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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36631074

RESUMO

Low molecular weight monocarboxylic acids (LMW monoacids, C1-C10) are the most abundant gaseous organic compound class in the atmosphere. Formic or acetic acid is the dominant volatile organic compound (VOC) in Earth's atmosphere. They can largely contribute to rainwater acidity, especially in the tropical forest, and react with alkaline metals, ammonia, and amines, contributing to new particle formation and secondary organic aerosol production. Gaseous and particulate LMW monoacids were abundantly reported in China. They can be directly emitted from fossil fuel combustion and biomass burring; however, the secondary formation is more important than primary emissions via the photochemical oxidation of anthropogenic and biogenic VOCs. In this paper, we review the distributions of LMW monoacids from urban, mountain, and marine sites as well as from rainwater and alpine snow samples and discuss their sources and formation mechanisms in the atmosphere. We also discuss their importance as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and provide future perspectives of LMW monoacids study in the warming world.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis , Peso Molecular , Atmosfera/química , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/química , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/metabolismo , China , Aerossóis/análise , Aerossóis/química , Aerossóis/metabolismo
2.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 120(3): e2214462120, 2023 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36623189

RESUMO

Logged and structurally degraded tropical forests are fast becoming one of the most prevalent land-use types throughout the tropics and are routinely assumed to be a net carbon sink because they experience rapid rates of tree regrowth. Yet this assumption is based on forest biomass inventories that record carbon stock recovery but fail to account for the simultaneous losses of carbon from soil and necromass. Here, we used forest plots and an eddy covariance tower to quantify and partition net ecosystem CO2 exchange in Malaysian Borneo, a region that is a hot spot for deforestation and forest degradation. Our data represent the complete carbon budget for tropical forests measured throughout a logging event and subsequent recovery and found that they constitute a substantial and persistent net carbon source. Consistent with existing literature, our study showed a significantly greater woody biomass gain across moderately and heavily logged forests compared with unlogged forests, but this was counteracted by much larger carbon losses from soil organic matter and deadwood in logged forests. We estimate an average carbon source of 1.75 ± 0.94 Mg C ha-1 yr-1 within moderately logged plots and 5.23 ± 1.23 Mg C ha-1 yr-1 in unsustainably logged and severely degraded plots, with emissions continuing at these rates for at least one-decade post-logging. Our data directly contradict the default assumption that recovering logged and degraded tropical forests are net carbon sinks, implying the amount of carbon being sequestered across the world's tropical forests may be considerably lower than currently estimated.


Assuntos
Carbono , Ecossistema , Clima Tropical , Biomassa , Atmosfera , Solo
3.
Sensors (Basel) ; 23(2)2023 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36679687

RESUMO

In order to conduct more thorough research on the structural characteristics of the atmosphere and the distribution and transmission of atmospheric pollution, the use of remote sensing technology for multi-dimensional detection of the atmosphere is needed. A light-weight, low-volume, low-cost, easy-to-use and low-maintenance mini Infrared Lidar (mIRLidar) sensor is developed for the first time. The model of lidar is established, and the key optical parameters of the mIRLidar are optimized through simulation, in which wavelength of laser, energy of pulse laser, diameter of telescope, field of view (FOV), and bandwidth of filter are included. The volume and weight of the lidar system are effectively reduced through optimizing the structural design and designing a temperature control system to ensure the stable operation of the core components. The mIRLidar system involved a 1064 nm laser (the pulse laser energy 15 µJ, the repetition frequency 5 kHz), a 100 mm aperture telescope (the FOV 1.5 mrad), a 0.5 nm bandwidth of filter and an APD, where the lidar has a volume of 200 mm × 200 mm × 420 mm and weighs about 13.5 kg. It is shown that the lidar can effectively detect three-dimensional distribution and transmission of aerosol and atmospheric pollution within a 5 km detection range, from Horizontal, scanning and navigational atmospheric measurements. It has great potential in the field of meteorological research and environmental monitoring.


