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1.
An. psicol ; 40(2): 265-271, May-Sep, 2024. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-232728

RESUMO

En la educación superior, pocos estudios relacionan factores contextuales en la clase, como el énfasis del profesor en la utilidad del contenido y las características motivacionales de los estudiantes. El objetivo fue probar un modelo multinivel sobre la relación entre el énfasis del docente en la utilidad del contenido durante la clase, la autonomía de los estudiantes y, a su vez, la motivación para aprender. Participaron 3033 estudiantes universitarios matriculados de 1º a 4º grado de Ciencias de la Actividad Física y del Deporte, de universidades de España (N = 602), Portugal (N = 469), México (N = 1177), Chile (N = 372), y Brasil (N = 413). Se realizó un modelo de ecuaciones estructurales multinivel, en el que los participantes respondieron preguntas sobre el énfasis del profesor en la utilidad del contenido de la clase, la autonomía y la motivación para aprender. Se hipotetizó que el énfasis del profesor en la utilidad del contenido predecía la autonomía del estudiante que, por su vez, predecía la motivación para aprender. Los resultados, a nivel grupal e individual, indican que el énfasis del docente en la utilidad del contenido predijo la autonomía del estudiante, y la autonomía predijo la motivación para aprender.(AU)


Teacher autonomy support is related to improved student learn-ing. In higher education, few studies relate classroom contextual factors, such as teacher emphasis on content usefulness, and students' motivational characteristics. The aim was to test a multilevel model about the relation between the extent of teachers’ emphasis on the usefulness of class con-tent with student autonomy, and, in turn, on motivation to learn. The par-ticipants were 3033 university students enrolled from 1st to 4th grade of Sciences of the Physical Activity and Sport, from universities in Spain (N = 602), Portugal (N = 469), Mexico (N = 1177), Chile (N = 372), and Brazil (N = 413). A multilevel structural equation model was performed, in which participants answered questions about the teacher's emphasis on the use-fulness of class content, basic psychological need for autonomy, and moti-vation to learn. At the group and individual levels, the hypothesis is that the teacher's emphasis on the usefulness of class content predict the stu-dent autonomy, in turn, student autonomy predicts student motivation to learn. Results found at the group level and at the individual level the strength of teacher emphasis on class content predicted student autonomy; student autonomy predicted student motivation to learn.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Autonomia Pessoal , Universidades , Ensino , Motivação
2.
Harv Rev Psychiatry ; 32(3): 96-100, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38728569

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Adolescents seeking gender-affirming medical care (GAMC) face numerous barriers that may delay or inhibit their access to these services. Such obstacles include mental health professional (MHP) assessment requirements prior to initiating GAMC. MHP letters ultimately carry little benefit for patients. Their formulaic nature discourages nuance, reduces likelihood of capturing gender embodiment goals (beyond a narrow definition of gender dysphoria), and may cause clinicians to overlook presenting mental health concerns. MHP assessment requirements also reinforce the conception of gender dysphoria as a mental health disorder. Moreover, studies have not shown that requiring MHP assessment letters effectively reduces regret among patients. Fortunately, primary clinicians who provide GAMC are most often capable of assessing patients without additional input from an MHP. In this article, we provide an ethical framework for clinicians that prioritizes patient autonomy through an informed assent approach. We discuss Appelbaum's criteria and its application, and contexts in which MHP consultation is appropriate. We also address common questions about informed assent among clinicians, patients, and families. Finally, we advocate for bolstering multidisciplinary support teams involved in GAMC to facilitate the informed assent process. This approach upholds patient autonomy, expands access to GAMC, and utilizes the mental health workforce more effectively.


