Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 22.913
Filtrar
1.
PeerJ ; 12: e16976, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38374951

RESUMO

Background: This study aimed to investigate the relationship between the prevalence of menstrual irregularities, energy intake, and sleep deprivation among female athletes. Methods: A total of 128 female athletes, with an average age of 19.2 ± 1.2 years, participated in the study and tracked their food intake over a three-day period. Menstrual status and sleep duration were assessed using a questionnaire, and psychological anxiety was evaluated using the State and Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). These were measured once during the investigation. The impact of sleep status on state anxiety and daily energy intake was examined using the T-test. A generalized linear model (GLM) with a log link function was employed to investigate the effects of sleep deprivation on the presence of menstrual irregularities. Results: As the results of the present study, sleep deprivation significant increased both state and trait anxiety (p < 0.05), as well as affecting energy intake (p < 0.05), particularly protein and carbohydrate intakes (p < 0.05). However, GLM analysis indicated that while sleep deprivation did not directly influence the prevalence of menstrual irregularities (p > 0.05), state anxiety emerged as a significant factor impacting the prevalence of menstrual irregularities (p < 0.05). Conclusions: The results of the present study suggest a potential pathway wherein sleep deprivation might elevate state anxiety levels, consequently indirectly contributing to an increase the probability of menstrual irregularities. In conclusion, the results of the presents study provide novels insights suggesting that sleep deprivation might directly increase state anxiety and indirectly affect the prevalence of menstrual irregularities. Hence, decreased sleep duration might be related to mental health issues and the prevalence of menstrual irregularities both significant concerns among female athletes. Future studies will play a crucial role in further elucidating how sleep patterns impact the health and well-being of female athletes.


Assuntos
Privação do Sono , Duração do Sono , Humanos , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Privação do Sono/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Distúrbios Menstruais/epidemiologia , Atletas
2.
BMC Res Notes ; 17(1): 52, 2024 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38374117

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to identify Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) for men's swimming strokes using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Multiple Regression Analysis to enhance training strategies and performance optimization. The analyses included all men's individual 100 m races of the 2019 European Short-Course Swimming Championships. RESULTS: Duration from 5 m prior to wall contact (In5) emerged as a consistent KPI for all strokes. Free Swimming Speed (FSS) was identified as a KPI for 'continuous' strokes (Breaststroke and Butterfly), while duration from wall contact to 10 m after (Out10) was a crucial KPI for strokes with touch turns (Breaststroke and Butterfly). The regression model accurately predicted swim times, demonstrating strong agreement with actual performance. Bland and Altman analyses revealed negligible mean biases: Backstroke (0% bias, LOAs - 2.3% to + 2.3%), Breaststroke (0% bias, LOAs - 0.9% to + 0.9%), Butterfly (0% bias, LOAs - 1.2% to + 1.2%), and Freestyle (0% bias, LOAs - 3.1% to + 3.1%). This study emphasizes the importance of swift turning and maintaining consistent speed, offering valuable insights for coaches and athletes to optimize training and set performance goals. The regression model and predictor tool provide a data-driven approach to enhance swim training and competition across different strokes.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético , Natação , Masculino , Humanos , Análise de Regressão , Homens , Atletas
3.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 4188, 2024 02 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38378702

RESUMO

Female athletes who endure intense training are at risk of developing the 'female athlete triad,' making energy intake management crucial. However, the fluctuations in estradiol and progesterone levels throughout the menstrual cycle present a challenge in maintaining consistent energy intake. This study aimed to uncover the underlying factors associated with appetite regulation linked to menstrual phases and exercise using proteomic approach. Five female athletes engaged in 60 min of bicycle exercise, followed by 90 min of rest, during both the follicular and luteal phases. Serum samples were collected before, during, and after exercise, and the serum proteome was analyzed using 2D-gel electrophoresis. A total of 511 spots were detected in the subjects' serum profiles, with significant decreases observed in haptoglobin during the luteal phase and complement component 3 during bicycle training. Unsupervised learning with a generalized estimating equation analysis showed that serum peptide YY (PYY), an appetite suppressor, significantly influenced the fluctuations of serum proteins induced by exercise (p < 0.05). Regression analysis demonstrated a positive correlation between PYY and serum IgM (R = 0.87), implying that the intestinal environment and the immune response in female athletes may contribute to appetite regulation.


