Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 12.938
Filtrar
1.
Rev Med Liege ; 75(1): 49-52, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31920044

RESUMO

Elite athletes participate in multiple competitions and are exposed to important training load. There is a need to match the recovery process against such a number of competitions and important training load, with the aim of preventing overtraining and injury. Several recovery strategies exist. Some strategies such as hydration, diet, cold water immersion and sleep are effective in their ability to counteract the fatigue mechanisms. Elite athletes regularly display compromised sleep quantity and quality with sleep quality being most vulnerable prior to major competitive events, during periods of high-intensity training and following long-haul travel to competitions. Compromised sleep quantity and/or quality may be detrimental to the outcome of the recovery process after training and competition. Future studies should focus on the interest of sleep hygiene strategies to optimise recovery, performance and preventing injury.


Assuntos
Atletas , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília , Esportes , Fadiga , Humanos , Sono
2.
Mymensingh Med J ; 29(1): 169-176, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31915354

RESUMO

This cross sectional analytical type of study was conducted at department of Anatomy, Dhaka Medical College, Dhaka, Bangladesh from July 2015 to June 2016 on 50 adult Bangladeshi male sprinters (Group A) and 50 adult Bangladeshi male cricket batsman (Group B). Sample collection was done by convenient purposive sampling technique. History of any injury of hand during playing was excluded to construct standard measurement. Hand breadth was measured with the help of slide calipers. Hand grip strength Dynamometer was used to measure the hand grip strength. Paired Student's 't' test, unpaired student's 't' test and Pearson's correlation coefficient test were done for statistical analysis of the result. The aim of the present study was to determine hand breadth and average hand grip strength of Bangladeshi male cricket batsman to find out correlation between them that may be used as a baseline for other professions as well for future research in our country. The mean right and left hand grip strength was significantly higher in the cricket batsman than in the sprinters. The mean right and left hand breadth was found to be significantly higher in the cricket batsman than in the sprinters. Right and left hand grip strength showed significant positive correlation with hand breadth in both hand. The study findings suggest that regular physical exercise and training increase hand grip strength.


Assuntos
Força da Mão , Mãos/anatomia & histologia , Adulto , Animais , Antropometria , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Atletas , Bangladesh , Estudos Transversais , Grupos Étnicos , Humanos , Masculino , Dinamômetro de Força Muscular , Corrida
4.
Br J Sports Med ; 54(3): 176-182, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31792068

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Little is known about athletes' understanding of safe sport and occurrence of harassment and abuse in elite youth sport. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the IOC Safe Sport educational experience at the Youth Olympic Games 2018 in Buenos Aires and to ascertain the athletes' (1) understanding of what constitutes harassment and abuse, (2) perception of the occurrence in their sport, and (3) knowledge of where to report. METHODS: Athletes visiting the IOC Safe Sport Booth answered a survey related to athletes' (1) understanding of harassment and abuse in sport, (2) perception of the occurrence of harassment and abuse in their sport, and (3) knowledge of where to report. Experts and volunteers answered an email survey on their experience. RESULTS: The response rate was 71.8%. When asked to define 'safe sport', the athletes mainly relate the concept to general physical and environmental safety, fair play and clean sport, rather than sport free from harassment and abuse. Almost half (46%) of the athletes expressed surprise by the definition of behaviours of harassment and abuse within sport. When asked if harassment and/or abuse occur in their sport, 47.5% reported 'no' or 'not likely', while 34% stated 'likely' or 'very likely'; 19% were 'unsure'. The majority (63%) of athletes knew where to seek help. Three quarters (71%) of the athletes rated the educational materials as 'good' to 'excellent'. The experts and volunteers believed the intervention would result in change in athletes' awareness, knowledge and behaviour. CONCLUSIONS: This multinational cohort of elite youth athletes is not knowledgeable of the concept of harassment and abuse in sport, despite there being a significant perception of occurrence of harassment and abuse in their sports.