Assuntos
Disforia de Gênero , Autonomia Pessoal , Humanos , Adolescente , Disforia de Gênero/terapia , Disforia de Gênero/psicologia , Serviços de Saúde Mental/normas , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoas Transgênero/psicologia , Acessibilidade aos Serviços de Saúde
3.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 103(19): e38068, 2024 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38728517

RESUMO

This study investigated the relationship between self-determination, physical health status, and Health related Quality of Life (=HRQoL) among living kidney donors. A descriptive survey was conducted between 2019 and 2020 and included 111 kidney donors. Data were collected using a self-report questionnaire on general and donation-related characteristics, self-determination, and HRQoL. The data also included medical records reflecting the physical health status at the time of the survey. Data were analyzed using a multiple regression model. Factors associated with HRQoL were perceived health recovery after donation (ß = 0.42, P < .001), up to 1 year since donation (ß = 0.33, P = .008), more than 1 up to 5 years since donation (ß = 0.52, P < .001), more than 5 up to 10 years since donation (ß = 0.53, P < .001), and competence of self-determination (ß = 0.23, P = .033). The explanatory power of these variables was 43.3%. HRQoL of living kidney donors can be affected by subjective and psychological factors. Therefore, health care providers should help living kidney donors have high self-determination during pre and post donation and concentrate on the subjective and psychological factors as well as objective health status.


Assuntos
Nível de Saúde , Transplante de Rim , Doadores Vivos , Qualidade de Vida , Humanos , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Doadores Vivos/psicologia , Doadores Vivos/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Masculino , Feminino , República da Coreia , Adulto , Transplante de Rim/psicologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Autonomia Pessoal , Inquéritos e Questionários , Autorrelato
4.
BMC Med Educ ; 24(1): 532, 2024 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38745245

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although extensive research exists about students' clinical learning, there is a lack of translation and integration of this knowledge into clinical educational practice. As a result, improvements may not be implemented and thus contribute to students' learning. The present study aimed to explore the nature of clinical faculty members' learning related to how they apply research about student autonomy. METHODS: A course, "Designing learning for students' development of autonomy in clinical practice" was conducted for faculty responsible for students' clinical education. Within the frame of the course the participants designed a project and planned how they would implement it in their clinical context. Fourteen clinical faculty members participated in the study. The participants' interpretation of the educational intervention, which combines complex theory with the equally complex clinical practice, was explored by studying how the participants' approaches and understanding of the facilitation of autonomy were manifested in their projects. The projects in the form of reports and oral presentations were analyzed using qualitative content analysis together with an abductive approach. FINDINGS: One identified domain was "Characteristics of the design and content of the projects". This domain was signified by two themes with different foci: Preparing the soil for facilitating student autonomy; and Cultivating opportunities for students to actively strive for autonomy. A second identified domain, "Embracing the meaning of facilitating autonomy" was connected to participants understanding of theories underlying how to support the development of autonomy. This domain contained two themes: Connection between activities and autonomy is self-evident and Certain factors can explain and facilitate development of autonomy. CONCLUSION: Education directed to strategic clinical faculty members to develop evidence-based approaches to student learning can be productive. To succeed there is a need to emphasize faculty members individual understanding of actual research as well as learning theories in general. Faculty trying to reinforce changes are dependent on their own mandate, the structure in the clinic, and recognition of their work in the clinical context. To achieve a potential continuity and sustainability of implemented changes the implementation processes must be anchored throughout the actual organization.


Assuntos
Docentes de Medicina , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Estudantes de Medicina , Humanos , Estudantes de Medicina/psicologia , Autonomia Pessoal , Feminino , Competência Clínica , Masculino , Educação de Graduação em Medicina , Autonomia Profissional , Currículo
5.
J Clin Ethics ; 35(2): 107-118, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38728694

RESUMO

AbstractEmpirical studies of pediatric clinical ethics cases are scant in the biomedical and bioethics literature. In this study, more than 100 detailed records of clinical ethics consultations spanning from 2000 to 2020 at a moderately sized U.S. Mid-Atlantic children's hospital were abstracted and analyzed. Findings of the analysis were generally consistent with other studies in pediatric clinical ethics, with additional insight into aspects of moral distress associated with cases, family engagement with consultations, and other characteristics of interest also documented. Over the 20-year time frame, ethics consults were completed on average twice a year, with a detectable upward trend. Consultations were requested across the spectrum of services and units within the hospital, with critical care environments represented most frequently and genetic and neurological conditions being the most common primary diagnoses. Ethical analysis most commonly related to questions around the principles of autonomy and beneficence.


