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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(46): e23178, 2020 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33181694

RESUMO

Low back pain (LBP) is a typical symptom in volleyball players, yet associated physical function factors have not been identified. This study purpose is to determine the relationship between LBP and physical function factors in order to identify potential factors for the management of LBP.Participants were 123 male and female volleyball players of 15- to 17-year-olds who, completed a questionnaire regarding demographic details, presence of LBP, and years of volleyball experience. Participants were divided into 2 groups based on the presence of current LBP and evaluated on physical function tests. The results of the questionnaire response and physical function test were compared between the 2 groups. Data were analyzed using a multivariate logistic regression analysis with presence and absence of current LBP as the explanatory variable.11.4% of all participants reported current LBP. Physical function factors associated with current LBP were a positive modified Thomas test, years of volleyball experience and reduced range of motion of shoulder horizontal abduction on the dominant hand side.The associations between physical function factors and LBP found in this survey suggest that attention should be given to more experienced players with decreased flexibility of hip and shoulder flexors on the dominant side in order to manage LBP in high school volleyball players.


Assuntos
Atletas/classificação , Dor Lombar/classificação , Desempenho Físico Funcional , Voleibol/lesões , Adolescente , Atletas/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Japão , Modelos Logísticos , Dor Lombar/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Instituições Acadêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Voleibol/estatística & dados numéricos
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33198389

RESUMO

Coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) is an infectious viral disease that has spread globally, resulting in the ongoing pandemic. Currently, there is no vaccine or specific treatment for COVID-19. Preventive measures to reduce the chances of contagion consist mainly of confinement, avoiding crowded places, social distancing, masks, and applying strict personal hygiene as recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO). After the first wave of infection in many countries, the potential effects of relaxing containment and physical distancing control measures suggest that as a result of these measures, a second wave of COVID-19 appears probable in these countries. In sport, the period of self-isolation, and quarantine, for COVID-19 affects the physical preparation of athletes as well as their mental health and quality of life to an even greater extent (i.e., nutrition, sleep, healthy lifestyle), and thus, relevant and practical recommendations are needed to help alleviate these physical and mental health concerns. Our review aims to summarize the physiological and psychological effects of detraining associated with athletes' confinement during the proposed second wave of COVID-19. This article also proposes answers to questions that concern the advantages and disadvantages of different types of social media platforms, the importance of nutrition, and the effects of sleep disturbance on the health and modified lifestyle of athletes during this worldwide pandemic. Thus, this review provides some general guidelines to better manage their modified lifestyle and optimally maintain their physical and mental fitness with respect to measures taken during this restrictive proposed second wave of the COVID-19 confinement period.


Assuntos
Atletas/psicologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Saúde Mental , Necessidades Nutricionais , Pandemias , Qualidade de Vida , Quarentena , Sono
3.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 92(4): e20191371, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33206786

RESUMO

Aims to evaluate the effect of whole purple grape juice intake in the recovery of oxidative stress, inflammation and muscle injury after an intense training session. Fifteen high level men athletes were randomly distributed in supplemented (GJG; n=8; 28.7 ± 3.5 years) or control group (CG; n=7; 24.8 ± 2.7 years). 400 ml of juice or water was ingested immediately before (200 ml) and after (200 ml) a training session. Blood samples was collect before and post-training session as well as 180 minutes after this session (recovery) to analysis of creatine kinase (CK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), C-reactive ultrasensitive protein (CRP), malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitrite. The nitrite values at the end of recovery moment of the GJG group were significantly higher than the same moment in the CG group (p<0.05), and the intra-group analysis showed a significant increase in nitrite values only in the GJG group in the end of recovery period moment when compared to the moments pre-training (p<0.001) and post-training (p<0.05). MDA, CRP, LDH and CK did not differ neither groups. Acute supplementation with 400 ml of grape juice increases the serum concentration of nitrite, a nitric oxide metabolite that has antioxidant activity.