Assuntos
Atmosfera , Poluição Ambiental , Atmosfera/análise , Atmosfera/química , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Aerossóis , Lasers
4.
PeerJ ; 11: e14664, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36691483

RESUMO

Background: Performing back trajectory and forward trajectory using the Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory Model (HYSPLIT) is a reliable approach for assessing particle transport after release among mid-field atmospheric models. HYSPLIT has an externally facing online interface that allows non-expert users to run the model trajectories without requiring extensive training or programming. However, the existing HYSPLIT interface is limited if simulations have a large amount of meteorological data and timesteps that are not coincident. The objective of this study is to design and develop a more robust tool to rapidly evaluate hazard transport conditions and to perform risk analysis, while still maintaining an intuitive and user-friendly interface. Methods: HYSPLIT calculates forward and backward trajectories of particles based on wind speed, wind direction, and the corresponding location, timestamp, and Pasquill stability classes of the regions of the atmosphere in terms of the wind speed, the amount of solar radiation, and the fractional cloud cover. The computed particle transport trajectories, combined with the online Proton Transfer Reaction-Mass Spectrometry (PTR-MS) data (https://figshare.com/articles/dataset/ARL_Data_from_PROS_station_at_Hanford_site/19993964), can be used to identify and quantify the sources and affected area of the hazardous chemicals' emission using the potential source distribution function (PSDF). PSDF is an improved statistical function based on the well-known potential source contribution function (PSCF) in establishing the air pollutant source and receptor relationship. Performing this analysis requires a range of meteorological and pollutant concentration measurements to be statistically meaningful. The existing HYSPLIT graphical user interface (GUI) does not easily permit computations of trajectories of a dataset of meteorological data in high temporal frequency. To improve the performance of HYSPLIT computations from a large dataset and enhance risk analysis of the accidental release of material at risk, a geospatial risk analysis tool (GRAT-GUI) is created to allow large data sets to be processed instantaneously and to provide ease of visualization. Results: The GRAT-GUI is a native desktop-based application and can be run in any Windows 10 system without any internet access requirements, thus providing a secure way to process large meteorological datasets even on a standalone computer. GRAT-GUI has features to import, integrate, and convert meteorological data with various formats for hazardous chemical emission source identification and risk analysis as a self-explanatory user interface. The tool is available at https://figshare.com/articles/software/GRAT/19426742.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Substâncias Perigosas , Substâncias Perigosas/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Vento , Medição de Risco , Atmosfera/análise
5.
Food Res Int ; 163: 112256, 2023 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36596167

RESUMO

Reducing sodium salt content in traditional fermented vegetables and developing low-salt fermented products have attracted increasing attention.However, low-salt fermented vegetables are prone to accumulate toxic biogenic amines (BAs) caused by the undesirable metabolism of spoilage microorganisms. This study aimed to investigate the impact of a CO2-modified atmosphere (MA) approach to the fermentation of low-salt Zhacai and the accumulation of BAs. The results show CO2-MA effectively suppressed the production of excessive BAs in low-salt Zhacai, as evidenced by a decrease in the total BA content from 63.66 to 161.41 mg/ kg under natural air conditions to 1.88-24.76 mg/ kg under CO2-MA. Overall, the mechanism of hindering BA formation was closely related to the change in the microbial community and the downregulation of BA-producing enzymes. Lactic acid bacteria, including Lactiplantibacillus plantarum, Weissella spp., and Pediococcus spp., were enriched under CO2-MA, whereas amine-producing microorganisms (e.g., Halomonas spp., Psychrobacter spp., Corynebacterium spp., and Levilactobacillus brevis) were greatly inhibited. Moreover, metagenomic analysis revealed that genes encoding amino acid decarboxylase, amine deiminase, and amine synthase were downregulated, which could be the fundamental reason for BA reduction. This study provides an alternative method for reducing BA production in fermented food.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos , Dióxido de Carbono , Fermentação , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Aminas Biogênicas/análise , Verduras/metabolismo , Atmosfera
6.
Sensors (Basel) ; 23(1)2023 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36617077