Assuntos
Consultoria Ética , Hospitais Pediátricos , Humanos , Criança , Estados Unidos , Ética Clínica , Autonomia Pessoal , Análise Ética , Beneficência , Masculino , Feminino
6.
J Clin Ethics ; 35(2): 85-92, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38728697

RESUMO

AbstractDespite broad ethical consensus supporting developmentally appropriate disclosure of health information to older children and adolescents, cases in which parents and caregivers request nondisclosure continue to pose moral dilemmas for clinicians. State laws vary considerably regarding adolescents' rights to autonomy, privacy, and confidentiality, with many states not specifically addressing adolescents' right to their own healthcare information. The requirements of the 21st Century Cures Act have raised important ethical concerns for pediatricians and adolescent healthcare professionals regarding the protection of adolescent privacy and confidentiality, given requirements that chart notes and results be made readily available to patients via electronic portals. Less addressed have been the implications of the act for adolescents' access to their health information, since many healthcare systems' electronic portals are available to patients beginning at age 12, sometimes requiring that the patients themselves authorize their parents' access to the same information. In this article, we present a challenging case of protracted disagreement about an adolescent's right to honest information regarding his devastating prognosis. We then review the legal framework governing adolescents' rights to their own healthcare information, the limitations of ethics consultation to resolve such disputes, and the potential for the Cures Act's impact on electronic medical record systems to provide one form of resolution. We conclude that although parents in cases like the one presented here have the legal right to consent to medical treatment on their children's behalf, they do not have a corresponding right to direct the withholding of medical information from the patient.


Assuntos
Confidencialidade , Pais , Humanos , Adolescente , Confidencialidade/legislação & jurisprudência , Confidencialidade/ética , Masculino , Estados Unidos , Revelação/legislação & jurisprudência , Revelação/ética , Autonomia Pessoal , Consentimento dos Pais/legislação & jurisprudência , Consentimento dos Pais/ética , Direitos do Paciente/legislação & jurisprudência , Criança , Privacidade/legislação & jurisprudência , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde/ética , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Acesso à Informação/legislação & jurisprudência , Acesso à Informação/ética
7.
Trials ; 25(1): 292, 2024 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38693579

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Providing informed consent for trials requires providing trial participants with comprehensive information about the trial, including information about potential risks and benefits. It is required by the ethical principle of respecting patient autonomy. Our study examines the variation in the way information about potential trial benefits and harms is shared in participant information leaflets (PILs). METHODS: A total of 214 PILs and informed consent forms from clinical trials units (CTUs) and Clinical Research Facilities (CRFs) in Ireland and the UK were assessed by two authors independently, to check the extent to which they adhered to seven recently developed principles. Discrepancies were resolved by a third. RESULTS: Usage of the seven principles varied widely between PILs regardless of the intended recipient or trial type. None of the PILs used more than four principles, and some (4%) used none. Twenty-seven per cent of PILs presented information about all known potential harms, whereas 45% presented information on all known potential benefits. Some PILs did not provide any potential harms or potential benefits (8%). There was variation in the information contained in adult and children PILs and across disease areas. CONCLUSION: Significant variation exists in how potential trial benefits and harms are described to potential trial participants in PILs in our sample. Usage of the seven principles of good practice will promote consistency, ensure informed ethical decision-making and invoke trust and transparency. In the long term, a standardised PIL template is needed.