Assuntos
Óxido Nítrico , Vitis , Atletas , Suplementos Nutricionais , Humanos , Masculino , Estresse Oxidativo
4.
Curr Sports Med Rep ; 19(11): 498-503, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33156037

RESUMO

The American Medical Society for Sports Medicine (AMSSM) convened a writing group to address the current evidence and knowledge gaps regarding preparticipation evaluation of athletes during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. The writing group held a series of meetings beginning in April 2020. The task force reviewed the available literature and used an iterative process and expert consensus to finalize this guidance statement that is intended to provide clinicians with a clinical framework to return athletes of all levels to training and competition during the pandemic. The statement is not intended to address treatment, infection control principles, or public health issues related to SARS-CoV-2. The AMSSM task force acknowledges the clinical uncertainty, evolving public health objectives, and the limited data currently available to create this guidance statement.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Exame Físico/normas , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Medicina Esportiva/métodos , Atletas , Betacoronavirus , Consenso , Humanos , Pandemias , Sociedades Médicas , Esportes
5.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 92(4): e20191551, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33237140

RESUMO

Physiological levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) are important for intracellular and extracellular redox regulation in signaling and defense processes. Strenuous exercise can also contribute to this imbalance, and the muscle fatigue, evidenced by impaired strength or power generation, can be caused by various reasons, including oxidative stress. Antioxidants can prevent the formation of ROS by intercepting free radicals. Twenty judo athletes were included in this randomized, double-blind clinical trial into grape juice and placebo groups, and they consumed grape juice or placebo daily for 14 days in a crossover model. The outcomes were analyzed before and after combat simulations. The upper limb strength was higher in the grape juice group than in the placebo (p [group] = 0.003). The lipid damage levels were 10% higher in the placebo group (p [interaction] = 0.048). During the pre-exercise, the placebo group showed 19% more DNA damage than the grape juice group. The superoxide dismutase activity was 80% lower in the grape juice group (p [interaction] < 0.001). The consumption of grape juice can improve parameters of oxidative stress by reducing the lipid and DNA damage.


Assuntos
Artes Marciais , Vitis , Antioxidantes/análise , Atletas , Bebidas , Humanos , Fadiga Muscular , Estresse Oxidativo
6.
Rev Prat ; 70(5): 548-554, 2020 May.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33058646

RESUMO

Prevention of osteo-articular lesions in amateur and leisure sports. Physical exercise and sport are now recognized by the World Health Organisation and the ministry of Health as non-drug therapy/treatment for many pathologies. Its use implies an increase in the number of sportsmen and therefore, statistically, an increase in the risk of osteoarticular lesions. Before starting, it is advisable to carry out a check-up to determine non-contraindication, as well as particularities and patient's preference for one or more sports. To avoid injuries and allow the regularity necessary for an efficient treatment, preventive measures must be taken. Major preventive measures consist in choosing one or several sports practiced in a safe environment and in well-qualified instructors to teach correct technique, advise on the right equipment, manage the intensity and frequency of each session to allow progression, and give precautions to be followed regarding weather and pollution conditions. Others preventive measures are those of competitive sports: warming-up, stretching, active recovery, sleep, hydration and nutrition also apply to every athlete no matter his or her level. Certain preventive measures are specific according to morphology or traumatic pathologies, such as orthosis, and others to age, young and old, or the level of the athlete.


Assuntos
Traumatismos em Atletas , Esportes , Atletas , Traumatismos em Atletas/prevenção & controle , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Humanos , Atividades de Lazer
7.
Rev Prat ; 70(5): 555-560, 2020 May.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33058647

RESUMO

How to reduce the sudden nontraumatic death related to sport risk? Sport's related sudden cardiac death (SCD) is still dramatically perceived and often widely publicized. In case of SCD sport's practice reveals a heart disease that is mainly overlooked. In a society under the influence of the precautionary principle, preventing SCD seems essential. However, implementing effective SCD prevention is not easy. Among the three most often preventive actions proposed, the pre-participation screening evaluation, the athlete's education, and the population education for resuscitation maneuvers, the pre-participation evaluation currently seems to have the most difficulty in proving its effectiveness.


Assuntos
Cardiopatias , Esportes , Atletas , Morte Súbita Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Morte Súbita Cardíaca/etiologia , Morte Súbita Cardíaca/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Programas de Rastreamento
8.
Rev Prat ; 70(5): 561-565, 2020 May.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33058648

RESUMO

Nutrition in sports. Recommendations for nutritional intake by athletes, whatever their sports level, first requires ensuring that daily energy expenditure is covered and that nutrition recommendations for health are applied. For endurance athletes, carbohydrate intake before and during exercise plays a decisive role in glucose availability and performance. In strength/power athletes, protein intake is important for optimizing the training responses. For all these athletes, nutritional intakes during recovery ensure good tolerance of training programs. Nutritional supplements are only justified on the basis of scientific evidence, and relate only to products available on the official market and produced in accordance with quality procedures.