Assuntos
Apetite , Proteômica , Humanos , Feminino , Apetite/fisiologia , Projetos Piloto , Progesterona , Ciclo Menstrual/fisiologia , Atletas , Peptídeo YY
4.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 4170, 2024 02 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38378971

RESUMO

Downhill-mountain biking (DMB) is a high-risk sport and often leads to several injuries, especially in non-professional athletes. We retrospectively analyzed the most common injuries and profiled the injury mechanism. Until now, there is no such analysis of injuries by non-professional mountain bike athletes. We collected patient data from patients who suffered from an injury during DMB. The inclusion criteria were (1) injury during the summer season of 2020 and 2021, (2) injury during off-road and downhill mountain bike sports activity, and (3) treatment at the Department of Traumatology of the Klinik Diakonissen Schladming. Patient data was analyzed regarding the type of injury, location of the injury, patient age and gender of the patients. Most patients with injury are at the age of 26-35. Second most are between 36 and 71 years old. The type of injury differs between age and gender. Mostly upper-extremity injuries occur with a high probability of shoulder injuries. In the elderly patients, we found additional injuries of the thorax and chest. To conclude, most common types of injuries are soft-tissue injuries, often in combination with fractures. The risk for injuries is higher for recreational athletes with different injury characteristics than professional athletes.


Assuntos
Fraturas Ósseas , Lesões dos Tecidos Moles , Humanos , Idoso , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ciclismo , Incidência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fraturas Ósseas/epidemiologia , Fraturas Ósseas/etiologia , Lesões dos Tecidos Moles/epidemiologia , Atletas , Extremidade Superior/lesões
5.
Ann Med ; 56(1): 2311223, 2024 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38335556

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the incidence rates (IRs) of catastrophic injuries and exertional medical events in lacrosse athletes. METHODS: Catastrophic injuries and exertional medical events in lacrosse in the US among youth or amateur, high school and college athletes were analysed from the National Center for Catastrophic Sport Injury Research (NCCSIR) database from 1982/83 to 2019/20. Frequencies, IRs per 100,000 athlete-seasons (AS) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs), and incidence rate ratios (IRRs) with 95% CIs were calculated. Participation data were gathered from the National Federation of State High School Associations (NFHS), National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) and USA Lacrosse. RESULTS: Sixty-nine catastrophic events (16 youth or amateur, 36 high school and 17 college; 84% male) occurred in US lacrosse from 7/1/1982 to 6/30/2020. Thirty-six percent of all incidents were fatal. The overall IR was 0.5 per 100,000 AS (95% CI: 0.4-0.7). There were 15 cases of non-traumatic sudden cardiac arrests (SCAs) and 15 incidents of commotio cordis. Fatality rates from SCA and commotio cordis decreased 95% (IRR = 0.05; 95% CI: 0, 0.2) from 1982/83-2006/07 to 2007/08-2019/20. Incidence rates were higher for collegiate versus high school 1982/83-2019/20 (IRR = 3.2; 95% CI: 1.8, 5.7) and collegiate versus youth 2005/06-2019/20 (IRR = 8.0; 95% CI: 3.0, 21.4) level. Contact with a stick or ball (41%) and contact with another player (20%) were the primary mechanisms of injury. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of catastrophic events during lacrosse was higher among collegiate than high school or youth athletes. SCA from an underlying cardiac condition or from commotio cordis was the most common catastrophic event. Fatality rates from catastrophic injuries have declined significantly over the study period, perhaps driven by protective measures adopted by lacrosse governing bodies.


Key messagesCollegiate athletes had a higher incidence rate of catastrophic events during lacrosse, while high school athletes had the greatest overall number of events.Cardiac-related events were the most common catastrophic event.Fatality rates for non-traumatic sudden cardiac arrest and commotio cordis have decreased 95% over the past several decades, perhaps related to protective measures and increased access to automated external defibrillators promoted by lacrosse governing bodies.


