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2.
Glob Health Action ; 17(1): 2338635, 2024 Dec 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38717826

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There are scant data on the causes of adult deaths in sub-Saharan Africa. We estimated the level and trends in adult mortality, overall and by different causes, in rural Rakai, Uganda, by age, sex, and HIV status. OBJECTIVES: To estimate and analyse adult cause-specific mortality trends in Rakai, Uganda. METHODOLOGY: Mortality information by cause, age, sex, and HIV status was recorded in the Rakai Community Cohort study using verbal autopsy interviews, HIV serosurveys, and residency data. We estimated the average number of years lived in adulthood. Using demographic decomposition methods, we estimated the contribution of each cause of death to adult mortality based on the average number of years lived in adulthood. RESULTS: Between 1999 and 2019, 63082 adults (15-60 years) were censused, with 1670 deaths registered. Of these, 1656 (99.2%) had completed cause of death data from verbal autopsy. The crude adult death rate was 5.60 (95% confidence interval (CI): 5.33-5.87) per 1000 person-years of observation (pyo). The crude death rate decreased from 11.41 (95% CI: 10.61-12.28) to 3.27 (95% CI: 2.89-3.68) per 1000 pyo between 1999-2004 and 2015-2019. The average number of years lived in adulthood increased in people living with HIV and decreased in HIV-negative individuals between 2000 and 2019. Communicable diseases, primarily HIV and Malaria, had the biggest decreases, which improved the average number of years lived by approximately extra 12 years of life in females and 6 years in males. There were increases in deaths due to non-communicable diseases and external causes, which reduced the average number of years lived in adulthood by 2.0 years and 1.5 years in females and males, respectively. CONCLUSION: There has been a significant decline in overall mortality from 1999 to 2019, with the greatest decline seen in people living with HIV since the availability of antiretroviral therapy in 2004. By 2020, the predominant causes of death among females were non-communicable diseases, with external causes of death dominating in males.


Main findings: There are significant declines in mortality in people living with HIV. However, mortality in HIV-negative people increased due to non-communicable diseases in females, and injuries and external causes of death among males.Added knowledge: In this HIV-endemic area, decreasing adult mortality has been documented over the last 20 years. This paper benchmarks the changes in cause-specific mortality in this area.Global health impact for policy action: As in many African countries, more effort is needed to reduce mortality for non-communicable diseases, injuries, and external causes of death as these seem to have been neglected.


Assuntos
Autopsia , Causas de Morte , Infecções por HIV , Humanos , Uganda/epidemiologia , Feminino , Masculino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Infecções por HIV/mortalidade , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Mortalidade/tendências , Estudos de Coortes
3.
Soud Lek ; 69(1): 2-5, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38697831

RESUMO

This review article highlights the crucial role of organ weights and dimensions as key indicators in forensic diagnosis. Organ weight changes serve as valuable markers for pathological conditions, aiding forensic doctors in interpreting autopsy findings. The review emphasizes the importance of precision in establish- ing organ reference values, considering factors like population-specific norms and correlations with body parameters. Furthermore, it explores the impact of obesity on organ weights, emphasizing the need for updated databases that accurately reflect diverse populations. The article underscores the inadequacy of relying on outdated sources and advocates for creating a comprehensive and updated database of organ weights and dimensions for the local population, essential for accurate forensic interpretations.


Assuntos
Autopsia , Humanos , Tamanho do Órgão , Valores de Referência , Adulto
4.
Metabolomics ; 20(3): 51, 2024 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38722380

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The (un)targeted analysis of endogenous compounds has gained interest in the field of forensic postmortem investigations. The blood metabolome is influenced by many factors, and postmortem specimens are considered particularly challenging due to unpredictable decomposition processes. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to systematically investigate the influence of the time since death on endogenous compounds and its relevance in designing postmortem metabolome studies. METHODS: Femoral blood samples of 427 authentic postmortem cases, were collected at two time points after death (854 samples in total; t1: admission to the institute, 1.3-290 h; t2: autopsy, 11-478 h; median ∆t = 71 h). All samples were analyzed using an untargeted metabolome approach, and peak areas were determined for 38 compounds (acylcarnitines, amino acids, phospholipids, and others). Differences between t2 and t1 were assessed by Wilcoxon signed-ranked test (p < 0.05). Moreover, all samples (n = 854) were binned into time groups (6 h, 12 h, or 24 h intervals) and compared by Kruskal-Wallis/Dunn's multiple comparison tests (p < 0.05 each) to investigate the effect of the estimated time since death. RESULTS: Except for serine, threonine, and PC 34:1, all tested analytes revealed statistically significant changes between t1 and t2 (highest median increase 166%). Unpaired analysis of all 854 blood samples in-between groups indicated similar results. Significant differences were typically observed between blood samples collected within the first and later than 48 h after death, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: To improve the consistency of comprehensive data evaluation in postmortem metabolome studies, it seems advisable to only include specimens collected within the first 2 days after death.


