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1.
Rehabilitación (Madr., Ed. impr.) ; 58(2): 1-14, abril-junio 2024. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-232118

RESUMO

La pandemia de COVID-19 ha afectado a la población, perjudicando especialmente a los miembros de aquellos grupos sociales en situación de mayor vulnerabilidad. Estas poblaciones específicas, como aquellas con alguna dependencia funcional, podrían verse más afectadas por los efectos de la pandemia del COVID-19. Por lo tanto, el objetivo de este artículo fue describir las intervenciones para preservar la salud general, mantener la función y la independencia y prevenir la infección por COVID-19 para los adultos con dependencia funcional (ADF). Se realizó una búsqueda sistemática en bases de datos. Se revisaron los títulos y los resúmenes de cada publicación para determinar su relevancia. Dos revisores independientes accedieron a los artículos de texto completo para determinar su elegibilidad después de la selección inicial. Las búsquedas se realizaron en septiembre de 2021 y se actualizaron en enero y julio de 2022. La información encontrada se clasificó en 3 categorías: 1) ADF durante la pandemia de COVID-19; 2) ADF durante la pandemia de COVID-19 según una condición específica (condiciones neurológicas, discapacidades/deficiencias sensoriales y deterioro cognitivo), y 3) Adultos mayores con dependencia funcional. Los adultos con dependencia enfrentaron dificultades y barreras durante la pandemia por COVID-19. Las autoridades de cada país deben garantizar que los ADF tengan acceso a los servicios de rehabilitación en tiempos de crisis sanitaria. Además, es necesario aumentar la capacidad de los servicios de rehabilitación en tiempos de crisis como pandemias. De igual manera, se sugiere el fortalecimiento de estrategias como la telerehabilitación para evitar el deterioro o agravamiento de la funcionalidad de las personas dependientes. (AU)


The COVID-19 pandemic has affected the world population, especially people from social groups in a situation of greater vulnerability among people with some functional dependency. Therefore, the aim of this review was to describe interventions during the pandemic to preserve general health, maintain function and independence, and prevent COVID-19 infection for functionally dependent adults (FDA). A systematic search in databases was carried out. Titles and abstracts of each publication were reviewed for relevance. Full-text articles were accessed by two independent reviewers. The information found was classified into three categories: 1) FDA during the COVID-19 pandemic, 2) FDA during the COVID-19 pandemic according to a specific condition (neurological conditions, sensory disabilities/impairments, and cognitive impairment), and 3) Older adults with functional dependence. The FDAs have faced difficulties and barriers during the COVID-19 pandemic. Strengthening strategies such as telerehabilitation is suggested to avoid deterioration or aggravation of the functionality of dependent people. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Atividades Cotidianas , Vida Independente , Moradias Assistidas , Envelhecimento , Cuidadores
2.
J Neuroeng Rehabil ; 21(1): 54, 2024 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38616288

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Incorporating instrument measurements into clinical assessments can improve the accuracy of results when assessing mobility related to activities of daily living. This can assist clinicians in making evidence-based decisions. In this context, kinematic measures are considered essential for the assessment of sensorimotor recovery after stroke. The aim of this study was to assess the validity of using an Android device to evaluate kinematic data during the performance of a standardized mobility test in people with chronic stroke and hemiparesis. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study including 36 individuals with chronic stroke and hemiparesis and 33 age-matched healthy subjects. A simple smartphone attached to the lumbar spine with an elastic band was used to measure participants' kinematics during a standardized mobility test by using the inertial sensor embedded in it. This test includes postural control, walking, turning and sitting down, and standing up. Differences between stroke and non-stroke participants in the kinematic parameters obtained after data sensor processing were studied, as well as in the total execution and reaction times. Also, the relationship between the kinematic parameters and the community ambulation ability, degree of disability and functional mobility of individuals with stroke was studied. RESULTS: Compared to controls, participants with chronic stroke showed a larger medial-lateral displacement (p = 0.022) in bipedal stance, a higher medial-lateral range (p < 0.001) and a lower cranio-caudal range (p = 0.024) when walking, and lower turn-to-sit power (p = 0.001), turn-to-sit jerk (p = 0.026) and sit-to-stand jerk (p = 0.001) when assessing turn-to-sit-to-stand. Medial-lateral range and total execution time significantly correlated with all the clinical tests (p < 0.005), and resulted significantly different between independent and limited community ambulation patients (p = 0.042 and p = 0.006, respectively) as well as stroke participants with significant disability or slight/moderate disability (p = 0.024 and p = 0.041, respectively). CONCLUSION: This study reports a valid, single, quick and easy-to-use test for assessing kinematic parameters in chronic stroke survivors by using a standardized mobility test with a smartphone. This measurement could provide valid clinical information on reaction time and kinematic parameters of postural control and gait, which can help in planning better intervention approaches.