Assuntos
Traumatismos em Atletas , Commotio Cordis , Esportes com Raquete , Humanos , Masculino , Adolescente , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Feminino , Traumatismos em Atletas/epidemiologia , Instituições Acadêmicas , Esportes com Raquete/lesões , Atletas , Incidência
6.
Physiol Meas ; 45(2)2024 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38306664

RESUMO

Introduction. Bioelectrical impedance vector analysis (BIVA) emerges as a technique that utilizes raw parameters of bioelectrical impedance analysis and assumes the use of a reference population for information analysis.Objective. To summarize the reference values, main studies objectives, approaches, pre-test recommendations and technical characteristics of the devices employed in studies utilizing BIVA among children and adolescents without diagnosed diseases.Methods. A systematic search was conducted in nine electronic databases (CINAHL, LILACS, PubMed, SciELO, Scopus, SPORTDiscus, Science Direct, MEDLINE, and Web of Science). Studies with different designs which allowed extracting information regarding reference values of BIVA in children and adolescents without diagnosed diseases, aged 19 years or younger, were included. The systematic review followed PRISMA procedures and was registered in PROSPERO (registration: CRD42023391069).Results. After applying the eligibility criteria, 36 studies were included. Twenty studies (55.6%) analyzed body composition using BIVA, thirteen studies (36.1%) aimed to establish reference values for BIVA, and three studies (8.3%) investigated the association of physical performance with BIVA. There was heterogeneity regarding the reference populations employed by the studies. Fifteen studies used their own sample as a reference (41.6%), four studies used the adult population as a reference (11.1%), and five studies used reference values from athletes (13.9%).Conclusion. Nutricional status and body composition were the main studies objectives. References values were not always adequate or specific for the sample and population. Furthermore, there was no pattern of pre-test recommendations among the studies.


Assuntos
Atletas , Composição Corporal , Adulto , Criança , Humanos , Adolescente , Impedância Elétrica , Valores de Referência , Bases de Dados Factuais
7.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 24(1): 128, 2024 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38350891

RESUMO

Combining pregnancy and parenthood with sporting activities or a professional athletic career can be challenging. The objective of this Collection is to gain a deeper understanding of the effects of pregnancy and postpartum on female athletes, both recreational and professional, in order to improve their health and fitness outcomes and support their continued success in sports.


Assuntos
Atletas , Esportes , Gravidez , Humanos , Feminino , Exercício Físico , Ocupações , Período Pós-Parto
8.
Clin Biomech (Bristol, Avon) ; 112: 106195, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38320469

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Traditional testing prior to return to sport following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction typically involves jump-landing tasks in the forward direction. As injury is most likely the result of multiplanar neuromuscular control deficits, assessment of dynamic postural stability using landing tasks that require multiplanar stabilization may be more appropriate. The purpose of this study was to examine how dynamic postural stability is affected when performing jump-landing tasks in three different directions. METHODS: Fifteen athletes [11 females (18.0 ± 3.0 years) and 4 males (18.5 ± 3.1 years)] following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction performed a series of single-limb jump-landing tasks in 3 directions. Individual directional stability indices and a composite dynamic postural stability index were calculated using ground reaction force data and were compared using separate one-way repeated measures ANOVAs. FINDINGS: All directional stability indices demonstrated a significant main effect for jump-landing direction (medial-lateral P < 0.001, η2p = 0.95; anterior-posterior P < 0.001, η2p = 0.97; vertical P = 0.021, η2p = 0.24). The diagonal jump-landing direction produced increased medial-lateral stability and vertical stability scores, while the forward and diagonal jump-landing directions produced increased anterior-posterior stability scores. There was no significant effect for the composite dynamic stability index score. INTERPRETATION: Jump-landing direction affects dynamic postural stability in all 3 planes of movement in athletes following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Results indicate the potential need to incorporate multiple jump-landing directions to better assess dynamic postural stability prior to return to sport.