Assuntos
Assédio não Sexual , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Segurança , Esportes Juvenis , Adolescente , Adulto , Argentina , Atletas , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários
5.
Sports Health ; 12(1): 43-50, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31730421

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Student-athletes are subject to significant demands due to their concurrent sporting and academic commitments, which may affect their sleep. This study aimed to compare the self-reported sleep quality, quantity, and intraindividual variability (IIV) of students and student-athletes through an online survey. HYPOTHESIS: Student-athletes will have a poorer sleep quality and quantity and experience more IIV. STUDY DESIGN: Case-control study. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level 4. METHODS: Sleep quality was assessed using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), while sleep quantity and IIV were assessed using the Consensus Sleep Diary. Initially, the PSQI and additional questions regarding sport participation habits were completed by 138 participants (65 students, 73 student-athletes). From within this sample, 44 participants were recruited to complete the sleep diary for a period of 14 days. RESULTS: The mean PSQI score was 6.89 ± 3.03, with 65% of the sample identified as poor sleepers, but no difference was observed between students and student-athletes. Analysis of sleep patterns showed only possibly to likely small differences in sleep schedule, sleep onset latency, and subjective sleep quality between groups. IIV analysis showed likely moderate to possibly small differences between groups, suggesting more variable sleep patterns among student-athletes. CONCLUSION: This study highlights that sleep issues are prevalent within the university student population and that student-athletes may be at greater risk due to more variable sleep patterns. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: University coaches should consider these results to optimize sleep habits of their student-athletes.


Assuntos
Atletas/psicologia , Sono , Estudantes/psicologia , Desempenho Acadêmico , Atletas/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Individualidade , Masculino , Autorrelato , Latência do Sono , Estresse Psicológico , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Tempo
6.
Sports Biomech ; 19(1): 76-89, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29902127

RESUMO

A potential challenge associated with sports is that athletes must often perform the cognitive processing associated with decision-making (i.e., movement selection) when fatigued. The purpose of this systematic review was to summarise studies that have analysed the extent to which fatigue influences the effects of decision-making on lower extremity mechanics during execution of common sports manoeuvres. We specifically focused on mechanics associated with ACL injury risk. Reviewers searched the PubMed, SPORTDiscus, CINAHL and Web of Science databases. The search identified 183 unique articles. Five of these articles met our eligibility criteria. Two of the studies incorporated fatigue protocols where athletes progressed to exhaustion and found that the effects of decision-making on mechanics were more pronounced with fatigue. The nature of the results appears to indicate that fatigue may compromise an athlete's cognitive processing in a manner that diminishes their ability to control movement when rapid decision-making is required. However, three subsequent studies utilised fatigue protocols designed to mimic sports participation and found that fatigue did not influence the effects of decision-making on mechanics. In general, these findings appear to indicate that fatigue may only affect the cognitive processing associated with decision-making when athletes approach a state of exhaustion.


Assuntos
Atletas/psicologia , Tomada de Decisões , Fadiga/psicologia , Lesões do Ligamento Cruzado Anterior/fisiopatologia , Antecipação Psicológica , Traumatismos em Atletas/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Extremidade Inferior/fisiologia , Movimento/fisiologia , Fadiga Muscular/fisiologia , Fatores de Risco
8.
Chin J Physiol ; 62(6): 273-278, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31793464

RESUMO

The aim of the study was to assess the effect of one session of high-intensity laser therapy (HILT) on the levels of selected oxidative stress parameters, lysosomal hydrolases, and anti-inflammatory serine protease inhibitor in the peripheral blood of amateur athletes with torn or pulled tendons of the ankle or the knee joint. The group of injured athletes comprised 16 males and females aged 16.3 ± 1.3 years, while the control group of 14 healthy, noninjured amateur athletes of both sexes (controls; age 17.4 ± 4.6 years). Material for the study was peripheral blood taken at three study time points: Immediately before, 30 min after, and 24 h after HILT intervention. In plasma and erythrocytes, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARSpl and TBARSer, respectively) were determined. In erythrocytes, the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and catalase (CAT) were measured. In serum, the activity of acid phosphatase (AcP), arylsulfatase (ASA), cathepsin D (CTS D), and α1-antitrypsin (AAT) were determined. Among oxidative stress parameters, only the CAT activity significantly decreased 24 h after HILT compared to measurement 30 min after the treatment in the injured individuals (P < 0.01), while the GPx activity in that group was meaningfully higher 30 min after HILT compared to controls (P < 0.05). Thirty min after the intervention, the activities of AcP and ASA were lower in the injured participants compared to the uninjured ones (P < 0.01 and P < 0.05, respectively). The CTS D activity was lower 30 min and 24 h after HILT in both groups (P < 0.001) and did not differ significantly between them (P > 0.05). Moreover, the study showed statistically significant linear relationships between the TBARSer concentration and the SOD activity before HILT in the healthy participants (r = -0.6, P = 0.021) and 24 h after HILT in the injured ones (r = 0.6, P = 0.025). In the noninjured athletes before HILT, the CTS D activity linearly correlated with the AAT activity (r = -0.70, P = 0.005), and 30 min after the treatment, with the AcP activity (r = 0.5, P = 0.041). 24 h after the HILT intervention, the CTS D and AcP activities were also correlated in the injured athletes (r = 0.8, P = 0.002). The study suggests that one HILT intervention does not significantly influence the redox equilibrium but stabilizes lysosomal membranes.


