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1.
Cardiol Clin ; 41(1): 25-34, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36368809

RESUMO

There have been many studies since the late 1980s investigating the effect of endurance exercise on the left ventricle. More recently, attention has shifted to the right heart, with suggestions that endurance exercise may have a detrimental effect on the right ventricle. This systematic review and meta-analysis summarizes and critiques 26 studies, including 649 athletes, examining the acute impact of endurance exercise on the right ventricle. We also present a subanalysis contrasting ultraendurance with endurance exercise. Finally, we identify areas for future research, such as the influence of sex, ethnicity, and age.


Assuntos
Ventrículos do Coração , Função Ventricular Direita , Humanos , Resistência Física , Atletas , Coração , Função Ventricular Esquerda
2.
Cardiol Clin ; 41(1): 15-24, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36368808

RESUMO

Hypertension is a leading cardiovascular risk factor in athletes. Sport-specific behaviors including nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory use, stimulant use, and unhealthy diets may promote hypertension among athletes. Strength-trained athletes may be more susceptible to hypertension than endurance-trained athletes, although this may, in part, be due to body size differences and the more potent antihypertensive effects of aerobic exercise. With confirmed hypertension, young athletes require secondary hypertension evaluation while older athletes require full cardiovascular risk stratification. Calcium channel blockers and renin-angiotensin-system inhibitors are often preferred pharmacotherapy agents. Further selection of antihypertensives must include consideration of potential side effects and legality in specific sports.


Assuntos
Hipertensão , Esportes , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/etiologia , Hipertensão/terapia , Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Atletas , Bloqueadores dos Canais de Cálcio/uso terapêutico
3.
Cardiol Clin ; 41(1): 35-49, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36368810

RESUMO

Preparticipation cardiovascular screening (PPCS) in young athletes is performed to detect conditions associated with sudden cardiac death. Many medical societies and sports governing bodies support the addition of a 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) to the history and physical to improve PPCS sensitivity. The current standard for ECG interpretation in athletes, the International Criteria, was developed to distinguish physiologic from pathologic ECG findings in athletes. Although application of the International Criteria has reduced the PPCS false-positive rate, interpretative challenges and potential areas of improvement remain. This review provides an overview of common pitfalls and future directions for ECG interpretation in athletes.


Assuntos
Atletas , Esportes , Humanos , Eletrocardiografia , Morte Súbita Cardíaca/prevenção & controle , Exame Físico , Programas de Rastreamento
4.
Cardiol Clin ; 41(1): 71-80, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36368812

RESUMO

The noninvasive assessment of oxygen consumption, carbon dioxide production, and ventilation during a cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET) provides insight into the cardiovascular, pulmonary, and metabolic system's ability to respond to exercise. Exercise physiology has been shown to be distinct for competitive athletes and highly active persons (CAHAPs), thus creating more nuanced interpretations of CPET parameters. CPET in CAHAP is an important test that can be used for both diagnosis (provoking symptoms during a truly maximal test) and performance.


Assuntos
Cardiologistas , Teste de Esforço , Humanos , Consumo de Oxigênio/fisiologia , Tolerância ao Exercício , Atletas
6.
Cardiol Clin ; 41(1): 81-92, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36368813

RESUMO

Until recently, implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs) were considered a contraindication to competitive athletics. Recent prospective observational registry data in athletes with ICDs who participated in sports against the societal recommendations at the time have demonstrated the safety of sports participation. While athletes did receive both appropriate and inappropriate shocks, these were not more frequent during sports participation than other activity, and there were no sports-related deaths or need for external resuscitation in the 440 athlete cohort (median followup 44 months). Optimization of medical therapies, device settings and having an emergency action plan allow many athletes to safely continue athletic activity.


