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1.
Glob Chang Biol ; 30(5): e17315, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38721865

RESUMO

Grasslands provide important ecosystem services to society, including biodiversity, water security, erosion control, and forage production. Grasslands are also vulnerable to droughts, rendering their future vitality under climate change uncertain. Yet, the grassland response to drought is not well understood, especially for heterogeneous Central European grasslands. We here fill this gap by quantifying the spatiotemporal sensitivity of grasslands to drought using a novel remote sensing dataset from Landsat/Sentinel-2 paired with climate re-analysis data. Specifically, we quantified annual grassland vitality at fine spatial scale and national extent (Germany) from 1985 to 2021. We analyzed grassland sensitivity to drought by testing for statistically robust links between grassland vitality and common drought indices. We furthermore explored the spatiotemporal variability of drought sensitivity for 12 grassland habitat types given their different biotic and abiotic features. Grassland vitality maps revealed a large-scale reduction of grassland vitality during past droughts. The unprecedented drought of 2018-2019 stood out as the largest multi-year vitality decline since the mid-1980s. Grassland vitality was consistently coupled to drought (R2 = .09-.22) with Vapor Pressure Deficit explaining vitality best. This suggests that high atmospheric water demand, as observed during recent compounding drought and heatwave events, has major impacts on grassland vitality in Central Europe. We found a significant increase in drought sensitivity over time with highest sensitivities detected in periods of extremely high atmospheric water demand, suggesting that drought impacts on grasslands are becoming more severe with ongoing climate change. The spatial variability of grassland drought sensitivity was linked to different habitat types, with declining sensitivity from dry and mesic to wet habitats. Our study provides the first large-scale, long-term, and spatially explicit evidence of increasing drought sensitivities of Central European grasslands. With rising compound droughts and heatwaves under climate change, large-scale grassland vitality loss, as in 2018-2019, will thus become more likely in the future.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Secas , Pradaria , Tecnologia de Sensoriamento Remoto , Alemanha , Água/análise , Atmosfera
3.
Sensors (Basel) ; 24(9)2024 Apr 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38732790

RESUMO

With the development of biometric identification technology, finger vein identification has received more and more widespread attention for its security, efficiency, and stability. However, because of the performance of the current standard finger vein image acquisition device and the complex internal organization of the finger, the acquired images are often heavily degraded and have lost their texture characteristics. This makes the topology of the finger veins inconspicuous or even difficult to distinguish, greatly affecting the identification accuracy. Therefore, this paper proposes a finger vein image recovery and enhancement algorithm using atmospheric scattering theory. Firstly, to normalize the local over-bright and over-dark regions of finger vein images within a certain threshold, the Gamma transform method is improved in this paper to correct and measure the gray value of a given image. Then, we reconstruct the image based on atmospheric scattering theory and design a pixel mutation filter to segment the venous and non-venous contact zones. Finally, the degraded finger vein images are recovered and enhanced by global image gray value normalization. Experiments on SDUMLA-HMT and ZJ-UVM datasets show that our proposed method effectively achieves the recovery and enhancement of degraded finger vein images. The image restoration and enhancement algorithm proposed in this paper performs well in finger vein recognition using traditional methods, machine learning, and deep learning. The recognition accuracy of the processed image is improved by more than 10% compared to the original image.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Dedos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Veias , Humanos , Dedos/irrigação sanguínea , Dedos/diagnóstico por imagem , Veias/diagnóstico por imagem , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Identificação Biométrica/métodos , Atmosfera
4.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 11023, 2024 05 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38744922

RESUMO

Encroachment of vascular plants (VP) in temperate raised bogs, as a consequence of altered hydrological conditions and nutrient input, is widely observed. Effects of such vegetation shift on water and carbon cycles are, however, largely unknown and identification of responsible plant physiological traits is challenging. Process-based modelling offers the opportunity of gaining insights into ecosystem functioning beyond observations, and to infer decisive trait shifts of plant functional groups. We adapted the Soil-Vegetation-Atmosphere Transfer model pyAPES to a temperate raised bog site by calibration against measured peat temperature, water table and surface CO2 fluxes. We identified the most important traits determining CO2 fluxes by conducting Morris sensitivity analysis (MSA) under changing conditions throughout the year and simulated VP encroachment. We further investigated transferability of results to other sites by extending MSA to parameter ranges derived from literature review. We found highly variable intra-annual plant traits importance determining ecosystem CO2 fluxes, but only a partial shift of importance of photosynthetic processes from moss to VP during encroachment. Ecosystem respiration was dominated by peat respiration. Overall, carboxylation rate, base respiration rate and temperature sensitivity (Q10) were most important for determining bog CO2 balance and parameter ranking was robust even under the extended MSA.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono , Ecossistema , Plantas , Estações do Ano , Áreas Alagadas , Dióxido de Carbono/metabolismo , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Plantas/metabolismo , Solo/química , Fotossíntese , Ciclo do Carbono , Temperatura , Modelos Teóricos , Atmosfera
5.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0302855, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38748625