RESUMO

Determining and applying 'good' postharvest and quality control practices for otherwise highly sensitive fruits, such as sour cherry, is critical, as they serve as excellent media for a wide variety of microbial contaminants. The objective of this research was to report two series of experiments on the modified atmosphere storage (MAP) of sour cherries (Prunus cerasus L. var. Kántorjánosi, Újfehértói fürtös). Firstly, the significant effect of different washing pre-treatments on various quality indices was examined (i.e., headspace gas composition, weight loss, decay rate, color, firmness, soluble solid content, total plate count) in MAP-packed fruits. Subsequently, the applicability of near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy combined with chemometrics was investigated to detect the effect of various storage conditions (packed as control or MAP, stored at 3 or 5 °C) on sour cherries of different perceived ripeness. Significant differences were found for oxygen concentration when two perforations were applied on the packages of 'Kántorjánosi' (p < 0.01); weight loss when 'Kánorjánosi' (p < 0.001) and 'Újfehértói fürtös' (p < 0.01) were packed in MAP; SSC when 'Újfehértói fürtös' samples were ozone-treated (p < 0.05); and total plate count when 'Kántorjánosi' samples were ozone-treated (p < 0.01). The difference spectra reflected the high variability in the samples, and the detectable effects of different packaging. Based on the investigations with the soft independent modelling of class analogies (SIMCA), different packaging and storage resulted in significant differences in most of the cases even on the first storage day, which in many cases increased by the end of storage. The soft independent modelling of class analogies proved to be suitable for classification with apparent error rates between 0 and 0.5 during prediction regardless of ripeness. The research findings suggest the further correlation of NIR spectroscopic and reference parameters to support postharvest handling and fast quality control.


Assuntos
Ozônio , Prunus avium , Prunus avium/química , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho , Frutas/química , Ozônio/análise , Atmosfera
7.
Nat Commun ; 14(1): 271, 2023 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36650124

RESUMO

Black carbon emitted by incomplete combustion of fossil fuels and biomass has a net warming effect in the atmosphere and reduces the albedo when deposited on ice and snow; accurate knowledge of past emissions is essential to quantify and model associated global climate forcing. Although bottom-up inventories provide historical Black Carbon emission estimates that are widely used in Earth System Models, they are poorly constrained by observations prior to the late 20th century. Here we use an objective inversion technique based on detailed atmospheric transport and deposition modeling to reconstruct 1850 to 2000 emissions from thirteen Northern Hemisphere ice-core records. We find substantial discrepancies between reconstructed Black Carbon emissions and existing bottom-up inventories which do not fully capture the complex spatial-temporal emission patterns. Our findings imply changes to existing historical Black Carbon radiative forcing estimates are necessary, with potential implications for observation-constrained climate sensitivity.


Assuntos
Clima , Combustíveis Fósseis , Atmosfera , Fuligem/análise , Carbono
8.
Nat Commun ; 14(1): 277, 2023 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36650142

RESUMO

Climate change amplifies dry and hot extremes, yet the mechanism, extent, scope, and temporal scale of causal linkages between dry and hot extremes remain underexplored. Here using the concept of system dynamics, we investigate cross-scale interactions within dry-to-hot and hot-to-dry extreme event networks and quantify the magnitude, temporal-scale, and physical drivers of cascading effects (CEs) of drying-on-heating and vice-versa, across the globe. We find that locations exhibiting exceptionally strong CE (hotspots) for dry-to-hot and hot-to-dry extremes generally coincide. However, the CEs differ strongly in their timescale of interaction, hydroclimatic drivers, and sensitivity to changes in the soil-plant-atmosphere continuum and background aridity. The CE of drying-on-heating in the hotspot locations reaches its peak immediately driven by the compounding influence of vapor pressure deficit, potential evapotranspiration, and precipitation. In contrast, the CE of heating-on-drying peaks gradually dominated by concurrent changes in potential evapotranspiration, precipitation, and net-radiation with the effect of vapor pressure deficit being strongly controlled by ecosystem isohydricity and background aridity. Our results help improve our understanding of the causal linkages and the predictability of compound extremes and related impacts.