Assuntos
Desfibriladores Implantáveis , Esportes , Humanos , Morte Súbita Cardíaca/prevenção & controle , Volta ao Esporte , Atletas
7.
Cardiol Clin ; 41(1): 93-105, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36368814

RESUMO

Tactical athletes are individuals in the military, law enforcement, and other professions whose occupations have significant physical fitness requirements coupled with the potential for exposure to life-threatening situations. Such exposures can have varied hemodynamic effects on the cardiovascular system. It is crucial that their clinical evaluation is inclusive of specific occupational requirements. Safety protocols regarding medical clearance are relatively more stringent for this population than for competitive athletes due to the increased impact to the tactical athlete, their team, and the population they aim to serve and protect should they experience a cardiovascular event on the job.


Assuntos
Aplicação da Lei , Militares , Humanos , Atletas
8.
Clin Podiatr Med Surg ; 40(1): 139-155, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36368839

RESUMO

The peroneal tendons play a critical role in stabilizing the foot and ankle especially in athletes with high demands on lateral ankle strength. A complete understanding of the anatomy of the lateral ankle as well as a careful physical examination is imperative to diagnosing peroneal pathology, which is commonly misdiagnosed and can lead to chronic pain and inability to perform high level sport. Although low-demand patients do well with a conservative approach, most high-demand athletes will benefit from surgical intervention.


Assuntos
Traumatismos do Tornozelo , Traumatismos dos Tendões , Humanos , Traumatismos do Tornozelo/diagnóstico , Traumatismos do Tornozelo/cirurgia , Traumatismos dos Tendões/cirurgia , Tendões/cirurgia , Articulação do Tornozelo , Atletas
9.
Clin Podiatr Med Surg ; 40(1): 181-191, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36368842

RESUMO

Stress fractures are a common injury that present in athletes because of the high intensity and repetitive nature of many sports. These injuries require a high index of suspicion in the treating clinician to allow for timely management. Though most low-risk fractures heal well with conservative management, high-risk stress fractures as well as any fracture in the elite athlete may warrant surgical intervention as well as an augmented treatment and rehabilitation regimen.


Assuntos
Traumatismos em Atletas , Fraturas de Estresse , Esportes , Humanos , Fraturas de Estresse/diagnóstico por imagem , Fraturas de Estresse/etiologia , Traumatismos em Atletas/diagnóstico , Traumatismos em Atletas/cirurgia , Atletas , Tratamento Conservador
10.
Clin Podiatr Med Surg ; 40(1): 157-168, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36368840

RESUMO

Movement of the first metatarsophalangeal joint is an essential function of many sports. Because of the high demand on this relatively small joint, it is prone to the development of several notable pathologic derangements that can prevent full and pain-free athletic performance. A complete understanding of the joint anatomy and a careful physical examination and history collection is crucial to identifying an accurate diagnosis. Treatment should be pathology specific and should keep in mind the career expectations of the athlete.


Assuntos
Hallux , Articulação Metatarsofalângica , Esportes , Humanos , Atletas
11.
Clin Podiatr Med Surg ; 40(1): 223-238, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36368845

RESUMO

Imaging plays a critical role in evaluating pathology affecting athletes from various fields. Tendon pathology manifests in terms of mechanical, degenerative, enthesitis, neoplastic, and overuse diseases. Tendon pathologies in athletes usually involve injuries to commonly injured tendons such as the tendons involving the ankle, elbow, rotator cuff, hip abductors, patellar tendon, and Achilles tendon. For the purposes of this article, the focus will be on the tendons involving the ankle such as the tibialis posterior and peroneal tendons. The 2 most common imaging modalities used for the evaluation of tendons are ultrasound (US) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). There are several emerging imaging techniques such as T2 mapping, ultra-short echo time MRI, and sonoelastography. These novel imaging techniques are all in research phase and have not been adapted to routine clinical practice.


