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1.
Rev Gaucha Enferm ; 42(spe): e20200221, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34037182

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To describe personal conditions and home structure that predisposes the elderly to the risk of falling, in the perspective of Neuman's stressors; to describe the content, structure and origin of social representations about falling at home by elderly people; and conjecture the implications of this empirical evidence on the daily lives of the elderly in the context of the pandemic caused by COVID-19. METHOD: Mixed method with concomitant triangulation (January-July/2017), qualitative design (structural and procedural approaches to the Social Representations Theory) and quantitative (sectional) approaching elderly people ≥65 years. RESULTS: Environmental factors were identified for falling at home, fear of activities of daily living and loss of visual acuity. Feelings and behaviors mentioned in the possible central nucleus justified the modulation of behaviors. Analysis categories: 1) Representation of the (in)adaptability of the home environment; 2) Representation and overcoming limitations arising from weaknesses. CONCLUSION: It was possible to produce conjectures based on empirical evidence in the current situation in the pandemic's dynamics.


Assuntos
Acidentes por Quedas , Acidentes Domésticos/psicologia , Atividades Cotidianas/psicologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Habitação para Idosos/normas , Pandemias , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Medo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Segurança , Acuidade Visual
2.
Rev Bras Enferm ; 74(suppl 2): e20200400, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34037191

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: to assess elderly people's quality of life, understanding the social representations of falls. METHODS: a convergent mixed methods research carried out at homes, with a sample of 134 elderly people. A structured questionnaire was used, covering sociodemographic variables and factors that indicated frailty and risk of falling. For quality of life assessment, Medical Outcomes Study Short-Form 36 and Theory of Social Representations, Abric's structural approach were used, with data treated by dictionary of equivalent terms, processed in Evoc 2000, converging analytically according to Neuman. RESULTS: quality of life impairment was identified in terms of physical, emotional and functional capacity. The elements of the possible central nucleus were fall, fear, and bruised-broken-bone. FINAL CONSIDERATIONS: quality of life impairment can contribute to increase the number of falls, which has been shown to be an event present in elderly people's lives through evocations. Understanding elderly people's individual demands allows planning actions.


Assuntos
Acidentes por Quedas/prevenção & controle , Atividades Cotidianas/psicologia , Medo , Qualidade de Vida , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Enfermagem em Saúde Comunitária , Emoções , Feminino , Avaliação Geriátrica/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviços de Saúde para Idosos , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários
3.
N Z Med J ; 134(1534): 51-65, 2021 04 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33927438

RESUMO

AIM: This study compared accelerometer-measured physical activity (PA) patterns in adolescents living in diverse urban and rural areas of Otago, New Zealand. METHOD: Participants (n=377; age: 14.9±1.4 years; 66.8% female; 23 schools) completed an online school travel survey, anthropometry and seven-day PA accelerometer assessment. Participants resided in large (n=237), medium (n=45) and small (n=44) urban areas or rural settings (n=51). RESULTS: Overall, participants participated in 54.4±21.0 minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) daily and 35.0% met PA guidelines (school day vs weekend day: 40.8% vs 26.0%; p<0.001) with no difference across geographical settings. A greater proportion of males (43.2% vs 31.9%; p=0.016), school sport participants (70.1% vs 54.0%; p=0.005) and active-transport-to-school users (40.2% vs 26.1%) met PA guidelines compared to their counterparts. Compared to rural adolescents, those from large urban areas accumulated more MVPA during the school commute time (before school: 8.3±6.7 vs 5.3±3.8 minutes, p<0.001; after school: 10.1±6.0 vs 7.7±4.3 min, p=0.003), but overall spent more time sedentary (584.9±84.7 vs 527.8±88.2 minutes/day; p<0.001). CONCLUSION: PA in Otago adolescents is low, with significant differences by gender, sport participation, mode of travel to school and geographical setting. Increased PA should be encouraged in both urban and rural adolescents.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico/psicologia , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos , Atividades Cotidianas/psicologia , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Nova Zelândia , Características de Residência , Serviços de Saúde Escolar , Participação Social
4.
Health Qual Life Outcomes ; 19(1): 129, 2021 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33892726