Assuntos
Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Consentimento Livre e Esclarecido , Folhetos , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto , Sujeitos da Pesquisa , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto/ética , Medição de Risco , Irlanda , Reino Unido , Termos de Consentimento/normas , Fatores de Risco , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Autonomia Pessoal , Compreensão
8.
Age Ageing ; 53(5)2024 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38706392

RESUMO

Cognitive decline, mental health and mindset factors can all affect the autonomy and well-being of older adults. As the number of older adults across the globe increases, interventions to improve well-being are urgently needed. Improvisational theatre (improv) and improv-based interventions are well-suited to address this need. Studies have shown that participation in improv-based interventions has a positive impact on mental health indicators, including depressive symptoms, well-being and social connectedness, as well as cognitive skills such as attention and memory. In addition, improv-based interventions have been beneficial for people with dementia, improving positive affect, self-esteem and communication. In this article, we describe improvisational theatre, or improv, and the reasons it has emerged from a form of spontaneous theatre that involves playfulness and creativity to an important tool to effect behavioural change in individuals and groups. We then review the literature on the effects of improv in ageing populations, with a focus on social, emotional and cognitive functioning. Finally, we make recommendations on designing improv-based interventions so that future research, using rigorous quantitative methods, larger sample sizes and randomised controlled trials, can expand the use of improv in addressing important factors related to autonomy and well-being in older adults.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Saúde Mental , Humanos , Envelhecimento/psicologia , Idoso , Cognição , Criatividade , Fatores Etários , Autonomia Pessoal , Emoções , Envelhecimento Saudável/psicologia
9.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0301861, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38709725

RESUMO

Autonomy supportive healthcare settings are associated with enhanced behaviour change and self-management strategies in individuals living with chronic disease. The level of autonomy support provided by healthcare professionals to individuals living with chronic pain in Ireland is unknown. A cross-sectional study was completed on participants living with chronic pain (>3 months) in Ireland. Participants (n = 389) completed an anonymous survey constructed of patient reported outcome measures relating to autonomy support (HCCQ), motivation (TSRQ), competence in physical activity (PCS), pain interference (BPI) and psychological factors (PHQ-9, GAD-7). Results showed the median HCCQ (H = 39.287, p < .001), Autonomous Motivation (H = 13.568, p = 0.019) and PCS (H = 30.701, p < .001) scores were significantly different when patients received care from different healthcare professionals. There was a negative correlation between PCS and pain severity (r = -0.32, <0.01), pain interference (r = -0.44, p = <0.01), PHQ-9 (r = -0.50, p = <0.01) and GAD-7 (r = -0.34, p = <0.01). This study has identified that perceived healthcare support in Ireland varies according to the healthcare professional leading pain care. Furthermore, higher levels of self-determination were associated with decreased depression and anxiety in individuals with chronic pain. Given the limited number of multidisciplinary team clinics to provide pain management programs, an alternative cost-effective community led solution is required. The results of this study indicate that allied health professionals may be well placed to fill this void. Future research exploring the barriers to providing healthcare supportive settings is required.


Assuntos
Dor Crônica , Motivação , Autonomia Pessoal , Humanos , Irlanda , Masculino , Feminino , Dor Crônica/psicologia , Dor Crônica/terapia , Estudos Transversais , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto , Idoso , Inquéritos e Questionários
10.
Bioethics ; 38(5): 438-444, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38655819

RESUMO

In times of person-centered care, it is all the more important to support patients in making good decisions about their care. One way to offer such support to patients is by way of Patient Decision Aids (PDAs). Ranging from patient brochures to web-based tools, PDAs explicitly state the decisions patients face, inform them about their medical options, help them to clarify and discuss their values, and ultimately make a decision. However, lingering discussions surround effectiveness research on PDAs. In this article, I focus on two subjective measures of decision quality that are widely used as outcome measures in effectiveness research on PDAs (i.e., the Decisional Conflict Scale (DCS) and measures of regret). Although these measurement instruments have attracted critical attention in the scientific literature, bioethicists have hardly engaged with them. Therefore, I set myself to analyze the relationship between (the different subscales of) the DCS and measures of regret, on the one hand, and ethical principles such as beneficence and autonomy, on the other hand. In light of that analysis, I will clarify some discussions regarding the use of these measures of decision quality in effectiveness research on PDAs. This should help us to align the way we evaluate PDAs with ethical principles and avoid that our attempts to support patients in making good decisions about their care that is so central to person-centered care point in unethical directions.


