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1.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 10589, 2024 05 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38719926

RESUMO

Maturity Onset Diabetes of the Young (MODY) is a young-onset, monogenic form of diabetes without needing insulin treatment. Diagnostic testing is expensive. To aid decisions on who to test, we aimed to develop a MODY probability calculator for paediatric cases at the time of diabetes diagnosis, when the existing "MODY calculator" cannot be used. Firth logistic regression models were developed on data from 3541 paediatric patients from the Swedish 'Better Diabetes Diagnosis' (BDD) population study (n = 46 (1.3%) MODY (HNF1A, HNF4A, GCK)). Model performance was compared to using islet autoantibody testing. HbA1c, parent with diabetes, and absence of polyuria were significant independent predictors of MODY. The model showed excellent discrimination (c-statistic = 0.963) and calibrated well (Brier score = 0.01). MODY probability > 1.3% (ie. above background prevalence) had similar performance to being negative for all 3 antibodies (positive predictive value (PPV) = 10% v 11% respectively i.e. ~ 1 in 10 positive test rate). Probability > 1.3% and negative for 3 islet autoantibodies narrowed down to 4% of the cohort, and detected 96% of MODY cases (PPV = 31%). This MODY calculator for paediatric patients at time of diabetes diagnosis will help target genetic testing to those most likely to benefit, to get the right diagnosis.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Humanos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Criança , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Fator 4 Nuclear de Hepatócito/genética , Fator 1-alfa Nuclear de Hepatócito/genética , Pré-Escolar , Autoanticorpos/sangue , Autoanticorpos/imunologia , Hemoglobinas Glicadas/análise , Quinases do Centro Germinativo/genética , Suécia , Glucoquinase/genética
2.
Front Immunol ; 15: 1345953, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38726012

RESUMO

Background: According to the latest guidelines on chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP), patients with CIDP with anti-neurofascin 155 (NF155) antibodies are referred to as autoimmune nodopathy (AN), an autoimmune disorder distinct from CIDP. We aimed to compare the clinical data of patients with AN with anti-NF155 antibodies with those of anti-NF155 antibodies-negative patients with CIDP, and to summarize the clinical characteristics of patients with AN with anti-NF155 antibodies. Methods: Nine patients with AN with anti-NF155 antibodies and 28 serologically negative patients with CIDP were included in this study. Diagnosis was made according to the diagnostic criteria in the European Academy of Neurology (EAN)/Peripheral Nerve Society (PNS) guidelines on CIDP published in 2021. Demographics, clinical manifestations, electrophysiological examination, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) tests, and response to treatment were retrospectively analyzed. Results: Compared with serologically negative patients with CIDP, those patients with AN with anti-NF155 antibodies were younger (p=0.007), had a younger onset age (p=0.009), more frequent ataxia (p=0.019), higher CSF protein levels (p=0.001), and more frequent axon damage in electrophysiology (p=0.025). The main characteristics of patients with AN with anti-NF155 antibodies include younger age and onset age, limb weakness, sensory disturbance, ataxia, multiple motor-sensory peripheral neuropathies with demyelination and axonal damage on electrophysiological examination, markedly elevated CSF protein levels, and varying degrees of response to immunotherapy. Conclusions: Patients with AN with anti-NF155 antibodies differed from serologically negative patients with CIDP in terms of clinical characteristics. When AN is suspected, testing for antibodies associated with the nodes of Ranvier is essential for early diagnosis and to guide treatment.


Assuntos
Autoanticorpos , Moléculas de Adesão Celular , Fatores de Crescimento Neural , Polirradiculoneuropatia Desmielinizante Inflamatória Crônica , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , Moléculas de Adesão Celular/imunologia , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Autoanticorpos/imunologia , Autoanticorpos/sangue , Fatores de Crescimento Neural/imunologia , Polirradiculoneuropatia Desmielinizante Inflamatória Crônica/imunologia , Polirradiculoneuropatia Desmielinizante Inflamatória Crônica/diagnóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Idoso , Adulto Jovem
3.
BMJ Case Rep ; 17(5)2024 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38724215

RESUMO

Autoimmune encephalitis due to glial fibrillar acidic protein (GFAP) astrocytopathy is a rare cause of subacute neuropsychiatric changes. In this case, a young patient presented with a viral prodrome and meningismus, followed by progressive encephalopathy and movement disorders over the span of 2 weeks. Due to his clinical trajectory, inflammatory cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis, initial normal brain imaging and negative serum autoimmune encephalopathy panel, his initial diagnosis was presumed viral meningoencephalitis. The recurrence and progression of neuropsychiatric symptoms and myoclonus despite antiviral treatment prompted further investigation, inclusive of testing for CSF autoimmune encephalopathy autoantibodies, yielding a clinically meaningful, positive GFAP autoantibody. This case highlights the importance of appropriately testing both serum and CSF autoantibodies when an autoimmune encephalitic process is considered. Through this case, we review the clinical and radiographic manifestations of GFAP astrocytopathy, alongside notable pearls pertaining to this autoantibody syndrome and its management.