Assuntos
Terapia a Laser , Estresse Oxidativo , Adolescente , Antioxidantes , Atletas , Catalase , Feminino , Glutationa Peroxidase , Humanos , Hidrolases , Lisossomos , Masculino , Inibidores de Proteases , Superóxido Dismutase
9.
Med Probl Perform Art ; 34(4): 222-229, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31800674

RESUMO

AIM: The aim of this paper was to systematically review existing empirical literature addressing the use of psychological skills training (PST) interventions commonly employed in sport applied to a music domain. Included PST studies must have an experimental or quasi-experimental design and no clinical or pharmacological interventions and/or assessments. METHODS: The databases MEDLINE (EBSCO), PsychInfo, Psych Articles, CINAHL Plus with full text, Google Scholar, SportDiscus, and Music Index were searched using a combination of the terms. music*, performance psychology, performance enhancement, music performance, intervention, psychological skills training, and music performance psychology. Due to the novelty of the existing literature, there were no limitation restrictions to publication year, the standard of musician (e.g., expert, novice, professional, amateur), participant age, or type of intervention setting. RESULTS: The initial search revealed 323 published articles. After applying the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 10 articles were deemed sufficient for review. Four additional articles were found via pen-and-paper method by evaluating the reference sections of the included articles. All reviewed studies demonstrated that aspects of PST interventions commonly employed in sport (except Alexander technique) are effective at subjectively enhancing performance in a music domain. The PST interventions varied vastly in duration, as well as the types of (and a theoretical and empirical rationale for) psychological skills employed. CONCLUSIONS: Music performers may benefit from PST interventions typically used in sport; however, unique considerations of the music performance environment must be addressed in the design of such PST interventions.


Assuntos
Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental , Música , Atletas/psicologia , Humanos , Música/psicologia
10.
Movimento (Porto Alegre) ; 25(1): e25032, jan.- dez. 2019.
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1048143

RESUMO

O objetivo deste trabalho é compreender a trajetória pessoal de Tifanny Abreu em seu processo de inserção e permanência no voleibol de alto rendimento. Desenvolvemos um estudo de caso descritivo e qualitativo. Para coletar nossos dados, realizamos uma entrevista semiestruturada, posteriormente transcrita e analisada através da técnica de análise de conteúdo. Como resultados, encontramos resistências ao longo da trajetória pessoal de Tifanny envolvendo sua transição de gênero e manutenção no Esporte, o tratamento por parte da mídia e das torcidas e o usufruto do vestiário


This study looks into the personal history of Tifanny Abreu in her process to enter and remain in high performance volleyball. We conducted a descriptive and qualitative case study. To collect our data, we used a semi-structured interview, later transcribed and submitted to content analysis. As results, we found resistance throughout Tifanny's personal history involving her gender transition and permanence in volleyball, her treatment by the media and fans, and her use of the changing room


El objetivo de este trabajo es entender la trayectoria personal de Tifanny Abreu en su proceso de inserción y permanencia en el voleibol de alto rendimiento. Desarrollamos un estudio de caso descriptivo y cualitativo. Para recopilar nuestros datos, realizamos una entrevista semiestructurada, posteriormente transcrita y analizada a través de la técnica de análisis de contenido. Como resultados, encontramos resistencias a lo largo de la trayectoria personal de Tifanny involucrando su transición de género y su permanencia en el deporte, el trato por parte de los medios y de las hinchadas y la utilización de los vestuarios