Assuntos
Tomada de Decisões , Técnicas de Apoio para a Decisão , Emoções , Humanos , Tomada de Decisões/ética , Assistência Centrada no Paciente/ética , Participação do Paciente , Autonomia Pessoal , Conflito Psicológico , Beneficência
11.
Soins Gerontol ; 29(167): 23-28, 2024.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38677807

RESUMO

Hospitalization is an important stage in the life of the elderly. All too often, this experience is accompanied by both physical and psychological decline. Based on self-determination theory, the aim was to qualitatively characterize support for self-determination in follow-up care and rehabilitation services (behaviours and attitudes of healthcare professionals, and patients' perception of them).


Assuntos
Autonomia Pessoal , Humanos , Idoso , Masculino , Feminino , Apoio Social , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Hospitalização
12.
Soc Sci Med ; 348: 116777, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38569280

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Armed conflict and insecurity have been linked to deteriorations in reproductive health and rights globally. In Nigeria, armed violence has taken a significant toll on women's and girls' health and safety. However, knowledge is limited about how conflict shapes attitudes surrounding their ability to make autonomous decisions on relationships and childbearing. Drawing on a socioecological framework and terror management theory, we aimed to investigate the association between conflict, insecurity, and attitudes toward women's and girls' reproductive autonomy in Nigeria. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study using data from two sources: the World Values Survey (WVS) and the Uppsala Conflict Data Program-Georeferenced Event Dataset (UCDP-GED). Nationally representative data on attitudes of 559 men and 534 women was collected by WVS in 2017-2018. Linear probability models estimated the association between attitudes toward five dimensions of women and girl's reproductive autonomy (contraception, safe abortion, marital decision-making, delayed childbearing, early marriage), respondents' perceptions of neighborhood insecurity using WVS data, and geospatial measures of conflict exposure drawn from UCDP-GED. RESULTS: Exposure to armed conflict and perceived neighborhood insecurity were associated with more supportive attitudes toward access to safe abortion among both men and women. Among women, conflict exposure was associated with higher support for contraception and the perception that early marriage can provide girls with security. Conflict-affected men were more likely to support a delay in girls' childbearing. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that conflict and insecurity pose a threat to, but also facilitate opportunities for, women's and girls' reproductive autonomy. Contraception, abortion, early marriage, and postponement or childbearing may be perceived as risk-aversion strategies in response to mortality threats, livelihood losses, and conflict-driven sexual violence. Our findings foreshadow changes in fertility and relationship patterns in conflict-affected Nigeria and highlight the need for health programming to ensure access to contraception and safe abortion services.


Assuntos
Conflitos Armados , Autonomia Pessoal , Humanos , Feminino , Nigéria , Estudos Transversais , Adulto , Conflitos Armados/psicologia , Masculino , Adolescente , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem , Atitude
15.
Health Aff (Millwood) ; 43(4): 470-476, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38560799

RESUMO

Perinatal mental illness is a leading cause of death during pregnancy and the first postpartum year in the United States. Although better acute care services for mental health conditions are desperately needed, urgent services alone cannot create the conditions to thrive. Cultivating well-being requires a sustained commitment to reproductive justice, "the human right to maintain personal bodily autonomy, have children, not have children, and parent the children we have in safe and sustainable communities." To support reproductive justice for pregnant and birthing people, the Rippel Foundation's Vital Conditions for Health and Well-Being framework offers a holistic approach comprising seven domains: a thriving natural world; basic needs for health and safety; humane housing; meaningful work and wealth; lifelong learning; reliable transportation; and, central to all of these, belonging and civic muscle. Here we review the evidence for each of the vital conditions as key drivers of perinatal mental health, and we outline how this public health approach can advance well-being across generations.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais , Justiça Social , Gravidez , Feminino , Criança , Humanos , Estados Unidos , Direitos Humanos , Saúde Mental , Autonomia Pessoal
16.
Politics Life Sci ; 43(1): 132-151, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38567784