Assuntos
Autoanticorpos , Encefalite , Proteína Glial Fibrilar Ácida , Humanos , Masculino , Proteína Glial Fibrilar Ácida/sangue , Proteína Glial Fibrilar Ácida/imunologia , Proteína Glial Fibrilar Ácida/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Encefalite/diagnóstico , Encefalite/imunologia , Autoanticorpos/sangue , Autoanticorpos/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Astrócitos/patologia , Astrócitos/imunologia , Doenças Autoimunes do Sistema Nervoso/diagnóstico , Doenças Autoimunes do Sistema Nervoso/imunologia , Doença de Hashimoto/diagnóstico , Doença de Hashimoto/sangue , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Adulto , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética
4.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 103(19): e38148, 2024 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38728479

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Paraneoplastic neurological syndrome with anti-Hu antibody (Hu-PNS) is a neurological disorder that occur in patients with malignancy. The syndrome has a wide range of presentations and can present before diagnosis of primary malignancy. Familiarity with these paraneoplastic neurological syndromes can help early recognition and take appropriate regimens. PATIENTS CONCERNS: Diagnosis and treatment of Hu-PNS. DIAGNOSES: This is retrospective study that analyzed the clinical data of this case. Through retrospective analysis and targeted antibody screening, serum anti-Hu antibody was detected. Subsequent spinal imaging revealed a mass in the paraspinal region, which was confirmed as ganglioneuroblastoma by pathologic examination. INTERVENTIONS: The child was treated with a course of intravenous immunoglobulin and radical surgical operation without chemotherapy. OUTCOMES: The neurological symptoms were gradually improved and no signs indicate disease progression or tumor recurrence. LESSONS: Hu-PNS has rarely been reported in children with ganglioneuroblastomas. They can mimic non-neoplastic processes, making detection and diagnosis difficult. Serum and/or cerebrospinal fluid onconeural antibody can strongly indicate occult cancers. Early detection of paraneoplastic neurological syndromes can help take appropriate regimens and improve prognosis.


Assuntos
Ganglioneuroblastoma , Síndromes Paraneoplásicas do Sistema Nervoso , Humanos , Ganglioneuroblastoma/imunologia , Ganglioneuroblastoma/complicações , Síndromes Paraneoplásicas do Sistema Nervoso/imunologia , Síndromes Paraneoplásicas do Sistema Nervoso/diagnóstico , Masculino , Proteínas ELAV/imunologia , Autoanticorpos/sangue , Autoanticorpos/imunologia , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Retrospectivos
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(9)2024 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38731922

RESUMO

Autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD) is the most common organic specific illness of the thyroid gland. It may manifest as the overproduction or the decline of thyroxine and triiodothyronine. Hyperthyroidism develops due to the overproduction of hormones as an answer to the presence of stimulatory antibodies against the TSH receptor. Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) is generally characterized by the presence of thyroid peroxidase and thyroglobulin antibodies, with a concomitant infiltration of lymphocytes in the thyroid. Due to the progressive destruction of cells, AITD can lead to subclinical or overt hypothyroidism. Pathophysiology of AITD is extremely complicated and still not fully understood, with genetic, environmental and epigenetic factors involved in its development. Due to increasing incidence and social awareness of this pathology, there is an urgent need to expand the background concerning AITD. A growing body of evidence suggests possible ways of treatment apart from traditional approaches. Simultaneously, the role of potential new biomarkers in the diagnosis and monitoring of AITD has been highlighted recently, too. Therefore, we decided to review therapeutic trends in the course of AITD based on its pathophysiological mechanisms, mainly focusing on HT. Another aim was to summarize the state of knowledge regarding the role of new biomarkers in this condition.