Assuntos
Lesões do Ligamento Cruzado Anterior , Reconstrução do Ligamento Cruzado Anterior , Esportes , Masculino , Feminino , Humanos , Lesões do Ligamento Cruzado Anterior/cirurgia , Movimento , Atletas , Reconstrução do Ligamento Cruzado Anterior/métodos , Fenômenos Biomecânicos
9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(3)2024 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38338885

RESUMO

Trimetazidine (TMZ), used for treating stable angina pectoris, has garnered attention in the realm of sports due to its potential performance-enhancing properties, and the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) has classified TMZ on the S4 list of prohibited substances since 2014. The purpose of this narrative mini-review is to emphasize the biochemical aspects underlying the abusive use of TMZ among athletes as a metabolic modulator of cardiac energy metabolism. The myocardium's ability to adapt its energy substrate utilization between glucose and fatty acids is crucial for maintaining cardiac function under various conditions, such as rest, moderate exercise, and intense effort. TMZ acts as a partial inhibitor of fatty acid oxidation by inhibiting 3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase (KAT), shifting energy production from long-chain fatty acids to glucose, reducing oxygen consumption, improving cardiac function, and enhancing exercise capacity. Furthermore, TMZ modulates pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) activity, promoting glucose oxidation while lowering lactate production, and ultimately stabilizing myocardial function. TMZs role in reducing oxidative stress is notable, as it activates antioxidant enzymes like glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and superoxide dismutase (SOD). In conclusion, TMZs biochemical mechanisms make it an attractive but controversial option for athletes seeking a competitive edge.


Assuntos
Trimetazidina , Humanos , Trimetazidina/farmacologia , Trimetazidina/uso terapêutico , Vasodilatadores/farmacologia , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Glucose/metabolismo , Atletas
10.
Sensors (Basel) ; 24(3)2024 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38339453

RESUMO

Personally curated content in short-form video formats provides added value for participants and spectators but is often disregarded in lower-level events because it is too labor-intensive to create or is not recorded at all. Our smart sensor-driven tripod focuses on supplying a unified sensor and video solution to capture personalized highlights for participants in various sporting events with low computational and hardware costs. The relevant parts of the video for each participant are automatically determined by using the timestamps of his/her received sensor data. This is achieved through a customizable clipping mechanism that processes and optimizes both video and sensor data. The clipping mechanism is driven by sensing nearby signals of Adaptive Network Topology (ANT+) capable devices worn by the athletes that provide both locality information and identification. The device was deployed and tested in an amateur-level cycling race in which it provided clips with a detection rate of 92.9%. The associated sensor data were used to automatically extract peloton passages and report riders' positions on the course, as well as which participants were grouped together. Insights derived from sensor signals can be processed and published in real time, and an upload optimization scheme is proposed that can provide video clips for each rider a maximum of 5 min after the passage if video upload is enabled.


Assuntos
Atletas , Ciclismo , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Gravação em Vídeo
11.
Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am ; 33(1S): e1-e15, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38342555

RESUMO

Athletes at all levels of participation, including athletes of color, have no natural immunity to mental health challenges. There is considerable evidence to support that no matter the level of participation, athletic identity including race, may be linked to psychological distress. This article provides the clinical context needed to offer therapeutic interventions to athletes and recommendations for how training programs can prepare psychiatrists for this work and opportunities for future development and inclusion of psychiatrists as members of the "medical" team, especially when working to address the needs of the increasingly diverse population of athletes today.


Assuntos
Psiquiatria , Esportes , Humanos , Esportes/psicologia , Atletas/psicologia , Saúde Mental
12.
J Athl Train ; 59(2): 137-144, 2024 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38343167