RESUMO

According to the bioethical principle of individual decisional autonomy, the patient has a right of informed consent to any medical or experimental procedure. The principle is politically liberal by advocating significant individual freedom as guaranteed by law and secured by civil liberties. When practiced in illiberal communities, might it have a political liberalizing effect? I respond first by analyzing cross-national norms of individual decisional autonomy to identify tensions with illiberal community; second, by examining examining Singapore in a single case study to show that liberal bioethics does not promote political liberalization; and third, by showing that the possibility of practicing liberal bioethics in research, clinically as well as in education, does not require a democratic order, and that liberal bioethics is unlikely to encourage the liberalization of illiberal political communities. Hence, it may never contribute to the development of globally effective cross-national norms for the legal regulation of bioethical research and clinical practice. Fourth, to bolster this analysis, I anticipate several possible objections to various of its aspects.


Assuntos
Bioética , Autonomia Pessoal , Humanos , Liberdade , Consentimento Livre e Esclarecido , Singapura
17.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0297968, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38648219

RESUMO

Obstetric violence is an urgent global problem. Recently, several studies have appeared on obstetric violence in the Netherlands, indicating that it is a more widespread phenomenon in Dutch maternity care than commonly thought. At the same time, there has been very little public outrage over these studies. The objective of this qualitative research is to gain insight into the working and normalization of obstetric violence by focusing on the moral and epistemic injustices that both facilitate obstetric violence and make it look acceptable. Following the study design of Responsive Evaluation, interviews, homogenous, and heterogenous focus groups were done in three phases, with thirty-one participants, consisting of ten mothers, eleven midwives, five doulas and five midwives in training. All participants were already critically engaged with the topic, which was a selection criterion to be able to bring the existing depth of knowledge on this topic of people in the field to the fore. Data was analyzed through Thematic Analysis. We elaborate on two groups of results. First, we discuss the forms of obstetric violence most commonly mentioned by the participants, which were vaginal examinations, episiotomies, and pelvic floor support. Second, we demonstrate two major themes that concern practices related to moral and epistemic injustice: 1) 'Playing the dead baby card', with the sub-themes 'shroud waving', 'hidden agenda', and 'normalizing obstetric violence'; and 2) 'Troubling consent', with sub-themes 'not being asked for consent', 'saying "yes"', 'saying "no"', and 'giving up resistance'. While epistemic injustice has been analyzed in relation to obstetric violence, moral injustice has not yet been conceptualized as a fundamental part of both the practice and the justification of obstetric violence. This research hence contributes not only to the better understanding of obstetric violence in the Netherlands, but also to a further theorization of this specific form of gender-based violence.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Qualitativa , Humanos , Feminino , Países Baixos , Gravidez , Violência/psicologia , Princípios Morais , Adulto , Autonomia Pessoal , Grupos Focais , Parto Obstétrico/psicologia , Tocologia
18.
Vaccine ; 42(14): 3282-3287, 2024 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38599989