Assuntos
Tendão do Calcâneo , Doenças Musculoesqueléticas , Tendinopatia , Humanos , Tendão do Calcâneo/lesões , Tendinopatia/diagnóstico por imagem , Tendinopatia/patologia , Atletas , Articulação do Tornozelo , Ultrassonografia , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos
12.
Clin Podiatr Med Surg ; 40(1): 39-54, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36368847

RESUMO

LisFranc injuries in the active, athletic, and military populations can be devastating injuries. There has been much debate over open reduction and internal fixation versus arthrodesis as primary treatment in these injuries. This article aims to present the existing evidence-based medicine to help guide appropriate treatment in this population. With the introduction of flexible fixation, the variety of ways to address these injuries surgically has expanded.


Assuntos
Traumatismos do Pé , Fraturas Ósseas , Humanos , Redução Aberta , Fixação Interna de Fraturas , Artrodese , Traumatismos do Pé/diagnóstico por imagem , Traumatismos do Pé/cirurgia , Fraturas Ósseas/diagnóstico por imagem , Fraturas Ósseas/cirurgia , Atletas , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
Clin Podiatr Med Surg ; 40(1): 97-115, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36368850

RESUMO

Biomechanics is a crucial component of treating lower extremity pathology. The relaxed calcaneal stance position, the Achilles flexibility, and the first ray motion and position tests are demonstrated and should be mastered. The relaxed calcaneal stance position is crucial in children's flat feet treatment, adult acquired flat feet, and all pronatory symptoms. The Achilles flexibility measurement demonstrates normality, tightness, or overflexibility. Tightness and overflexibility denote weakness owing to the contractile properties of the tendon. The first ray motion and position examination elucidates whether the first ray is normal or part of a pronatory problem or a supinatory problem.


Assuntos
Tendão do Calcâneo , Calcâneo , Pé Chato , Adulto , Criança , Humanos , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Pé Chato/terapia , Amplitude de Movimento Articular , Atletas
14.
Clin Sports Med ; 42(1): 69-79, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36375871

RESUMO

Unique biomechanical factors in the overhead and throwing athlete lead to a spectrum of rotator cuff pathology, usually with progressive lateralization of the supraspinatus footprint. Initial comprehensive nonoperative management is indicated for all athletes. Progression to arthroscopic debridement, repair of concomitant injuries, and possible rotator cuff repair with a transosseous equivalent technique are the current management strategies for athletes when nonoperative management fails.


Assuntos
Lesões do Manguito Rotador , Humanos , Lesões do Manguito Rotador/diagnóstico , Lesões do Manguito Rotador/cirurgia , Artroscopia/métodos , Manguito Rotador/cirurgia , Atletas , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
Ann Ig ; 35(1): 34-38, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35452071

RESUMO

Background: As other indoor sports facilities, swimming pools were closed in Italy from March to May 2020 and from October 2020 to July 2021 due to the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic; access to these facilities was restricted to athletes of national relevance. This decision was based on "precautionary principles" and without evidence of a high risk of SARS-COV-2 circulation among swimming pools' attendants. The aim of this paper is to describe the pattern of SARS-COV-2 circulation among swimming athletes in Apulia (Southern Italy). Study design: The study aims to investigate the hypothesis that attending a pool increases the risk of SARS-COV-2 infection. The outcome measure is the incidence of SARS-COV-2 infection among swimming athletes compared with the general population. Methods: This is a retrospective cross-sectional study carried out in Apulia, Southern Italy. The study was performed through the analysis of both the database of the Italian Swimming Federation and the SARS-COV-2 infections in Apulia Region, from July 2020 to August 2021. Results: Among 2,939 federally licensed athletes, 221 had an history of SARS-COV-2 infection from July 2020 to August 2021, with an incidence of 75.2 /1,000. In the general Apulian population, during the same time span, the incidence of SARS-COV-2 infection was 67.3/1,000 and - considering the incidence rate ratio - there is no difference between the two populations (IRR=1.1; 95% CI=0.9-1.3; p>0.05). Conclusions: The incidence of SARS-COV-2 infection in Apulian swimmers showed no significant differences with the general population.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Pandemias , Incidência , Natação , Estudos Transversais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Itália/epidemiologia , Atletas
16.
J Interpers Violence ; 38(1-2): NP418-NP442, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35475767