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Heart failure (HF) is a severe and self-limiting syndrome. Its signs and symptoms are believed to predict poorer health-related quality of life scores, which are mainly influenced by deterioration in physical capacity. In the present study we try to analyze the influence of clinical and socioeconomic characteristics and physical capacity on the quality of life of people with HF diagnosis. METHODS: A longitudinal study was conducted over 2 years with patients diagnosed with HF. To evaluate the patients the method of face-to-face visit and telephone monitoring was used. In the evaluations were applied: the Clinical and Socioeconomic Characterization Questionnaire, the Minnesota Living With Heart Failure Questionnaire (MLHFQ) for quality of life evaluation and the Veterans Specific Activity Questionnaire (VSAQ) for cardiopulmonary fitness analysis. Measures of central tendency, proportion, normality test, confidence intervals, comparison of data through paired Student t test and Wilcoxon or Mann Whitney test were performed and correlations were verified through Spearman coefficient. RESULTS: The study included 108 patients, most of them female (50.90%) and mean age of 66.62 ± 11.33 years. The median time of HF diagnosis was 5 ± 6 years, being Chagas' disease the main etiologic cause for the disease (57.40%). As for the clinical condition, functional classes II (44.40%) and III (48.10%) of the New York Heart Association (NYHA) were the most frequent. There was a low cardiopulmonary fitness, with loss of capacity to perform daily activities (3 ± 1 to 3 ± 3) over the time of clinical follow-up. There was an increase in the MLHFQ instrument scores, from 50.98 ± 15.52 to 61.76 ± 19.95, over the analysis time. The analysis of correlations demonstrated that variables such as schooling, NYHA class, echocardiographic alterations and the drug profile have a significant relationship with the constructs of quality of life and physical fitness. CONCLUSION: Individuals in HF have significant impairment of cardiorespiratory capacity and tend to present worsening of QL along the evolution of the disease.


Assuntos
Atividades Cotidianas/psicologia , Adaptação Psicológica , Aptidão Cardiorrespiratória/psicologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Idoso , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários
5.
Health Qual Life Outcomes ; 19(1): 132, 2021 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33892735

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Standardized coding of the content presented in patient reported outcome measures can be achieved using classification frameworks, and the resulting data can be used for ascertaining content validity or comparative analyses. The International Classification of Functioning (ICF) is a framework with a detailed conceptual structure that has been successfully utilized for such purposes through established coding procedures. The Item Perspective Classification (IPC) framework is a newly developed relational coding system that classifies the respondent perspective and conceptual domains addressed in items. The purpose of this study was to compare and describe the performance of these two frameworks when used alone, and in conjunction, for the generation of data pertaining to the content of patient reported outcome measures. METHODS: Six health-related quality of life questionnaires with a total of 159 items were classified by two raters using the Item Perspective Classification framework in conjunction with the International Classification of Functioning. Framework performance indicators included: classification capacity (percent of items amenable to successful classification), coding efficiency (number of codes required to classify items), and content overlap detection (percent of items sharing identical classification codes with at least one other item). Inter-rater reliability of item coding was determined using Krippendorff's alpha. RESULTS: Classification capacity of the IPC framework was 97%, coding efficiency 26, and content overlap detection was 95%; whereas respective values for the ICF were 68%, 114, and 58%. When used in conjunction values were 63%, 129, and 30%. Krippendorff's alpha exceeded 0.97 for all 3 classification indices. CONCLUSION: Inter-rater agreement on classification data was excellent. The IPC framework provided a unique classification of the respondent's judgment during item response and classified more items using fewer categories, indicated greater content overlap across items and was able to describe the relationship between multiple concepts presented within the context of a single item. The ICF provided a unique classification of item content relating to aspects of disability and generated more detailed and precise descriptions. A combined approach provided a rich description (detailed codes) with each framework providing complementary information. The benefits of this approach in instrument development and content validation require further investigation.