Assuntos
Secas , Ecossistema , Atmosfera , Mudança Climática , Solo
9.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 888, 2023 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36650187

RESUMO

India receives more than 70% of its annual rainfall in the summer monsoon from June to September. The rainfall is scanty and scattered for the rest of the year. Combining satellite data and model simulations, we show that the soil-vegetation continuum works as a natural capacitor of water, storing the monsoon pulse and releasing the moisture to the atmosphere through evapotranspiration over approximately 135 days when the moisture supply from precipitation is less than the evapotranspiration losses. The total Gross Primary Productivity of vegetation in India during the capacitor period accounts for almost 35% of the total annual GPP value. It primarily depends on the soil moisture at the beginning of the period, a measure of moisture capacitance of soil, with a correlation of 0.6. Given that India is the second largest contributor to recent global greening, its soil-vegetation water capacitance plays a significant role in the global carbon balance.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Solo , Estações do Ano , Atmosfera , Água
10.
Nat Commun ; 14(1): 32, 2023 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36596797

RESUMO

Despite knowledge of the presence of the Tibetan Plateau (TP) in reorganizing large-scale atmospheric circulation, it remains unclear how surface albedo darkening over TP will impact local glaciers and remote Asian monsoon systems. Here, we use a coupled land-atmosphere global climate model and a glacier model to address these questions. Under a high-emission scenario, TP surface albedo darkening will increase local temperature by 0.24 K by the end of this century. This warming will strengthen the elevated heat pump of TP, increasing South Asian monsoon precipitation while exacerbating the current "South Flood-North Drought" pattern over East Asia. The albedo darkening-induced climate change also leads to an accompanying TP glacier volume loss of 6.9%, which further increases to 25.2% at the equilibrium, with a notable loss in western TP. Our findings emphasize the importance of land-surface change responses in projecting future water resource availability, with important implications for water management policies.


Assuntos
Atmosfera , Água , Tibet , Temperatura
11.
Environ Res ; 216(Pt 1): 114139, 2023 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36084678

RESUMO

Hexachlorobutadiene (HCBD) was listed as a new persistent organic pollutant for global regulation under Stockholm Convention in 2015, and there has been scarce information on its atmospheric concentrations, distributions, and emission sources. HCBD air samples were collected and analyzed to characterize concentrations and distributions at high elevation and urban sites as well as emission source locations in Northern China. We found ambient concentrations of HCBD in Northern China averaged at 34 ± 16 and 36 ± 28 pptv at urban sites in Jinan and Tai'an, respectively, and 31 ± 21 pptv at a high-elevation site Mount Tai. HCBD concentrations at the high elevation and urban sites were found to be affected by long-range transport under the influence of the East Asian monsoon climate. Over potential sources areas, we found concentrations of 76 ± 33 pptv in a mixed factory park, 59 ± 21 pptv in a rubber plant and 74 ± 8 pptv in a municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill area, which were all several times higher than in urban sites. The large concentration gradient across the various environments revealed strong emission sources of HCBD, especially over MSW landfill and Cl-compound production and application areas. An emission rate of 9.2 × 104 kg/yr and an oxidation rate of 32.9 kg/yr for HCBD were estimated for the mixed factory park. OH and Cl are much more active in reaction with HCBD than other oxidants in the atmosphere. Dry deposition and oxidation removed about 5.3% and 0.04%, respectively, of the emitted, suggesting that ∼95% of the emitted HCBD remaining in the atmosphere and could be transported for redistribution. Our findings revealed significant emission sources of HCBD in northern China, which was in turn affected by major sources in East-central China. The regional influence of HCBD pollution warrants serious concerns and points to the need to develop mitigation strategies.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluentes Orgânicos Persistentes , Monitoramento Ambiental , Butadienos , Atmosfera , Resíduos Sólidos , China , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise
12.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 123: 350-366, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36521998