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Voleibol , Atletas , Pessoas Transgênero , Esportes , Transexualismo , Identidade de Gênero
11.
Movimento (Porto Alegre) ; 25(1): e25036, jan.- dez. 2019.
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1048258

RESUMO

O estudo identifica e analisa as formas de manifestação da violência de pais, durante os jogos, em torcidas de futsal sub-9. Além disso, analisa as medidas preventivas propostas pelos técnicos. Participaram nove pais, além de três técnicos de três equipes do Rio de Janeiro, um de cada instituição. Os dados foram produzidos por meio de observação participante e entrevistas. A violência simbólica e a violência física manifestaram-se como as formas de violência presentes no grupo analisado. Além disso, as medidas preventivas propostas apontam para a intervenção das equipes multiprofissionais desses clubes, junto aos pais. Logo, concluiu-se que as duas formas de manifestação da violência em torcidas de pais depõem contra os valores do amadorismo esportivo e acabam promovendo comportamentos disfuncionais


The study identifies and analyzes parents' ways of expressing violence while rooting in under-9 futsal matches and examines preventive measures proposed by coaches. Participants were nine parents and three coaches of three teams from distinct institutions in Rio de Janeiro. Data were produced by participant observation and interviews. Both symbolic and physical violence were observed as expressions of violence present in the group analyzed. In addition, the preventive measures proposed point to the intervention by the clubs' multiprofessional teams with parents. Therefore, parents' two forms of expressing violence while rooting go against amateur sports values and end up promoting dysfunctional behaviors


El estudio identifica y analiza las formas en que se manifiesta la violencia de los padres durante los partidos, en las hinchadas de futsal sub-9. Además, analiza las medidas preventivas propuestas por los técnicos. Participaron nueve padres, además de tres técnicos de tres equipos de Rio de Janeiro, uno de cada institución. Los datos fueron producidos a través de observación participante y entrevistas. La violencia simbólica y la violencia física se manifestaron como las formas de violencia presentes en el grupo analizado. Además, las medidas preventivas propuestas apuntan a la intervención de los equipos multiprofesionales de esos clubes junto a los padres. Luego, se concluye que las dos formas de manifestación de la violencia en hinchadas de padres van contra los valores del deporte amador y terminan dando impulso a comportamientos disfuncionales


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Adolescente , Adulto , Futebol , Violência , Atletas
12.
J Surg Orthop Adv ; 28(4): 285-289, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31886766

RESUMO

Our institution saw four hamate fractures in the 2011 baseball season, the first season following implementation of new batting standards in collegiate baseball. The purpose of this paper was to identify whether the incidence of hamate fractures increased with the introduction of the new batting standard. Surveys sent to Division 1 collegiate baseball athletic trainers reported the number, mechanism, treatment and return to play of hamate fractures from 2008-2010 (old batting standards) and for the 2011 season. This study shows that there was more than a 200% increased risk of hamate fracture with implementation of the 2011 collegiate baseball batting standards. The most common injury mechanism was batting with the down hand (79%). We suggest that a national injury database be considered for collegiate athletics so that injury rates, risk factors and results of interventions could be studied to improve the health of our nations' athletes. (Journal of Surgical Orthopaedic Advances 28(4):285-289, 2019).


Assuntos
Traumatismos em Atletas , Beisebol , Atletas , Humanos , Incidência
13.
Orv Hetil ; 160(52): 2061-2066, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Húngaro | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31868007