Assuntos
Metaboloma , Metabolômica , Mudanças Depois da Morte , Humanos , Metabolômica/métodos , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto , Idoso , Autopsia , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Fatores de Tempo , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Aminoácidos/sangue , Adulto Jovem
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38747854

RESUMO

The Verbal Autopsy (VA) is a questionnaire about the circumstances surrounding a death. It was widely used in Brazil to assist in postmortem diagnoses and investigate excess mortality during the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. This study aimed to determine the accuracy of investigating acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) using VA. This is a cross-sectional study with prospective data collected from January 2020 to August 2021 at the Death Verification Service of Sao Luis city, Brazil. VA was performed for suspected COVID-19 deaths, and one day of the week was randomly chosen to collect samples from patients without suspected COVID-19. Two swabs were collected after death and subjected to reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for SARS-CoV-2 detection. Of the 250 cases included, the VA questionnaire identified COVID-19-related ARDS in 67.2% (52.98% were positive for COVID-19). The sensitivity of the VA questionnaire was 0.53 (0.45-0.61), the specificity was 0.75 (0.64-0.84), the positive predictive value was 0.81 (0.72-0.88), and the negative predictive value was 0.44 (0.36-0.53). The VA had a lower-than-expected accuracy for detecting COVID-19 deaths; however, because it is an easily accessible and cost-effective tool, it can be combined with more accurate methods to improve its performance.


Assuntos
Autopsia , COVID-19 , Humanos , COVID-19/mortalidade , COVID-19/diagnóstico , Estudos Transversais , Masculino , Feminino , Brasil/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Idoso , SARS-CoV-2 , Estudos Prospectivos , Adulto Jovem , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/mortalidade , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/diagnóstico , Causas de Morte , Adolescente
6.
Pediatrics ; 153(6)2024 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38721668

RESUMO

Molecular autopsy has recently been gaining attention as a means of postmortem diagnosis; however, it is usually performed using the victim's blood sample at the time of death. Here, we report the first case of a deceased infant with Brugada syndrome whose diagnosis was made with banked cord blood. A seemingly healthy 1-year-old male infant collapsed while having a fever; this collapse was witnessed by his mother. Despite cardiopulmonary resuscitation, he died of ventricular fibrillation. No abnormalities of cardiac structure were identified on autopsy. Genomic samples were not stored at the time because of a lack of suspicion for familial arrhythmia. Five years later, his sister showed Brugada electrocardiogram pattern while febrile from Kawasaki disease. Their father showed a spontaneous type 1 Brugada electrocardiogram pattern. A heterozygous SCN5A p.R893C variant was found by genetic testing in the proband's father and sister. Furthermore, the proband's genetic testing was performed using his banked cord blood, which identified the same variant. Family history of Brugada syndrome with an SCN5A-R893C variant and clinical evidence led to a postmortem diagnosis of Brugada syndrome in the proband. Identification of this variant in this case later contributed to verifying SCN5A-R893C as a pathogenic variant through data accumulation. Banked cord blood may prove useful for conducting molecular autopsies in previously undiagnosed cases of sudden death in which genomic samples were not stored.


Assuntos
Autopsia , Síndrome de Brugada , Sangue Fetal , Canal de Sódio Disparado por Voltagem NAV1.5 , Humanos , Síndrome de Brugada/genética , Síndrome de Brugada/diagnóstico , Masculino , Canal de Sódio Disparado por Voltagem NAV1.5/genética , Lactente , Eletrocardiografia , Morte Súbita/etiologia
7.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0302069, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38701098