Assuntos
Autoimunidade , Biomarcadores , Doença de Hashimoto , Glândula Tireoide , Humanos , Doença de Hashimoto/imunologia , Doença de Hashimoto/terapia , Doença de Hashimoto/metabolismo , Doença de Hashimoto/diagnóstico , Glândula Tireoide/metabolismo , Glândula Tireoide/patologia , Autoanticorpos/imunologia , Animais
8.
Braz J Med Biol Res ; 57: e13466, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38716984

RESUMO

Anti-glomerular basement membrane (GBM) disease is a rare and severe vasculitis that affects the glomerular and pulmonary capillaries and has an incidence of less than 2 cases per million individuals per year. Anti-GBM disease is mediated by autoantibodies against the α3 chain of type IV collagen. In the majority of cases, the autoantibodies are of the immunoglobulin G (IgG) class, with rare cases being mediated by immunoglobulin M (IgM) or immunoglobulin A (IgA); there are less than 15 IgA-mediated cases reported in the literature worldwide. The classic form of this disease manifests with rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis (RPGN), with or without pulmonary hemorrhage, and the diagnosis consists of identifying high titers of autoantibodies in the serum and/or deposited in the tissues. IgA antibodies are not identified in routine immunoassay tests, and renal biopsy with immunofluorescence is essential for diagnosis. We present a case of RPGN due to anti-GBM disease with linear IgA deposition, whose diagnosis was made exclusively by renal biopsy and with an unfavorable prognosis.


Assuntos
Doença Antimembrana Basal Glomerular , Autoanticorpos , Glomerulonefrite , Imunoglobulina A , Humanos , Doença Antimembrana Basal Glomerular/imunologia , Doença Antimembrana Basal Glomerular/complicações , Doença Antimembrana Basal Glomerular/diagnóstico , Imunoglobulina A/sangue , Imunoglobulina A/imunologia , Autoanticorpos/sangue , Autoanticorpos/imunologia , Glomerulonefrite/imunologia , Glomerulonefrite/patologia , Glomerulonefrite/diagnóstico , Biópsia , Masculino , Feminino
9.
BMJ Case Rep ; 17(5)2024 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38719261

RESUMO

Olmesartan is an angiotensin II receptor blocker licensed for the treatment of hypertension. It can cause a sprue-like enteropathy (SLE), characterised by chronic diarrhoea, weight loss and villous atrophy. Transiently raised anti-tissue transglutaminase (ATTG) antibody has also been rarely reported in the literature.We describe the case of a woman in her mid-50s, who presented with a history of intermittent loose stools over 1 year, associated with significant weight loss. She had two marginally raised serum ATTG antibody tests during her work-up.After extensive investigations, she was diagnosed with olmesartan-induced enteropathy. On subsequent follow-up, her symptoms had resolved with cessation of her olmesartan therapy.This case adds to existing literature, highlighting the importance of considering olmesartan as a possible differential diagnosis for SLE. It also reports the presence of a raised ATTG antibody which is infrequently reported in this context.


Assuntos
Diarreia , Imidazóis , Tetrazóis , Transglutaminases , Redução de Peso , Humanos , Feminino , Imidazóis/efeitos adversos , Diarreia/induzido quimicamente , Tetrazóis/efeitos adversos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transglutaminases/imunologia , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Bloqueadores do Receptor Tipo 1 de Angiotensina II/efeitos adversos , Autoanticorpos/sangue , Proteína 2 Glutamina gama-Glutamiltransferase , Doença Crônica , Doença Celíaca/diagnóstico , Proteínas de Ligação ao GTP/imunologia , Proteínas de Ligação ao GTP/antagonistas & inibidores
10.
Nat Immunol ; 25(5): 743-754, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38698239

RESUMO

Human autoimmunity against elements conferring protective immunity can be symbolized by the 'ouroboros', a snake eating its own tail. Underlying infection is autoimmunity against three immunological targets: neutrophils, complement and cytokines. Autoantibodies against neutrophils can cause peripheral neutropenia underlying mild pyogenic bacterial infections. The pathogenic contribution of autoantibodies against molecules of the complement system is often unclear, but autoantibodies specific for C3 convertase can enhance its activity, lowering complement levels and underlying severe bacterial infections. Autoantibodies neutralizing granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor impair alveolar macrophages, thereby underlying pulmonary proteinosis and airborne infections, type I interferon viral diseases, type II interferon intra-macrophagic infections, interleukin-6 pyogenic bacterial diseases and interleukin-17A/F mucocutaneous candidiasis. Each of these five cytokine autoantibodies underlies a specific range of infectious diseases, phenocopying infections that occur in patients with the corresponding inborn errors. In this Review, we analyze this ouroboros of immunity against immunity and posit that it should be considered as a factor in patients with unexplained infection.