RESUMO

Atmospheric oxidizing capacity (AOC) is an essential driving force of troposphere chemistry and self-cleaning, but the definition of AOC and its quantitative representation remain uncertain. Driven by national demand for air pollution control in recent years, Chinese scholars have carried out studies on theories of atmospheric chemistry and have made considerable progress in AOC research. This paper will give a brief review of these developments. First, AOC indexes were established that represent apparent atmospheric oxidizing ability (AOIe) and potential atmospheric oxidizing ability (AOIp) based on aspects of macrothermodynamics and microdynamics, respectively. A closed study refined the quantitative contributions of heterogeneous chemistry to AOC in Beijing, and these AOC methods were further applied in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei and key areas across the country. In addition, the detection of ground or vertical profiles for atmospheric OH·, HO2·, NO3· radicals and reservoir molecules can now be obtained with domestic instruments in diverse environments. Moreover, laboratory smoke chamber simulations revealed heterogeneous processes involving reactions of O3 and NO2, which are typical oxidants in the surface/interface atmosphere, and the evolutionary and budgetary implications of atmospheric oxidants reacting under multispecies, multiphase and multi-interface conditions were obtained. Finally, based on the GRAPES-CUACE adjoint model improved by Chinese scholars, simulations of key substances affecting atmospheric oxidation and secondary organic and inorganic aerosol formation have been optimized. Normalized numerical simulations of AOIe and AOIp were performed, and regional coordination of AOC was adjusted. An optimized plan for controlling O3 and PM2.5 was analyzed by scenario simulation.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Poluição do Ar/análise , Atmosfera/química , Aerossóis/análise , Oxirredução , Oxidantes , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Material Particulado/análise , China , Monitoramento Ambiental
13.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 123: 54-64, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36522013

RESUMO

Sulfuric anhydrides, generated from the cycloaddition reaction of SO3 with carboxylic acids, have been revealed to be potential participants in the nucleation process of new particle formation (NPF). Hence the reaction mechanisms of typical aromatic acids (benzoic acid (BA), phenylacetic acid (PAA), phthalic acid (PA), isophthalic acid (mPA), and terephthalic acid (PTA)) with SO3 to generate the corresponding aromatic sulfuric anhydrides were investigated by density functional theory calculations at the level of M06-2X/6-311++G(3df,3pd). As a result, these reactions were found to be feasible in the gas phase with barriers of 0.34, 0.30, 0.18, 0.08 and 0.12 kcal/mol to generate corresponding aromatic sulfuric anhydrides, respectively. The thermodynamic stabilities of clusters containing aromatic sulfuric anhydrides and atmospheric nucleation precursors (sulfuric acid, ammonia and dimethylamine) were further analyzed to identify the potential role of aromatic sulfuric anhydrides in NPF. As the thermodynamic stability of a cluster depends on both the number and strength of hydrogen bonds, the greater stability of the interactions between atmospheric nucleation precursors and aromatic sulfuric anhydrides than with aromatic acids make aromatic sulfuric anhydrides potential participators in the nucleation process of NPF. Moreover, compared with BA, the addition of a -CH2- functional group in PAA has little influence on the reaction barrier with SO3 but an inhibitive effect on the thermodynamic stability of clusters. The position of the two -COOH functional groups in PA, mPA and PTA does not have a consistent impact on the reaction barrier with SO3 or the thermodynamic stability.


