(11)2022 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36413588

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: this study aimed to identify distinct subgroups of trajectories of disability over time before 3 years of death and examine the factors associated with trajectory group membership probabilities among community-dwelling Japanese older adults aged 65 years and above. METHODS: participants included 4,875 decedents from among community-dwelling Japanese older adults, aged ≥ 65 years at baseline (men: 3,020; women: 1,855). The certified long-term care levels of the national long-term care insurance (LTCI) system were used as an index of functional disability. We combined data from the 2010 Japan Gerontological Evaluation Study and data from the 2010 to 2016 LTCI system. Group-based mixture models and multinominal logistic regression models were used for data analysis. RESULTS: five distinct trajectories of functional disability in the last 3 years of life were identified: 'persistently severe disability' (10.3%), 'persistently mild disability' (13.0%), 'accelerated disability' (12.6%), 'catastrophic disability' (18.8%) and 'minimum disability' (45.2%). Multinominal logistic regression analysis found several factors associated with trajectory membership; self-rated health was a common predictor regardless of age and gender. The analysis also showed a paradoxical association; higher education was associated with trajectory group membership probabilities of more severe functional decline in men over 85 years at death. CONCLUSIONS: individual perception of health was a strong predictor of trajectories, independent of demographic factors and socio-economic status. Our findings contribute to the development of policies for the long-term care system, particularly for end-of-life care, in Asian countries.


Assuntos
Atividades Cotidianas , Pessoas com Deficiência , Masculino , Humanos , Feminino , Idoso , Japão , Vida Independente , Morte
19.
BMC Geriatr ; 22(1): 883, 2022 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36411407

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sensory impairments are common among older adults. These impairments have consequences on activities of daily living and communication with others. Such impairments for the elderly remain a significant public health issue globally. This study aimed to assess effect of nursing guidelines on first-year nursing students' knowledge and reported practice towards sensory impairment among the elderly. METHOD: A Pre- and post-test research design was utilized in this study to assess first year nursing students' knowledge and reported practice towards sensory impairments among the elderly. It was carried out at faculties of nursing affiliated with three universities with a purposive sample (n = 531) of the first-year nursing students. The study was conducted in four phases: Pre-intervention assessment, nursing guidelines development, nursing guidelines implementation, and post-test after one month. The pre- and post-tests were conducted online and included three parts to collect the required data about students' socio-demographic data, students' knowledge about the five senses and changes in these senses among the elderly, and the students' reported practice for coping with changes in these senses among elderly. Student t-tests and an ANOVA test were used to compare means. For qualitative data, comparison was done using chi-square. Pearson correlation coefficient was used for detecting the relations between continuous variables of the study. RESULTS: There are statistically significant differences between the studied subjects means score knowledge and reported practice about the five senses among elderly people in the pre- and the post-tests (P = 0.001). At pre-test the total score mean of students' knowledge was 24.25 while at post-test became 28.16. At pre-test the total score mean of students' reported practice was 38.40 while at post-test became 44.43. There is a relationship between students' knowledge and their reported practice at both pre-test and post-test with P value = 0.001. CONCLUSION: The levels of the first-year nursing students' knowledge and reported practice of the studied sample towards sensory impairment among the elderly were improved after implementation of the nursing guidelines. So, it is recommended that these nursing guidelines could be embedded within the undergraduate curriculum. Raising students' awareness through providing lectures, and workshops on sensory impairment among elderly and how to deal with them, and train students on how to communicate with sensory impairment among the elderly.


Assuntos
Estudantes de Enfermagem , Humanos , Idoso , Atividades Cotidianas , Inquéritos e Questionários , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Adaptação Psicológica
20.
Neurol India ; 70(Supplement): S245-S250, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36412376

RESUMO

Background: Post spinal cord injury (SCI), sitting balance is considered a prerequisite for the effective performance of activities of daily living. Virtual Reality Training (VRT) may provide an interactive medium of rehabilitation, preventing a reduction in active participation of the patients while allowing for the training of sitting balance. Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the addition of VRT to conventional therapy in improving sitting balance in persons with SCI. Subjects and Methods: This was a single blinded randomized control trial conducted on 21 subjects with SCI (level of injury: D10 or below). They were randomly allocated into two groups; both groups received their routine exercise program. In addition, the intervention group, that is, Group B (n = 11) received 30 min of VRT in the seated position using Xbox-Kinect, while the conventional therapy group, that is, Group A (n = 10) received 30 min of additional conventional therapy to equalize the duration of the intervention (3 days/week, 4 weeks). The modified functional reach test and T-shirt test were measured at the beginning and at the end of 4 weeks. Results: MFRT changes for forward (Group A: 1.7 ± 1.09 cm; Group B: 4.83 ± 2.95 cm), right lateral (Group A: 2.43 ± 2.81 cm, Group B: 5.08 ± 1.85 cm), left lateral (Group A: 3.05 ± 4.65 cm, Group B: 6.19 ± 1.51 cm) were statistically significant for Group B (P < 0.05). No significant difference was observed between the two groups for T-shirt test (P > 0.05). Conclusion: VRT can be used as a part of a comprehensive rehabilitation program to improve sitting balance post-SCI.


Assuntos
Traumatismos da Medula Espinal , Reabilitação do Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Realidade Virtual , Humanos , Atividades Cotidianas , Equilíbrio Postural , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/terapia
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