RESUMO

The U.S. Transuranium and Uranium Registries performs autopsies on each of its deceased Registrants as a part of its mission to follow up occupationally-exposed individuals. This provides a unique opportunity to explore death certificate misclassification errors, and the factors that influence them, among this small population of former nuclear workers. Underlying causes of death from death certificates and autopsy reports were coded using the 10th revision of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10). These codes were then used to quantify misclassification rates among 268 individuals for whom both full autopsy reports and death certificates with legible underlying causes of death were available. When underlying causes of death were compared between death certificates and autopsy reports, death certificates correctly identified the underlying cause of death's ICD-10 disease chapter in 74.6% of cases. The remaining 25.4% of misclassified cases resulted in over-classification rates that ranged from 1.2% for external causes of mortality to 12.2% for circulatory disease, and under-classification rates that ranged from 7.7% for external causes of mortality to 47.4% for respiratory disease. Neoplasms had generally lower misclassification rates with 4.3% over-classification and 13.3% under-classification. A logistic regression revealed that the odds of a match were 2.8 times higher when clinical history was mentioned on the autopsy report than when it was not. Similarly, the odds of a match were 3.4 times higher when death certificates were completed using autopsy findings than when autopsy findings were not used. This analysis excluded cases where it could not be determined if autopsy findings were used to complete death certificates. The findings of this study are useful to investigate the impact of death certificate misclassification errors on radiation risk estimates and, therefore, improve the reliability of epidemiological studies.


Assuntos
Autopsia , Causas de Morte , Atestado de Óbito , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Feminino , Classificação Internacional de Doenças , Adulto , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Sistema de Registros
8.
Am J Forensic Med Pathol ; 45(2): 151-156, 2024 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38739896

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Autopsy followed by histopathological examination is foundational in clinical and forensic medicine for discovering and understanding pathological changes in disease, their underlying processes, and cause of death. Imaging technology has become increasingly important for advancing clinical research and practice, given its noninvasive, in vivo and ex vivo applicability. Medical and forensic autopsy can benefit greatly from advances in imaging technology that lead toward minimally invasive, whole-brain virtual autopsy. Brain autopsy followed by histopathological examination is still the hallmark for understanding disease and a fundamental modus operandi in forensic pathology and forensic medicine, despite the fact that its practice has become progressively less frequent in medical settings. This situation is especially relevant with respect to new diseases such as COVID-19 caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus, for which our neuroanatomical knowledge is sparse. In this narrative review, we show that ad hoc clinical autopsies and histopathological analyses combined with neuroimaging of the principal circumventricular organs are critical to gaining insight into the reconstruction of the pathophysiological mechanisms and the explanation of cause of death (ie, atrium mortis) related to the cardiovascular effects of SARS-CoV-2 infection in forensic and clinical medicine.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Humanos , COVID-19/patologia , COVID-19/diagnóstico por imagem , Neuroimagem/métodos , Autopsia/métodos , Encéfalo/patologia , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , SARS-CoV-2 , Patologia Legal/métodos , Relevância Clínica
9.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 16(8): 6694-6716, 2024 Apr 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38663907

RESUMO

Previous research has found that living in a disadvantaged neighborhood is associated with poor health outcomes. Living in disadvantaged neighborhoods may alter inflammation and immune response in the body, which could be reflected in epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation (DNAm). We used robust linear regression models to conduct an epigenome-wide association study examining the association between neighborhood deprivation (Area Deprivation Index; ADI), and DNAm in brain tissue from 159 donors enrolled in the Emory Goizueta Alzheimer's Disease Research Center (Georgia, USA). We found one CpG site (cg26514961, gene PLXNC1) significantly associated with ADI after controlling for covariates and multiple testing (p-value=5.0e-8). Effect modification by APOE ε4 was statistically significant for the top ten CpG sites from the EWAS of ADI, indicating that the observed associations between ADI and DNAm were mainly driven by donors who carried at least one APOE ε4 allele. Four of the top ten CpG sites showed a significant concordance between brain tissue and tissues that are easily accessible in living individuals (blood, buccal cells, saliva), including DNAm in cg26514961 (PLXNC1). Our study identified one CpG site (cg26514961, PLXNC1 gene) that was significantly associated with neighborhood deprivation in brain tissue. PLXNC1 is related to immune response, which may be one biological pathway how neighborhood conditions affect health. The concordance between brain and other tissues for our top CpG sites could make them potential candidates for biomarkers in living individuals.