RESUMO

CONTEXT: The Child Sport Concussion Assessment Tool, fifth edition (SCAT5), remains the consensus instrument for concussion evaluation in youth athletes. Both child and parent are recommended to complete the athlete background and symptom reporting. OBJECTIVE: To determine the level of agreement between child and parent medical history and symptom reporting and quantify their performance on the Child SCAT5 in male football athletes. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I college football facility. PATIENTS OR OTHER PARTICIPANTS: A total of 157 youth male football athletes (age = 10.7 ± 1.3 years) participating in a university-sanctioned youth football camp and their parent or legal guardian. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Youth athletes and their parent completed the athlete background (demographics, diagnosed medical history) and symptom evaluation (symptom items, total number of symptoms, and symptom severity score) of the Child SCAT5 and were instructed not to discuss reporting with each other during testing. Cronbach α tests were conducted to determine the internal consistency, and descriptive statistics determined the level of agreement between medical history, symptom reporting, and baseline performance. RESULTS: The internal consistency of the symptom items was high for both child (Cronbach α = 0.91) and parent (α = 0.92). Agreement on medical history ranged from 67% (learning disability or dyslexia) to 85% (attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder), with 82% agreement on sustaining a previous concussion. Fourteen youth athletes reported having been hospitalized for a head injury, with zero matched parent confirmations. Individual symptom agreement ranged from 70.7% (gets distracted easily) to 94.9% (going to faint). Agreement was 35% on total number of symptoms and severity. Abnormal scoring ranged from 2% (going to faint) to 25% (headache) for child and 2% (double vision) to 28% (gets distracted easily) for parent reporting. CONCLUSIONS: Fair agreement was shown between children and their parent on medical history and self-reported symptoms on the Child SCAT5 at baseline. When available, child and parent reporting should be used for concussion assessment and clinical decision-making.


Assuntos
Traumatismos em Atletas , Concussão Encefálica , Futebol Americano , Criança , Adolescente , Humanos , Masculino , Traumatismos em Atletas/diagnóstico , Estudos Transversais , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Concussão Encefálica/diagnóstico , Futebol Americano/lesões , Atletas
13.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 3206, 2024 02 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38332237

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to identify the key physical indicators that affect game performance of male team handball athletes in national team handball tournaments and explore them further in relation to playing positions. A total of 150 male handball athletes were tested before a national tournament, using squat, bench press, 30-m sprint, vertical jump, pull-ups and abdominal endurance testing. Correlation analysis was used to examine the potential relationship between fitness level and tournament ranking. The results revealed significant differences in fitness variables among different playing positions (p < 0.05), excepted abdominal endurance and vertical jump (p > 0.05). 1RM squad performance was associated with team rankings (r = 0.289, p < 0.05). For individual playing positions, bench press of backs correlate with rankings (r = 0.354, p < 0.05). For goalkeepers, ranking was significantly positively correlated with 30-m sprinting (r = 0.604, p < 0.05). No other correlations were found (p > 0.05). To conclude, fitness level is to some extent related to team ranking with higher ranked teams having better scores in some of the fitness tests for all playing positions. The key predictors of performance in sport vary from position to position and practitioners need to differentiate between them to organize strength and conditioning training more precisely. More specialized fitness tests are also needed to assess athletes' competition ability.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético , Masculino , Humanos , Antropometria , Aptidão Física , Atletas , Exercício Físico
14.
Scand J Med Sci Sports ; 34(2): e14579, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38332685

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lower capacity to generate knee extension maximal voluntary force (MVF) has been observed in individuals affected with patellar tendinopathy (PT) compared to asymptomatic controls. This MVF deficit is hypothesized to emanate from alterations in corticospinal excitability (CSE). The modulation of CSE is intricately linked to the excitability levels at multiple sites, encompassing neurones within the corticospinal tract (CST), intracortical neurones within the primary motor cortex (M1), and the alpha motoneurone. The aim of this investigation was to examine the excitability of intracortical neurones, CST neurones, and the alpha motoneurone, and compare these between volleyball and basketball athletes with PT and matched asymptomatic controls. METHOD: Nineteen athletes with PT and 18 asymptomatic controls participated in this cross-sectional study. Transcranial magnetic stimulation was utilized to assess CST excitability, corticospinal inhibition (silent period, and short-interval cortical inhibition). Peripheral nerve stimulation was used to evaluate lumbar spine and alpha motoneurone excitability, including the evocation of lumbar-evoked potentials and maximal compound muscle action potential (MMAX ), and CSE with central activation ratio (CAR). Knee extension MVF was also assessed. RESULTS: Athletes with PT exhibited longer silent period duration and greater electrical stimulator output for MMAX , as well as lower MVF, compared to asymptomatic controls (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: These findings indicate volleyball and basketball athletes with PT exhibit reduced excitability of the alpha motoneurone or the neuromuscular junction, which may be linked to lower MVF. Subtle alterations at specific sites may represent compensatory changes to excitability aiming to maintain efferent drive to the knee extensors.