Assuntos
Autoanticorpos , Autoimunidade , Humanos , Autoanticorpos/imunologia , Animais , Citocinas/metabolismo , Citocinas/imunologia , Neutrófilos/imunologia , Proteínas do Sistema Complemento/imunologia , Doenças Autoimunes/imunologia
11.
Brain Behav ; 14(5): e3514, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38698593

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There have been multiple reports about the occurrence of dysphagia after the contraction of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, a detailed pathology and epidemiologic relation between COVID-19 infection and dysphagia have yet to be established. Here, we report three cases of unexplained dysphagia after COVID-19 diagnosis, with atypical clinical presentations. CASE REPORT: All patients showed severe isolated lower cranial nerve involvement with dysphagia and aspiration, which required full tube feeding but showed no evidence of limb weakness or sensory symptoms. All tested positive for anti-ganglioside antibody tests, which all commonly (GD1b, GM1, and GQ1b) are known to have terminal NeuNAc(α2-3)Gal epitope. DISCUSSION: We report a series of cases featuring severe, isolated dysphagia post-COVID-19 infection, concomitant with positive anti-ganglioside antibodies. One potential etiology is a variant of Guillain-Barré syndrome. Because only isolated dysphagia with sparing of the facial and extraocular muscles was evident in these cases, we explore the association between anti-ganglioside antibodies specific to NeuNAc(α2-3)Gal, which has been frequently associated with the development of bulbar dysfunction. Given that NeuNAc(α2-3)Gal exhibits an affinity for the spike glycoprotein of SARS-CoV-2, a cross-reaction against NeuNAc(α2-3)Gal may possibly contribute to isolated dysphagia following COVID-19 infection.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Transtornos de Deglutição , Gangliosídeos , Humanos , COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/imunologia , Transtornos de Deglutição/etiologia , Masculino , Gangliosídeos/imunologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Feminino , Idoso , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Autoanticorpos/sangue , Síndrome de Guillain-Barré/imunologia
12.
BMC Immunol ; 25(1): 30, 2024 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38734636

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Immune-mediated necrotizing myopathy (IMNM) is an idiopathic inflammatory myopathy (IIM). Though patients with IMNM were not considered to show skin rash, several reports have showed atypical skin conditions in patients with anti-3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase (HMGCR) antibody-positive IMNM (HMGCR-IMNM). The incidence and phenotype of skin conditions in patients with HMGCR-IMNM are not fully known. RESULTS: Among the 100 IIM patients diagnosed from April 2015 through August 2022, 34 (34%) presented some form of skin condition, with 27 having typical skin rashes; this included 13 patients with dermatomyositis (DM), 8 with anti-synthetase syndrome (ASS), and 6 with IMNM. Meanwhile, 8 of 19 patients with HMGCR-IMNM (42%) presented atypical skin lesions, but no patients with other IIMs did (p < 0.001). Skin eruption with ash-like scales was observed in four HMGCR-IMNM patients, and non-scaly red patches and lumps in the other four patients; accordingly, their skin manifestations were considered as other dermal diseases except for IIM. However, skin and muscle biopsies revealed the atypical skin conditions of patients with HMGCR-IMNM to have the same pathological background, formed by Bcl-2-positive lymphocyte infiltrations. CONCLUSIONS: HMGCR-IMNM patients frequently have atypical skin conditions of the neck and back. Skin biopsy specimens from these lesions showed the same Bcl-2-positive lymphocytic infiltrations as muscle biopsy specimens regardless of the different gross dermal findings. Thus, such atypical skin conditions may be suggestive for HMGCR-IMNM.


Assuntos
Autoanticorpos , Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases , Miosite , Pele , Humanos , Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/imunologia , Feminino , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Autoanticorpos/imunologia , Autoanticorpos/sangue , Adulto , Pele/patologia , Pele/imunologia , Miosite/imunologia , Miosite/diagnóstico , Idoso , Dermatopatias/imunologia , Dermatopatias/etiologia , Doenças Musculares/imunologia , Doenças Musculares/diagnóstico , Biópsia
13.
Front Immunol ; 15: 1350837, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38745654