RESUMO

Examining the spectrum of vaccine attitudes within the general public, spanning from hesitancy to confidence, is pivotal in addressing the challenges posed by the COVID-19 pandemic. Despite widespread campaigns advocating for vaccine uptake, a proportion of the population harbour reservations about the safety and efficacy of vaccines. This study seeks to explore the determinants of vaccine attitudes in Canada, leveraging key concepts from the well-established Self-Determination Theory (SDT), including basic psychological needs and the quality of an individual's motivation. During a crucial juncture in the COVID-19 pandemic (December 2021), 292 participants were recruited and completed an online survey assessing levels of satisfaction/frustration of basic psychological needs (sense of autonomy, relatedness, and competence), vaccine attitudes (confidence and hesitancy), and motivation towards vaccination (controlled and autonomous). Two mediation models were employed to examine whether autonomous-controlled motivation mediated the relationship between need satisfaction-frustration and vaccine attitudes. Model 1 revealed a full mediating effect, indicating that need satisfaction influenced vaccine confidence only through autonomous motivation (ab1 = 0.09, SE = 0.04, z = 2.19, 95 % CI [0.01, 0.18]). Meanwhile, Model 2 demonstrated that need frustration was associated with vaccine hesitancy partially through controlled motivation (ab2 = 0.05, SE = 0.02, z = 2.54, 95 % CI [0.02, 0.10]). These findings underscore the applicability of SDT in investigating the motivational mechanisms that shape vaccine attitudes. Recognizing psychosocial factors, including the balance of basic needs and quality of motivations, may be integral to informing effective public health strategies.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19 , COVID-19 , Motivação , Autonomia Pessoal , Hesitação Vacinal , Vacinação , Humanos , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , COVID-19/psicologia , Feminino , Masculino , Vacinas contra COVID-19/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Vacinação/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Hesitação Vacinal/psicologia , Hesitação Vacinal/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem , Canadá , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Saúde Global , Adolescente , Idoso
19.
Patient Educ Couns ; 124: 108284, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38583353

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To construct the underlying value structure of shared decision making (SDM) models. METHOD: We included previously identified SDM models (n = 40) and 15 additional ones. Using a thematic analysis, we coded the data using Schwartz's value theory to define values in SDM and to investigate value relations. RESULTS: We identified and defined eight values and developed three themes based on their relations: shared control, a safe and supportive environment, and decisions tailored to patients. We constructed a value structure based on the value relations and themes: the interplay of healthcare professionals' (HCPs) and patients' skills [Achievement], support for a patient [Benevolence], and a good relationship between HCP and patient [Security] all facilitate patients' autonomy [Self-Direction]. These values enable a more balanced relationship between HCP and patient and tailored decision making [Universalism]. CONCLUSION: SDM can be realized by an interplay of values. The values Benevolence and Security deserve more explicit attention, and may especially increase vulnerable patients' Self-Direction. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: This value structure enables a comparison of values underlying SDM with those of specific populations, facilitating the incorporation of patients' values into treatment decision making. It may also inform the development of SDM measures, interventions, education programs, and HCPs when practicing.


Assuntos
Tomada de Decisão Compartilhada , Participação do Paciente , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Humanos , Relações Médico-Paciente , Tomada de Decisões , Autonomia Pessoal
20.
Health Soc Work ; 49(2): 115-123, 2024 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38569530

RESUMO

Women's autonomy in decision making has important sexual and reproductive health implications. This study uses a nationwide analysis in Nepal to examine women's autonomy, attitude toward intimate partner violence (IPV) behaviors, and HIV-related knowledge in the execution of HIV protective behaviors such as having one sexual partner or getting an HIV test to prevent HIV transmission. Secondary data analysis was conducted using the nationally represented Nepal Demographic and Health Survey (2016-2021) dataset. The sample included 9,904 women ages 15 to 49 who self-identified as ever married. Factor analysis for women's autonomy, attitude toward IPV behaviors, and HIV-related knowledge were conducted based on social dominance theory. Structural equation modeling was conducted, and the results indicated that higher autonomy decreased the risk of HIV infection through having one sexual partner. Factors related to multiple sex partners included unemployment, religious affiliation, and age. Similarly, higher autonomy, HIV-related knowledge, having a formal job, and urban residence increased women's likelihood of taking an HIV test. Women's higher education, greater wealth, religious affiliation, and youth also correlate with HIV testing. Future HIV prevention interventions should include strategies that support women's social and economic empowerment and enhance women's ability to make informed choices about their health and risks.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo , Humanos , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Nepal/epidemiologia , Adulto , Adolescente , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/psicologia , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia , Adulto Jovem , Autonomia Pessoal , Comportamento Sexual
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