RESUMO

In landscape appreciation, what tourists directly perceive is the atmosphere of the landscape. This paper introduces the concept of "Ecological Structure" from Gernot Böhme's theory of atmospheric aesthetics into the assessment of landscapes, utilizing atmosphere as a bridge between horticultural ecology, aesthetics, and culture. It examines the relationship between the objective environment and subjective perception. This study conducted a field survey of Xingqing Palace Park and selected the waterside plant landscape that directly reflects the atmosphere of the royal garden as the research object. In the first stage of this study, Scenic Beauty Estimation was used to evaluate the overall beauty of 32 landscape units; in the second stage, the Delphi method and Analytic Hierarchy Process were used to evaluate the ecological structures that affect the garden landscape atmosphere; in the third stage, the two evaluation results of the Kendall's W concord coefficient test Analytic Hierarchy Process and Scenic Beauty Estimation have high consistency, which shows that the atmosphere is great value to the beauty of the landscape. This study provides designers with a means to create a garden atmosphere using ecological structures and provides new ideas for landscape design.


Assuntos
Estética , China , Beleza , Ecossistema , Humanos , Atmosfera , Parques Recreativos
6.
Sci Total Environ ; 932: 173038, 2024 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38719055

RESUMO

Despite global concerns about metal(loid)s in atmospheric particulate matter (PM), the presence of metal(loid) resistance genes (MRGs) in PM remains unknown. Therefore, we conducted a comprehensive investigation of the metal(loid)s and associated MRGs in PMs in two seasons (summer and winter) in Xiamen, China. According to the geoaccumulation index (Igeo), most metal(loid)s, except for V and Mn, exhibited enrichment in PM, suggesting potential anthropogenic sources. By employing Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) model, utilizing a dataset encompassing both total and bioaccessible metal(loid)s, along with backward trajectory simulations, traffic emissions were determined to be the primary potential contributor of metal(loid)s in summer, whereas coal combustion was observed to have a dominant contribution in winter. The major contributor to the carcinogenic risk of metal(loid)s in both summer and winter was predominantly attributed to coal combustion, which serves as the main source of bioaccessible Cr. Bacterial communities within PMs showed lower diversity and network complexity in summer than in winter, with Pseudomonadales being the dominant order. Abundant MRGs, including the As(III) S-adenosylmethionine methyltransferase gene (arsM), Cu(I)-translocating P-type ATPase gene (copA), Zn(II)/Cd(II)/Pb(II)-translocating P-type ATPase gene (zntA), and Zn(II)-translocating P-type ATPase gene (ziaA), were detected within the PMs. Seasonal variations were observed for the metal(loid) concentration, bacterial community structure, and MRG abundance. The bacterial community composition and MRG abundance within PMs were primarily influenced by temperature, rather than metal(loid)s. This research offers novel perspectives on the occurrence of metal(loid)s and MRGs in PMs, thereby contributing to the control of air pollution.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Material Particulado , Material Particulado/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , China , Metais/análise , Estações do Ano , Atmosfera/química
7.
Environ Sci Technol ; 58(20): 8815-8824, 2024 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38733566

RESUMO

This study presents the measurement of photochemical precursors during the lockdown period from January 23, 2020, to March 14, 2020, in Chengdu in response to the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic. To derive the lockdown impact on air quality, the observations are compared to the equivalent periods in the last 2 years. An observation-based model is used to investigate the atmospheric oxidation capacity change during lockdown. OH, HO2, and RO2 concentrations are simulated, which are elevated by 42, 220, and 277%, respectively, during the lockdown period, mainly due to the reduction in nitrogen oxides (NOx). However, the radical turnover rates, i.e., OH oxidation rate L(OH) and local ozone production rate P(O3), which determine the secondary intermediates formation and O3 formation, only increase by 24 and 48%, respectively. Therefore, the oxidation capacity increases slightly during lockdown, which is partly attributed to unchanged alkene concentrations. During the lockdown, alkene ozonolysis seems to be a significant radical primary source due to the elevated O3 concentrations. This unique data set during the lockdown period highlights the importance of controlling alkene emission to mitigate secondary pollution formation in Chengdu and may also be applicable in other regions of China given an expected NOx reduction due to the rapid transformation to electrified fleets in the future.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , COVID-19 , Oxirredução , Ozônio , China , Atmosfera/química , Óxidos de Nitrogênio/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , SARS-CoV-2 , Humanos
8.
Environ Geochem Health ; 46(6): 186, 2024 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38695998