Assuntos
Autopsia , Ilhas de CpG , Metilação de DNA , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Ilhas de CpG/genética , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doença de Alzheimer/genética , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Encéfalo/patologia , Características da Vizinhança , Epigênese Genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Estudos de Coortes
10.
BMJ Open ; 14(4): e081652, 2024 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38684258

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To use verbal autopsy (VA) data to understand health system utilisation and the potential avoidability associated with fatal injury. Then to categorise any evident barriers driving avoidable delays to care within a Three-Delays framework that considers delays to seeking (Delay 1), reaching (Delay 2) or receiving (Delay 3) quality injury care. DESIGN: Retrospective analysis of existing VA data routinely collected by a demographic surveillance site. SETTING: Karonga Health and Demographic Surveillance Site (HDSS) population, Northern Malawi. PARTICIPANTS: Fatally injured members of the HDSS. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome was the proportion of fatal injury deaths that were potentially avoidable. Secondary outcomes were the delay stage and corresponding barriers associated with avoidable deaths and the health system utilisation for fatal injuries within the health system. RESULTS: Of the 252 deaths due to external causes, 185 injury-related deaths were analysed. Deaths were predominantly among young males (median age 30, IQR 11-48), 71.9% (133/185). 35.1% (65/185) were assessed as potentially avoidable. Delay 1 was implicated in 30.8% (20/65) of potentially avoidable deaths, Delay 2 in 61.5% (40/65) and Delay 3 in 75.4% (49/65). Within Delay 1, 'healthcare literacy' was most commonly implicated barrier in 75% (15/20). Within Delay 2, 'communication' and 'prehospital care' were the most commonly implicated in 92.5% (37/40). Within Delay 3, 'physical resources' were most commonly implicated, 85.7% (42/49). CONCLUSIONS: VA is feasible for studying pathways to care and health system responsiveness in avoidable deaths following injury and ascertaining the delays that contribute to deaths. A large proportion of injury deaths were avoidable, and we have identified several barriers as potential targets for intervention. Refining and integrating VA with other health system assessment methods is likely necessary to holistically understand an injury care health system.


Assuntos
Autopsia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Ferimentos e Lesões , Humanos , Malaui/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Masculino , Feminino , Ferimentos e Lesões/mortalidade , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Criança , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Causas de Morte
12.
Brain ; 147(5): 1667-1679, 2024 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38634687

RESUMO

Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), a proxy of astrocyte reactivity, has been proposed as biomarker of Alzheimer's disease. However, there is limited information about the correlation between blood biomarkers and post-mortem neuropathology. In a single-centre prospective clinicopathological cohort of 139 dementia patients, for which the time-frame between GFAP level determination and neuropathological assessment was exceptionally short (on average 139 days), we analysed this biomarker, measured at three time points, in relation to proxies of disease progression such as cognitive decline and brain weight. Most importantly, we investigated the use of blood GFAP to detect the neuropathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease, while accounting for potential influences of the most frequent brain co-pathologies. The main findings demonstrated an association between serum GFAP level and post-mortem tau pathology (ß = 12.85; P < 0.001) that was independent of amyloid deposits (ß = 13.23; P = 0.02). A mediation analysis provided additional support for the role of astrocytic activation as a link between amyloid and tau pathology in Alzheimer's disease. Furthermore, a negative correlation was observed between pre-mortem serum GFAP and brain weight at post-mortem (r = -0.35; P < 0.001). This finding, together with evidence of a negative correlation with cognitive assessments (r = -0.27; P = 0.005), supports the role of GFAP as a biomarker for disease monitoring, even in the late phases of Alzheimer's disease. Moreover, the diagnostic performance of GFAP in advanced dementia patients was explored, and its discriminative power (area under the receiver operator characteristic curve at baseline = 0.91) in differentiating neuropathologically-confirmed Alzheimer's disease dementias from non-Alzheimer's disease dementias was determined, despite the challenging scenario of advanced age and frequent co-pathologies in these patients. Independently of Alzheimer's disease, serum GFAP levels were shown to be associated with two other pathologies targeting the temporal lobes-hippocampal sclerosis (ß = 3.64; P = 0.03) and argyrophilic grain disease (ß = -6.11; P = 0.02). Finally, serum GFAP levels were revealed to be correlated with astrocyte reactivity, using the brain GFAP-immunostained area as a proxy (ρ = 0.21; P = 0.02). Our results contribute to increasing evidence suggesting a role for blood GFAP as an Alzheimer's disease biomarker, and the findings offer mechanistic insights into the relationship between blood GFAP and Alzheimer's disease neuropathology, highlighting its ties with tau burden. Moreover, the data highlighting an independent association between serum GFAP levels and other neuropathological lesions provide information for clinicians to consider when interpreting test results. The longitudinal design and correlation with post-mortem data reinforce the robustness of our findings. However, studies correlating blood biomarkers and neuropathological assessments are still scant, and further research is needed to replicate and validate these results in diverse populations.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Astrócitos , Atrofia , Biomarcadores , Encéfalo , Proteína Glial Fibrilar Ácida , Emaranhados Neurofibrilares , Humanos , Proteína Glial Fibrilar Ácida/sangue , Astrócitos/patologia , Astrócitos/metabolismo , Feminino , Masculino , Emaranhados Neurofibrilares/patologia , Idoso , Atrofia/patologia , Atrofia/sangue , Doença de Alzheimer/sangue , Doença de Alzheimer/patologia , Encéfalo/patologia , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Autopsia , Proteínas tau/sangue , Estudos Prospectivos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Progressão da Doença , Demência/sangue , Demência/patologia
13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(8)2024 Apr 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38674011