RESUMO

Introduction: During kayaking, the whole body works in a perfect harmony. While the trunk is doing a rotation, flexion-extension helps to the upper limb to create a special cyclic paddle. The purpose of this study was to gain a better understanding of the physical disabled (later disabled) person's kayaking motions and to probe whether there were any significant differences between disabled and non-disabled kayakers with special focus on the use of footrest. We hypothesised significantly different ranges of motion and muscle activity in lower limbs but no significant differences in those of the upper limbs. Aim: Our goal was to know more about the abled and disbled kayaking and compare the athlete's kayaking movements. Method: Thirteen (n = 13) elite disabled athletes (age range: 18-40 years, height range: 164-194 cm, body mass range:74-93 kg), eleven (n = 11) elite non-disabled athletes (age range: 18-40 years, height range:172-197 cm, body mass range: 72-96 kg) and nine (n = 9) athletes whose movements were artificially limited to imitate disabled conditions("imitation disabled" group) (age range: 18-40 years, height range: 172-197 cm, body mass range: 72-96 kg) were measured. Weba sport kayak ergometer, surface electromyography (EMG), and a 3-dimensional Vicon (MX T40) camera system were used to record the data, and a combined Matlab and MS Excel system was used to analyse the results. Results: In line with our basic assumption, range of motion of the upper limbs was not significantly different between disabled athletes and non-disabled athletes (p ≥ 0.05). However, muscle activities were significantly different in the disabled group compared to the non-disabled group (p ≤ 0.05). In the disabled group the knee joint and trunk motions and muscle activities were also significantly different compared to those in the non-disabled group (p ≤ 0.05). The differences in performance force applied to both footrests and force were significant (p ≤ 0.05). Discussion: The assumption that shoulder and elbow ranges of motion were not significantly different in disabled athletes compared to non-disabled athletes was proven. However, muscle activities were significantly different in the disabled group. In the disabled group, knee and trunk motions and muscle activities were also significantly different compared to the non-disabled group. Significant differences were found in performance, force and footrest use. Our results proved our assumption that motions and muscle activities of disabled and non-disabled athletes were significantly different. Orv Hetil. 2019; 160(52): 2061-2066.


Assuntos
Pessoas com Deficiência , Esportes para Pessoas com Deficiência , Tronco , Esportes Aquáticos/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Atletas , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Humanos , Joelho , Força Muscular , Amplitude de Movimento Articular , Adulto Jovem
14.
Ig Sanita Pubbl ; 75(4): 271-282, 2019.
Artigo em Italiano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31887733

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The use of doping substances is growing not only in young athletes performing competitive and non-competitive sports, but also in amateur sports, thereby representing a social and public health problem. The aim of this study was to measure knowledge, attitudes and opinions on doping and drugs and their effects, among students of secondary schools, and to assess the effectiveness of a health education intervention. "Enjoy the Sport- the school against doping and addiction 2.0" is a program developed to discourage the use of drugs, in particular doping drugs, by introducing information on the origins, on the effects of drugs and examples of appropriate lifestyles. This project was conceived by C.I.S.C.O.D. (Comitato Italiano Sport Contro Droga), an association of the C.O.N.I. and carried out with its support. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The "Enjoy" project was a study with a one-arm experimental design and with a pre-post evaluation. A multiple-choice questionnaire was used to measure adolescents' knowledge, attitudes and opinions on doping and its effects. A descriptive analysis and post-pre intervention comparison was performed with the McNemar test. RESULTS: There was a significant increase in participants' knowledge of doping substances indicated by the WADA (World Anti-Doping Agency) (p<0.001) and a better understanding of the meaning of the term "doping". A decrease in the number of adolescents who would use doping substances (pre = 0.06%; post = 0.0%) was observed, as well as an increase in the number of adolescents who do not consider fair that athletes of any level should use substances that alter their performance (pre = 83.7%; post = 85%). A significant increase was observed in the proportion of participants who believe that athletes should not use doping substances because they are harmful to the human organism (pre = 38.6%; post = 51.7%) (p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The project "Enjoy the Sport" contributed to increasing the health literacy of secondary school students about doping (and consequent awareness of the negative aspects of drug use). Schools, therefore, are an appropriate setting for implementing educational interventions for the prevention of doping. However, it is fundamental to integrate knowledge and action, especially in the context of family, sport and sports associations.