RESUMO

Atmospheric distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and associated human health risks have been studied in India. However, a comprehensive overview is not available in India, this review highlights the possible sources, and associated cancer risks in people living in different zones of India. Different databases were searched for the scientific literature on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in ambient air in India. Database searches have revealed a total of 55 studies conducted at 139 locations in India in the last 14 years between 1996 and 2018. Based on varying climatic conditions in India, the available data was analysed and distributed with four zone including north, east, west/central and south zones. Comparatively higher concentrations were reported for locations in north zone, than east, west/central and south zones. The average concentrations of ∑PAHs is lower in east zone, and concentrations in north, west/central and south zones are higher by 1.67, 1.47, and 1.12 folds respectively than those in east zone. Certain molecular diagnostic ratios and correlation receptor models were used for identification of possible sources, which aided to the conclusion that both pyrogenic and petrogenic activities are the mixed sources of PAH emissions to the Indian environment. Benzo(a)pyrene toxicity equivalency for different zones is estimated and presented. Estimated Chronic daily intake (CDI) due to inhalation of PAHs and subsequently, cancer risk (CR) is found to be ranging from extremely low to low in various geographical zones of India.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Índia/epidemiologia , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Humanos , Medição de Risco , Monitoramento Ambiental , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/induzido quimicamente , Atmosfera/química , Exposição Ambiental , Poluição do Ar
9.
Environ Monit Assess ; 196(6): 519, 2024 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38713313

RESUMO

Mercury cycling in coastal metropolitan areas on the west coast of India becomes complex due to the combined effects of both intensive domestic anthropogenic emissions and marine air masses. The present study is based on yearlong data of continuous measurements of gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) concentration concurrent with meteorological parameters and some air pollutants at a coastal urban site in Mumbai, on the west coast of India, for the first time. The concentration of GEM was found in a range between 2.2 and 12.3 ng/m3, with a mean of 3.1 ± 1.1 ng/m3, which was significantly higher than the continental background values in the Northern Hemisphere (~ 1.5 ng/m3). Unlike particulates, GEM starts increasing post-winter to peak during the monsoon and decrease towards winter. July had the highest concentration of GEM followed by October, and a minimum in January. GEM exhibited a distinct diurnal cycle, mainly with a broad peak in the early morning, a narrow one by nightfall, and a minimum in the afternoon. The peaks and their timing suggest the origin of urban mobility and the start of local activities. A positive correlation between SO2, PM2.5, temperature, relative humidity, and GEM indicates that emissions from local industrial plants in the Mumbai coastal area. Principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis (CA) confirm this fact. Monthly back trajectory analysis showed that air mass flows are predominantly from the Arabian Sea and local human activities. Assessment of human health risks by USEPA model reveals that the hazardous quotient, HQ < 1, implies negligible carcinogenic risk. GEM observations in Mumbai during the study period are below the World Health Organization's (WHO) safe limit (200 ng/m3) for long-term inhalation.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Monitoramento Ambiental , Mercúrio , Índia , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Mercúrio/análise , Medição de Risco , Humanos , Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Atmosfera/química , Material Particulado/análise , Cidades
10.
Sci Data ; 11(1): 505, 2024 May 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38755168

RESUMO

In the framework of the Multidisciplinary drifting Observatory for the Study of Arctic Climate Polarstern expedition, the Leibniz Institute for Tropospheric Research, Leipzig, Germany, operated the shipborne OCEANET-Atmosphere facility for cloud and aerosol observations throughout the whole year. OCEANET-Atmosphere comprises, amongst others, a multiwavelength Raman lidar, a microwave radiometer, and an optical disdrometer. A cloud radar was operated aboard Polarstern by the US Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program. These measurements were processed by applying the so-called Cloudnet methodology to derive cloud properties. To gain a comprehensive view of the clouds, lidar and cloud radar capabilities for low- and high-altitude observations were combined. Cloudnet offers a variety of products with a spatiotemporal resolution of 30 s and 30 m, such as the target classification, and liquid and ice microphysical properties. Additionally, a lidar-based low-level stratus retrieval was applied for cloud detection below the lowest range gate of the cloud radar. Based on the presented dataset, e.g., studies on cloud formation processes and their radiative impact, and model evaluation studies can be conducted.