RESUMO

Sexual violence (SV) is a serious problem on college campuses, and student-athletes are one group of college students at risk for experiencing SV. The administrative context and close-knit bonds of college teams introduce opportunities and structures for responding to SV and delivering uniquely tailored prevention programming, but there is limited research about formal reporting of SV among student-athletes. The current study examines the prevalence of SV and SV reporting history and perceptions among a multi-state sample of undergraduate student-athletes. Student-athletes at 10 National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I institutions across the US participated in an online survey about their experiences of SV victimization, formal reporting of SV, knowledge of resources, and perceptions of responses to SV at their institutions. Among 1004 student-athletes who completed the survey, 29% experienced some type of SV since enrolling at their university, with higher prevalence of SV among student-athletes on women's teams (36%) compared to men's teams (13%). About one fifth of student-athletes felt very or extremely knowledgeable about where to make a report of SV, and only about 10% felt very or extremely knowledgeable about what happens when a student reports SV. Only 9% of participants who experienced SV filed a formal report at their institution. Perceptions about whether campus officials would take the report seriously or would conduct a fair investigation were most positive for students who experienced and formally reported SV. Further research with student-athletes about their decision to formally report and barriers to reporting is needed to build a more comprehensive understanding of the unique experiences of SV among student-athletes. Our results highlight the importance of including and targeting student-athletes in campus SV prevention efforts to build knowledge and trust in hopes of ultimately decreasing the prevalence and adverse consequences of SV.


Assuntos
Delitos Sexuais , Estudantes , Masculino , Feminino , Humanos , Prevalência , Universidades , Delitos Sexuais/prevenção & controle , Atletas
17.
Sci Total Environ ; 855: 158862, 2023 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36152863

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Air pollution has become a significant public health concern. During exercise, many physiological factors are thought to increase the effects of air pollution. Air pollution most affects lung function and respiratory symptoms. We investigated the association between lung function, respiratory symptoms, and air pollutant concentration with meteorological factors in elite sports athletes. METHODS: A total of 59 elite sports athletes from the Korea National Sports University participated in this prospective, observational study from September 2019 to June 2020. At ten visits, lung function and respiratory symptoms were obtained after a training session. We measured six air pollutants, including SO2, CO, O3, NO2, PM10, and PM2.5, and two meteorological factors, including humidity and temperature. Air pollutants and meteorological factors were measured by two nearest depositories of the national air pollution information system in Korea. RESULTS: In a single-pollutant model, PM2.5, PM10, NO2, and CO were inversely associated with both FEV1 and FEV6, 10 µg/m3 in PM2.5 was associated with a 32.31 mL decrease in FEV1 and a 36.93 mL decrease in FEV6. Meanwhile, O3 and temperature had positive associations with both FEV1 (13.00 and 3.15 mL) and FEV6 (16.91 and 4.76 mL) and humidity with FEV6 (11.98 mL). In the multi-pollutant model at lag 0, FEV1 was associated negatively with O3 and NO2 (-50.68 and -6.87 mL) and positively with SO2 and temperature (65.76 and 8.08 mL). In the multi-pollutant model at lag 6, temperature was associated with FEV1 and FEV6 (6.01 and 8.89 mL). PM2.5, PM10, NO2, CO, and temperature were significantly associated with FEV1 and FEV6 through lag 0-6. CONCLUSIONS: Air pollutants and meteorological factors are associated with lung function and respiratory symptoms and have cumulative effects among elite athletes. In the multi-pollutant model, temperature has the most significant effect on lung function.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Poluentes Ambientais , Humanos , Dióxido de Nitrogênio , Estudos Prospectivos , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/análise , Atletas , Pulmão
18.
Physiol Behav ; 258: 114032, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36384169