Assuntos
Atletas/psicologia , Doping nos Esportes/prevenção & controle , Doping nos Esportes/psicologia , Educação em Saúde/métodos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Adolescente , Educação em Saúde/organização & administração , Humanos
15.
J Int Soc Sports Nutr ; 16(1): 62, 2019 Dec 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31864419

RESUMO

Position statement: The International Society of Sports Nutrition (ISSN) provides an objective and critical review of the mechanisms and use of probiotic supplementation to optimize the health, performance, and recovery of athletes. Based on the current available literature, the conclusions of the ISSN are as follows: 1)Probiotics are live microorganisms that, when administered in adequate amounts, confer a health benefit on the host (FAO/WHO).2)Probiotic administration has been linked to a multitude of health benefits, with gut and immune health being the most researched applications.3)Despite the existence of shared, core mechanisms for probiotic function, health benefits of probiotics are strain- and dose-dependent.4)Athletes have varying gut microbiota compositions that appear to reflect the activity level of the host in comparison to sedentary people, with the differences linked primarily to the volume of exercise and amount of protein consumption. Whether differences in gut microbiota composition affect probiotic efficacy is unknown.5)The main function of the gut is to digest food and absorb nutrients. In athletic populations, certain probiotics strains can increase absorption of key nutrients such as amino acids from protein, and affect the pharmacology and physiological properties of multiple food components.6)Immune depression in athletes worsens with excessive training load, psychological stress, disturbed sleep, and environmental extremes, all of which can contribute to an increased risk of respiratory tract infections. In certain situations, including exposure to crowds, foreign travel and poor hygiene at home, and training or competition venues, athletes' exposure to pathogens may be elevated leading to increased rates of infections. Approximately 70% of the immune system is located in the gut and probiotic supplementation has been shown to promote a healthy immune response. In an athletic population, specific probiotic strains can reduce the number of episodes, severity and duration of upper respiratory tract infections.7)Intense, prolonged exercise, especially in the heat, has been shown to increase gut permeability which potentially can result in systemic toxemia. Specific probiotic strains can improve the integrity of the gut-barrier function in athletes.8)Administration of selected anti-inflammatory probiotic strains have been linked to improved recovery from muscle-damaging exercise.9)The minimal effective dose and method of administration (potency per serving, single vs. split dose, delivery form) of a specific probiotic strain depends on validation studies for this particular strain. Products that contain probiotics must include the genus, species, and strain of each live microorganism on its label as well as the total estimated quantity of each probiotic strain at the end of the product's shelf life, as measured by colony forming units (CFU) or live cells.10)Preclinical and early human research has shown potential probiotic benefits relevant to an athletic population that include improved body composition and lean body mass, normalizing age-related declines in testosterone levels, reductions in cortisol levels indicating improved responses to a physical or mental stressor, reduction of exercise-induced lactate, and increased neurotransmitter synthesis, cognition and mood. However, these potential benefits require validation in more rigorous human studies and in an athletic population.


Assuntos
Probióticos , Ciências da Nutrição e do Esporte , Atletas , Desempenho Atlético , Composição Corporal , Exercício , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Humanos , Sociedades Médicas
16.
17.
J Int Soc Sports Nutr ; 16(1): 57, 2019 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31775807

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coaches are considered as an important source of nutrition information by their athletes. However, their knowledge in this area is often insufficient for proper guidance and may lead to the dissemination of misinformation regarding sports nutrition. The aim of this study was to assess coaches' intentions as well as psychosocial determinants underlying their intentions to provide sports nutrition recommendations to their high school athletes. METHODS: Coaches (n = 47) completed a Web-based questionnaire based on the theory of planned behaviour, to assess their intentions to provide three different sports nutrition recommendations and their determinants. Multiple regression analyses were used to identify the variables that were most strongly related to the intentions. RESULTS: Forty-six, 44.7 and 91.9% of coaches had the intention to recommend a higher consumption of foods rich in carbohydrates, foods rich in proteins and an increase in hydration to their athletes, respectively. Subjective norm was the only significant determinant of coaches' intention to recommend a higher consumption of foods rich in carbohydrates (R2 = 53.7%, ß = 0.73 ± 0.12, P < 0.0001). Subjective norm and perceived behavioural control were significantly associated with coaches' intentions to recommend a higher consumption of foods rich in proteins (R2 = 25.9%, ß = 0.50 ± 0.16, P = 0.002 and R2 = 17.2%, ß = 0.39 ± 0.17, P = 0.01, respectively) and an increase in hydration (R2 = 26.8%, ß = 0.38 ± 0.13, P = 0.001 and R2 = 46.3%, ß = 0.58 ± 0.11, P < 0.0001, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study suggest that subjective norm and perceived behavioural control represent important determinants of coaches' intentions to provide recommendations on sports nutrition. These findings should be considered in future interventions aimed at facilitating proper general sports nutrition recommendations provided by coaches to their athletes.