Assuntos
Atmosfera , Ácidos Sulfúricos , Humanos , Atmosfera/química , Ácidos Sulfúricos/química , Dióxido de Enxofre , Termodinâmica , Ligação de Hidrogênio , Anidridos
14.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 127: 308-319, 2023 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36522063

RESUMO

Given the high abundance of water in the atmosphere, the reaction of Criegee intermediates (CIs) with (H2O)2 is considered to be the predominant removal pathway for CIs. However, recent experimental findings reported that the reactions of CIs with organic acids and carbonyls are faster than expected. At the same time, the interface behavior between CIs and carbonyls has not been reported so far. Here, the gas-phase and air-water interface behavior between Criegee intermediates and HCHO were explored by adopting high-level quantum chemical calculations and Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics (BOMD) simulations. Quantum chemical calculations evidence that the gas-phase reactions of CIs + HCHO are submerged energy or low energy barriers processes. The rate ratios speculate that the HCHO could be not only a significant tropospheric scavenger of CIs, but also an inhibitor in the oxidizing ability of CIs on SOx in dry and highly polluted areas with abundant HCHO concentration. The reactions of CH2OO with HCHO at the droplet's surface follow a loop structure mechanism to produce i) SOZ (), ii) BHMP (HOCH2OOCH2OH), and iii) HMHP (HOCH2OOH). Considering the harsh reaction conditions between CIs and HCHO at the interface (i.e., the two molecules must be sufficiently close to each other), the hydration of CIs is still their main atmospheric loss pathway. These results could help us get a better interpretation of the underlying CIs-aldehydes chemical processes in the global polluted urban atmospheres.


Assuntos
Atmosfera , Água , Água/química , Atmosfera/química , Aldeídos
15.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 126: 506-516, 2023 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36503777

RESUMO

Deterioration of surface ozone (O3) pollution in Northern China over the past few years received much attention. For many cities, it is still under debate whether the trend of surface O3 variation is driven by meteorology or the change in precursors emissions. In this work, a time series decomposition method (Seasonal-Trend decomposition procedure based on Loess (STL)) and random forest (RF) algorithm were utilized to quantify the meteorological impacts on the recorded O3 trend and identify the key meteorological factors affecting O3 pollution in Tianjin, the biggest coastal port city in Northern China. After "removing" the meteorological fluctuations from the observed O3 time series, we found that variation of O3 in Tianjin was largely driven by the changes in precursors emissions. The meteorology was unfavorable for O3 pollution in period of 2015-2016, and turned out to be favorable during 2017-2021. Specifically, meteorology contributed 9.3 µg/m3 O3 (13%) in 2019, together with the increase in precursors emissions, making 2019 to be the worst year of O3 pollution since 2015. Since then, the favorable effects of meteorology on O3 pollution tended to be weaker. Temperature was the most important factor affecting O3 level, followed by air humidity in O3 pollution season. In the midday of summer days, O3 pollution frequently exceeded the standard level (>160 µg/m3) at a combined condition with relative humidity in 40%-50% and temperature > 31°C. Both the temperature and the dryness of the atmosphere need to be subtly considered for summer O3 forecasting.


Assuntos
Conceitos Meteorológicos , Meteorologia , Umidade , Atmosfera , Cidades
16.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 126: 754-760, 2023 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36503800

RESUMO

To investigate the impact of emission controls on ammonia (NH3) pollution in urban atmosphere, observation on NH3 (1 hr interval) was performed in Shanghai before, during and after the 2019 China International Import Expo (CIIE) event, along with measurements on inorganic ions, organic tracers and stable nitrogen isotope compositions of ammonium in PM2.5. NH3 during the CIIE period was 6.5±1.0 µg/m3, which is 41% and 32% lower than that before and after the event, respectively. Such a decrease was largely ascribed to the emission controls in nonagricultural sources, of which contribution for measured NH3 in control phase abated by ∼20% compared to that during uncontrol period. Molecular compositions of PAHs and hopanes further suggested a dominant role of the reduced vehicle emissions in the urban NH3 abatement during the CIIE period. Our results revealed that vehicle exhaust emission control is an effective way to mitigate NH3 pollution and improve air quality in Chinese urban areas.