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The maximum oxygen uptake (V˙O2max), the maximum rate of oxygen that can be sustained before the onset of blood lactate accumulation, and the metabolic cost of locomotion are the main physiological factors associated with long-distance running performance. The latter is known as the running economy. Generally, runners reach peak performance in long races between 25 and 30 years of age, with a progressive decline occurring thereafter. However, it is not known whether the running economy is affected or how it is affected by aging. AIM: To investigate the effect of age and years of running experience on the running economy of amateur long-distance runners aged 20-80 years. METHODS: Sixty-nine recreational long-distance runners, divided into five age groups according to decade of life, participated in this study: Group 1 (n= 9) 27.2 ± 1.3 years, Group 2 (n= 18) 35.9 ± 2.2 years, Group 3 (n= 17) 43.4 ± 2.8 years, Group 4 (n= 17) 53.0 ± 2.3 years, and Group 5 (n= 8) 65.5 ± 2.9 years. For running economy assessment, oxygen cost (OC) and energy cost (EC) were measured. Furthermore, the participants were interviewed on their running experience. RESULTS: For EC, the two independent variables composing the regression model were age (ß = 0.703, t= 5.443, p < 0.001) and running experience (ß = -0.230, t = -1.785, p= 0.07), and 34% of the energy cost variation can be explained by these two factors. EC and OC were compared among the groups. There were no significant differences between Groups 1 and 2 (p= 0.999), Groups 1 and 3 (p= 1.000), and Groups 1 and 4 (p= 0.528). However, Group 5 had a significantly higher energy cost than Group 1 (p < 0.001), Group 2 (p < 0.001), Group 3 (p < 0.001) and Group 4 (p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: The number of years of running experience has a positive effect on running economy, but it is insufficient to overcome the negative effect of the aging process. Furthermore, running economy was significantly worse in participants aged ≥60 years compared with that in younger athletes.


Assuntos
Consumo de Oxigênio , Oxigênio , Humanos , Envelhecimento , Atletas , Locomoção
19.
Phys Med Rehabil Clin N Am ; 34(1): 199-237, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36410883

RESUMO

This section is devoted to a review of the literature regarding the usage of orthobiologics in the special populations of elite athletes, the elderly, and pediatrics. The prospect of these regenerative options is encouraging to help provide alternative options that may enhance recovery and healing of acute and degenerative pathologic conditions. The goal is to provide the readers an overview of the existing literature highlighting areas with growing research and others that are still lacking.


Assuntos
Esportes , Humanos , Criança , Idoso , Atletas
20.
Rev. bras. med. esporte ; 29(spe1): e2022_0180, 2023. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1394849

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Introduction A tennis match may last up to four hours with long intervals between moves of medium to high exercise intensity for 10 minutes and aerobic characteristic that requires specific sources of energy. Inappropriate diets can negatively impact sports performance and delay the recovery phase. Fortified wheat germ protein powder has the supplementation characteristics required in aerobic activities, although there are no practical studies on its impacts on the work performance of female tennis athletes. Objective Explore the influence of two weeks of training in a warm environment combined with nutritional intervention on the performance of female tennis players. Methods It was observed by testing the immunological indices of elite female tennis players while training their changes and their effects on nutritional intervention. Results The increase in serum CK activity was closely related to the amount of exercise. Many studies have shown that serum CK activity increased significantly after strenuous exercise, and the serum CK value of subjects in the test group was significantly lower than that of the control group, showing better adaptability to exercise. Compared with before the nutritional intervention, the athletes' weight decreased slightly, and the body fat percentage decreased significantly after the nutritional intervention. Compared with before nutritional intervention, sugar and salt supplements in athletes were significantly increased (P<0.05). Sweating rate, hydration rate, and hydration/sudden rate were also significantly increased (P<0.05). Conclusion Strengthening wheat germ protein supplementation may improve the nutritional albumin level in female tennis players, manifested in blood levels and immune function performance. Level of evidence II; Therapeutic studies - investigation of treatment outcomes.