Assuntos
Tecnologia de Sensoriamento Remoto , Radar , Atmosfera , Regiões Árticas , Aerossóis , Alemanha
11.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 4151, 2024 May 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38755154

RESUMO

Atmospheric methane oxidizing bacteria (atmMOB) constitute the sole biological sink for atmospheric methane. Still, the physiological basis allowing atmMOB to grow on air is not well understood. Here we assess the ability and strategies of seven methanotrophic species to grow with air as sole energy, carbon, and nitrogen source. Four species, including three outside the canonical atmMOB group USCα, enduringly oxidized atmospheric methane, carbon monoxide, and hydrogen during 12 months of growth on air. These four species exhibited distinct substrate preferences implying the existence of multiple metabolic strategies to grow on air. The estimated energy yields of the atmMOB were substantially lower than previously assumed necessary for cellular maintenance in atmMOB and other aerobic microorganisms. Moreover, the atmMOB also covered their nitrogen requirements from air. During growth on air, the atmMOB decreased investments in biosynthesis while increasing investments in trace gas oxidation. Furthermore, we confirm that a high apparent specific affinity for methane is a key characteristic of atmMOB. Our work shows that atmMOB grow on the trace concentrations of methane, carbon monoxide, and hydrogen present in air and outlines the metabolic strategies that enable atmMOB to mitigate greenhouse gases.


Assuntos
Monóxido de Carbono , Hidrogênio , Metano , Oxirredução , Metano/metabolismo , Monóxido de Carbono/metabolismo , Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Atmosfera/química , Ar , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Gases de Efeito Estufa/metabolismo
12.
Undersea Hyperb Med ; 51(1): 1-5, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38615347

RESUMO

Chronic wounds have a significant impact on a patient's quality of life. Different pathologies, such as poor blood supply and tissue breakdown, may lead to inadequate oxygenation of the wound. Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO2) is a widely used treatment for an increasing number of medical practices. A new so-called "hyperbaric treatment" trend has emerged. The use of low-pressure, soft-sided, or inflatable chambers represents a growing trend in hyperbaric medicine. Used in professional settings as well as directly marketed to individuals for home use, they are promoted as equivalent to clinical hyperbaric treatments provided in medical centers. However, these chambers are pressurized to 1.3 atmospheres absolute (ATA) on either air or with an oxygen concentrator, both generate oxygen partial pressures well below those used in approved hyperbaric centers for UHMS-approved indications. A total of 130 consecutive patients with chronic ulcers where tested. TcPO2 was measured near the ulcer area while the patient was breathing 100% O2 at 1.4 ATA for five and 10 minutes. The average TcPO2 at 1.4 ATA after 10 minutes of O2 breathing was 161 mmHg (1-601 mmHg, standard deviation 137.91), compared to 333 mmHg in 2 ATA (1-914±232.56), p < 0.001. Each electrode tested was also statistically significant, both after five minutes of O2 breathing and after 10 minutes. We have not found evidence supporting the claim that 1.4 ATA treatment can benefit a chronic ulcer patient. The field of HBO2 is constantly evolving. We have discovered new ways to treat previously incurable ailments. Nevertheless, it is important to note that new horizons must be examined scientifically, supported by evidence-based data. The actual effect of 1.4 ATA on many ailments is yet to be determined.


Assuntos
Oxigenoterapia Hiperbárica , Humanos , Úlcera/terapia , Monitorização Transcutânea dos Gases Sanguíneos , Qualidade de Vida , Oxigênio , Atmosfera
13.
Astrobiology ; 24(4): 407-422, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38603526

RESUMO

Recent ground-based observations of Venus have detected a single spectral feature consistent with phosphine (PH3) in the middle atmosphere, a gas which has been suggested as a biosignature on rocky planets. The presence of PH3 in the oxidized atmosphere of Venus has not yet been explained by any abiotic process. However, state-of-the-art experimental and theoretical research published in previous works demonstrated a photochemical origin of another potential biosignature-the hydride methane-from carbon dioxide over acidic mineral surfaces on Mars. The production of methane includes formation of the HC · O radical. Our density functional theory (DFT) calculations predict an energetically plausible reaction network leading to PH3, involving either HC · O or H· radicals. We suggest that, similarly to the photochemical formation of methane over acidic minerals already discussed for Mars, the origin of PH3 in Venus' atmosphere could be explained by radical chemistry starting with the reaction of ·PO with HC·O, the latter being produced by reduction of CO2 over acidic dust in upper atmospheric layers of Venus by ultraviolet radiation. HPO, H2P·O, and H3P·OH have been identified as key intermediate species in our model pathway for phosphine synthesis.