Assuntos
Atividades Cotidianas/psicologia , Avaliação da Deficiência , Pessoas com Deficiência/psicologia , Pessoas com Deficiência/estatística & dados numéricos , Classificação Internacional de Funcionalidade, Incapacidade e Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Medidas de Resultados Relatados pelo Paciente , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos
6.
Epidemiol Health ; 43: e2021030, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33887819

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Hand-to-face contact (HFC) is the major route for the self-inoculation of pathogens. This study aimed to describe the characteristics of HFC behaviors among Korean adults during indoor activities. METHODS: Thirty participants were enrolled in the study, and 2 hours of videotaped data were collected from each participant. Contact data were recorded by examining the frequency and duration of HFC on the videos. Three training sessions were conducted for 2 readers to ensure the accuracy and reliability of videotape reading. Re-reading and verification of selected video data were performed to confirm intrapersonal and interpersonal validity. Contact exposure (CE) was determined by multiplying the contact frequency (CF) by the contact duration (CD) to quantify the intensity of contact during the observation time (2 hours). RESULTS: A total of 3,007 HFCs (1,305 mucous membrane contacts and 1,702 non-mucous membrane contacts) were observed for 60 person-hours. The median CF (person/2 hr) of the mucous membranes (eye; 4.0, nose; 15.5, mouth; 16.5) was 39.5/person and the median total CD was 177.0 sec/person. The median CE (frequency-duration/sec/person) was 5,795.0 (mouth: 1,356.0, nose: 600.0, eye: 57.5). CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that the mouth and nose were the most frequent exposure sites for HFC. Avoiding habitual HFC, awareness of self-inoculation by HFC, and vigorous hand hygiene should be strengthened to prevent the spread of infections.


Assuntos
Atividades Cotidianas/psicologia , Face , Mãos , Tato , Adulto , Idoso , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos Piloto , República da Coreia , Gravação de Videoteipe , Adulto Jovem
7.
Neurosciences (Riyadh) ; 26(2): 171-178, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33814370

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To assess the overall and domain-specific quality of life (QOL) in post-stroke patients using the stroke-specific quality of life (SS-QOL) scale and to identify variables that may affect the QOL after stroke. METHODS: A prospective cross-sectional study, included 80 stroke patients, was conducted in the Neurology department at King Fahad Hospital of the University (KFHU), Khobar, Saudi Arabia, from December 2019 to February 2020. Stroke patients were interviewed using the Arabic version of the SS-QOL questionnaire and modified Rankin scale (mRS). RESULTS: The overall quality of life in the surveyed participants was at the level of 3.72 points, which is above the average recognized in the middle of the scale that ranges from 1 to 5. The overall quality of life was not significantly correlated with sex, age, type of stroke, recurrence of stroke, and time since stroke (p>0.05). Hypertension and atrial fibrillation were the only comorbidities that were determined to be significantly associated with the overall quality of life at the level of (3.53), and (2.97) respectively (p<0.05). There was a statistically significant correlation between the mRS score and the overall quality of life (p<0.05). CONCLUSION: Performing a comprehensive assessment of the overall QOL in post-stroke patients will result in better health outcomes, particularly in terms of quality of functioning in psycho-social aspects.


Assuntos
Atividades Cotidianas/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/psicologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Fibrilação Atrial/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/complicações , Hipertensão/psicologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Arábia Saudita , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações , Reabilitação do Acidente Vascular Cerebral
8.
Nutrients ; 13(4)2021 Apr 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33921207

RESUMO

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a progressive articular disease. In addition to damaging the joints, it may cause multiple organ complications, and considerably impair the patient's functioning. Elderly patients with RA report pain, fatigue, mood disorders, sleep disorders and insomnia, accompanied by weakness, poor appetite, and weight loss. All these factors combined have an adverse effect on the patient's perceived quality of life (QoL). Due to the chronic nature of RA and the high risk of malnutrition in this patient group, the present study investigated QoL, activities of daily living, and frailty syndrome severity in relation to MNA (Mini Nutritional Assessment) questionnaire scores among elderly RA patients. The study included 98 patients (aged over 60) diagnosed with RA per the ARA (American Rheumatism Association) criteria. The following standardized instruments were used: WHOQoL-BREF for QoL, the Edmonton Frail Scale for frailty syndrome severity, MNA for nutritional status assessment, and MMSE (Mini-Mental State Examination) to assess any cognitive impairment. Medical data were obtained from hospital records. Patients with a different nutritional status differed significantly in terms of limitations in activities of daily living (ADL) and instrumental activities of daily living (IADL). Higher levels of malnutrition were associated with greater limitations in activity. An adverse impact of lower body weight on cognitive function was also observed (dementia was identified in 33.33% of malnourished patients vs. 1.79% in patients with a normal body weight). Likewise, frailty was more common in malnourished patients (mild frailty syndrome in 33.3%, moderate in 16.67%, and severe in 16.67%). Malnourished patients had significantly lower QoL scores in all WHOQoL-BREF questionnaire domains than those with a normal body weight, and multiple-factor analysis for the impact of selected variables on QoL in each domain demonstrated that frailty was a significant independent determinant of poorer QoL in all domains: perceived quality of life (ß = -0.069), perceived health (ß = -0.172), physical domain (ß = -0.425), psychological domain (ß = -0.432), social domain (ß = -0.415), environmental domain (ß = -0.317). Malnutrition was a significant independent determinant of QoL in the "perceived health" domain (ß = -0.08). In addition, regression analysis demonstrated the positive impact of male sex on QoL scores in the psychological (ß = 1.414) and environmental domains (ß = 1.123). Malnourished patients have a lower QoL than those with a normal body weight. Malnutrition adversely affects daily functioning, cognitive function, and the severity of frailty syndrome. Frailty syndrome is a significant independent determinant of poorer QoL in all WHOQoL BREF domains.