Assuntos
Intenção , Tutoria , Mentores , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Esportiva , Adolescente , Adulto , Atletas , Dieta , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Necessidades Nutricionais , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
18.
Wilderness Environ Med ; 30(4S): S121-S140, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31753543

RESUMO

The Wilderness Medical Society convened an expert panel in 2018 to develop a set of evidence-based guidelines for the treatment of type 1 and 2 diabetes, as well as the recognition, prevention, and treatment of complications of diabetes in wilderness athletes. We present a review of the classifications, pathophysiology, and evidence-based guidelines for planning and preventive measures, as well as best practice recommendations for both routine and urgent therapeutic management of diabetes and glycemic complications. These recommendations are graded based on the quality of supporting evidence and balance between the benefits and risks or burdens for each recommendation.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/terapia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/terapia , Medicina Selvagem/normas , Atletas , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/fisiopatologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Hiperglicemia/prevenção & controle , Hipoglicemia/prevenção & controle , Padrões de Prática Médica , Sociedades Médicas , Medicina Esportiva/métodos , Medicina Selvagem/métodos
20.
J Int Soc Sports Nutr ; 16(1): 50, 2019 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31699159

RESUMO

Background In this Position Statement, the International Society of Sports Nutrition (ISSN) provides an objective and critical review of the literature pertinent to nutritional considerations for training and racing in single-stage ultra-marathon. Recommendations for Training. i) Ultra-marathon runners should aim to meet the caloric demands of training by following an individualized and periodized strategy, comprising a varied, food-first approach; ii) Athletes should plan and implement their nutrition strategy with sufficient time to permit adaptations that enhance fat oxidative capacity; iii) The evidence overwhelmingly supports the inclusion of a moderate-to-high carbohydrate diet (i.e., ~ 60% of energy intake, 5-8 g·kg- 1·d- 1) to mitigate the negative effects of chronic, training-induced glycogen depletion; iv) Limiting carbohydrate intake before selected low-intensity sessions, and/or moderating daily carbohydrate intake, may enhance mitochondrial function and fat oxidative capacity. Nevertheless, this approach may compromise performance during high-intensity efforts; v) Protein intakes of ~ 1.6 g·kg- 1·d- 1 are necessary to maintain lean mass and support recovery from training, but amounts up to 2.5 g.kg- 1·d- 1 may be warranted during demanding training when calorie requirements are greater; Recommendations for Racing. vi) To attenuate caloric deficits, runners should aim to consume 150-400 Kcal·h- 1 (carbohydrate, 30-50 g·h- 1; protein, 5-10 g·h- 1) from a variety of calorie-dense foods. Consideration must be given to food palatability, individual tolerance, and the increased preference for savory foods in longer races; vii) Fluid volumes of 450-750 mL·h- 1 (~ 150-250 mL every 20 min) are recommended during racing. To minimize the likelihood of hyponatraemia, electrolytes (mainly sodium) may be needed in concentrations greater than that provided by most commercial products (i.e., > 575 mg·L- 1 sodium). Fluid and electrolyte requirements will be elevated when running in hot and/or humid conditions; viii) Evidence supports progressive gut-training and/or low-FODMAP diets (fermentable oligosaccharide, disaccharide, monosaccharide and polyol) to alleviate symptoms of gastrointestinal distress during racing; ix) The evidence in support of ketogenic diets and/or ketone esters to improve ultra-marathon performance is lacking, with further research warranted; x) Evidence supports the strategic use of caffeine to sustain performance in the latter stages of racing, particularly when sleep deprivation may compromise athlete safety.


Assuntos
Carboidratos da Dieta/administração & dosagem , Ingestão de Energia , Necessidades Nutricionais , Corrida/fisiologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Esportiva , Atletas , Desempenho Atlético , Comportamento Competitivo , Proteínas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Resistência Física , Corrida/classificação , Sociedades
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA