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1.
J Pharm Biomed Anal ; 207: 114433, 2022 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34715583

RESUMO

Selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) are a class of drugs presenting identical anabolic properties to anabolic steroids in addition to marked reduced androgenic effects. These drugs have emerged in the doping area within the early 2000's. Ligandrol, ostarine, RAD-140 and andarine are the most popular agents belonging to this class. According to the world anti-doping agency (WADA) prohibited list, SARMs are prohibited at all times (i.e. in and out-of-competition) and are listed under the section S1.2 (other anabolic agents). The compilation of the WADA testing figures reports from 2015 to 2019 has indicated a regular increase of adverse analytical findings (AAF) due to SARMs, particularly with ostarine and ligandrol. The implementation of highly sensitive chromatographic anti-doping analyses has induced high-profile challenges of anti-doping rules violations as athletes have claimed in numerous occasions that contamination was the reason for their AAF. Since the early 2000's, it has been accepted by the Court of Arbitration for Sports (CAS) in Lausanne (Switzerland) that, under some specific circumstances, unusual explanations can be provided to the Panel to explain an AAF. This was the open door for forensic investigations, as it is done in criminal Courts. A forensic approach can include testing for SARMs in food, drinks, but mostly in dietary supplements. As most anti-doping rules violations are only known several weeks after urine collection, this biological matrix is seldom use for further tests, despite the fact that most SARMs can be detected for several weeks in urine. Luckily, hair or nail testing can be a complement to document the claim of the athlete but of course, it cannot be considered as an alternative to urinalysis. This is because a negative hair or nail result cannot exclude the use of the detected drug and cannot overrule the urine result. To date, all methods for SARMs identification in various matrices involve liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry or high-resolution mass spectrometry. The aim of this paper is to review the scientific literature on the analytical possibilities of testing SARMs in dietary supplements, urine and hair or nail clippings after an AAF to document the claims of an athlete or his/her legal team.


Assuntos
Doping nos Esportes , Receptores Androgênicos , Atletas , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Detecção do Abuso de Substâncias , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
2.
Clin Podiatr Med Surg ; 39(1): 89-103, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34809797

RESUMO

Recreational sports are more popular, with many athletes involved year-round in multiple sports and on multiple teams. Most athletes do not take proper rest, making them more susceptible to stress-related injuries. There are numerous sports-related injuries in the foot and ankle. These issues can be non-traumatic, due to chronic repetitive stresses, or traumatic. Most of these injuries are managed conservatively, and athletes do well and return to play, while some do better with operative management. This article discusses a few of the sports injuries that are common in the leg, foot, and ankle and the recovery process.


Assuntos
Traumatismos em Atletas , Traumatismos do Pé , Esportes , Atletas , Traumatismos em Atletas/diagnóstico , Traumatismos em Atletas/epidemiologia , Traumatismos em Atletas/terapia , Criança , Traumatismos do Pé/diagnóstico , Traumatismos do Pé/terapia , Humanos
3.
J Athl Train ; 56(11): 1180-1187, 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34752626

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Anterior knee pain (AKP) is ubiquitous in early career military members and exacerbated during functional tasks required during military duties. Therefore, it is important to understand the risk of this condition among male and female tactical athletes in diverse military occupations. OBJECTIVE: To assess sex and occupation with respect to the AKP risk in military members. DESIGN: Descriptive epidemiology study. SETTING: United States Armed Forces. PATIENTS OR OTHER PARTICIPANTS: All military members diagnosed with anteropatellar or retropatellar pain, patellar instability, or knee tendinopathy on their initial encounter from 2006 to 2015. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): The Defense Medical Epidemiology Database was queried for the number of individuals with AKP. Relative risk (RR) and χ2 statistics were calculated in the assessment of sex and occupational category. Regressions were calculated to determine associations between service branch, sex, and AKP across time. RESULTS: From 2006 to 2015, a total of 151 263 enlisted and 14 335 officer service members were diagnosed with AKP. Enlisted females had an incidence rate of 16.7 per 1000 person-years compared with enlisted males' incidence rate of 12.7 per 1000 person-years (RR = 1.32; 95% CI = 1.30, 1.34; P < .001) across all AKP diagnoses. Female officers had an incidence rate of 10.7 per 1000 person-years; male officers had an incidence rate of 5.3 per 1000 person-years (RR = 2.01; 95% CI = 1.94, 2.09). Differences in risk were also noted across military occupations for both enlisted and officer service members (P values < .05). CONCLUSIONS: Sex and military occupation were salient factors for the AKP risk. Evaluating training requirements and developing intervention programs across military occupations could serve as a focus for future research aiming to decrease the incidence of chronic knee pain.


Assuntos
Instabilidade Articular , Militares , Articulação Patelofemoral , Atletas , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Dor , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
4.
Cardiovasc Ultrasound ; 19(1): 36, 2021 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34758817

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Elite athletes have been the subject of great interest, but athletes at an intermediate level of physical activity have received less attention in respect to the presence of cardiac enlargement and/or hypertrophy. We hypothesized that playing football, often defined as demanding less endurance components than running or cycling, would still induce remodelling similar to sports with a dominating endurance component. METHODS: 23 male football players, age 25+/- 3.9 yrs. underwent exercise testing, 2D- and 3D- echocardiography and cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR). The results were compared with a control group of engineering students of similar age. The athletes exercised 12 h/week and the control subjects 1 h/week, p < 0.001. RESULTS: The football players achieved a significantly higher maximal load at the exercise test (380 W vs 300 W, p < 0.001) as well as higher calculated maximal oxygen consumption, (49.7 vs 37.4 mL x kg- 1 x min- 1, p < 0.001) compared to the sedentary group. All left ventricular (LV) volumes assessed by 3DEcho and CMR, as well as CMR left atrial (LA) volume were significantly higher in the athletes (3D-LVEDV 200 vs 154 mL, CMR-LVEDV 229 vs 185 mL, CMR-LA volume 100 vs 89 mL, p < 0.001, p = 0.002 and p = 0.009 respectively). LVEF and RVEF, LV strain by CMR or by echo did not differentiate athletes from sedentary participants. Right ventricular (RV) longitudinal strain, LA and right atrial (RA) strain by CMR all showed similar results in the two groups. CONCLUSION: Moderately trained intermediate level football players showed anatomical but not functional cardiac remodelling compared to sedentary males.


Assuntos
Ecocardiografia Tridimensional , Futebol Americano , Adulto , Atletas , Estudos Transversais , Ventrículos do Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Masculino , Função Ventricular Esquerda , Remodelação Ventricular , Adulto Jovem
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34770213

RESUMO

There is now compelling evidence of the effectiveness of a range of post-exercise recovery techniques, including extended nights of sleep, cold water immersion, massage, and compression garments. Currently, limited information is available on post-exercise recovery methods used by elite endurance athletes. Therefore, this study investigated the actual methods of recovery used in this group of athletes. Google Forms were used to collect information on the recovery methods used by elite endurance track and field athletes (n = 153, 61.4% men, 38.6% women; average age: 22.7 ± 4.6 years). The most used methods of recovery were sauna bathing (96.7%), massage (86.9%), daytime nap (81.0%), and long night sleep (at least 9h) (61.4%). Recovery methods with proven effectiveness such as cold water immersion and compression garments were rarely used (15.0% and 7.8%, respectively). Overall, recovery methods were used more often when the tiers of the track and field athletes were higher. Massage and sauna bathing were the most used methods of post-exercise recovery among Russian endurance track and field athletes. In most cases, they were used in conjunction with short daytime nap and long night sleep. Higher tier athletes were more likely to use sauna bathing, massage, long night sleep, and daytime nap but not cold water immersion and compression garments as recovery methods; however, all these methods except for cold water immersion were widely used among elite-tier athletes.


Assuntos
Atletas , Exercício Físico , Adolescente , Adulto , Temperatura Baixa , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Massagem , Prevalência , Sono , Adulto Jovem
6.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(21)2021 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34770638

RESUMO

This study describes a method for extracting the stride parameter ground contact time (GCT) from inertial sensor signals in sprinting. Five elite athletes were equipped with inertial measurement units (IMU) on their ankles and performed 34 maximum 50 and 100-m sprints. The GCT of each step was estimated based on features of the recorded IMU signals. Additionally, a photo-electric measurement system covered a 50-m corridor of the track to generate ground truth data. This corridor was placed interchangeably at the first and the last 50-ms of the track. In total, 863 of 889 steps (97.08%) were detected correctly. On average, ground truth data were underestimated by 3.55 ms. The root mean square error of GCT was 7.97 ms. Error analyses showed that GCT at the beginning and the end of the sprint was classified with smaller errors. For single runs the visualization of step-by-step GCT was demonstrated as a new diagnostic instrument for sprint running. The results show the high potential of IMUs to provide the temporal parameter GCT for elite-level athletes.


Assuntos
Corrida , Atletas , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Humanos
7.
Pediatr Ann ; 50(11): e461-e464, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34757873

RESUMO

Children represent a small fraction of total cumulative cases of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. The potential health consequences related to infection for children are not inconsequential. For example, some may develop multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children, which is commonly associated with cardiovascular involvement. Nevertheless, the short- and long-term effects of SARS-CoV-2 infection remain unknown. In particular, the impact on physical health and how it affects one's ability to return to physical activity are continuously evolving. As more youth sports organizations are lifting restrictions, the volume of youth athletes will increase and the demand for providing medical clearance will grow. This article aims to provide a review of return to physical activity guidelines for young athletes post-SARS-CoV-2 infection based on expert consensus statements and professional organization recommendations. [Pediatr Ann. 2021;50(11):e461-e464.].


Assuntos
Atletas/psicologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Volta ao Esporte , Esportes Juvenis , Adolescente , COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/psicologia , Criança , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2 , Síndrome de Resposta Inflamatória Sistêmica
8.
Pediatr Ann ; 50(11): e454-e460, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34757874

RESUMO

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has brought to forefront the large morbidity, mortality, and complications that viral illnesses can cause. For athletes, viral illnesses can be disruptive toward their participation in youth sports. This article outlines the details of how the most common viral illnesses affect the youth athlete and youth sports, including COVID-19, non-COVID-19 upper respiratory infections, influenza, Epstein-Barr virus, varicella, herpes, and other dermatologic infections. In this article, we review current available guidelines and recommendations on how to handle these infections in athletes during sports as well as return-to-play recommendations. [Pediatr Ann. 2021;50(11):e454-e460.].


Assuntos
Atletas , COVID-19 , Viroses/prevenção & controle , Esportes Juvenis , Adolescente , Humanos , Controle de Infecções , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Pediatr Ann ; 50(11): e465-e469, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34757879

RESUMO

The widespread shutdown in response to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, although varied across state and county levels, has undoubtedly impacted everyone to some degree. Within the pediatric population, the closure of schools and organized youth athletic programs has resulted in a unique situation that has made athletes physically deconditioned and at risk for injury. As sports and competition gradually restart, there are considerable risks to the skeletally immature athlete. The anatomic and physiologic changes that occur to bone and cartilage during growth make the young athlete particularly susceptible to both acute and overuse injuries. In the context of the pandemic, deconditioning, obesity, lack of variety, and the resultant mental health burden pose unique challenges in ensuring that young athletes safely return to the field. This review aims to identify risk factors for sport-related injuries and to outline strategies for minimizing these injuries as pediatric patients return-to-play after COVID-19. [Pediatr Ann. 2021;50(11):e465-e469.].


Assuntos
Atletas/psicologia , Traumatismos em Atletas/prevenção & controle , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Volta ao Esporte , Esportes Juvenis , Adolescente , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/psicologia , Criança , Transtornos Traumáticos Cumulativos , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34770044

RESUMO

Research evidence suggests that athletes' attitudes towards banned substances are among the strongest predictors of intention to use or actual practice of doping. Previous research has found that personal morality was negatively related to doping attitudes. However, less is known about the role of athletes' perceptions of fair play on their attitudes towards doping. First, we examined whether moral identity was associated with athletes' attitudes towards doping and whether their perceptions of fair play mediated this relationship. The second purpose was to determine whether these associations differed among non-athletes. Overall, 365 university students (49.9% males, 55.3% athletes) participated in this study (mean age 22.02, SD = 6.58). They completed questionnaires measuring the aforementioned variables. The results showed that athletes' moral identity and endorsement of fair play were negatively associated with their attitudes towards doping. The mediation analyses showed that the effect of moral identity on attitudes towards doping was partially mediated by perceptions of fair play (indirect effect, ß = -0.10, p < 0.05). Unlike student athletes, non-athletes' moral identity negatively predicted attitudes towards doping only indirectly, via fair play perception (indirect effect, ß = -0.08, p < 0.05). The study provides insights into how a person's morality and perception of moral values in sport may act as factors related to doping in sport. The practical implications for the promotion of anti-doping attitudes for athletes and separately for student non-athletes were provided together with future research perspectives.


Assuntos
Doping nos Esportes , Esportes , Adulto , Atletas , Atitude , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Princípios Morais , Percepção , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34770051

RESUMO

Various theories in the field of positive youth development (PYD) through sport argue that student athletes' satisfaction with basic psychological needs, life skills development, and well-being are closely related to each other. This study identified the structural relationship among three basic psychological needs, life skills, and subjective well-being. Korean Taekwondo student athletes (N = 302, Mage = 17.67, range = 17-19) completed a survey evaluating basic psychological needs (autonomy, competence, and relatedness), life skills (teamwork, goal setting, social skills, time management, and leadership), and subjective well-being (life satisfaction, positive/negative affect). Data were analyzed by using descriptive statistics, correlation, and the Structural Equation Model (SEM). The model's goodness of fit was Ï°2/df = 2.78, TLI = 0.90, CFI = 0.90, RMSEA = 0.077 (95% CI = 0.70, 0.80), and SRMR = 0.085. The three basic psychological needs were positively related to life skills and subjective well-being. In addition, life skills had a mediation effect between the three basic psychological needs and subjective well-being. The interpretation of the results indicated that life skills development and well-being depend on basic psychological needs. Thus, coaches should encourage a PYD climate to satisfy their athletes' psychological needs.


Assuntos
Artes Marciais , Autonomia Pessoal , Adolescente , Atletas , Humanos , Satisfação Pessoal , Estudantes
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34770090

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Probiotic supplements contain different strains of living microorganisms that promote the health of the host. These dietary supplements are increasingly being used by athletes to improve different aspects such as athletic performance, upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs), the immune system, oxidative stress, gastrointestinal (GI) problems, etc. This study aimed to identify the current evidence on the management of probiotics in endurance athletes and their relationship with sports performance. METHODS: A systematic review of the last five years was carried out in PubMed, Scopus, Web of science, Sportdiscus and Embase databases. RESULTS: Nine articles met the quality criteria. Of these, three reported direct benefits on sports performance. The remaining six articles found improvements in the reduction of oxidative stress, increased immune response and decreased incidence of URTIs. There is little scientific evidence on the direct relationship between the administration of probiotics in endurance athletes and sports performance. CONCLUSIONS: Benefits were found that probiotics could indirectly influence sports performance by improving other parameters such as the immune system, response to URTIs and decreased oxidative stress, as well as the monitoring of scheduled workouts.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético , Gastroenteropatias , Probióticos , Atletas , Suplementos Nutricionais , Humanos
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34770139

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Kickboxing is a combat sport with high demands on fitness and coordination skills. Scientific research shows that kickboxing fights induce substantial physiological stress. Therefore, it is important to determine the body composition of athletes before competitions and to analyze the skin temperature and skin pH during the fight. METHODS: This study aimed to determine the body composition, skin temperature, and skin pH in kickboxers during a fight according to K1 rules. A total of 24 kickboxers (age range: 19 to 28 years) competing in a local K1 kickboxing league participated in the present study. RESULTS: Changes in skin temperature and pH were observed and significant correlations were found between body composition and weight category. CONCLUSIONS: Changes in skin temperature and pH were demonstrated after each round of the bout. Level of body fat and muscle tissue significantly correlates with technical-tactical skills of the K1 athletes studied.


Assuntos
Atletas , Esportes , Adulto , Composição Corporal , Exercício Físico , Humanos , Adulto Jovem
15.
Ann Med ; 53(1): 1935-1944, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34726085

RESUMO

Currently, there is limited research reporting the symptoms of long COVID among athletes, and the recommendations for athletes returning to competition/training who have experienced long COVID symptoms. Therefore, the aim of this systematic review is to synthesise the recommendations for returning athletes who have experienced long COVID symptoms. The protocol was registered in PROSPERO under CRD42021265939. Two authors searched the electronic databases PubMed, Embase, Scopus, the Cochrane Library, Web of Science, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and SPORTDiscus from August 2019-July 2021. Search terms included words related to "long COVID", "athlete" and "return". Data extraction was completed for each study by two independent investigators for: (1) first author name; (2) year of publication; (3) journal; (4) Definition of athlete (i.e. elite or non-elite) (5) Recommendations reported. A total of 220 records were found. Following title and abstract screening, 61 studies were eligible for full text screening. Overall, no studies, commentaries, editorials or reviews provided specific recommendations for "long COVID" defined as COVID-19 signs and symptoms lasting for over 4 weeks as a result of COVID-19 infection. In addition, we found no studies which reported symptoms of athletes suffering from long COVID. Despite the lack of evidence, we did find eight separate professional recommendations for managing "long-term effects" and "ongoing" or "prolonged" symptoms and COVID-19 complications among athletes. Practitioners should be aware of both mental and physical symptoms of long COVID, and additional considerations may be required for athletes who have undergone intensive care. The present review provides a list of recommendations based on existing literature that may be followed and implemented for returning athletes.Key MessagesFurther research, including longitudinal research of athletes who have tested positive for COVID-19, is required to develop evidenced-based guidelines for athletes with ongoing COVID-19 symptoms.Prior to returning to play after COVID-19 infection, a thorough medical history, physical and psychological examination should be conducted by a medical professional.Athletes should continue to monitor and record their own physical and psychological markers of health.


Assuntos
Atletas , Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/fisiopatologia , COVID-19/reabilitação , Humanos
16.
Sports Med Arthrosc Rev ; 29(4): 182-184, 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34730114

RESUMO

In recent years, the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) and professional organizations have endorsed independent medical teams to promote athletes' wellbeing. In this independent arrangement, the team physician is the head of the medical team and with the assistance from the health care administrator, the team physician provides oversight of team medical personnel, who are delivering health care under the direction of the team physician. The purpose of this chapter is to review the role of the modern-day team physician, highlighting areas of controversy surrounding team medical coverage.


Assuntos
Traumatismos em Atletas , Medicina Esportiva , Atletas , Humanos , Estudantes , Universidades
17.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 93(suppl 3): e20201677, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34730742

RESUMO

The current study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that the high physical capacity of rowing athletes may not reverse the influence of age on cardiac autonomic control decline estimated by heart rate variability (HRV). Forty-four male subjects divided in four groups: 11 young athletes (YA; 18 ±1 year), 11 young non-athletes (YNA; 20 ±1 year), 11 middle age athletes (MAA; 43 ±6 years) and 11 middle age non-athletes (MNA; 44 ±8 years) participated in the study. Heart rate (HR) was recorded beat-by-beat for 10 minutes in supine (SUP) and 10 min in orthostatic (ORT) positions. HRV was analyzed in the frequency domain to obtain the spectral power in the high (HF) and low frequency (LF) bands, and the changes to ORT (%∆HRV) were calculated (ORT - SUP / SUP). During SUP, HF was lower in MNA and MA compared to YA and YNA, while LF was lower in MNA than YA. For %ΔHRV, %ΔHF was higher in YA than YNA, MA and MNA. The %ΔLF was not different among groups. In conclusion, aging seems to overcome the influence of physical fitness on neural regulation of the heart, as highlighted by the HRV response to active standing.


Assuntos
Fatores Etários , Sistema Nervoso Autônomo , Frequência Cardíaca , Aptidão Física , Esportes Aquáticos , Adolescente , Adulto , Atletas , Sistema Nervoso Autônomo/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Posição Ortostática , Decúbito Dorsal , Adulto Jovem
18.
Hum Mov Sci ; 80: 102889, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34737145

RESUMO

Instructions that direct attention externally have been shown to enhance motor performance. However, research on skilled performers and on learning effects has produced some distinct findings. Further, many studies have presented an overly simplistic view of attention and learning, such that all-internal focus protocols are contrasted with all-external focus protocols. Contrary to this approach, skilled performers have reported adopting combined focus strategies, revealing the need to test more realistic instructional protocols. The current study provided an experimental test of focus instructions that were modeled after the strategies of elite jump rope athletes. Four groups of skilled jump rope athletes practiced novel skills under various focus instructions. The internal focus (IF) and external focus (EF) groups were given traditional internal and external focus instructions, respectively. The expert modeled (EM) group was given a set of instructions that were based on experts' reported focus strategies. The expert modeled-autonomous (EM-A) group was allowed to choose how they used each of the expert-modeled instructions. All groups completed a baseline assessment, four practice sessions, and a learning assessment. Results of a chi-square test of independence revealed no relationship between group assignment and performance during baseline or practice. There was a significant relationship between group assignment and performance during the learning assessment (p < .05). Specifically, the IF group performed below expected values while the EM group performed better than expected. Findings support previous research showing learning detriments associated with internal focus instructions and also provide new insight into the advantages of using instructional approaches that are modeled after experts' strategies. Implications and suggestions for future research are discussed.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético , Sinais (Psicologia) , Atletas , Atenção , Humanos , Aprendizagem , Destreza Motora
19.
J Exp Psychol Hum Percept Perform ; 47(10): 1395-1408, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34766822

RESUMO

Unwanted intrusive thoughts (UITs) are negative ruminations that occur commonly and show similar characteristics between clinical and nonclinical forms. Despite their prevalence and impact, the control processes of UITs remain unclear. This study aimed to capture the effects of three thought-control strategies on UITs through an interventional design with individualized choking thoughts among Elite athletes, while measuring behavioral and brain responses. Ninety athletes recollected recent "choking" experiences prior to being randomized into one of three groups that used either acceptance, suppression, or passive monitoring (control condition). The activation of choking thoughts during and after the thought control intervention was gauged through three measurement approaches, including conscious presence in mind, priming, as well as the amplitudes of the P3b and N400 event-related potentials (ERPs). To strengthen the causal inferences concerning thought control strategies, athletes' working memory capacity was measured and controlled at baseline. Results indicated that, relative to passive monitoring, suppression led to enhanced priming and reduced conscious presence of UITs, whereas acceptance resulted in an opposite pattern of reduced priming and increased conscious presence of UITs. Moreover, UIT-related stimuli elicited less negative-going N400 amplitudes and more positive-going P3b amplitudes than UIT-irrelevant stimuli, although no effect of thought control strategies was identified on the ERPs. These findings contribute to the theoretical and mechanistic understanding of UIT control processes by revealing subtle effects of two fundamental UIT control strategies: suppression and acceptance. Such insights also bear meaningful applied implications. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Eletroencefalografia , Potenciais Evocados , Atletas , Cognição , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
20.
Lakartidningen ; 1182021 11 15.
Artigo em Sueco | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34780055

RESUMO

Performing surgery requires the execution of fine-tuned motor skills, as well as cognitive decision-making processes, much like the demands elite athletes or fighter pilots are facing. Mental training is used successfully in those fields, and according to research it can also be highly effective in surgical training, both for enhancing cognitive abilities and acquisition of technical skills. Therefore, mental training could be a valuable complement in surgical training, both for novices and more experienced surgeons.


Assuntos
Pilotos , Cirurgiões , Atletas , Competência Clínica , Humanos , Destreza Motora
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