Assuntos
Artrite Reumatoide/complicações , Fragilidade/diagnóstico , Desnutrição/diagnóstico , Qualidade de Vida , Atividades Cotidianas/psicologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Artrite Reumatoide/psicologia , Cognição , Feminino , Idoso Fragilizado/psicologia , Fragilidade/etiologia , Fragilidade/psicologia , Hospitalização , Humanos , Masculino , Desnutrição/etiologia , Desnutrição/psicologia , Testes de Estado Mental e Demência , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Avaliação Nutricional , Estado Nutricional , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
9.
NeuroRehabilitation ; 48(2): 209-220, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33664158

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acquired brain injuries often cause cognitive impairment, significantly impacting participation in rehabilitation and activities of daily living. Music can influence brain function, and thus may serve as a uniquely powerful cognitive rehabilitation intervention. OBJECTIVE: This feasibility study investigated the potential effectiveness of music-based cognitive rehabilitation for adults with chronic acquired brain injury. METHODS: The control group participated in three Attention Process Training (APT) sessions, while the experimental group participated in three Music Attention Control Training (MACT) sessions. Pre-and post- testing used the Trail Making A & B, Digit Symbol, and Brown-Peterson Task as neuropsychological tests. RESULTS: ANOVA analyses showed no significant difference between groups for Trail A Test, Digit Symbol, and Brown-Peterson Task. Trail B showed significant differences at post-test favouring MACT over APT. The mean difference time between pre-and post-tests for the Trail B Test was also significantly different between APT and MACT in favour of MACT using a two-sample t-test as well as a follow-up nonparametric Mann Whitney U-test. CONCLUSIONS: The group differences found in the Trail B tests provided preliminary evidence for the efficacy of MACT to arouse and engage attention in adults with acquired brain injury.


Assuntos
Lesão Encefálica Crônica/terapia , Disfunção Cognitiva/terapia , Musicoterapia/métodos , Reabilitação Neurológica/métodos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Atividades Cotidianas/psicologia , Adulto , Idoso , Lesão Encefálica Crônica/psicologia , Cognição/fisiologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/psicologia , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Música/psicologia , Reabilitação Neurológica/psicologia , Testes Neuropsicológicos
10.
Public Health ; 193: 1-9, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33662760