Assuntos
Músculo Quadríceps , Tendinopatia , Humanos , Músculo Quadríceps/fisiologia , Estudos Transversais , Potencial Evocado Motor/fisiologia , Tratos Piramidais/fisiologia , Estimulação Magnética Transcraniana , Atletas , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia
15.
BMC Psychol ; 12(1): 67, 2024 Feb 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38336843

RESUMO

The deleterious effects of mental fatigue (MF) on athletes have been carefully studied in various sports, such as soccer, badminton, and swimming. Even though many researchers have sought ways to ameliorate the negative impact of MF, there is still a lack of studies that review the interventions used to counteract MF among athletes. This review aims to report the current evidence exploring the effects of interventions on MF and sport-specific performance, including sport-specific motor performance and perceptual-cognitive skills. Web of Science, Scopus, PubMed, and SPORTDicus (EBSCOhost) were combed through to find relevant publications. Additionally, the references and Google Scholar were searched for any grey literature. For the current review, we included only randomized controlled trials that involved athletes, a primary task to induce MF, interventions to counter MF with comparable protocols, and the outcomes of sport-specific motor performance and perceptual-cognitive skill. The selection criteria resulted in the inclusion of 10 articles. The manipulations of autonomous self-control exertion, person-fit, nature exposure, mindfulness, and transactional direct current stimulation showed that positive interventions counteract MF and improve sport-specific performance in different domains, including strength, speed, skill, stamina, and perceptual-cognitive skills. The selected interventions could significantly counteract MF and improve subsequent sport-specific performance. Moreover, self-regulation and attention resources showed the importance of the potential mechanisms behind the relevant interventions.


Assuntos
Futebol , Esportes , Humanos , Atletas , Fadiga Mental/prevenção & controle
16.
Nutrients ; 16(3)2024 Jan 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38337644

RESUMO

The female athlete triad (TRIAD) is a spectrum of disorders involving low energy availability (LEA), low bone mineral density, and menstrual disorders. It is increasingly common to use the term 'relative energy deficiency in sport' (RED), emphasising the extensive impact of LEA on the body. The aim of this narrative review was to gather original research encompassing female athletes across various sports as well as to collect findings on the potential of a nutrition-focused approach to prevent or treat the aforementioned disorders. A comprehensive search was conducted in PubMed and Scopus. Several challenges were identified regarding the adequacy of the energy availability, protein, and carbohydrate requirements in the diets of female athletes. Moreover, insufficient intake of vitamin D has been observed across all athlete groups studied. This insufficiency also extends to the average requirement for Ca, Mg, the Ca/P ratio, Zn, and Fe. To address those concerns, a nutritional approach is proposed in the latter part of this review. The factors that can improve the absorption of micronutrients have also been discussed. The TRIAD/REDs affect an ever-growing number of women and require appropriate therapeutic management, particularly through nutritional care. Therefore, cooperation within an interdisciplinary team comprising a physician, nutritionist, physiotherapist, and psychologist is crucial.


Assuntos
Síndrome da Tríade da Mulher Atleta , Esportes , Humanos , Feminino , Síndrome da Tríade da Mulher Atleta/prevenção & controle , Atletas , Distúrbios Menstruais , Estado Nutricional , Metabolismo Energético
17.
Nutrients ; 16(3)2024 Jan 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38337659

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The consumption of dietary supplements (DS) is widespread among the general population and competitive athletes. However, only a few competitive athletes seek information from experts about the effects and use of DS. Furthermore, it is currently unknown whether certain sports have a higher affinity for DS than others. METHODS: This study aimed to identify differences between different sports categories and subgroups that may have a very high affinity for DS. For this purpose, competitive athletes were surveyed. The survey included the type of sport, the training frequency, the number of competitions, the consumption behaviour of five DS categories (general health, regeneration promotion, performance enhancement, booster, and weight loss) as well as personal data such as biological sex and age. Subsequently, correlations, configural frequencies (CFA), and multiple correspondence analyses (MCA) were used to identify subgroups with a high affinity of consumption behaviour. RESULTS: A total of 409 questionnaires could be evaluated. It was found that all DS categories except weight loss were related. In addition, it was observed that in sports from the power category and from the endurance category, there was even higher consumption behaviour than in other sports categories. Male power athletes in particular have a higher affinity for consuming DS than other subgroups. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that there is a clear different consumption behaviour depending on the type of sport. Male power athletes in particular are the subgroup with the greatest consumption behaviour and therefore require special education on the effects and use of DS. This subgroup in particular should receive increased attention in counselling on DS to minimise the possible risks of DS use.