Assuntos
Esportes , Atletas , Suplementos Nutricionais , Exercício Físico , Humanos , Estado Nutricional
9.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 584-587, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33018056

RESUMO

Sports activity is characterised by the influence of different factors, which relate to both psychological and emotional stress of athletes. As a consequence, mental and physical preparations are fundamental in pre-competition and competition activities. In fact, being able to manage the reactions to stressful events and high demanding conditions, and adapt the strategy depending on the ongoing situation and opponent's reactions allow the athletes to properly process the surrounding information, evaluate all the possible solutions, and finally take the right decision. In this regard, the Skin Conductance (SC), Heart Rate (HR), and Skin Temperature (ST) signals were recorded during a grappling tournament from ten athletes with the aim to investigate if physiological assessments could provide an objective measure of athletes' attitude. The results proved that individual training programs can be tailored accordingly to the neurophysiological state of the athletes, but also that their awareness about both mental and physical preparations and attitudes could be improved.


Assuntos
Esportes , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis , Animais , Atletas , Atitude , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos
10.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 750-753, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33018095

RESUMO

In addition to the global parameter- and time-series-based approaches, physiological analyses should constitute a local temporal one, particularly when analyzing data within protocol segments. Hence, we introduce the R package implementing the estimation of temporal orders with a causal vector (CV). It may use linear modeling or time series distance. The algorithm was tested on cardiorespiratory data comprising tidal volume and tachogram curves, obtained from elite athletes (supine and standing, in static conditions) and a control group (different rates and depths of breathing, while supine). We checked the relation between CV and body position or breathing style. The rate of breathing had a greater impact on the CV than does the depth. The tachogram curve preceded the tidal volume relatively more when breathing was slower.


Assuntos
Análise de Dados , Respiração , Atletas , Humanos , Postura , Posição Ortostática , Volume de Ventilação Pulmonar
11.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 4624-4627, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33019024

RESUMO

The Sports Concussion Assessment Tool (SCAT) is a pen and paper-based evaluation tool for use by healthcare professionals in the acute evaluation of suspected concussion. Here we present a feasibility study towards instrumented SCAT (iSCAT). Traditionally, a healthcare professional subjectively counts errors according to SCAT marking criteria matrix. It is hypothesized that an instrumented version of the test will be more accurate while providing additional digital-based parameters to better inform player management. The feasibility study focuses on the SCAT physical functioning tasks only: double leg stance, single-leg stance, tandem stance and tandem gait. Amateur university rugby players underwent iSCAT testing and data were recorded with 8 inertial units attached at different anatomical locations. Video data were gathered simultaneously as reference. An iSCAT algorithm was used to detect errors and quantify additional concussion-based time and frequency domain parameters to assess participant stability during balance and gait tasks. Future work aims to instrument other SCAT features such as hand-eye coordination while deploying methods within a large concussion project.


Assuntos
Traumatismos em Atletas , Concussão Encefálica , Futebol Americano , Atletas , Traumatismos em Atletas/diagnóstico , Concussão Encefálica/diagnóstico , Estudos de Viabilidade , Humanos
12.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4936, 2020 10 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33024098

RESUMO

Wearable exercise trackers provide data that encode information on individual running performance. These data hold great potential for enhancing our understanding of the complex interplay between training and performance. Here we demonstrate feasibility of this idea by applying a previously validated mathematical model to real-world running activities of  ≈ 14,000 individuals with ≈ 1.6 million exercise sessions containing duration and distance, with a total distance of ≈ 20 million km. Our model depends on two performance parameters: an aerobic power index and an endurance index. Inclusion of endurance, which describes the decline in sustainable power over duration, offers novel insights into performance: a highly accurate race time prediction and the identification of key parameters such as the lactate threshold, commonly used in exercise physiology. Correlations between performance indices and training volume and intensity are quantified, pointing to an optimal training. Our findings hint at new ways to quantify and predict athletic performance under real-world conditions.


Assuntos
Modelos Teóricos , Corrida/fisiologia , Atletas , Big Data , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Humanos , Ácido Láctico/metabolismo , Consumo de Oxigênio , Resistência Física/fisiologia , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis
13.
Arthroscopy ; 36(10): 2611-2613, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33039036

RESUMO

In the past 5 years, arthroscopic labral reconstruction of the hip has rapidly evolved from a salvage procedure used primarily in the setting of multiple failed prior hip surgical procedures to an alternative, and even preferable, primary treatment option for labral pathology and femoroacetabular impingement. As opposed to labral repair, labral reconstruction allows for complete removal of all damaged, pain-generating tissue; optimal correction of underlying bony impingement; and consistent creation of a graft that appropriately restores the fluid hip seal, improves pressurization and stabilization, and decreases contact pressure. Allograft tissue, in particular, allows for accurate and reliable graft length creation and does not rely on native tissue quality. Hips that undergo labral reconstruction have been shown to have positive outcomes at minimum 2-year follow-up, despite the fact that in many cases, these hips have more damage and a poorer preoperative prognosis. Patients report decreased pain, increased function, and greater quality of life after labral reconstruction, and this new evidence suggests that they can resume high-level physical activity as well. Circumferential labral reconstruction is no longer a salvage procedure and is an important tool for the hip arthroscopist; however, it requires high proficiency in hip arthroscopy to perform.


Assuntos
Cartilagem Articular , Impacto Femoroacetabular , Aloenxertos , Artroscopia , Atletas , Cartilagem Articular/cirurgia , Impacto Femoroacetabular/cirurgia , Articulação do Quadril , Humanos , Qualidade de Vida , Volta ao Esporte , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0239155, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33044967

RESUMO

Training in elite sport aims at the optimization of the athletic performance, and to control the athletes`progress in physiological, anthropometrical and motor performance prerequisites. However, in most sports, the value of longitudinal testing is unclear. This study evaluates the longitudinal development and the influence of intense training over 2-years on specific physiological performance prerequisites, as well as certain body dimensions and motor abilities in elite youth athletes. Recruited between 11-13 years of age at Shanghai Elite Sport school, the sample of student-athletes (N = 21) was categorized as the swimming group (10 athletes), and the racket sports group (11 players: 7 table tennis and 4 badminton players). The performance monitoring took place over two years between September 2016 and September 2018 and included 5 test waves. In all the test waves, the athletes were assessed by means of three physiological measurements (vital capacity, hemoglobin concentration, heart rate at rest), three anthropometric parameters (body height, body weight, chest girth), and two motor tests (back strength, complex reaction speed). Seven out of eight diagnostic methods exhibit medium to high validity to discriminate between the different levels of performance development in the two sports groups. The investigated development of the performance characteristics is attributed partly to the inherited athletic disposition as well as to the different sport-specific training regimens of the two sports groups.


Assuntos
Atletas , Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Esportes com Raquete/fisiologia , Natação/fisiologia , Adolescente , Antropometria , Criança , China , Seguimentos , Frequência Cardíaca , Hemoglobinas/metabolismo , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Destreza Motora , Força Muscular , Tempo de Reação , Capacidade Vital
15.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0239977, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33007010

RESUMO

The primary aim of the present study was to analyze mechanical responses during inertial knee- and hip-dominant hamstring strengthening exercises (flywheel leg-curl and hip-extension in conic-pulley), and the secondary aim was to measure and compare regional muscle use using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Mean power, peak power, mean velocity, peak velocity and time in the concentric (CON) and eccentric (ECC) phases were measured. The transverse relaxation time (T2) shift from pre- to post-exercise were calculated for the biceps femoris long (BFl) and short (BFs) heads, semitendinosus (ST) and semimembranosus (SM) muscles at proximal, middle and distal areas of the muscle length. Peak and mean power in flywheel leg-curl were higher during the CON than the ECC phase (p<0.01). ECC peak power was higher than CON phase (p<0.01) in conic-pulley hip-extension exercise, while mean power was higher during the CON than ECC phase (p<0.01). Flywheel leg-curl showed a higher T2 values in ST and BFs and BFl (p<0.05), while the conic-pulley hip-extension had a higher T2 values in the proximal region of the ST and BFl (p<0.05). In conclusion, ECC overload was only observed in peak power during the conic-pulley hip-extension exercise. Flywheel leg-curl involved a greater overall use of the 4 muscle bellies, more specifically in the ST and BFs, with a selective augmented activity (compared with the conic-pulley) in the 3 regions of the BFs, while conic-pulley hip-extension exercise selectively targeted the proximal and medial regions of the BFl. Physiotherapists and strength and conditioning coaches should consider this when optimizing the training and recovery process for hamstring muscles, especially after injury.


Assuntos
Atletas , Exercício Físico , Músculos Isquiossurais/fisiologia , Quadril/fisiologia , Joelho/fisiologia , Fenômenos Mecânicos , Futebol , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Músculos Isquiossurais/diagnóstico por imagem , Quadril/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Joelho/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Força Muscular , Suporte de Carga , Adulto Jovem
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32899526

RESUMO

The spread of COVID-19 has altered sport in Spain, forcing athletes to train at home. The objectives of the study were: (i) to compare training and recovery conditions before and during the isolation period in handball players according to gender and competitive level, and (ii) to analyse the impact of psychological factors during the isolation period. A total of 187 participants (66 women and 121 men) answered a Google Forms questionnaire about demographics, training, moods, emotional intelligence, and resilience sent using the snowball sampling technique. T-test and analysis of variance (ANOVA) were used to compare sport level and gender differences. Linear regressions were used to analyse the psychological influence on training. Handball players reduced training intensity (in the whole sample; p = 0.44), training volume (especially in professional female handball players; p < 0.001), and sleep quality (especially in professional male handball players; p = 0.21) and increased sleep hours (especially in non-professional female players; p = 0.006) during the isolation period. Furthermore, psychological factors affected all evaluated training and recovery conditions during the quarantine, except for sleep quantity. Mood, emotional intelligence, and resilience have an influence on physical activity levels and recovery conditions. In addition, training components were modified under isolation conditions at p < 0.001. We conclude that the COVID-19 isolation period caused reductions in training volume and intensity and decreased sleep quality. Furthermore, psychological components have a significant impact on training and recovery conditions.


Assuntos
Atletas/psicologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Esportes , Afeto , Betacoronavirus , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , Resiliência Psicológica , Sono , Isolamento Social , Espanha
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32937978

RESUMO

COVID-19 and lockdown strategies may affect mental health and addictive behavior differently in the population, and elite athletes are among the professions clearly affected by the pandemic. This study in top elite athletes aimed to study current perceived psychological influence from COVID-19 and symptoms of depression, anxiety and changes in alcohol drinking, gambling behavior and problem gambling in the midst of the COVID-19 lockdown. This web survey included athletes in top leagues of soccer, ice hockey and handball in Sweden (N = 327, 62% men). A total of 66% and 51% were worried about the future of their sport or about their own future in sports, respectively. Feeling worse psychologically during the pandemic was common (72% of women, 40% of men, p < 0.001); depression criteria were endorsed by 19% of women and three percent of men (p < 0.001); anxiety criteria by 20% of women and five percent of men (p < 0.001). Reporting increased gambling during the pandemic was associated with gambling problem severity. Moderate-risk or problem gambling was seen in 10% of men and none of the women (p < 0.001). Depression and anxiety were associated with feeling worse during the COVID-19 pandemic and with concern over one's own sports future. In conclusion, COVID-19-related distress is common in elite athletes and associated with mental health symptoms. Gambling increase during the pandemic was rare, but related to gambling problems, which were common in male athletes. The calls for increased focus on COVID-19-related concerns in athletes and on problem gambling in male athletes.


Assuntos
Atletas/psicologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Jogo de Azar/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Angústia Psicológica , Betacoronavirus , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , Inquéritos e Questionários , Suécia
18.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238846, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32915883

RESUMO

The study aimed at assessing the acute physiological effects of running a 65-km vs a 107-km mountain ultramarathon. Nineteen athletes (15 males and 4 females) from the shorter race and forty three athletes (26 males and 17 females) from the longer race were enrolled. Body weight, respiratory and lower limb strength were assessed before and after the race. Blood samples were obtained before, after and 24-h post-race. Body weight loss did not differ between races. A decrease in squat jump height (p<0.01; d = 1.4), forced vital capacity (p<0.01; d = 0.5), forced expiratory volume in 1 s (p<0.01; d = 0.6), peak inspiratory flow (p<0.01; d = 0.6) and maximal inspiratory pressure (p<0.01; d = 0.8) was observed after the longer race; while, after the shorter race only maximal inspiratory pressure declined (p<0.01; d = 0.5). Greater post-race concentrations of creatine kinase (p<0.01; d = 0.9) and C-reactive protein (p<0.01; d = 2.3) were observed following the longer race, while high-sensitivity cardiac troponin was higher after the shorter race (p<0.01; d = 0.3). Sodium decreased post-competition only after the shorter race (p = 0.02; d = 0.6), while creatinine increased only following the longer race (p<0.01; d = 1.5). In both groups, glomerular filtration rate declined at post-race (longer race: p<0.01, d = 2.1; shorter race: p = 0.01, d = 1.4) and returned to baseline values at 24 h post-race. In summary, expiratory and lower-limb fatigue, and muscle damage and inflammatory response were greater following the longer race; while a higher release of cardiac troponins was observed after the shorter race. The alteration and restoration of renal function was similar after either race.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/sangue , Fadiga/fisiopatologia , Extremidade Inferior/fisiopatologia , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Força Muscular , Resistência Física/fisiologia , Corrida , Adulto , Atletas/estatística & dados numéricos , Creatina Quinase/sangue , Creatinina/sangue , Feminino , Volume Expiratório Forçado , Humanos , Masculino , Testes de Função Respiratória , Capacidade Vital
19.
J Adolesc Health ; 67(5): 662-670, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32943294

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Physical distancing measures to combat the spread of the novel coronavirus have presented challenges for the mental health and well-being of college students. As campus activities ceased, student-athletes abruptly became isolated from teammates and were no longer able to participate in sport activities that are often central to their identity as an athlete. However, student-athletes who have supportive social connections with teammates during this pandemic may maintain their athletic identity to a greater extent and report better mental health. The present study examined how student-athletes' mental health was associated with teammate social support, connectedness, and changes to athletic identity from before to during COVID-19. METHOD: A sample of 234 student-athletes completed surveys before COVID-19 physical distancing (February 2020), with 135 (63% female) participating in a follow-up in the month following school closures (April 2020). Path models estimated the effects of teammate social support and connectedness (during COVID-19), as well as changes in athletic identity on indices of mental health. RESULTS: Considering all path models tested, student-athletes who received more social support and reported more connectedness with teammates reported less dissolution of their athletic identity and-in most models-reported better mental health and well-being. Indirect effects indicated that student-athletes' change in athletic identity mediated the effects of teammate social support on psychological well-being and depression symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: In addition to advancing theory on how small groups relate to mental health, these findings demonstrate the value in remaining socially connected with peers and maintaining role identities during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
Atletas/psicologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Saúde Mental , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Identificação Social , Isolamento Social/psicologia , Esportes/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pandemias , Grupo Associado , Apoio Social , Estudantes/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32992687

RESUMO

Rules determine how team sport matches occur. Match-induced fatigue is specific to each sport, and may be associated with injury incidence. For example, the injury rate in soccer is distinctly higher during matches than in training sessions. Understanding the differences between team sports rules might be useful for enhancing rules (e.g., safer sport). Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the impact of the rule-induced physical demands between soccer, futsal, basketball, and handball, focusing on substitution rules. Data from the elite team sports' rules (e.g., absolute and relative court dimensions; the number of players, substitutions allowed, total game time, time-outs) were collected, including the changes due to the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic in soccer substitutions, and comparisons were performed. The data showed that soccer has higher rule-induced physical demands: e.g., substantially lower substitution rate, higher dimensions in absolute (eight to fifteen times), and relative (four to eight times) values. Simulations also showed that soccer has extremely large differences, even considering COVID-19 substitution changes (from three to up to five). We conclude that elite soccer has remarkably higher overall rule-induced physical demands than elite futsal, basketball and handball, and increasing soccer substitutions permanently (e.g., unlimited) might mitigate overall soccer demands.


Assuntos
Atletas , Esforço Físico , Futebol/fisiologia , Esportes/fisiologia , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus , Humanos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral
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