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The elderly are the most at-risk population for heat-related illness and mortality during the periods of hot weather. However, evidence-based elderly-specific cooling strategies to prevent heat-illness are limited. The aim of this investigation was to quantify the elderly's physiological and perceptual responses to cooling through cold water ingestion (COLD) or an L-menthol mouth rinse (MENT) during simulated activities of daily living in UK summer climatic conditions. STUDY DESIGN: Randomised, controlled repeated measures research design. METHODS: A total of ten participants (men n = 7, women n = 3: age; 69 ± 3 yrs, height; 168 ± 10 cm, body mass; 68.88 ± 13.72 kg) completed one preliminary and three experimental trials; control (CON), COLD and MENT. Experimental trials consisted of 40 min rest followed by 30 min of cycling exercise at 6 metabolic equivalents and a 6-min walk test (6MWT), within a 35 °C, 50% relative humidity environment. Experimental interventions (every 10 min); cold water (4 °C) ingestion (total of 1.5L) or menthol (5 ml mouth swill for 5 s, menthol concentration of 0.01%). RESULTS: Peak rectal temperature (Tre) was significantly (P < 0.05) lower in COLD compared with CON (-0.34 ± 0.16 °C) and MENT (-0.36 ± 0.20 °C). End exercise heart rate (HR) decreased in COLD compared with CON (-7 ± 9 b min-1) and MENT (-6 ± 7 b min-1). There was no difference in end exercise thermal sensation (TS) (CON; 6.1 ± 0.4, COLD; 6.0 ± 0.4, MENT; 6.4 ± 0.6) or thermal comfort (TC) (CON; 4 ± 1, COLD; 4 ± 1, MENT; 4 ± 1) between trials. The participants walked significantly further during the COLD 6MWT compared with CON (40 m ± 40 m) and MENT (40 m ± 30 m). There was reduced physiological strain in the COLD 6MWT compared with CON (Tre; -0.21 ± 0.24 °C, HR; -7 ± 8 b min-1) and MENT (Tre; -0.23 ± 0.24 °C, HR; -4 ± 7 b min-1). CONCLUSION: The elderly have reduced physiological strain (Tre and HR) during activities of daily living and a 6MWT in hot UK climatic conditions, when they drink cold water. Furthermore, the elderly's perception (TS and TC) of the hot environment did not differ from CON at the end of exercise with COLD or MENT interventions. Menthol provided neither perceptual benefit to exercise in the heat nor functional gain. The TS data indicate that elderly may be at increased risk of heat illness, due to not feeling hot and uncomfortable enough to implement physiological strain reducing strategies such as cold-water ingestion.


Assuntos
Atividades Cotidianas/psicologia , Regulação da Temperatura Corporal/fisiologia , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor/prevenção & controle , Temperatura Alta/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estações do Ano , Reino Unido
11.
J Rehabil Med ; 53(5): jrm00189, 2021 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33778896

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore perspectives, including social and psychological aspects, of patients seeking manual care for low back pain, in order to understand constructs of functioning that are important across different cultural contexts. The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) emphasizes the importance of these aspects to describe health-related functioning. DESIGN: Focus group interviews. PATIENTS: Patients from Botswana, Canada and Norway seeking manual care for their low back pain. METHODS: Interviews were conducted in the 3 countries, transcribed verbatim, translated into English, and linked to the ICF according to established rules. RESULTS: Seven focus groups yielded 1,863 meaningful concepts that were linked to ICF categories. The largest proportion of responses linked to the Activities and Participation domain. The most frequently mentioned chapters related to pain and its mental aspects, suggesting that the psychological impact of living with low back pain is important to patients. CONCLUSION: Despite cultural differences, patients seeking manual care for low back pain in Botswana, Canada and Norway reported similar experiences of disability across ICF domains. The relatively high ranking of psychosocial factors highlights their importance for patients, in addition to factors of biological origin, and indicates that the contextual nature of the lived experience of low back pain may not be covered in standard examinations used in manual medicine.


Assuntos
Atividades Cotidianas/psicologia , Avaliação da Deficiência , Pessoas com Deficiência/psicologia , Entrevista Psicológica/métodos , Dor Lombar/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Dor Lombar/psicologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
12.
Med Sci Monit ; 27: e928977, 2021 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33674548

RESUMO

BACKGROUND The vestibular disorders activities of daily living (VADL) scale is a valid and reliable scale created 2 decades ago to specifically test the functional problems of patients with vestibular disorders. Since its development, the VADL has been cross-culturally validated and adapted in Spanish, Portuguese, Persian, and Turkish languages. A version is not yet available in Arabic, the primary language of more than 400 million people worldwide. This study aimed to translate the patient-reported VADL into Arabic and test its psychometric properties such as content validity, internal consistency, and test-retest reliability. MATERIAL AND METHODS Our study was conducted in 2 parts. In the first part, we translated and adapted the VADL from English into Arabic with expert input. In the second part, we tested the translated scale content validity by consulting 6 experts in the field. We assessed the scale's internal consistency and test-retest reliability by administering it twice to 31 subjects with vestibular disorders with a 1-week interval between the 2 measurements. RESULTS Translation, adaptation, and pretesting were successful, and we were able to create the VADL-A, an Arabic version of the VADL. The content validity of the VADL-A was 0.96, internal consistency was 0.96, and the test-retest reliability was 0.93. CONCLUSIONS We successfully translated, adapted, and created the VADL-A. Our preliminary testing of basic psychometric properties indicated that the scale has excellent content validity, internal consistency, and test-retest reliability.


Assuntos
Árabes/psicologia , Psicometria/métodos , Doenças Vestibulares/psicologia , Atividades Cotidianas/psicologia , Comparação Transcultural , Feminino , Humanos , Idioma , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Inquéritos e Questionários , Tradução , Traduções
13.
Health Qual Life Outcomes ; 19(1): 105, 2021 Mar 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33757542

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to verify if subjective well-being (SWB) modifies the autoregressive effect of daily emotions and if this emotional inertia predicts long-term changes in SWB among people living with HIV (PLWH). METHODS: The 131 participants had medically confirmed diagnoses of HIV and were undergoing antiretroviral therapy. They assessed their SWB (satisfaction with life, negative affect, positive affect) twice with an interval of one year. They also took part in a five-day online diary study six months from their baseline SWB assessment and reported their daily negative and positive emotions. RESULTS: Results showed that baseline SWB did not modify the emotional carryover effect from one to another. Additionally, after control for baseline SWB, emotional inertia did not predict SWB one year later. However, such an effect was noted for the mean values of daily reported emotions, indicating their unique predictive power over SWB itself. CONCLUSIONS: This may suggest that emotional inertia does not necessarily provide better information than more straightforward measures of affective functioning.


Assuntos
Atividades Cotidianas/psicologia , Emoções , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Satisfação Pessoal , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
14.
Psychol Aging ; 36(3): 309-321, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33705191

RESUMO

Prior research has shown that personality traits are associated with activities of daily living (ADLs) and instrumental ADLs (IADLs). To advance research on the psychological factors related to aging-related functional limitations, this study examined the relation between personality traits and both concurrent and incident functional limitations, tested whether these associations are similar across IADLs and ADLs, and tested potential mediators of these associations. Participants were drawn from eight longitudinal samples from the U.S., England, and Japan. Participants provided data on demographic variables, the five major personality traits, and on the Katz ADL-scale and Lawton IADL-scales. IADL/ADL limitations were assessed again 3-18 years later. A consistent pattern of associations was found between personality traits and functional limitations, with associations slightly stronger for IADLs than ADLs, and robust across samples that used different measures and from different cultural contexts. The meta-analysis indicated that higher neuroticism was related to a higher likelihood of concurrent and incident IADL/ADL limitations, and higher conscientiousness, extraversion, and openness were associated with lower risk. Higher agreeableness was associated with lower risk of concurrent IADL/ADL, but unrelated to incident limitations. Physical activity, disease burden, depressive symptoms, self-rated health, handgrip strength, falls, and smoking status mediated the relation between personality traits and incident IADL/ADL limitations. The present study indicates that personality traits are risk factors for both IADL and ADL limitations across multiple national cohorts, identifies potential mediators, and informs conceptual models on psychological risk factors for functional decline. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Atividades Cotidianas/psicologia , Determinação da Personalidade/normas , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos
15.
Health Qual Life Outcomes ; 19(1): 92, 2021 Mar 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33731129

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Research on quality of life (QOL) with Parkinson's disease (PD) has examined direct influencing factors, not mediators. The study aim was to explore whether PD severity and poor cognitive function may decrease physical and mental QOL by reducing activities of daily living (ADL) and increasing depression in sequence. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional questionnaire study of 150 PD hospital patients in China. PD severity, cognitive function, ADL, depression, and QOL were evaluated. We used structural equation modeling to analyze the mediating effects of ADL and depression on the association between PD severity/cognition and the physical health and mental health component summary scores measured by the SF36 quality of life instrument. RESULTS: There was a significant mediating effect of PD severity on physical health via ADL and depression (95% CI: - 0.669, - 0.026), and a significant direct effect (p < 0.001). The mediating effect of PD severity on mental health via ADL and depression was significant (95% CI: - 2.135, - 0.726), but there was no direct effect (p = 0.548). There was a significant mediating effect of cognitive function on physical health via ADL and depression (95% CI: 0.025, 0.219) and a significant direct effect (p < 0.001). The mediating effect of cognitive function on mental health via ADL and depression was significant (95% CI: 0.256, 0.645), but there was no direct effect (p = 0.313). The physical health models showed a partial mediation, and the mental health models showed a complete mediation, of ADL and depression. CONCLUSIONS: PD severity and cognitive function increase depression by reducing ADL, leading to lower QOL, and directly or indirectly affect physical health and mental health through different pathways.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva/psicologia , Depressão/psicologia , Doença de Parkinson/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida , Atividades Cotidianas/psicologia , Idoso , China , Disfunção Cognitiva/complicações , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doença de Parkinson/complicações , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Inquéritos e Questionários
16.
J Rehabil Med ; 53(3): jrm00167, 2021 Mar 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33656562

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The long-term impact of transient ischaemic attack is largely unknown. OBJECTIVES: To assess the long-term perceived impact of transient ischaemic attack and explore the influence of sex and age on these perceptions; and to evaluate the relationships between activities of daily living, participation and overall recovery, and the other domains of the Stroke Impact Scale 3.0 (SIS). METHODS: A retrospective study among adult community-dwelling individuals from 6 months up to 10 years after onset of transient ischaemic attack. A total of 299 survivors of transient ischaemic attack responded to the SIS. RESULTS: Most self-reported disabilities involved emotion, strength, and participation domains of SIS and remained stable until 10 years post-transient ischaemic attack. Women reported significantly more disabilities for emotion and hand function. Elderly subjects (age > 65 years) reported more disabilities for strength, mobility, hand function, activities of daily living/instrumental activities of daily living, and participation. The activities of daily living/instrumental activities of daily living, participation, and overall recovery demonstrated significant, although low-to-moderate, associations with other SIS domains after transient ischaemic attack. CONCLUSION: The broadly perceived disabilities were demonstrated consistently and played a significant meaningful role in everyday life and recovery among community-dwelling individuals up to 10 years after a transient ischaemic attack. These findings indicate the need for long-term multi-professional follow-up with holistic rehabilitation to improve overall recovery among survivors of transient ischaemic attack.


Assuntos
Atividades Cotidianas/psicologia , Pessoas com Deficiência/estatística & dados numéricos , Ataque Isquêmico Transitório/complicações , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Tempo
17.
J Rehabil Med ; 53(4): jrm00173, 2021 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33604676

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine the association of fatigue with long-term participation in aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage survivors. DESIGN: Cohort study, 4 years post-onset. SUBJECTS: A total of 59 patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage. METHODS: Participation performance was assessed with the Sickness Impact Profile-68, participation autonomy and problem experience with the Impact on Participation and Autonomy questionnaire, and community integration with the Community Integration Questionnaire. Fatigue was assessed with the Fatigue Severity Scale and depression with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression scale. Multivariable linear regression analyses were performed. RESULTS: Fifty-nine survivors (mean age 53.0 years, standard deviation (SD) 10.8 years) were included, of which 59.3% was fatigued. Fatigued patients had significantly worse participation scores than non-fatigued patients regarding performance (p < 0.001), autonomy indoors (p = 0.001), autonomy outdoors (p = 0.002) and problem experience (p = 0.001), but not regarding community integration. More severe fatigue was related to worse participation in terms of performance (B = 2.79, p < 0.001) and problem experience (B = 0.08, p = 0.003), adjusted for depression and inpatient rehabilitation. CONCLUSION: Four years after onset, many survivors of aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage have persistent fatigue, which is independently associated with reduced participation in activities of daily living. Therefore, future studies should investigate whether rehabilitation programs that focus on fatigue are effective in improving long-term participation outcome after aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage.


Assuntos
Atividades Cotidianas/psicologia , Fadiga/etiologia , Hemorragia Subaracnóidea/complicações , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Hemorragia Subaracnóidea/mortalidade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Sobreviventes
18.
J Appl Behav Anal ; 54(2): 566-581, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33600614

RESUMO

Children with autism spectrum disorder often display deficits in daily living skills. Behavior analysts can use telehealth, such as videoconferencing technology, to deliver interventions to families of these children. Given the COVID-19 pandemic and the common barriers to accessing behavioral interventions, it is imperative to evaluate the effectiveness and practicality of delivering behavioral interventions via telehealth. This study evaluated the efficacy of a parent-implemented intervention with coaching via telehealth to improve daily living skills. Children ranging in age from 5 to 9 years participated in the study with 1 or 2 of their parents serving as the primary implementer(s). Parents implemented the intervention with fidelity and the intervention yielded increases in independent daily living skill completion for all 4 participants.


