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1.
J Nepal Health Res Counc ; 19(2): 434-436, 2021 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34601547

RESUMO

Good research writing and publication practices are important to identify, acknowledge, and generate awareness for ethical and credible science. Academic requirement for research thesis, and 'publish or perish' culture of academia for career evaluation of faculties contribute to authorship misconducts. The authorship criteria have been clearly outlined by international guidelines like International Committee of Medical Journals Editors, Committee on Publication Ethics, Council of Science Editors, World Association of Medical Editors. However, the practice of guide, co-guide as authors in students' thesis articles continues as inappropriate authorship. This is a topic which requires more debate in academia. Historical practices of academia, the power dynamics, and the guidelines of the journals vary and make this dispute even more complicated. In Nepal, we need to expand the discussion among stakeholders from academia, universities, monitoring bodies, ethical committees to journals for a consensus; to 'put to rest' this issue and be in line with the international guidelines. Keywords: Authorship guideline; journal article publication; research thesis guide co-guide supervisor.


Assuntos
Autoria , Pesquisadores , Humanos , Nepal , Estudantes , Redação
4.
Nat Methods ; 18(9): 983, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34480158
5.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(39)2021 09 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34544861

RESUMO

Unbiased science dissemination has the potential to alleviate some of the known gender disparities in academia by exposing female scholars' work to other scientists and the public. And yet, we lack comprehensive understanding of the relationship between gender and science dissemination online. Our large-scale analyses, encompassing half a million scholars, revealed that female scholars' work is mentioned less frequently than male scholars' work in all research areas. When exploring the characteristics associated with online success, we found that the impact of prior work, social capital, and gendered tie formation in coauthorship networks are linked with online success for men, but not for women-even in the areas with the highest female representation. These results suggest that while men's scientific impact and collaboration networks are associated with higher visibility online, there are no universally identifiable facets associated with success for women. Our comprehensive empirical evidence indicates that the gender gap in online science dissemination is coupled with a lack of understanding the characteristics that are linked with female scholars' success, which might hinder efforts to close the gender gap in visibility.


Assuntos
Autoria/normas , Sistemas On-Line/normas , Revisão da Pesquisa por Pares/tendências , Publicações/normas , Ciência/normas , Sexismo/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
6.
Health Res Policy Syst ; 19(1): 126, 2021 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34538255

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence-based practice in medicine and social policy relies heavily on evidence synthesis. To translate evidence into practical guidelines for low- and middle-income countries, local expertise is essential. The objectives of this study are to assess the change in capacity for conducting evidence synthesis in Africa and to identify key African institutions for regional capacity-building. We take on a network perspective, considering that the position of an institution in the African evidence ecosystem is one constituent of its research capacity. METHODS: We systematically identified 3548 evidence synthesis publications between 2008 and 2019 with at least one author in Africa from the Web of Science Core Collection. These articles involved 3769 institutions. Longitudinal institution-level collaboration network data were constructed based on co-authorship information. We used social network analysis to examine the institutions' connectivity and tendency for intra- and interregional collaboration. We also identified the degree- and betweenness-central African institutions and explored the structure and composition of their local network neighbourhoods. RESULTS: The number of African institutions involved in evidence synthesis has increased substantially over the last decade, from 31 in 2008 to 521 in 2019, and so has the number of evidence synthesis publications with authors in Africa. African institutions in the evidence ecosystem have also become more connected during this period. Although the amount of intercontinental collaboration continues to exceed that of regional collaboration, the tendency for African institutions to collaborate with partners in Africa is increasing. We identified seven institutions-in South Africa, Egypt and Uganda-as central to the collaboration networks between 2008 and 2019, all of whom showed a tendency to collaborate across sectors. CONCLUSION: The development of more regionally based network-building initiatives would help to foster communities of practice and inter-institutional collaboration, strengthening regional research capacity. Moreover, the analysis in this study adds depth beyond a simple bibliometric analysis and illustrates that network analysis could provide a useful tool to evaluate the effectiveness of capacity-building strategies and programmes in the future.