RESUMO

The primary entry point of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the nasal mucosa, where viral-induced inflammation occurs. When the immune response fails against SARS-CoV-2, understanding the altered response becomes crucial. This study aimed to compare SARS-CoV-2 immunological responses in the olfactory and respiratory mucosa by focusing on epithelia and nerves. Between 2020 and 2022, we obtained post mortem tissues from the olfactory cleft from 10 patients with histologically intact olfactory epithelia (OE) who died with or from COVID-19, along with four age-matched controls. These tissues were subjected to immunohistochemical reactions using antibodies against T cell antigens CD3, CD8, CD68, and SARS spike protein for viral evidence. Deceased patients with COVID-19 exhibited peripheral lymphopenia accompanied by a local decrease in CD3+ cells in the OE. However, SARS-CoV-2 spike protein was sparsely detectable in the OE. With regard to the involvement of nerve fibers, the present analysis suggested that SARS-CoV-2 did not significantly alter the immune response in olfactory or trigeminal fibers. On the other hand, SARS spike protein was detectable in both nerves. In summary, the post mortem investigation demonstrated a decreased T cell response in patients with COVID-19 and signs of SARS-CoV-2 presence in olfactory and trigeminal fibers.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Mucosa Nasal , SARS-CoV-2 , Humanos , COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/patologia , COVID-19/virologia , Masculino , Feminino , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Idoso , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mucosa Nasal/imunologia , Mucosa Nasal/virologia , Mucosa Nasal/patologia , Mucosa Nasal/metabolismo , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/metabolismo , Mucosa Olfatória/imunologia , Mucosa Olfatória/virologia , Mucosa Olfatória/patologia , Mucosa Olfatória/metabolismo , Adulto , Autopsia
14.
Alzheimers Dement ; 20(5): 3495-3503, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38602280

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: We investigated the association between sleep duration and neuropathologic changes 19 to 40 years later in oldest-old (age 90+) participants of The 90+ Study. METHODS: Participants self-reported sleep duration and underwent neuropathologic evaluation. We categorized sleep duration as < 7, 7 to 8 = reference, > 8 hours and dichotomized neuropathologic changes as present/absent. We estimated odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) using logistic regression. RESULTS: In 264 participants, mean age at sleep self-report was 69 years, mean age at autopsy was 98 years, and mean interval between sleep self-report and autopsy was 29 years (range: 19-40). Those reporting > 8 hours of sleep had lower likelihood of limbic-predominant age-related TDP-43 encephalopathy neuropathologic change (LATE-NC) inclusions (OR = 0.18; CI = 0.04-0.82) and amyloid beta deposits (OR = 0.34; 95% CI = 0.12-0.94). DISCUSSION: Long self-reported sleep is associated with lower odds of neurodegenerative neuropathologic changes 19 to 40 years later in the oldest-old, suggesting a potential role of sleep in accumulation of dementia-related neuropathologies. HIGHLIGHTS: Association of self-reported sleep with non-Alzheimer's disease neuropathologic changes has not been explored. Whether sleep duration is related to dementia neuropathologic changes decades later is unclear. Long self-reported sleep is associated with lower odds of Alzheimer's disease neuropathologic change 19 to 40 years later in the oldest-old. Long self-reported sleep is associated with lower odds of limbic-predominant age-related TDP-43 encephalopathy neuropathologic change 19 to 40 years later in the oldest-old.