RESUMO

Introduction: Anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis is an autoimmune disorder caused by autoantibodies (abs) against the conformational epitope on GluN1 subunits. GluN1-abs have been determined with cell-based assay (CBA) co-expressing GluN1/GluN2 subunits. However, commercial fixed CBA expressing only GluN1 subunit has increasingly been used in clinical practice. The ab titers can be determined with serial dilutions, but its clinical significance remains unclear. We aimed to develop an H-intensity scale (HIS) score to estimate GluN1-ab titers in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) with one-time immunostaining using both commercial CBA and immunohistochemistry and report its usefulness. "H" is the initial of a patient with high CSF GluN1-ab titers (1:2,048). Methods: We first determined the reliability of CBA in 370 patients with suspected autoimmune encephalitis by comparing the results between commercial CBA and established assay in Dalmau's Lab. Then, we made positive control panels using the patient H's CSF diluted in a fourfold serial dilution method (1:2, 1:8, 1:32, 1:128, 1:512, and 1:2,048). Based on the panels, we scored the intensity of ab reactivity of 79 GluN1-ab-positive patients' CSF (diluted at 1:2) on a scale from 0 to 6 (with ≥1 considered positive). To assess inter-assay reliability, we performed immunostaining twice in 21 patients' CSF. We investigated an association between the score of CSF obtained at diagnosis and the clinical/paraclinical features. Results: The sensitivity and specificity of CBA were 93.7% (95% CI: 86.0-97.3) and 98.6% (95% CI: 96.5-99.5), respectively. Linear regression analysis showed a good agreement between the scores of the first and second assays. Patients with a typical spectrum, need for mechanical ventilation support, autonomic symptoms/central hypoventilation, dyskinesias, speech dysfunction, decreased level of consciousness, preceding headache, ovarian teratoma, and CSF leukocyte count >20 cells/µL had a higher median HIS score than those without, but HIS score was not associated with sex, age at onset, or seizure. HIS score at diagnosis had a significant effect on 1-year functional status. Discussion: The severity of disease and four of the six core symptoms were associated with higher GluN1-ab titers in CSF at diagnosis, which may play a role in poor 1-year functional status. An incomplete phenotype can be attributed to low CSF GluN1-ab titers.


Assuntos
Encefalite Antirreceptor de N-Metil-D-Aspartato , Autoanticorpos , Receptores de N-Metil-D-Aspartato , Humanos , Feminino , Autoanticorpos/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Autoanticorpos/imunologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto , Masculino , Receptores de N-Metil-D-Aspartato/imunologia , Idoso , Encefalite Antirreceptor de N-Metil-D-Aspartato/diagnóstico , Encefalite Antirreceptor de N-Metil-D-Aspartato/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Encefalite Antirreceptor de N-Metil-D-Aspartato/imunologia , Adulto Jovem , Adolescente , Criança , Imuno-Histoquímica , Pré-Escolar , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/imunologia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Biomarcadores/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais
14.
Clin Lab ; 70(5)2024 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38747930

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study is to analyze the distribution of myositis-specific autoantibodies (MSAs) and myositis-associated autoantibodies (MAAs) in patients with idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIMs) in southwest China and to explore the relevance between each subtype, each clinical feature, and to explore the relevance between the laboratory indexes. METHODS: For this study, 200 patients with IIMs were tested for myositis autoantibodies. Clinical manifestations and laboratory metrics were collected and the correlations between autoantibodies and clinical phenotypes were analyzed. RESULTS: MSAs were found in 73.5% of the patients. The most frequently MSAs were anti-MDA5 (26.8%), followed by anti-ARS (18.5%). Anti-Ro52 was the most prevalent in MAAs (46.2%). Interstitial lung disease (ILD) and arthralgia were more frequent in anti-MDA5 and anti-Jo-1 positive groups (each p < 0.05). Anti-TIF1-γ and anti-NXP2 were associated with dysphagia (each p < 0.05). Different antibody subtypes were associated with laboratory indicators of response to muscle damage and immune status. Logistic regression showed that anti-MDA5 and anti-Jo-1 were independent risk factors for ILD (OR = 4.542, p = 0.004; OR = 4.290, p = 0.018, respectively) and arthralgia (OR = 7.856, p = 0.000; OR = 5.731, p = 0.004, respectively), whereas anti-TIF1-γ and anti-NXP2 were independent risk factors for dysphagia (OR = 4.521, p = 0.009; OR = 6.889, p = 0.017, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Different antibody subtypes were associated with specific clinical features. Anti-MDA5 and anti-Jo-1 were independent risk factors for ILD and arthralgia. Anti-TIF1-γ and anti-NXP2 were independent risk factors for dysphagia.


Assuntos
Autoanticorpos , Miosite , Humanos , Autoanticorpos/sangue , Autoanticorpos/imunologia , Miosite/imunologia , Miosite/sangue , Miosite/epidemiologia , Miosite/diagnóstico , Feminino , Masculino , China/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto , Helicase IFIH1 Induzida por Interferon/imunologia , Idoso , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/imunologia , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/diagnóstico , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/epidemiologia , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/sangue , Relevância Clínica
15.
BMC Nephrol ; 25(1): 164, 2024 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38745129