Assuntos
Fosfinas , Vênus , Meio Ambiente Extraterreno , Raios Ultravioleta , Processos Fotoquímicos , Atmosfera , Metano
15.
Environ Int ; 186: 108632, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38583296

RESUMO

Plastic fragments are widely found in the soil profile of terrestrial ecosystems, forming plastic footprint and posing increasing threat to soil functionality and carbon (C) footprint. It is unclear how plastic footprint affects C cycling, and in particularly permanent C sequestration. Integrated field observations (including 13C labelling) were made using polyethylene and polylactic acid plastic fragments (low-, medium- and high-concentrations as intensifying footprint) landfilling in soil, to track C flow along soil-plant-atmosphere continuum (SPAC). The result indicated that increased plastic fragments substantially reduced photosynthetic C assimilation (p < 0.05), regardless of fragment degradability. Besides reducing C sink strength, relative intensity of C emission increased significantly, displaying elevated C source. Moreover, root C fixation declined significantly from 21.95 to 19.2 mg m-2, and simultaneously root length density, root weight density, specific root length and root diameter and surface area were clearly reduced. Similar trends were observed in the two types of plastic fragments (p > 0.05). Particularly, soil aggregate stability was significantly lowered as affected by plastic fragments, which accelerated the decomposition rate of newly sequestered C (p < 0.05). More importantly, net C rhizodeposition declined averagely from 39.77 to 29.41 mg m-2, which directly led to significant decline of permanent C sequestration in soil. Therefore, increasing plastic footprint considerably worsened C footprint regardless of polythene and biodegradable fragments. The findings unveiled the serious effects of plastic residues on permanent C sequestration across SPAC, implying that current C assessment methods clearly overlook plastic footprint and their global impact effects.


Assuntos
Pegada de Carbono , Plásticos , Solo , Solo/química , Carbono/análise , Atmosfera/química , Ciclo do Carbono , Ecossistema , Plantas , Sequestro de Carbono , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos
17.
Sci Total Environ ; 930: 172736, 2024 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38663612

RESUMO

This study explored the assembly mechanisms and physicochemical dynamics of microbial communities within atmospheric bioaerosols, focusing on the influence of different aerial trajectories. Over two years, samples near Seoul were classified into 'North', 'Southwest', and 'Others' categories based on their aerial trajectories. Physicochemical analysis of the PM2.5 particles revealed distinct ion compositions for each cluster, reflecting diverse environmental influences. Microbial community analysis revealed that shared dominant bacterial phyla were present in all clusters. However, distinct taxonomic profiles and biomarkers were also evident, such as coastal bacteria in the 'Southwest' cluster correlating with wind speed, and arid soil-originated bacteria in the 'North' cluster correlating with cations. These findings demonstrate that biomarkers in each cluster are representative of the distinct environments associated with their aerial trajectories. Notably, cluster 'Southwest' the highest microbial diversity and a strong alignment with the neutral community model, suggesting a large influence of passive dispersal from marine environments. Contrarily, 'North' and 'Others' were more influenced by niche-dependent factors. This study highlights the complex interplay between environmental factors and microbial dynamics in bioaerosols and provides important insights for environmental monitoring and public health risk assessment.


Assuntos
Aerossóis , Microbiologia do Ar , Poluentes Atmosféricos , Atmosfera , Monitoramento Ambiental , Microbiota , Aerossóis/análise , Atmosfera/química , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Material Particulado/análise , Bactérias/classificação , Seul
18.
Environ Sci Technol ; 58(18): 7937-7946, 2024 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38669108