Assuntos
Amônia , Emissões de Veículos , China , Atmosfera , Poluição Ambiental
17.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 126: 95-102, 2023 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36503810

RESUMO

Airborne particulate matter (PM) with an aerodynamic size cutoff of 10 µm (PM10) has been collected using a high volume air sampler at two locations (urban and residential) in the city of Ahvaz, Iran, for sixteen 24-hour periods over four months (late summer to early winter). Microplastics (MPs) in the PM were isolated after sample digestion and were subsequently characterised by established techniques. All MPs sampled (n = 322) were of a fibrous nature, with polyethylene terephthalate, nylon and polypropylene being the dominant polymers and consistent with textiles and fabrics as the principal source. Despite a distinct seasonality (temperature and wind) over the study period, the abundance, size and colour of the fibres exhibited no clear temporal trend, and no clear differences were observed between the two sites. Concentrations of MPs ranged from none detected to about 0.017/m3 (median = 0.0065/m3) and are at the low end of ranges reported in the recent literature for various urban and remote locations. While some MPs may have a local origin, the weathering of other MPs and their acquisition of extraneous geosolids and salts suggests that long-range transport is also important. Back-trajectory calculations indicate that regional sources are mainly to the north and west of Ahvaz, but a southerly, maritime source is also possible in late autumn. Although concentrations of MPs in the atmosphere are well below those encountered in indoor air, further studies are required to elucidate their potential ecological impacts.


Assuntos
Microplásticos , Plásticos , Atmosfera , Tempo (Meteorologia) , Irã (Geográfico)
18.
Environ Pollut ; 316(Pt 1): 120539, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36328278

RESUMO

Marine atmospheric aerosols impact the global climate and biogeochemical cycles. However, how the composition, sources, and aging of these aerosols affect the above processes has not been thoroughly studied. Here, we conducted ship-based measurements in the northern South China Sea to investigate the chemical composition and aging of aerosols from various sources during the summer of 2019. Separate measurements were conducted at the bow (marine environment) and stern (cooking, smoking, and engine exhaust) of the ship. Source apportionment of organic aerosols (OAs) was conducted using positive matrix factorization (PMF) and trajectory models. The results showed that ship exhaust and coastal submicron particles were composed of comparable sulfate and organic fractions (both approximately 43%), distinct from the sulfate-dominated particles in the marine atmosphere (52-77%). PMF using the multilinear engine-2 solver identified five factors for the stern sampling period: hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA-I, 9%), slightly oxidized HOA (HOA-II, 25%), cooking OA (COA, 13%), cigarette smoke OA (CSOA, 4%), and low-volatility oxygenated OA (LV-OOA, 49%). The primary OAs (HOA-I/II + COA + CSOA), derived mostly from direct ship-related emissions, contributed to approximately half of the OAs, whereas the contribution from the highly aged marine atmosphere was only 20%. Notably, certain living-related emissions (i.e., COA and CSOA), which were often neglected in previous studies, might represent a considerable contribution to OA emissions from the ship. Four factors were identified for the bow sampling periods: HOA (13%), biomass burning OA (BBOA, 9%), semi-volatile OOA (7%), and LV-OOA (71%). The BBOAs from the Indo-China and Malay peninsulas were aged, converted to secondary organic aerosols (SOAs) during transport, and influenced by the combined photo-oxidation and liquid-phase reactions, indicating a substantial impact of BB on SOA formation. Our study highlights the influence of ship and inland emissions and their aging during transport on marine atmospheric aerosols.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Aerossóis/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Atmosfera , China , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Material Particulado/análise , Navios , Sulfatos/análise , Emissões de Veículos/análise
19.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 387: 110042, 2023 Feb 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36527792