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Atypical haemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS) is an uncommon form of thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA). However, it remains difficult to diagnose the disease early, given its non-specific and overlapping presentation to other conditions such as thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura and typical HUS. It is also important to identify the underlying causes and to distinguish between primary (due to a genetic abnormality leading to a dysregulated alternative complement pathway) and secondary (often attributed by severe infection or inflammation) forms of the disease, as there is now effective treatment such as monoclonal antibodies against C5 for primary aHUS. However, primary aHUS with severe inflammation are often mistaken as a secondary HUS. We presented an unusual case of adult-onset Still's disease (AOSD) with macrophage activation syndrome (MAS), which is in fact associated with anti-complement factor H (anti-CFH) antibodies related aHUS. Although the aHUS may be triggered by the severe inflammation from the AOSD, the presence of anti-CFH antibodies suggests an underlying genetic defect in the alternative complement pathway, predisposing to primary aHUS. One should note that anti-CFH antibodies associated aHUS may not always associate with genetic predisposition to complement dysregulation and can be an autoimmune form of aHUS, highlighting the importance of genetic testing. CASE PRESENTATION: A 42 years old man was admitted with suspected adult-onset Still's disease. Intravenous methylprednisolone was started but patient was complicated with acute encephalopathy and low platelet. ADAMTS13 test returned to be normal and concurrent aHUS was eventually suspected, 26 days after the initial thrombocytopenia was presented. Plasma exchange was started and patient eventually had 2 doses of eculizumab after funding was approved. Concurrent tocilizumab was also used to treat the adult-onset Still's disease with MAS. The patient was eventually stabilised and long-term tocilizumab maintenance treatment was planned instead of eculizumab following haematology review. Although the aHUS may be a secondary event to MAS according to haematology opinion and the genetic test came back negative for the five major aHUS gene, high titre of anti-CFH antibodies was detected (1242 AU/ml). CONCLUSION: Our case highlighted the importance of prompt anti-CFH antibodies test and genetic testing for aHUS in patients with severe AOSD and features of TMA. Our case also emphasized testing for structural variants within the CFH and CFH-related proteins gene region, as part of the routine genetic analysis in patients with anti-CFH antibodies associated aHUS to improve diagnostic approaches.


Assuntos
Síndrome Hemolítico-Urêmica Atípica , Fator H do Complemento , Doença de Still de Início Tardio , Humanos , Doença de Still de Início Tardio/complicações , Doença de Still de Início Tardio/diagnóstico , Doença de Still de Início Tardio/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome Hemolítico-Urêmica Atípica/complicações , Síndrome Hemolítico-Urêmica Atípica/imunologia , Fator H do Complemento/imunologia , Adulto , Masculino , Autoanticorpos/sangue , Síndrome de Ativação Macrofágica/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Ativação Macrofágica/complicações , Síndrome de Ativação Macrofágica/imunologia
16.
Neurol Neuroimmunol Neuroinflamm ; 11(4): e200254, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38728609

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We report on the therapeutic management of early-onset severe neurologic symptoms in cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4 haploinsufficiency (CTLA-4h) and the presence of antibodies to the α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor (AMPAR) as an important finding. METHODS: This is a case report from a Dutch academic hospital. Repeated clinical examinations, repeated brain MRI and extended diagnostics on serum and CSF were performed. We used the CARE checklist. RESULTS: A 7-year-old boy was diagnosed with CTLA-4h based on family screening. On diagnosis, he had mild chronic diarrhea and autism spectrum disorder, but no abnormalities in extensive laboratory screening. Six months later, he presented with sudden-onset autoimmune encephalitis. Repeated brain MRI revealed no abnormalities, but immunohistochemistry analysis on serum and CSF showed the presence of AMPAR antibodies. Treatment was initially focused on immunomodulation and targeted CTLA-4 replacement therapy. Because of the persistent fluctuating cerebellar and neuropsychiatric symptoms and the potential clinical significance of the AMPAR antibodies, treatment was intensified with repetition of first-line immunomodulation and rituximab. This combined therapy resulted in sustained clinical improvement and served as a bridge to curative hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. DISCUSSION: This case illustrates the rare early onset of autoimmune encephalitis and presence of AMPAR antibodies in CTLA-4h. Targeted CTLA-4 replacement therapy resulted in a partial response. However, awaiting its optimal therapeutic effect, refractory CNS symptoms required intensification of immunomodulation. The identification of AMPAR antibodies guided our treatment decisions. CLASSIFICATION OF EVIDENCE: This provides Class IV evidence. It is a single observational study without controls.