Assuntos
Encéfalo , Sono , Humanos , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Masculino , Encéfalo/patologia , Idoso , Autopsia , Autorrelato , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/metabolismo , Envelhecimento/patologia , Duração do Sono
15.
Arch Med Sadowej Kryminol ; 73(3): 247-256, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês, Polonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38662466

RESUMO

Aim: AAnalysis of the choice of suicide method by gender and age of the deceased. Material and methods: The study presented here was based on a retrospective analysis of autopsy reports from the years 2001-2010 in the Department of Forensic Medicine of the Jagiellonian University Collegium Medicum in Kraków. The basis of the research work conducted was the collection and extensive analysis of cases of suicide deaths. Subsequently, a preference analysis of the choice of suicide method was conducted, taking into account the age and gender of the deceased. The statistical analysis performed used logistic regression in Excel's XLSTAT as an analysis tool. Results: A total of 2,073 suicide cases were collected from the time frame under discussion. The predominant method of suicide was hanging (1524 cases, 1329 men and 195 women), the second most common method was jumping from the roof or window of a high floor of a building (jumping from heights; 171 cases, 100 men, 71 women). A statistically significant correlation of suicide method with gender was found for: hanging [odds ratio (OR) male (M) vs. female (F) = 3. 4; confidence interval (CI) = 2.7-4.3; p0.001]; drowning [OR: M/F =4.1; CI = 2.6-6.4; p0.001]; jumping from heights [OR: M/F=4.1; CI=2.9-5.7; p0.001] and poisoning [OR: M/F=3.2; CI = 2.1-4.9]. Suicide with the use of firearms occurred exclusively in the case of men (40 cases). The age of the victims correlated with the method of committing suicide by jumping from heights [0R=0.98; CI=0.97-0.99; p0.001] and rail suicide [OR=0.98; CI=0.96-0.99; p0.001]. Conclusions: The study revealed that both age and gender have a significant impact on the choice of suicide method. According to available epidemiological data and the authors' predictions, a predominance of male over female sex was observed in the case of hanging, while jumping from heights was relatively more often chosen by women. The elderly were less likely to choose jumping from heights and rail suicide.


Assuntos
Causas de Morte , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Estudos Retrospectivos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polônia/epidemiologia , Distribuição por Sexo , Distribuição por Idade , Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Suicídio Consumado/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Asfixia/mortalidade , Adulto Jovem , Lesões do Pescoço/mortalidade , Afogamento/mortalidade , Autopsia/estatística & dados numéricos , Ferimentos por Arma de Fogo/mortalidade , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Medicina Legal/métodos
16.
Arch Med Sadowej Kryminol ; 73(3): 234-246, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês, Polonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38662465

RESUMO

Aim: Analysis of self-immolation cases and distribution of the resulting burns and their degree. Material and methods: The study included 16 cases from the Department of Forensic Medicine, Jagiellonian University Medical College in Cracow from 2000-2022 in which the cause of death was self-immolation. Based on the analysis of photographs and autopsy reports, drawings were made showing the exact distribution and nature of the injuries, moreover, the approximate percentage of body surface area affected was determined as well as the frequency of involvement of specific areas of the body, and the presence of previous diseases and mental disorders including previous suicide attempts. Results: 81% of victims were male. Two age groups were predominant among the cases analyzed, namely, individuals around the age of 20, and those between 50 and 60 years of age. 44% of the deceased had burns exceeding 80% of total body surface. The most frequently involved body areas were the extremities and chest as well as head and neck. Fourth-degree burns were most prevalent on the head and neck, third-degree burns prevailed on the upper and lower extremities, second-degree burns were mostly found on the chest, and first-degree burns - on the lower extremities. There were no cases of fourth-degree burns of the buttocks. 38% of the subjects had a history of substance abuse, 56% suffered from mental illnesses, whereas 31% attempted suicide in the past. Conclusions: The distribution of burns in self-immolation cases is inhomogeneous. The most frequently affected area was the head, neck, chest and extremities, most likely due to victims dousing themselves with a flammable substance from the top of the head through the chest. In all cases, the immediate cause of death was burn disease, regardless of the size of the body surface area affected by the burns. The majority of victims had a history of mental illness, substance abuse or suicide attempts.