RESUMO Introdução Partidas de tênis podem durar até quatro horas com intervalos longos entre jogadas de intensidade de exercício média a alta por 10 minutos, características aeróbicas que requerem fontes específicas de energia. Dietas inapropriadas podem impactar negativamente o desempenho esportivo e retardar o período de recuperação. O pó de proteína de germe de trigo fortificado apresenta as características de suplementação requeridas nas atividades aeróbicas, embora não haja estudos práticos sobre seus impactos no desempenho profissional de atletas do tênis feminino. Objetivo Explorar a influência no treinamento de duas semanas em ambiente quente combinado com a intervenção nutricional sobre o desempenho das atletas tenistas. Métodos Ao testar os índices imunológicos das tenistas de elite durante o treinamento, observamos suas mudanças e seus efeitos na intervenção nutricional. Resultados O aumento da atividade de CK sérico esteve intimamente relacionado à quantidade de exercício. Muitos estudos mostraram que a atividade do soro CK aumentou significativamente após o exercício extenuante, e o valor sérico CK dos sujeitos no grupo de teste foi significativamente menor do que o do grupo controle, mostrando melhor adaptabilidade ao exercício. Em comparação com antes da intervenção nutricional, o peso dos atletas diminuiu ligeiramente e o percentual de gordura corporal diminuiu significativamente após a intervenção nutricional. Em comparação com antes da intervenção nutricional, os suplementos de açúcar e sal em atletas foram significativamente incrementados (P<0,05). A taxa de sudorese, a taxa de hidratação e a taxa de hidratação/sudorese também aumentaram significativamente (P<0,05). Conclusão Fortalecer a suplementação com proteína de germe de trigo pode melhorar o nível nutricional de albumina nas tenistas, manifestadamente nos níveis sanguíneos e desempenho da função imunológica. Nível de evidência II; Estudos terapêuticos - investigação dos resultados do tratamento.


RESUMEN Introducción Los partidos de tenis pueden durar hasta cuatro horas con largos intervalos entre jugadas de intensidad de ejercicio media a alta durante 10 minutos, características aeróbicas que requieren fuentes de energía específicas. Las dietas inadecuadas pueden afectar negativamente al rendimiento deportivo y retrasar el periodo de recuperación. La proteína de germen de trigo en polvo enriquecida presenta las características de suplementación requeridas en las actividades aeróbicas, aunque no existen estudios prácticos sobre sus impactos en el rendimiento profesional de las atletas de tenis. Objetivo Explorar la influencia de dos semanas de entrenamiento en un ambiente cálido combinado con una intervención nutricional en el rendimiento de las atletas de tenis. Métodos Mediante el análisis de los índices inmunológicos de las tenistas de élite durante el entrenamiento, observamos sus cambios y sus efectos en la intervención nutricional. Resultados El aumento de la actividad de la CK en suero estaba estrechamente relacionado con la cantidad de ejercicio. Muchos estudios han demostrado que la actividad de la CK en suero aumenta significativamente después de un ejercicio extenuante, y el valor de la CK en suero de los sujetos del grupo de prueba fue significativamente menor que el del grupo de control, lo que demuestra una mejor adaptabilidad al ejercicio. En comparación con antes de la intervención nutricional, el peso de los atletas disminuyó ligeramente y el porcentaje de grasa corporal se redujo significativamente después de la intervención nutricional. En comparación con antes de la intervención nutricional, los suplementos de azúcar y sal en las atletas aumentaron significativamente (P<0,05). La tasa de sudoración, la tasa de hidratación y la tasa de hidratación/sudoración también aumentaron significativamente (P<0,05). Conclusión El refuerzo de la suplementación con proteínas de germen de trigo puede mejorar el nivel nutricional de albúmina en las jugadoras de tenis, manifestándose en los niveles sanguíneos y en el rendimiento de la función inmunitaria. Nivel de evidencia II; Estudios terapéuticos - investigación de los resultados del tratamiento.


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Tênis , Clima , Suplementos Nutricionais , Desempenho Atlético , Atletas
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