Assuntos
Autoanticorpos , Antígeno CTLA-4 , Encefalite , Haploinsuficiência , Doença de Hashimoto , Receptores de AMPA , Humanos , Masculino , Criança , Encefalite/diagnóstico , Encefalite/tratamento farmacológico , Encefalite/imunologia , Doença de Hashimoto/diagnóstico , Doença de Hashimoto/tratamento farmacológico , Autoanticorpos/sangue , Autoanticorpos/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Receptores de AMPA/imunologia , Rituximab/administração & dosagem , Rituximab/uso terapêutico , Fatores Imunológicos
17.
Stem Cell Res Ther ; 15(1): 138, 2024 May 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38735991

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Clinical trials have provided evidence that transplants of dopaminergic precursors, which may be replaced by new in vitro stem cell sources, can integrate into the host tissue, and alleviate motor symptoms in Parkinson´s disease (PD). In some patients, deterioration of graft function occurred several months after observing a graft-derived functional improvement. Rejection of peripheral organs was initially related to HLA-specific antibodies. However, the role of non-HLA antibodies is now considered also relevant for rejection. Angiotensin-II type-1 receptor autoantibodies (AT1-AA) act as agonists of the AT1 receptors. AT1-AA are the non-HLA antibodies most widely associated with graft dysfunction or rejection after transplantation of different solid organs and hematopoietic stem cells. However, it is not known about the presence and possible functional effects of AT1-AA in dopaminergic grafts, and the effects of treatment with AT1 receptor blockers (ARBs) such as candesartan on graft survival. METHODS: In a 6-hydroxydopamine PD rat model, we studied the short-term (10 days)- and long-term (3 months) effects of chronic treatment with the ARB candesartan on survival of grafted dopaminergic neurons and microglial graft infiltration, as well as the effects of dopaminergic denervation and grafting on serum and CSF AT1-AA levels. The expression of AT1 receptors in grafted neurons was determined by laser capture microdissection. RESULTS: At the early period post-grafting, the number of grafted dopaminergic neurons that survived was not significantly different between treated and untreated hosts (i.e., control rats and rats treated with candesartan), probably because, just after grafting, other deleterious factors are predominant for dopaminergic cell death, such as mechanical trauma, lack of growth factors/nutrients and ischemia. However, several months post-grafting, we observed a significantly higher number of surviving dopaminergic neurons and a higher density of striatal dopaminergic terminals in the candesartan-treated group. For several months, grafted rats showed blood and cerebrospinal fluid levels of AT1-AA higher than normal controls, and also higher AT1-AA levels than non-grafted parkinsonian rats. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest the use of ARBs such as candesartan in PD patients, particularly before and after dopaminergic grafts, and the need to monitor AT1-AA levels in PD patients, particularly in those candidates for dopaminergic grafting.


Assuntos
Autoanticorpos , Neurônios Dopaminérgicos , Doença de Parkinson , Receptor Tipo 1 de Angiotensina , Animais , Autoanticorpos/imunologia , Receptor Tipo 1 de Angiotensina/metabolismo , Receptor Tipo 1 de Angiotensina/imunologia , Ratos , Neurônios Dopaminérgicos/metabolismo , Doença de Parkinson/terapia , Doença de Parkinson/patologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Benzimidazóis/farmacologia , Benzimidazóis/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Compostos de Bifenilo/farmacologia , Compostos de Bifenilo/uso terapêutico , Tetrazóis/farmacologia , Tetrazóis/uso terapêutico , Bloqueadores do Receptor Tipo 1 de Angiotensina II/farmacologia , Bloqueadores do Receptor Tipo 1 de Angiotensina II/uso terapêutico , Oxidopamina/farmacologia , Humanos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
18.
Life Sci Alliance ; 7(7)2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38740432

RESUMO

Subclinical vascular impairment can be exacerbated in individuals who experience sustained inflammation after COVID-19 infection. Our study explores the prevalence and impact of autoantibodies on vascular dysfunction in healthy COVID-19 survivors, an area that remains inadequately investigated. Focusing on autoantibodies against the atypical chemokine receptor 1 (ACKR1), COVID-19 survivors demonstrated significantly elevated anti-ACKR1 autoantibodies, correlating with systemic cytokines, circulating damaged endothelial cells, and endothelial dysfunction. An independent cohort linked these autoantibodies to increased vascular disease outcomes during a median 6.7-yr follow-up. We analyzed a single-cell transcriptome atlas of endothelial cells from diverse mouse tissues, identifying enriched Ackr1 expressions in venous regions of the brain and soleus muscle vasculatures, which holds intriguing implications for tissue-specific venous thromboembolism manifestations reported in COVID-19. Functionally, purified immunoglobulin G (IgG) extracted from patient plasma did not trigger cell apoptosis or increase barrier permeability in human vein endothelial cells. Instead, plasma IgG enhanced antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity mediated by patient PBMCs, a phenomenon alleviated by blocking peptide or liposome ACKR1 recombinant protein. The blocking peptide uncovered that purified IgG from COVID-19 survivors possessed potential epitopes in the N-terminal extracellular domain of ACKR1, which effectively averted antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity. Our findings offer insights into therapeutic development to mitigate autoantibody reactivity in blood vessels in chronic inflammation.