Assuntos
Autopsia , Queimaduras , Suicídio Consumado , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto , Queimaduras/patologia , Queimaduras/mortalidade , Polônia/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem , Suicídio Consumado/estatística & dados numéricos , Medicina Legal , Causas de Morte , Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos
17.
Arch Med Sadowej Kryminol ; 73(3): 272-277, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38662468

RESUMO

Toilet cleaner containing hydrochloric acid is a common item found in households all over the world. Due to the availability of the substance, it becomes one of the main contributors to corrosive damage to the gastrointestinal system. This study reports a case of a female in her 50s with an alleged history of ingestion of toilet cleaner an empty bottle of which was found together with a suicide note at the incident site. During the autopsy, the forensic expert made an intriguing observation regarding the dispersion of ingested acid to other organs without gastric perforation. Despite the absence of gastric perforation, the corrosive effects of the ingested acid were evident in various organs, including the liver and spleen. This phenomenon suggests a unique mechanism by which the acid is able to disperse and cause damage beyond the stomach, leading to widespread organ involvement. However, through a comprehensive analysis of the detailed history, typical macroscopic autopsy findings, and chemical analysis reports, it is possible to establish that the cause of death is corrosive acid poisoning. In such cases, further investigation is warranted to gain a better understanding of the underlying mechanisms responsible for the dispersion of the acid and its clinical implications. By delving deeper into these aspects, we can enhance our knowledge and contribute to the field of forensic medicine.


Assuntos
Autopsia , Humanos , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ácido Clorídrico/efeitos adversos , Ácido Clorídrico/intoxicação , Cáusticos/intoxicação , Cáusticos/toxicidade , Queimaduras Químicas/patologia , Queimaduras Químicas/etiologia , Detergentes/intoxicação , Detergentes/efeitos adversos , Suicídio Consumado , Patologia Legal
18.
Klin Monbl Augenheilkd ; 241(4): 562-570, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38653313

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Proof of concept of ex vivo retinal vessel diameter measurements in human postmortem eyes. METHODS: En face near-infrared (IR) images and optical coherence tomography (OCT) of the optic nerve head (ONH) were captured ex vivo with a Heidelberg Engineering Spectralis (Spectralis, version 7.0.4, Image Capture Module, version 1.2.4, Heidelberg Heidelberg, Germany) device, using a custom-made eye chamber holding and positioning the eyes during the image process. Thirty-two formaldehyde-fixated eyes of 16 patients were imaged. In the IR images, two independent graders measured retinal vessel diameters at the intersection of a drawn circle centered on the ONH with diameters of 2.0 mm and 3.4 mm, respectively. The anatomically corresponding measurements between both graders were statistically analyzed using a Wilcoxon signed-rank test. RESULTS: A total of 246 matched measurements of both graders were analyzed across all 32 imaged eyes. Statistically significant differences between the graders were found for arterioles at 2 mm from the ONH. The other measurements did not show statistically significant intergrader differences. The mean values for arteriole diameters were 72.2 µm at 2.0 mm and 61.5 µm at 3.4 mm for grader 1, and 66.4 µm at 2.0 mm and 63.2 µm at 3.4 mm for grader 2. The mean diameter for venules were 75.5 µm at 2.0 mm and 79.3 µm at 3.4 mm for grader 1, and 67.4 µm at 2 mm and 79.1 µm at 3.4 mm for grader 2. CONCLUSION: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to present IR image-based retinal vessel diameters in ex vivo postmortem eyes. Retinal IR/OCT imaging is possible, and measurements are reproducible in formaldehyde-fixated human eyes. Fixation artefacts result in lower image quality, and this can impose challenges in correctly detecting, classifying, and measuring retinal vessels.


Assuntos
Disco Óptico , Vasos Retinianos , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica , Humanos , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica/métodos , Vasos Retinianos/diagnóstico por imagem , Vasos Retinianos/patologia , Feminino , Masculino , Disco Óptico/diagnóstico por imagem , Disco Óptico/irrigação sanguínea , Disco Óptico/patologia , Idoso , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Autopsia/métodos , Cadáver
19.
Acta Neuropathol Commun ; 12(1): 62, 2024 Apr 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38637827