Assuntos
Doping nos Esportes , Esportes , Humanos , Masculino , Suplementos Nutricionais , Atletas , Redução de Peso
18.
Nutrients ; 16(3)2024 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38337697

RESUMO

The main purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of a novel alginate-encapsulated carbohydrate-protein (CHO-PRO ratio 2:1) supplement (ALG) on cycling performance. The ALG, designed to control the release of nutrients, was compared to an isocaloric carbohydrate-only control (CON). Alginate encapsulation of CHOs has the potential to reduce the risk of carious lesions. METHODS: In a randomised cross-over clinical trial, 14 men completed a preliminary test over 2 experimental days separated by ~6 days. An experimental day consisted of an exercise bout (EX1) of cycling until exhaustion at W~73%, followed by 5 h of recovery and a subsequent time-to-exhaustion (TTE) performance test at W~65%. Subjects ingested either ALG (0.8 g CHO/kg/hr + 0.4 g PRO/kg/hr) or CON (1.2 g CHO/kg/hr) during the first 2 h of recovery. RESULTS: Participants cycled on average 75.2 ± 5.9 min during EX1. Levels of plasma branched-chain amino acids decreased significantly after EX1, and increased significantly with the intake of ALG during the recovery period. During recovery, a significantly higher plasma insulin and glucose response was observed after intake of CON compared to ALG. Intake of ALG increased plasma glucagon, free fatty acids, and glycerol significantly. No differences were found in the TTE between the supplements (p = 0.13) nor in the pH of the subjects' saliva. CONCLUSIONS: During the ALG supplement, plasma amino acids remained elevated during the recovery. Despite the 1/3 less CHO intake with ALG compared to CON, the TTE performance was similar after intake of either supplement.


Assuntos
Alginatos , Desempenho Atlético , Masculino , Humanos , Alginatos/farmacologia , Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Resistência Física , Carboidratos da Dieta/farmacologia , Atletas , Suplementos Nutricionais
19.
Nutrients ; 16(3)2024 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38337738

RESUMO

Athletes often take sport supplements to reduce fatigue and immune disturbances during or after training. This study evaluated the acute effects of concurrent ingestion of alkaline water and L-glutamine on the salivary immunity and hormone responses of boxers after training. Twelve male boxing athletes were recruited in this study. During regular training, the participants were randomly divided into three groups and asked to consume 400 mL of alkaline water (Group A), 0.15 g/kg body weight of L-glutamine with 400 mL of water (Group G), and 0.15 g/kg of L-glutamine with 400 mL of alkaline water (Group A+G) at the same time each day for three consecutive weeks. Before and immediately after the training, saliva, heart rates, and the rate of perceived exertion were investigated. The activity of α-amylase and concentrations of lactoferrin, immunoglobulin A (IgA), testosterone, and cortisol in saliva were measured. The results showed that the ratio of α-amylase activity/total protein (TP) significantly increased after training in Group A+G but not in Group A or G, whereas the ratios of lactoferrin/TP and IgA/TP were unaffected in all three groups. The concentrations of salivary testosterone after training increased significantly in Group A+G but not in Group A or G, whereas the salivary cortisol concentrations were unaltered in all groups. In conclusion, concurrent ingestion of 400 mL of alkaline water and 0.15 g/kg of L-glutamine before training enhanced the salivary α-amylase activity and testosterone concentration of boxers, which would be beneficial for post-exercise recovery.


Assuntos
Boxe , alfa-Amilases Salivares , Humanos , Masculino , Glutamina/metabolismo , Testosterona/metabolismo , Hidrocortisona/metabolismo , Lactoferrina/metabolismo , Imunoglobulina A/metabolismo , Atletas , Ingestão de Alimentos , Saliva/metabolismo
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...