Assuntos
Autoanticorpos , COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humanos , Autoanticorpos/imunologia , COVID-19/imunologia , Animais , Camundongos , Feminino , Masculino , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Inflamação/imunologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Endotélio Vascular/imunologia , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Células Endoteliais/imunologia , Adulto , Idoso
19.
Front Immunol ; 15: 1325171, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38715598

RESUMO

Introduction: Muscle-specific kinase (MuSK)- myasthenia gravis (MG) is caused by pathogenic autoantibodies against MuSK that correlate with disease severity and are predominantly of the IgG4 subclass. The first-line treatment for MuSK-MG is general immunosuppression with corticosteroids, but the effect of treatment on IgG4 and MuSK IgG4 levels has not been studied. Methods: We analyzed the clinical data and sera from 52 MuSK-MG patients (45 female, 7 male, median age 49 (range 17-79) years) from Italy, the Netherlands, Greece and Belgium, and 43 AChR-MG patients (22 female, 21 male, median age 63 (range 2-82) years) from Italy, receiving different types of immunosuppression, and sera from 46 age- and sex-matched non-disease controls (with no diagnosed diseases, 38 female, 8 male, median age 51.5 (range 20-68) years) from the Netherlands. We analyzed the disease severity (assessed by MGFA or QMG score), and measured concentrations of MuSK IgG4, MuSK IgG, total IgG4 and total IgG in the sera by ELISA, RIA and nephelometry. Results: We observed that MuSK-MG patients showed a robust clinical improvement and reduction of MuSK IgG after therapy, and that MuSK IgG4 concentrations, but not total IgG4 concentrations, correlated with clinical severity. MuSK IgG and MuSK IgG4 concentrations were reduced after immunosuppression in 4/5 individuals with before-after data, but data from non-linked patient samples showed no difference. Total serum IgG4 levels were within the normal range, with IgG4 levels above threshold (1.35g/L) in 1/52 MuSK-MG, 2/43 AChR-MG patients and 1/45 non-disease controls. MuSK-MG patients improved within the first four years after disease onset, but no further clinical improvement or reduction of MuSK IgG4 were observed four years later, and only 14/52 (26.92%) patients in total, of which 13 (93.3%) received general immunosuppression, reached clinical remission. Discussion: We conclude that MuSK-MG patients improve clinically with general immunosuppression but may require further treatment to reach remission. Longitudinal testing of individual patients may be clinically more useful than single measurements of MuSK IgG4. No significant differences in the serum IgG4 concentrations and IgG4/IgG ratio between AChR- and MuSK-MG patients were found during follow-up. Further studies with larger patient and control cohorts are necessary to validate the findings.


Assuntos
Autoanticorpos , Imunoglobulina G , Miastenia Gravis , Receptores Proteína Tirosina Quinases , Receptores Colinérgicos , Humanos , Miastenia Gravis/imunologia , Miastenia Gravis/sangue , Miastenia Gravis/diagnóstico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Feminino , Adulto , Idoso , Receptores Proteína Tirosina Quinases/imunologia , Receptores Colinérgicos/imunologia , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem , Adolescente , Autoanticorpos/sangue , Autoanticorpos/imunologia , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Terapia de Imunossupressão , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Criança
20.
N Engl J Med ; 390(18): 1690-1698, 2024 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38718359

RESUMO

In patients with immune thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (iTTP), autoantibodies against the metalloprotease ADAMTS13 lead to catastrophic microvascular thrombosis. However, the potential benefits of recombinant human ADAMTS13 (rADAMTS13) in patients with iTTP remain unknown. Here, we report the clinical use of rADAMTS13, which resulted in the rapid suppression of disease activity and complete recovery in a critically ill patient whose condition had proved to be refractory to all available treatments. We also show that rADAMTS13 causes immune complex formation, which saturates the autoantibody and may promote its clearance. Our data support the role of rADAMTS13 as a novel adjunctive therapy in patients with iTTP.


Assuntos
Proteína ADAMTS13 , Autoanticorpos , Púrpura Trombocitopênica Trombótica , Proteínas Recombinantes , Humanos , Proteína ADAMTS13/imunologia , Proteínas Recombinantes/uso terapêutico , Autoanticorpos/sangue , Púrpura Trombocitopênica Trombótica/tratamento farmacológico , Púrpura Trombocitopênica Trombótica/terapia , Feminino , Complexo Antígeno-Anticorpo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteínas ADAM/imunologia
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