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Helsmoortel-Van der Aa syndrome is a neurodevelopmental disorder in which patients present with autism, intellectual disability, and frequent extra-neurological features such as feeding and gastrointestinal problems, visual impairments, and cardiac abnormalities. All patients exhibit heterozygous de novo nonsense or frameshift stop mutations in the Activity-Dependent Neuroprotective Protein (ADNP) gene, accounting for a prevalence of 0.2% of all autism cases worldwide. ADNP fulfills an essential chromatin remodeling function during brain development. In this study, we investigated the cerebellum of a died 6-year-old male patient with the c.1676dupA/p.His559Glnfs*3 ADNP mutation. RESULTS: The clinical presentation of the patient was representative of the Helsmoortel-Van der Aa syndrome. During his lifespan, he underwent two liver transplantations after which the child died because of multiple organ failure. An autopsy was performed, and various tissue samples were taken for further analysis. We performed a molecular characterization of the cerebellum, a brain region involved in motor coordination, known for its highest ADNP expression and compared it to an age-matched control subject. Importantly, epigenome-wide analysis of the ADNP cerebellum identified CpG methylation differences and expression of multiple pathways causing neurodevelopmental delay. Interestingly, transcription factor motif enrichment analysis of differentially methylated genes showed that the ADNP binding motif was the most significantly enriched. RNA sequencing of the autopsy brain further identified downregulation of the WNT signaling pathway and autophagy defects as possible causes of neurodevelopmental delay. Ultimately, label-free quantification mass spectrometry identified differentially expressed proteins involved in mitochondrial stress and sirtuin signaling pathways amongst others. Protein-protein interaction analysis further revealed a network including chromatin remodelers (ADNP, SMARCC2, HDAC2 and YY1), autophagy-related proteins (LAMP1, BECN1 and LC3) as well as a key histone deacetylating enzyme SIRT1, involved in mitochondrial energy metabolism. The protein interaction of ADNP with SIRT1 was further biochemically validated through the microtubule-end binding proteins EB1/EB3 by direct co-immunoprecipitation in mouse cerebellum, suggesting important mito-epigenetic crosstalk between chromatin remodeling and mitochondrial energy metabolism linked to autophagy stress responses. This is further supported by mitochondrial activity assays and stainings in patient-derived fibroblasts which suggest mitochondrial dysfunctions in the ADNP deficient human brain. CONCLUSION: This study forms the baseline clinical and molecular characterization of an ADNP autopsy cerebellum, providing novel insights in the disease mechanisms of the Helsmoortel-Van der Aa syndrome. By combining multi-omic and biochemical approaches, we identified a novel SIRT1-EB1/EB3-ADNP protein complex which may contribute to autophagic flux alterations and impaired mitochondrial metabolism in the Helsmoortel-Van der Aa syndrome and holds promise as a new therapeutic target.


Assuntos
Transtorno Autístico , Deficiência Intelectual , Masculino , Criança , Animais , Camundongos , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Transtorno Autístico/genética , Sirtuína 1/genética , Sirtuína 1/metabolismo , Genes Mitocondriais , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/genética , Cerebelo/metabolismo , Autopsia , Metilação , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
20.
BMJ Open Respir Res ; 11(1)2024 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38626927

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Respiratory diseases disproportionately affect people living in resource-limited settings. However, obtaining information that explains respiratory-related deaths has been difficult, mainly due to a lack of medical certification of death and the fact that most deaths occur outside of health institutions. This study aimed to determine the proportion of respiratory-related deaths and identify associated factors in Alicho-Weriro district, southern Ethiopia, using the verbal autopsy method. METHODS: A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted from April to June 2022. All deceased people in the study area from January 2020 to December 2021 were included in the study. Trained physicians ascertained the cause of death from verbal autopsy data that were collected using a pre-tested and modified WHO-designed questionnaire. The binary logistic regression models were used to identify factors associated with respiratory-related deaths. RESULTS: Respiratory-related deaths accounted for 25% of the deaths from all causes, with 20.8% of male and 29.5% of female deaths. Of which, 9.7% were from tuberculosis, 8.3% were from asthma and 6.2% were from acute lower-respiratory tract infections. Moreover, being female (adjusted OR, AOR: 3.3; 95% CI: (1.75 to 6.22)), age 50-64 years (AOR: 9.3; 95% CI: (1.16 to 73.90)), age above 64 years (AOR: 8.9; 95% CI: (1.130 to 70.79)), family size of five persons or more (AOR: 1.9; 95% CI: (1.15 to 3.29)), smoking (AOR: 3.9; 95% CI: (1.86 to 8.35)), using wood and/or animal dung for household cooking (AOR: 6.6; 95% CI: (1.92 to 22.59)) and poor house ventilation (AOR: 3.1; 95% CI: (1.75 to 5.38)) were significantly associated with increased odds of dying from respiratory-related diseases. CONCLUSION: This study has determined that about a quarter of deaths from all causes were due to respiratory diseases, mainly tuberculosis, asthma and acute lower respiratory tract infections. Therefore, interventions to reduce this burden should focus on supporting early case detection and treatment, promoting healthy lifestyles, exercising women's equality at the household level and improving housing conditions.


Assuntos
Asma , Infecções Respiratórias , Tuberculose , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Autopsia/métodos , Inquéritos e Questionários
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