Assuntos
Autoria , Ecossistema , Bibliometria , Fortalecimento Institucional , Humanos , África do Sul
7.
Soud Lek ; 66(3): 43-49, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34551559

RESUMO

Forensic medicine is a multidisciplinary medical field that cooperates with a number of complementary medical disciplines and receives knowledge from many other non-medical disciplines. Cooperation with forensic toxicologists and forensic radiologists is routine in forensic practice, as well as with traffic engineers, forensic ballistics, forensic biomechanics, anthropologists, geneticists, and forensic entomologists is well established in expert practice and scientific research. Our work focuses on the connection of forensic medicine with linguistics. The essence of the article is the evaluation of the function, importance and use of eponymic terms in the field of forensic medicine. Total of 28 eponymous terms were searched and analysed in four Czech written textbooks of forensic medicine from different time periods (published in years 1937, 1976, 1999 and 2015/2016). The occurrence and extension of eponymous terms in field of forensic medicine is presented. The origin, the authorship, advantages or disadvantages of eponymous terms are discussed. Function of these terms in professional communication, in communication with police, in court, and with lay people is evaluated.


Assuntos
Balística Forense , Medicina Legal , Autoria , Epônimos , Humanos , Polícia
11.
CBE Life Sci Educ ; 20(3): ar46, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34415196

RESUMO

Course-based undergraduate research experiences (CUREs) engage students in authentic research experiences in a course format and can sometimes result in the publication of that research. However, little is known about student-author perceptions of CURE publications. In this study, we examined how students perceive they benefit from authoring a CURE publication and what they believe is required for authorship of a manuscript in a peer-reviewed journal. All 16 students who were enrolled in a molecular genetics CURE during their first year of college participated in semistructured interviews during their fourth year. At the time of the interviews, students had been authors of a CURE publication for a year and a half. Students reported that they benefited personally and professionally from the publication. Students had varying perceptions of what is required for authorship, but every student thought that writing the manuscript was needed, and only two mentioned needing to approve the final draft. Additionally, we identified incomplete conceptions that students had about CURE publications. This work establishes student-perceived benefits from CURE publications and highlights the need for authorship requirements to be explicitly addressed in CUREs.


Assuntos
Estudantes , Universidades , Autoria , Humanos , Percepção
12.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 93(3): e2021933, 2021 08 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34378643
13.
Br Dent J ; 231(2): 114, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34302093
14.
Rev Port Cardiol (Engl Ed) ; 40(7): 501-504, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34274097

RESUMO

gA ender gap is apparent in several professional areas, including in Medicine and particularly in the Cardiovascular field. We present a brief review of the subject and we analyse data from the Portuguese Journal of Cardiology regarding women authorship.


Assuntos
Autoria , Cardiologia , Grupos Étnicos , Feminino , Humanos , Portugal , Fatores Sexuais
15.
J Comput Assist Tomogr ; 45(4): 495-499, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34270477

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: This article will review critical components for the successful completion of a multi-institution, multiauthor collaborative paper. Best practices for the creation and publication of a collaborative paper will be addressed.


Assuntos
Autoria , Publicações Periódicas como Assunto , Editoração , Radiologia , Redação , Centros Médicos Acadêmicos , Comportamento Cooperativo , Humanos
16.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 Jun 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34201092

RESUMO

The influence of dietary choline availability on cognition is currently being suggested by animal and human studies which have focused mainly on the early developmental stages. The aim of this review is to systematically search through the available rodent (rats and mice) research published during the last two decades that has assessed the effect of dietary choline interventions on cognition and related attentional and emotional processes for the entire life span. The review has been conducted according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement guidelines covering peer-reviewed studies included in PubMed and Scopus databases. After excluding duplicates and applying the inclusion/exclusion criteria we have reviewed a total of 44 articles published in 25 journals with the contribution of 146 authors. The results are analyzed based on the timing and duration of the dietary intervention and the behavioral tests applied, amongst other variables. Overall, the available results provide compelling support for the relevance of dietary choline in cognition. The beneficial effects of choline supplementation is more evident in recognition rather than in spatial memory tasks when assessing nonpathological samples whilst these effects extend to other relational memory tasks in neuropathological models. However, the limited number of studies that have evaluated other cognitive functions suggest a wider range of potential effects. More research is needed to draw conclusions about the critical variables and the nature of the impact on specific cognitive processes. The results are discussed on the terms of the theoretical framework underlying the relationship between the brain systems and cognition.