Assuntos
Atividades Cotidianas , Caminhada , Humanos , Estudos Transversais , Tomada de Decisões , Paresia/etiologia
3.
BMC Musculoskelet Disord ; 25(1): 290, 2024 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38622692

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The proximal femoral nail anti-rotation (PFNA) with cement enhancement enhances the anchorage ability of internal fixation in elderly with osteoporotic intertrochanteric fracture. However, whether it is superior to hemiarthroplasty is still controversial. The present study aimed to determine which treatment has better clinical outcomes among older patients. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 102 elderly patients with osteoporosis who developed intertrochanteric fractures and underwent PFNA combined with cement-enhanced internal fixation (n = 52, CE group), and hemiarthroplasty (n = 50, HA group) from September 2012 to October 2018. All the intertrochanteric fractures were classified according to the AO/OTA classification. Additionally, the operative time, intraoperative blood loss, intraoperative and postoperative blood transfusion rates, postoperative weight-bearing time, hospitalization time, Barthel Index of Activities Daily Living, Harris score of hip function, visual analog (VAS) pain score, and postoperative complications were compared between the two groups. RESULTS: The CE group had significantly shorter operative time, lesser intraoperative blood loss, lower blood transfusion rate, and longer postoperative weight-bearing time than the HA group. The CE group had lower Barthel's Index of Activities of Daily Living, lower Harris' score, and higher VAS scores in the first and third months after surgery than the HA group, but no difference was observed between the two groups from 6 months to 12 months. There was no significant difference in the total post-operative complications between the two groups. CONCLUSION: The use of PFNA combined with a cement-enhanced internal fixation technique led to shorter operative time and lesser intraoperative blood loss and trauma in elderly patients as compared to HA.


Assuntos
Fixação Intramedular de Fraturas , Hemiartroplastia , Fraturas do Quadril , Humanos , Idoso , Estudos Retrospectivos , Pinos Ortopédicos , Hemiartroplastia/efeitos adversos , Hemiartroplastia/métodos , Perda Sanguínea Cirúrgica/prevenção & controle , Atividades Cotidianas , Resultado do Tratamento , Fraturas do Quadril/diagnóstico por imagem , Fraturas do Quadril/cirurgia , Cimentos Ósseos/uso terapêutico , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/cirurgia , Fixação Intramedular de Fraturas/efeitos adversos
4.
Int J Older People Nurs ; 19(3): e12609, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38622947

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) offers a standardized international terminology to operationalize function management across multiple domains, but the summary score of the ICF qualifier scale provides limited information on the comparison of personal abilities and functioning difficulties. OBJECTIVES: To enhance the interpretative power of the ICF-based Health-oriented Personal Evaluation for the community-dwelling older person (iHOPE-OP) scale through the implementation of the item response theory (IRT) modelling. METHODS: This cross-sectional, multi-centre study administrated 161 ICF categories (58 on body functions, 15 on body structures, 60 on activities or participation and 28 on environmental factors) to evaluate the functional level of 338 older citizens (female = 158, male = 180) residing in community or supportive living facilities. The validation process encompassed assessing the IRT model fitness and evaluating the psychometric properties of the IRT-derived iHOPE-OP scale. RESULTS: The age of participants ranged from 60 to 94.57, with the mean age of 70. The analysis of non-parametric and parametric models revealed that the three-parameter logistic IRT model, with a dichotomous scoring principle, exhibited the best fit. The 53-item iHOPE-OP scale demonstrated high reliability (Cronbach's α = 0.9729, Guttman's lambda-2 = 0.9749, Molenaar-Sijtsma Statistic = 0.9803, latent class reliability coefficient = 0.9882). There was a good validity between person abilities and the Barthel Index (p < .001, r = .83), as well as instrumental activities of daily living (p < .001, r = .84). CONCLUSIONS: IRT methods generate the reliable and valid iHOPE-OP scale with the most discriminable and minimal items to represent the older person's functional performance at a comprehensive level. The use of the Wright map can aid in presby-functioning management by visualizing item difficulties and person abilities. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: Considering the intricate and heterogeneous health status of older persons, a single functional assessment tool might not fulfil the need to fully understand the multifaceted health status. For use in conjunction with the IRT and ICF framework, the reliable and valid iHOPE-OP scale was developed and can be applied to capture presby-functioning. The Wright map depicts the distribution of item difficulties and person abilities on the same scale that facilitates person-centred goal setting and tailors intervention.


Assuntos
Atividades Cotidianas , Vida Independente , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Classificação Internacional de Funcionalidade, Incapacidade e Saúde , Avaliação da Deficiência , Estudos Transversais , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
5.
Sensors (Basel) ; 24(7)2024 Mar 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38610275

RESUMO

The design and control of artificial hands remains a challenge in engineering. Popular prostheses are bio-mechanically simple with restricted manipulation capabilities, as advanced devices are pricy or abandoned due to their difficult communication with the hand. For social robots, the interpretation of human intention is key for their integration in daily life. This can be achieved with machine learning (ML) algorithms, which are barely used for grasping posture recognition. This work proposes an ML approach to recognize nine hand postures, representing 90% of the activities of daily living in real time using an sEMG human-robot interface (HRI). Data from 20 subjects wearing a Myo armband (8 sEMG signals) were gathered from the NinaPro DS5 and from experimental tests with the YCB Object Set, and they were used jointly in the development of a simple multi-layer perceptron in MATLAB, with a global percentage success of 73% using only two features. GPU-based implementations were run to select the best architecture, with generalization capabilities, robustness-versus-electrode shift, low memory expense, and real-time performance. This architecture enables the implementation of grasping posture recognition in low-cost devices, aimed at the development of affordable functional prostheses and HRI for social robots.


Assuntos
Atividades Cotidianas , Mãos , Humanos , Extremidade Superior , Aprendizado de Máquina , Postura
6.
Sensors (Basel) ; 24(7)2024 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38610410

RESUMO

Frameworks for human activity recognition (HAR) can be applied in the clinical environment for monitoring patients' motor and functional abilities either remotely or within a rehabilitation program. Deep Learning (DL) models can be exploited to perform HAR by means of raw data, thus avoiding time-demanding feature engineering operations. Most works targeting HAR with DL-based architectures have tested the workflow performance on data related to a separate execution of the tasks. Hence, a paucity in the literature has been found with regard to frameworks aimed at recognizing continuously executed motor actions. In this article, the authors present the design, development, and testing of a DL-based workflow targeting continuous human activity recognition (CHAR). The model was trained on the data recorded from ten healthy subjects and tested on eight different subjects. Despite the limited sample size, the authors claim the capability of the proposed framework to accurately classify motor actions within a feasible time, thus making it potentially useful in a clinical scenario.


Assuntos
Aprendizado Profundo , Humanos , Atividades Humanas , Atividades Cotidianas , Engenharia , Voluntários Saudáveis
7.
Sensors (Basel) ; 24(7)2024 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38610427

RESUMO

Flexibility in performing various movements like standing, walking, and turning is crucial for navigating dynamic environments in daily life. Individuals with essential tremor often experience movement difficulties that can affect these postural transitions, limiting mobility and independence. Yet, little research has examined the performance of postural transitions in people with essential tremor. Therefore, we assessed postural transition performance using two versions of the timed up and go test: the standard version and a more complex water-carry version. We examined the total duration of the standard and water-carry timed up and go in 15 people with and 15 people without essential tremor. We also compared the time taken for each phase (sit-to-stand phase, straight-line walk phase, stand-to-sit phase) and the turning velocity between groups. Our findings revealed decreased performance across all phases of standard and water-carry timed up and go assessments. Further, both ET and non-ET groups exhibited reduced performance during the water-carry timed up and go compared to the standard timed up and go. Evaluating specific phases of the timed up and go offers valuable insights into functional movement performance in essential tremor, permitting more tailored therapeutic interventions to improve functional performance during activities of daily living.


Assuntos
Tremor Essencial , Humanos , Atividades Cotidianas , Equilíbrio Postural , Estudos de Tempo e Movimento , Água
8.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 8758, 2024 04 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38627582

RESUMO

Multidimensional health function impairments are common in older patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). The purpose of this study was to explore whether the risk or severity of geriatric syndrome increased with a decline in renal function. This survey was conducted for CKD patients aged ≥ 60 years and hospitalized at West China Hospital of Sichuan University (Center of Gerontology and Geriatrics, Nephrology, and Endocrinology) and Chengdu Kangfu Kidney Disease Hospital from September 01, 2013 to June 30, 2014. Patients underwent multidimensional individualized assessments by trained doctors. Logistic regression analysis found that the risk of assisted walking (P = 0.001) and urinary incontinence (P = 0.039) increased with a decline in renal function. Regression analysis revealed that the scores of activities of daily living (P = 0.024), nutritional status (P = 0.000), total social support (P = 0.014), and objective support (P = 0.000) decreased with a decline in renal function.


Assuntos
Geriatria , Insuficiência Renal Crônica , Idoso , Humanos , Estudos Transversais , Atividades Cotidianas , Avaliação Geriátrica/métodos , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/diagnóstico
9.
Aging Clin Exp Res ; 36(1): 96, 2024 Apr 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38630352

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The role of serum uric acid (SUA) in the development of adverse health outcomes in advanced age is still uncertain. AIMS: The aim of the study was to assess the association of disability with SUA levels in older community-dwelling subjects. METHODS: We assessed the association of disability with SUA in all 351 inhabitants of Tuscania (Italy) aged 75+. Functional ability was estimated using the instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs). RESULTS: In logistic regression, increasing SUA levels were associated with disability (OR = 1.22; 95%CI = 1.01-1.48; P = .036), after adjusting. The association was independent of both gender and age (P for interaction > 0.050). SUA levels above 5.5 mg/dL best predicted disability. CONCLUSIONS: In older subjects, SUA levels are associated with disability; the cut off level above 5.5 mg/dL might be adopted in pharmacological trials aiming at reducing the incidence and progression of disability by reducing SUA, and for identifying subjects at increased risk of disability.


Assuntos
Atividades Cotidianas , Ácido Úrico , Humanos , Idoso , Vida Independente , Itália/epidemiologia
10.
S Afr J Commun Disord ; 71(1): e1-e9, 2024 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38572901

RESUMO

BACKGROUND:  Hearing impairment is an invisible disability affecting one in five people globally. Its ability to affect participation in activities of daily living means that it requires prompt identification and intervention. OBJECTIVE:  This article aims to define the process of accessing audiologists from the onset of symptoms for adults with hearing impairment in a peri-urban community in South Africa. METHOD:  Twenty-three participants were recruited through purposive sampling from an audiology department of a public hospital. Semi-structured interviews were conducted using an interview guide, and data were mapped according to the participants' responses from the onset of ear and hearing symptoms to the point of audiologist consultation for analysis. RESULTS:  Seventeen (74%) participants had long journeys to accessing the audiologist after seeking help from multiple providers, with those with short journeys (26%) being referred mostly by public healthcare providers. Despite participants being from one peri-urban community, their journeys were influenced by socio-economics, health illiteracy and other structural factors. Finally, Ear-Nose-Throat specialists linked participants with audiology services. CONCLUSION:  Accessing audiology services is a complex process in some contexts. The disparities in the social environment, lifestyle factors and pluralistic healthcare models influence access to audiologists. Healthcare providers must take cognisance of the journeys of adults with hearing impairment in their clinical interventions. Universal health coverage, in the form of the planned National Health Insurance (NHI) for all South African citizens, will play an important role in addressing the societal inequalities in accessing healthcare. Factors leading to long journeys should be addressed to facilitate early intervention.Contribution: The study raises implications for the planned NHI in South Africa, suggesting that universal health coverage could play a vital role in addressing societal inequalities in accessing healthcare, including audiology services.


Assuntos
Audiologia , Perda Auditiva , Adulto , Humanos , África do Sul , Atividades Cotidianas , Perda Auditiva/diagnóstico , Perda Auditiva/terapia , Audiologistas
11.
BMC Geriatr ; 24(1): 342, 2024 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38622542

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Family caregivers play a crucial role in providing physical, emotional, and social support to the elderly, allowing them to maintain their independence and stay in their preferred living environment. However, family caregivers face numerous challenges and require specific knowledge and skills to provide effective care. Therefore, understanding the knowledge and skills required for effective family caregiving in elderly home care is vital to support both the caregivers and the elderly recipients. METHODS: The research was carried out in Mekelle City, Ethiopia, utilizing the phenomenology study design and purposive sampling technique. A total of twenty-two in-depth interviews were conducted. Individuals with experience in providing care for elderly people in their homes were targeted. Data was gathered through the use of an open-ended guide, transcribed word-for-word, inputted into ATLAS.ti8 software, and translated. Codes and themes were then extracted from the transcribed data, and a thematic analysis was performed. To minimize personal biases, the collected data were coded independently by the data collection assistants and the PI. The analysis was carried out by authors who were not involved in the data collection process. The interviews were conducted in a quiet place. RESULTS: A total of 22 in-depth interviews were conducted as part of this research. The results indicated that although the participants had knowledge about common health problems experienced by older people, they were uninformed about how to manage these conditions at home and were unaware of specialized healthcare resources for the elderly. Furthermore, they had limited knowledge about suitable exercise routines, strategies to prevent falls, and home healthcare practices for older individuals. On the other hand, they exhibited a solid comprehension and awareness of abusive behaviors specifically directed at older adults. CONCLUSION: The results emphasized the importance of enhancing education and training for family caregivers in handling elderly health issues, raising awareness about specialized healthcare services catered to the elderly, improving understanding of activities of daily living (ADLs) and fall prevention, and offering inclusive training in healthcare tasks related to elder care. RECOMMENDATION: Participants should receive comprehensive education and training programs to enhance their knowledge and skills in managing these conditions. Efforts should also be made to raise awareness about the availability of geriatric hospitals or specialized nurses for the elderly. Participants need to be educated about suitable exercise routines for the elderly and fall prevention strategies. Healthcare skills training is also necessary for participants, focusing on activities such as wound dressing, vital sign monitoring, and establishing a specific schedule for changing positions.


Assuntos
Atividades Cotidianas , Serviços de Assistência Domiciliar , Humanos , Idoso , Instituição de Longa Permanência para Idosos , Apoio Social , Cuidadores/psicologia , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Família/psicologia
12.
BMC Musculoskelet Disord ; 25(1): 269, 2024 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38589851

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients seeking medical care for back pain often have coexisting painful joints and the effects of different combinations and number of coexisting pain sites (hip, knee, foot/ankle) to back pain on physical function domains and quality of life rating are not yet established. The purpose of this study was to determine the differences in functional outcomes and QOL among individuals with back pain who have concurrent additional pain sites or no pain sites. METHODS: Data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative (OAI) cohort were used for this cross-sectional analysis. Men and women aged 45-79 years with back pain were binned into nine groups by presence or not of coexisting hip, knee, ankle/foot pain and combinations of these sites (N = 1,642). Healthy controls reported no joint pain. Main outcomes included Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome score (KOOS; quality of life and function-sports-and-recreation), Western Ontario McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC; Activities of Daily Living, Pain), Medical Outcomes Short Form-12 (SF-12) Physical Component score, and self-reported function in last 7-30 days (lifting 25-pound objects, housework). 20-m and 400-m walk times and gait speed and repeated chair rise test times were collected. RESULTS: Compared to back pain alone, pain at all five sites was associated with 39%-86% worse KOOS, WOMAC, and SF-12 scores (p < .0001). Back-Hip and Back-Knee did not produce worse scores than Back pain alone, but Back-Hip-Knee and Back-Knee-Ankle/Foot did. The 20-m, 400-m walk, and repeated chair times were worse among individuals with pain at all five sites. Additional hip and knee sites to back pain, but not ankle/foot, worsened performance-based walk times and chair rise scores. CONCLUSIONS: The number and type of coexistent lower body musculoskeletal pain among patients with back pain may be associated with perceived and performance-based assessments. Management plans that efficiently simultaneously address back and additional coexistent pain sites may maximize treatment functional benefits, address patient functional goals in life and mitigate disability.


Assuntos
Dor Musculoesquelética , Osteoartrite do Joelho , Masculino , Humanos , Feminino , Osteoartrite do Joelho/complicações , Qualidade de Vida , Atividades Cotidianas , Estudos Transversais , Articulação do Joelho , Artralgia/etiologia , Artralgia/complicações , Dor nas Costas
13.
Alzheimers Res Ther ; 16(1): 76, 2024 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38589888

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dementia has a significant impact on the social, physical, and psychological wellbeing of people living with dementia, their families and society. Animal-assisted interventions can have positive effects on the health and wellbeing of people living with dementia. Equine-assisted services are animal-assisted non-pharmacological interventions which have improved the health and wellbeing of diverse populations. The impact of participating in equine-assisted services on the health and wellbeing of people with dementia is unclear. A systematic review was conducted to synthesise evidence investigating the effects of participating in equine-assisted services on the health and wellbeing of people living with dementia. DESIGN: Systematic review following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. METHODS: The databases CINAHL, EMBASE, MEDLINE, and Web of Science were searched for any research published prior to 14 June 2023. Peer-reviewed publications in the English language utilizing methods deriving quantitative and/or qualitative data were eligible. Methodological quality of included studies was assessed using the Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool. Findings from studies were synthesised using a deductive approach. RESULTS: Of the 223 articles screened, six met the inclusion criteria: four quantitative and two qualitative studies. The six studies represent four separate equine interventions. Studies were of moderate to strong quality. Participants were people living with dementia (n = 44, mean age range 70-83 years), dementia care partners (n = 5, mean age 58), and equine-assisted services providers (n = 5). Interventions varied in duration, activities conducted, outcomes measured, and measurement tools used. Studies found a favourable impact of participating in equine-assisted services on the neuropsychiatric symptoms and quality of life of people living with dementia. Participating in equine-assisted services improved well-being, functional abilities, social participation, and communication, while also having a positive effect on social, emotional, and behavioural outcomes, and physical health. CONCLUSIONS: The limited but high-quality literature investigating the impact of equine-assisted services among people living with dementia suggests that equine-assisted services can have a positive impact on the health and wellbeing of people living with dementia. Additional robust studies contributing to the evidence base are warranted; such studies can support the development of programs and further elucidate the impact of participation.


Assuntos
Demência , Qualidade de Vida , Humanos , Animais , Cavalos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Atividades Cotidianas , Demência/terapia
14.
Physiother Res Int ; 29(2): e2089, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38591105

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study explores the linkage between the Measurement of Environmental Quality (MQE) and the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF). Stemming from the Human Development Model-Disability Creation Process (HDM-DCP), MQE enhances understanding of how environmental quality impacts disability development across diverse socio-cultural contexts. Integrating MQE with ICF expands the perspective on disability formation beyond HDM-DCP, encompassing ICF's functioning approach. OBJECTIVE: To link the MQE with the concepts and categories of the ICF. METHODS: Two health professionals with adequate taxonomic knowledge of the ICF performed the initial linkage, which was based on updated standardized rules considering all hierarchical levels of the ICF. Linkage agreement between the first two assessors was measured using the Kappa (k) coefficient and respective 95% confidence intervals. In the absence of a consensus between the two assessors (k > 0.60), a third assessor was consulted to make the arbitrary decision of the final categories linked to the MQE. RESULTS: Insufficient agreement between the two assessors was found for the linkage process (k = 0.52; p < 0.001), requiring the final decision from the third assessor. At the end of the process, 26 ICF categories were linked to the main concepts (MC) measured by the 26 items of the short version of the MQE. Ten ICF categories were linked to the additional concepts (AC) measured by the MQE. Moreover, the MQE addresses the five domains of the ICF component "environmental factors," with a predominance of the "services, systems and policies" domain (MC = 45.8% and AC = 40%). CONCLUSION: The linkage of the concepts measured by the MQE to ICF categories enabled mapping the content of the MQE, identifying it as a promising tool for measuring environmental factors in accordance with ICF percepts.


Assuntos
Pessoas com Deficiência , Classificação Internacional de Funcionalidade, Incapacidade e Saúde , Humanos , Avaliação da Deficiência , Inquéritos e Questionários , Consenso , Atividades Cotidianas
15.
Front Public Health ; 12: 1293621, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38584921

RESUMO

Introduction: Falls are a major worldwide health problem in older people. Several physical rehabilitation programs with home-based technologies, such as the online DigiRehab platform, have been successfully delivered. The PRECISE project combines personalized training delivered through the application with an artificial intelligence-based predictive model (AI-DSS platform) for fall risk assessment. This new system, called DigiRehab, will enable early identification of significant risk factors for falling and propose an individualized physical training plan to attend to these critical areas. Methods: The study will test the usability of the DigiRehab platform in generating personalized physical rehabilitation programs at home. Fifty older adults participants will be involved, 20 of them testing the beta version prototype, and 30 participants testing the updated version afterwards. The inclusion criteria will be age ≥65, independent ambulation, fall risk (Tinetti test), Mini Mental State Examination ≥24, home residents, familiarity with web applications, ability and willingness to sign informed consent. Exclusion criteria will be unstable clinical condition, severe visual and/or hearing impairment, severe impairment in Activities of Daily Living and absence of primary caregiver. Discussion: The first part of the screening consists in a structured questionnaire of 10 questions regarding the user's limitations, including the risk of falling, while the second consists in 10 physical tests to assess the functional status. Based on the results, the program will help define the user's individual profile upon which the DSS platform will rate the risk of falling and design the personalized exercise program to be carried out at home. All measures from the initial screening will be repeated and the results will be used to optimize the predictive algorithms in order to prepare the tool in its final version. For the usability assessment, the System Usability Scale will be administered. The follow-up will take place after the 12-week intervention at home. A semi-structured satisfaction questionnaire will also be administered to verify whether the project will meet the needs of older adults and their family caregiver. Conclusion: We expect that personalized training prescribed by DigiRehab platform could help to reduce the need for care in older adults subjects and the care burden.Clinical trial registration: [https://clinicaltrials.gov/], identifier [NCT05846776].


Assuntos
Acidentes por Quedas , Atividades Cotidianas , Idoso , Humanos , Acidentes por Quedas/prevenção & controle , Inteligência Artificial , Europa (Continente) , Estudos de Viabilidade , Itália , Interface Usuário-Computador , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto
16.
BMC Geriatr ; 24(1): 316, 2024 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38575915

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Restricted activity is a potential early marker of declining health in older adults. Previous studies of this association with patient outcomes have been inconclusive. This review aimed to evaluate the extent to which restricted activity is associated with decline in health. METHODS: A search was conducted for studies including people over 65 years old which investigated the association between measures of restricted activity and hospitalisation, cognitive decline, and mortality. Following data extraction by two reviewers, eligible studies were summarised using Inverse Variance Heterogeneity meta-analysis. RESULTS: The search identified 8,434 unique publications, with 11 eligible studies. Three measures of restricted activity were identified: bed rest, restricted movement, and dependency for activities of daily living (ADL). Three studies looked at hospitalisations, with two finding a significant association with bed rest or restricted movement and one showing no evidence of an association. Restricted activity was associated with a significant increase in mortality across all three measures (bed rest odds ratio [OR] 6.34, 95%CI 2.51-16.02, I2 = 76%; restricted movement OR 5.38 95%CI 2.60-11.13, I2 = 69%; general ADL dependency OR 4.65 95%CI 2.25-9.26, I2 = 84%). The significant heterogeneity observed could not be explained by restricting the analysis by length of follow-up, or measure of restricted activity. No meta-analysis was conducted on the limited evidence for cognitive decline outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Limited studies have considered the prognostic value of restricted activity in terms of predicting future declining health. Current evidence suggests restricted activity is associated with hospitalisation and mortality, and therefore could identify a group for whom early intervention might be possible.


Assuntos
Atividades Cotidianas , Hospitalização , Humanos , Idoso
17.
West Afr J Med ; 41(2): 169-174, 2024 Feb 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38581692

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Globally, COVID-19 has greatly impacted humans physically, socially, mentally, and economically. No doubt, healthcare workers seemed to bear the greatest impact. The study therefore assessed the impact of COVID- 19 on the primary healthcare workers' daily activities in Ekiti, Southwest, Nigeria. METHODS: The study was a cross-sectional study using a quantitative data collection method among 716 primary healthcare workers. Respondents were selected using an online convenience sampling method via their social media platforms. Data was collected, collated, and analyzed using SPSS version 25 software and presented as frequency tables, mean and standard deviation. Bivariate/multivariate analyses were conducted using t-tests and ANOVA statistics. The level of statistical significance was set at p<0.05. RESULTS: The mean age of respondents was 44.4+6.4SD with less than half (47.1%) between 41-50 years age group. The majority of the respondents (89.4%) were female and almost all (96.2%) were married. Ninety percent (90%) had ever heard of Coronavirus and (85.8%) had to spend more money on activities of daily living such as transportation (90.1%), groceries (80.6%), assisting relations (95.8%) and sanitary measures (disinfection) at home (95.0%). COVID-19 had a huge negative impact on the majority (89.7%) of healthcare workers with a mean score of 22+4.8. CONCLUSION: COVID-19 negatively impacted the daily living and professional duties of primary healthcare workers which reflected in their psychological, physical, social and economic well-being. Disease outbreaks are unlikely to disappear soon, hence, global proactive interventions and homegrown measures should be adopted to protect healthcare workers and save their lives.


CONTEXTES ET OBJECTIFS: Globalement, la COVID-19 a grandement impacté les êtres humains physiquement, socialement, mentalement et économiquement. Sans aucun doute, les travailleurs de la santé semblent être les plus touchés. L'étude a donc évalué l'impact de la COVID-19 sur les activités quotidiennes des travailleurs des soins de santé primaires à Ekiti, au Sud-Ouest du Nigeria. MÉTHODES: L'étude était une étude transversale utilisant une méthode de collecte de données quantitative auprès de 716 travailleurs des soins de santé primaires. Les répondants ont été sélectionnés en utilisant une méthode d'échantillonnage de convenance en ligne via leurs plateformes de médias sociaux. Les données ont été collectées, compilées et analysées à l'aide du logiciel SPSS version 25 et présentées sous forme de tableaux de fréquence, de moyenne et d'écart-type. Des analyses bivariées/multivariées ont été réalisées à l'aide de tests t et d'ANOVA. Le niveau de signification statistique a été fixé à p<0,05. RÉSULTATS: L'âge moyen des répondants était de 44,4+6,4 SD avec moins de la moitié (47,1 %) dans le groupe d'âge de 41 à 50 ans. La majorité des répondants (89,4 %) étaient des femmes et presque tous (96,2 %) étaient mariés. Quatre-vingt-dix pour cent (90 %) avaient déjà entendu parler du Coronavirus et (85,8 %) avaient dû dépenser plus d'argent pour les activités de la vie quotidienne telles que le transport (90,1 %), les courses (80,6 %), l'aide aux relations (95,8 %) et les mesures sanitaires (désinfection) à domicile (95,0 %). La COVID-19 a eu un impact négatif important sur la majorité (89,7 %) des travailleurs de la santé avec un score moyen de 22+4,8. CONCLUSION: La COVID-19 a eu un impact négatif sur la vie quotidienne et les devoirs professionnels des travailleurs des soins de santé primaires, ce qui s'est reflété dans leur bien-être psychologique, physique, social et économique. Les épidémies de maladies ne disparaîtront probablement pas de sitôt, c'est pourquoi des interventions proactives mondiales et des mesures locales doivent être adoptées pour protéger les travailleurs de la santé et sauver leurs vies. MOTS-CLÉS: COVID-19, Main-d'œuvre de la santé, Soins de Santé Primaires, Systèmes de Santé, Dépression.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Atividades Cotidianas , Estudos Transversais , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Pessoal de Saúde , Atenção Primária à Saúde
18.
West Afr J Med ; 41(2): 148-155, 2024 Feb 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38581684

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Beyond clinical evaluation, additional significant areas of well-being for older people include the emotional, social, material, and functional domains. OBJECTIVES: The study assessed the functional status and its relationship with social support of older patients attending the Geriatric Centre, UCH. METHODOLOGY: A cross-sectional study of 396 randomly selected patients aged 65 years and above was undertaken to assess their functional status (by scoring their basic activities of daily living using the Barthel index) and social support (using the Multidimensional scale of perceived social support). An interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to obtain the socio-demographic data, anthropometric measurements, and morbidities of each patient. Data collected was analysed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20. The level of significance of analysis was set at p ≤0.05. RESULTS: Participants in the study had a male-to-female ratio of 1:1.6, and their mean age (SD) was 73.2 ± 6.3 years. Functional dependency was seen in 87.4% of cases. Majority of older patients (81.1%) expressed a moderate perception of social support. The Most common morbidities among the responders were osteoarthritis, cataracts, and hypertension. Functional dependency was found to increase with an increase in family and romantic partner social support, high educational levels, and increased age. {adjusted odds ratio (AOR):1.05;95%confidence interval [CI]:1.00-1.11. (P=0.049) The odds of being functionally dependent were higher for respondents who received at least 30,000 naira ($100) in financial support from their children (AOR:2.24; 95% CI:1.06-4.77) (P=0.022). CONCLUSION: This study showed that functional dependency worsened with increased social support in older patients. The results indicated the need for a multi-factorial evaluation of functional dependence in older patients.


CONTEXTUALISATION: Au-delà de l'évaluation clinique, d'autres domaines importants du bien-être des personnes âgées comprennent les aspects émotionnels, sociaux, matériels et fonctionnels. OBJECTIFS: L'étude a évalué l'état fonctionnel et le soutien social des patients âgés fréquentant le Centre Gériatrique de l'UCH. MÉTHODOLOGIE: Une étude transversale portant sur 396 patients sélectionnés de manière aléatoire, âgés de 65 ans et plus, a été réalisée pour évaluer leur état fonctionnel (en évaluant leurs activités de base de la vie quotidienne à l'aide de l'indice de Barthel) et leur soutien social (à l'aide de l'échelle multidimensionnelle du soutien social perçu). Un questionnaire administré par un enquêteur a été utilisé pour obtenir les données sociodémographiques, les mesures anthropométriques et les morbidités de chaque patient. Les données recueillies ont été analysées à l'aide du logiciel Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20. Le niveau de signification de l'analyse a été fixé à p ≤0,05. RÉSULTATS: Les participants à l'étude présentaient un ratio hommes-femmes de 1 pour 1,6, et leur âge moyen (écart type) était de 73,2 (6,3) ans. Une dépendance fonctionnelle a été observée chez 87,4 % des cas. La majorité des patients âgés (81,1 %) ont exprimé une perception modérée du soutien social. Les morbidités les plus courantes parmi les répondants étaient l'arthrose, la cataracte et l'hypertension. Une dépendance fonctionnelle a été constatée pour augmenter avec l'augmentation du soutien social de la famille et du partenaire romantique, les niveaux d'éducation élevés et l'âge accru {rapport de cotes ajusté (AOR) : 1,05 ; intervalle de confiance à 95 % [IC] : 1,00-1,11}(P=0.049). Les chances de dépendance fonctionnelle étaient plus élevées pour les personnes qui recevaient au moins 30 000 nairas (100 $) de soutien financier de leurs enfants (AOR : 2,24 ; IC à 95 % : 1,06-4,77)(P=0.022). CONCLUSION: Cette étude a montré une prévalence élevée de la dépendance fonctionnelle et du soutien social chez les patients âgés. Les résultats ont indiqué la nécessité d'une évaluation multifactorielle de la dépendance fonctionnelle chez les patients âgés. MOTS-CLÉS: Incapacité fonctionnelle, Soutien social, Patients âgés, Gériatrie.


Assuntos
Atividades Cotidianas , Apoio Social , Criança , Humanos , Idoso , Masculino , Feminino , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Universidades , Hospitais Universitários
19.
Int J Geriatr Psychiatry ; 39(4): e6086, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38613138

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: There is a paucity of population-level data on marijuana use and mental health and functioning in older adults. METHODS: We analyzed cross-sectional data (n = 910) from a well-characterized cohort, the Monongahela-Youghiogheny Healthy Aging Team (MYHAT) study. MYHAT is an age-stratified random sample of the population age 65 years and older from a small-town in the USA. Half the sample was female and half were over 75 (Mean age = 77). Most participants were non-Hispanic White. Marijuana use was assessed by self-report and symptoms of mood disorders were screened using the modified Centers for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale and the Generalized Anxiety Disorder screener. Cognition was assessed by the Mini-Mental State Examination and a neuropsychological test battery; functioning using the OARS Activities of Daily Living and Instrumental Activities of Daily Living; and overall assessment using the Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR®). RESULTS: One in five MYHAT participants had a history of marijuana use and 5% reported recent use, primarily for pain (41%) and recreation/relaxation (37%). Recent use was associated with cigarette and alcohol use, symptoms of depression or anxiety, and impairments in attention. CONCLUSIONS: Twenty-percent of community-dwelling older adults living in a US state where recreational marijuana use is illegal had a history of marijuana use. Recent marijuana use was less common but, consistent with prior research, associated with other substance use and poorer mental health.


Assuntos
Uso da Maconha , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Feminino , Humanos , Idoso , Uso da Maconha/epidemiologia , Atividades Cotidianas , Estudos Transversais , Vida Independente , Projetos de Pesquisa
20.
JMIR Aging ; 7: e54353, 2024 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38596863

RESUMO

Background: Sleep efficiency is often used as a measure of sleep quality. Getting sufficiently high-quality sleep has been associated with better cognitive function among older adults; however, the relationship between day-to-day sleep quality variability and cognition has not been well-established. Objective: We aimed to determine the relationship between day-to-day sleep efficiency variability and cognitive function among older adults, using accelerometer data and 3 cognitive tests. Methods: We included older adults aged >65 years with at least 5 days of accelerometer wear time from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) who completed the Digit Symbol Substitution Test (DSST), the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease Word-Learning subtest (CERAD-WL), and the Animal Fluency Test (AFT). Sleep efficiency was derived using a data-driven machine learning algorithm. We examined associations between sleep efficiency variability and scores on each cognitive test adjusted for age, sex, education, household income, marital status, depressive symptoms, diabetes, smoking habits, alcohol consumption, arthritis, heart disease, prior heart attack, prior stroke, activities of daily living, and instrumental activities of daily living. Associations between average sleep efficiency and each cognitive test score were further examined for comparison purposes. Results: A total of 1074 older adults from the NHANES were included in this study. Older adults with low average sleep efficiency exhibited higher levels of sleep efficiency variability (Pearson r=-0.63). After adjusting for confounding factors, greater average sleep efficiency was associated with higher scores on the DSST (per 10% increase, ß=2.25, 95% CI 0.61 to 3.90) and AFT (per 10% increase, ß=.91, 95% CI 0.27 to 1.56). Greater sleep efficiency variability was univariably associated with worse cognitive function based on the DSST (per 10% increase, ß=-3.34, 95% CI -5.33 to -1.34), CERAD-WL (per 10% increase, ß=-1.00, 95% CI -1.79 to -0.21), and AFT (per 10% increase, ß=-1.02, 95% CI -1.68 to -0.36). In fully adjusted models, greater sleep efficiency variability remained associated with lower DSST (per 10% increase, ß=-2.01, 95% CI -3.62 to -0.40) and AFT (per 10% increase, ß=-.84, 95% CI -1.47 to -0.21) scores but not CERAD-WL (per 10% increase, ß=-.65, 95% CI -1.39 to 0.08) scores. Conclusions: Targeting consistency in sleep quality may be useful for interventions seeking to preserve cognitive function among older adults.


Assuntos
Atividades Cotidianas , Doença de Alzheimer , Humanos , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Estudos Transversais , Cognição , Sono , Acelerometria
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