RESUMO

Emissions of biogenic reactive carbon significantly influence atmospheric chemistry, contributing to the formation and destruction of secondary pollutants, such as secondary organic aerosol and ozone. While isoprene and monoterpenes are a major fraction of emissions and have been extensively studied, substantially less is known about the atmospheric impacts of higher-molecular-weight terpenes such as sesquiterpenes. In particular, sesquiterpenes have been proposed to play a significant role in ozone chemical loss due to the very high ozone reaction rates of certain isomers. However, relatively little data are available on the isomer-resolved composition of this compound class or its role in ozone chemistry. This study examines the chemical diversity of sesquiterpenes and availability of ozone reaction rate constants to evaluate the current understanding of their ozone reactivity. Sesquiterpenes are found to be highly diverse, with 72 different isomers reported and relatively few isomers that contribute a large mass fraction across all studies. For the small number of isomers with known ozone reaction rates, estimated rates may be 25 times higher or lower than measurements, indicating that estimated reaction rates are highly uncertain. Isomers with known ozone reaction rates make up approximately half of the mass of sesquiterpenes in concentration and emission measurements. Consequently, the current state of the knowledge suggests that the total ozone reactivity of sesquiterpenes cannot be quantified without very high uncertainty, even if isomer-resolved composition is known. These results are in contrast to monoterpenes, which are less diverse and for which ozone reaction rates are well-known, and in contrast to hydroxyl reactivity of monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes, for which reaction rates can be reasonably well estimated. Improved measurements of a relatively small number of sesquiterpene isomers would reduce uncertainties and improve our understanding of their role in regional and global ozone chemistry.


Assuntos
Atmosfera , Ozônio , Sesquiterpenos , Ozônio/química , Sesquiterpenos/química , Atmosfera/química , Poluentes Atmosféricos/química , Isomerismo
19.
Front Public Health ; 12: 1333222, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38584916

RESUMO

Purpose: Exposure to radiation is a health concern within and beyond the Earth's atmosphere for aircrew and astronauts in their respective austere environments. The biological effects of radiation exposure from a multiomics standpoint are relatively unexplored and stand to shed light on tailored monitoring and treatment for those in these career fields. To establish a reference variable for genetic damage, biological age seems to be closely associated with the effect of radiation. Following a genetic-based study, this study explores the epigenetic landscape of radiation exposure along with its associative effects on aging processes. Methods: We imported the results of the genetics-based study that was a secondary analysis of five publicly available datasets (noted as Data1). The overlap of these genes with new data involving methylation data from two datasets (noted as Data2) following similar secondary analysis procedures is the basis of this study. We performed the standard statistical analysis on these datasets along with supervised and unsupervised learning to create preranked gene lists used for functional analysis in Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA). Results: There were 664 genes of interest from Data1 and 577 genes from Data2. There were 40 statistically significant methylation probes within 500 base pairs of the gene's transcription start site and 10 probes within 100 base pairs, which are discussed in depth. IPA yielded 21 significant pathways involving metabolism, cellular development, cell death, and diseases. Compared to gold standards for gestational age, we observed relatively low error and standard deviation using newly identified biomarkers. Conclusion: We have identified 17 methylated genes that exhibited particular interest and potential in future studies. This study suggests that there are common trends in oxidative stress, cell development, and metabolism that indicate an association between aging processes and the effects of ionizing radiation exposure.


Assuntos
Astronautas , Exposição à Radiação , Humanos , Atmosfera , Exposição à Radiação/efeitos adversos , Estresse Oxidativo , Envelhecimento/genética
20.
Chem Rev ; 124(9): 5764-5794, 2024 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38652704

RESUMO

Atmospheric chemists have historically treated leaves as inert surfaces that merely emit volatile hydrocarbons. However, a growing body of evidence suggests that leaves are ubiquitous substrates for multiphase reactions-implying the presence of chemicals on their surfaces. This Review provides an overview of the chemistry and reactivity of the leaf surface's "chemical landscape", the dynamic ensemble of compounds covering plant leaves. We classified chemicals as endogenous (originating from the plant and its biome) or exogenous (delivered from the environment), highlighting the biological, geographical, and meteorological factors driving their contributions. Based on available data, we predicted ≫2 µg cm-2 of organics on a typical leaf, leading to a global estimate of ≫3 Tg for multiphase reactions. Our work also highlighted three major knowledge gaps: (i) the overlooked role of ambient water in enabling the leaching of endogenous substances and mediating aqueous chemistry; (ii) the importance of phyllosphere biofilms in shaping leaf surface chemistry and reactivity; (iii) the paucity of studies on the multiphase reactivity of atmospheric oxidants with leaf-adsorbed chemicals. Although biased toward available data, we hope this Review will spark a renewed interest in the leaf surface's chemical landscape and encourage multidisciplinary collaborations to move the field forward.


Assuntos
Atmosfera , Folhas de Planta , Propriedades de Superfície , Folhas de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Atmosfera/química
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