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to conduct challenge studies in raw pork by strictly following all aspects of the 2014 EURL technical guidance document for conducting shelf-life studies on Listeria monocytogenes. Growth potential was assessed on three batches of self-cut pork chops and one batch of in-house prepared pure minced pork without any additives in air and MAP (70 % O2/30% CO2) packaging. Pork chops did not support the growth of the pathogen throughout the shelf-life, given the specific conditions used in this study, with growth potential values of 0.28 and 0.46 log CFU/g, respectively, for both air and MAP. Substantial growth (>0.5 log CFU/g) was obtained in minced pork after investigating only one batch, with growth potential values of 1.69 and 0.80 log CFU/g, for air and MAP. However, both intra- and inter-batch variability for pork chops and intra-batch variability for minced pork was observed; with elevated growth being evened out by the way growth potential is calculated in the EURL 2014 document, leading to underestimations and posing a potential risk to public health. Maximum growth rate in minced pork at a constant temperature of 7 °C was estimated at µmax = 0.680 log CFU/day and µmax = 0.489 log CFU/day in air and MAP, respectively. Model predictions for the growth potential showed acceptable results for air-packed minced pork with better accuracy when the lag phase was implemented as indicated in the renewed protocol (CRL EU, 2021). In MAP, all models used, including the Combase Growth model and to a lesser extent the DMRI dynamic safety model, overestimate the growth potential probably due to a lack of integration of the changing CO2 levels in the packages. The predictive models used in this study do not adequately account for the dynamics in the raw pig matrix, which may have an inhibitory effect on the growth of L. monocytogenes, including interaction with the microbiome and CO2, and emphasize the importance of remaining critical of predictive model outcomes. In addition, the experimental intra- and inter-batch variability raise questions about the sense or nonsense of using predictive microbiology in these raw pork products.


Assuntos
Listeria monocytogenes , Microbiota , Carne de Porco , Carne Vermelha , Animais , Suínos , Embalagem de Alimentos/métodos , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Conservação de Alimentos/métodos , Dióxido de Carbono , Temperatura , Atmosfera , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana
20.
Sci Total Environ ; 865: 161238, 2023 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36586682

RESUMO

Size-differentiated concentration of bacterial aerosols is essential for investigating their dissemination via the atmosphere. In this study, the number size distribution of bacterial aerosols was measured at a coastal site in southwestern Japan (32.324°N, 129.993°E) using a size-segregated eight-stage (>11, 7.0-11, 4.7-7.0, 3.3-4.7, 2.1-3.3, 1.1-2.1, 0.65-1.1, and 0.43-0.65µm) sampler. The results showed that the distribution differed according to the source areas: terrestrial air, oceanic air, or a combination of the two. The distribution in the long-distance transported terrestrial air from the Asian continent was monomodal, with a peak of 3.3-4.7 µm. The distribution in local land breeze air was bimodal, with the peaks at 0.43-1.1 and 3.3-4.7 µm. A similar bimodal distribution was encountered when the local island air and long-distance transported terrestrial air mixed. In contrast, the size distribution did not show clear peaks in the air from either nearby or remote marine areas. According to the air mass backward trajectories, the further the distance the air moved in the 72 h before arriving at the site, the lower the concentration of total bacterial aerosols. The estimation of dry deposition fluxes of bacterial cells showed that the deposition was dominated by cells larger than 1.1 µm with a relative contribution from 70.5 % to 93.7 %, except for the local land breeze cases, where the contributions in the size ranges larger and smaller than 1.1 µm were similar. These results show the distinctive number size distributions and removal processes of bacterial aerosols in different types of air. In addition, they indicate that size-dependent characteristics of airborne bacteria should be considered when studying their activities and roles in the atmospheric environment.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Aerossóis/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Atmosfera , Bactérias , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Japão , Tamanho da Partícula , Material Particulado/análise
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