Assuntos
Atividades Cotidianas/psicologia , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/terapia , Educação não Profissionalizante/métodos , Tutoria/métodos , Pais/educação , Telemedicina/métodos , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/psicologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pais/psicologia
19.
J Prev Alzheimers Dis ; 8(2): 175-180, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33569564

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A specialized instrument for assessing the cognition of patients with severe Alzheimer's disease (AD) is needed in China. OBJECTIVES: To validate the Chinese version of the Baylor Profound Mental Status Examination (BPMSE-Ch). DESIGN: The BPMSE is a simplified scale which has proved to be a reliable and valid tool for evaluating patients with moderate to severe AD, it is worthwhile to extend the use of it to Chinese patients with AD. SETTING: Patients were assessed from the Memory Clinic Outpatient. PARTICIPANTS: All participants were diagnosed as having probable AD by assessment. MEASUREMENTS: The BPMSE was translated into Chinese and back translated. The BPMSE-Ch was administered to 102 AD patients with a Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score below 17. We assessed the internal consistency, reliability, and construct validity between the BPMSE-Ch and MMSE, Severe Impairment Battery (SIB), Global Deterioration Scale (GDS-1), Geriatric Depression Scale(GDS-2), Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL), Physical Self-Maintenance Scale (PSMS), Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI) and Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR). RESULTS: The BPMSE-Ch showed good internal consistency (α = 0.87); inter-rater and test-retest reliability were both excellent, ranging from 0.91 to 0.99. The construct validity of the measure was also supported by significant correlations with MMSE, SIB. Moreover, as expected, the BMPSE-Ch had a lower floor effect than the MMSE, but a ceiling effect existed for patients with MMSE scores above 11. CONCLUSIONS: The BPMSE-Ch is a reliable and valid tool for evaluating cognitive function in Chinese patients with severe AD.


Assuntos
Atividades Cotidianas/psicologia , Doença de Alzheimer/diagnóstico , Cognição/fisiologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , China , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Testes de Estado Mental e Demência , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
20.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(2): e20298, 2021 02 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33625369

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Identifying cognitive impairment early enough could support timely intervention that may hinder or delay the trajectory of cognitive impairment, thus increasing the chances for successful cognitive aging. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to build a prediction model based on machine learning for cognitive impairment among Chinese community-dwelling elderly people with normal cognition. METHODS: A prospective cohort of 6718 older people from the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey (CLHLS) register, followed between 2008 and 2011, was used to develop and validate the prediction model. Participants were included if they were aged 60 years or above, were community-dwelling elderly people, and had a cognitive Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score ≥18. They were excluded if they were diagnosed with a severe disease (eg, cancer and dementia) or were living in institutions. Cognitive impairment was identified using the Chinese version of the MMSE. Several machine learning algorithms (random forest, XGBoost, naïve Bayes, and logistic regression) were used to assess the 3-year risk of developing cognitive impairment. Optimal cutoffs and adjusted parameters were explored in validation data, and the model was further evaluated in test data. A nomogram was established to vividly present the prediction model. RESULTS: The mean age of the participants was 80.4 years (SD 10.3 years), and 50.85% (3416/6718) were female. During a 3-year follow-up, 991 (14.8%) participants were identified with cognitive impairment. Among 45 features, the following four features were finally selected to develop the model: age, instrumental activities of daily living, marital status, and baseline cognitive function. The concordance index of the model constructed by logistic regression was 0.814 (95% CI 0.781-0.846). Older people with normal cognitive functioning having a nomogram score of less than 170 were considered to have a low 3-year risk of cognitive impairment, and those with a score of 170 or greater were considered to have a high 3-year risk of cognitive impairment. CONCLUSIONS: This simple and feasible cognitive impairment prediction model could identify community-dwelling elderly people at the greatest 3-year risk for cognitive impairment, which could help community nurses in the early identification of dementia.


Assuntos
Atividades Cotidianas/psicologia , Cognição/fisiologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico , Aprendizado de Máquina/normas , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , China , Feminino , Humanos , Vida Independente , Longevidade , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos
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