Assuntos
Colina/farmacologia , Cognição/efeitos dos fármacos , Dieta/psicologia , Animais , Ansiedade/psicologia , Autoria , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Colina/administração & dosagem , Emoções/efeitos dos fármacos , Publicações
17.
J Craniofac Surg ; 32(5): 1653-1654, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34319674

Assuntos
Autoria , Humanos
18.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 57(6)2021 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34205638

RESUMO

Background and Objectives: The population is aging and fragility fractures are a research topic of steadily growing importance. Therefore, a systematic bibliometric review was performed to identify the 50 most cited articles in the field of fragility fractures analyzing their qualities and characteristics. Materials and Methods: From the Core Collection database in the Thomson Reuters Web of Knowledge, the most influential original articles with reference to fragility fractures were identified in February 2021 using a multistep approach. Year of publication, total number of citations, average number of citations per year since year of publication, affiliation of first and senior author, geographic origin of study population, keywords, and level of evidence were of interest. Results: Articles were published in 26 different journals between 1997 and 2020. The number of total citations per article ranged from 12 to 129 citations. In the majority of publications, orthopedic surgeons and traumatologists (66%) accounted for the first authorship, articles mostly originated from Europe (58%) and the keyword mostly used was "hip fracture". In total, 38% of the articles were therapeutic studies level III followed by prognostic studies level I. Only two therapeutic studies with level I could be identified. Conclusions: This bibliometric review shows the growing interest in fragility fractures and raises awareness that more high quality and interdisciplinary studies are needed.


Assuntos
Bibliometria , Fraturas Ósseas , Autoria , Bases de Dados Factuais , Europa (Continente) , Humanos
19.
BMJ Open ; 11(7): e051224, 2021 07 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34261692

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Evaluate gender differences in authorship of COVID-19 articles in high-impact medical journals compared with other topics. DESIGN: Cross-sectional review. DATA SOURCES: Medline database. ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: Articles published from 1 January to 31 December 2020 in the seven leading general medical journals by impact factor. Article types included primary research, reviews, editorials and commentaries. DATA EXTRACTION: Key data elements were whether the study topic was related to COVID-19 and names of the principal and the senior authors. A hierarchical approach was used to determine the likely gender of authors. Logistic regression assessed the association of study characteristics, including COVID-19 status, with authors' likely gender; this was quantified using adjusted ORs (aORs). RESULTS: We included 2252 articles, of which 748 (33.2%) were COVID-19-related and 1504 (66.8%) covered other topics. A likely gender was determined for 2138 (94.9%) principal authors and 1890 (83.9%) senior authors. Men were significantly more likely to be both principal (1364 men; 63.8%) and senior (1332 men; 70.5%) authors. COVID-19-related articles were not associated with the odds of men being principal (aOR 0.99; 95% CI 0.81 to 1.21; p=0.89) or senior authors (aOR 0.96; 95% CI 0.78 to 1.19; p=0.71) relative to other topics. Articles with men as senior authors were more likely to have men as principal authors (aOR 1.49; 95% CI 1.21 to 1.83; p<0.001). Men were more likely to author articles reporting original research and those with corresponding authors based outside the USA and Europe. CONCLUSIONS: Women were substantially under-represented as authors among articles in leading medical journals; this was not significantly different for COVID-19-related articles. Study limitations include potential for misclassification bias due to the name-based analysis. Results suggest that barriers to women's authorship in high-impact journals during COVID-19 are not significantly larger than barriers that preceded the pandemic and that are likely to continue beyond it. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42020186702.


Assuntos
Autoria , COVID-19 , Publicações Periódicas como Assunto , Estudos Transversais , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Forensic Sci Int ; 325: 110824, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34098471

RESUMO

Being able to identify the author of an anonymous or disputed document is an important task in forensic science. This can be treated as a form of pattern evidence based on writing style, but the subjective analysis of writing style may have all the well-known problems of other forms of subjective pattern evidence. In this paper, we demonstrate a computer program to address these issues. This program analyzes a pair of documents (a known document and a questioned document) to determine if they were written by the same author. More importantly, this paper also validates the accuracy of this program through a large-scale series of controlled experiments involving English language blogs. Across more than 32,000 different document pairs, the system achieved a measured accuracy of 77%. This paper concludes that this system not only addresses a key problem in forensic linguistics, but also provides the repeatability, reproducibility, and measured accuracy levels that are key to the advancement of forensic science.


Assuntos
Autoria , Ciências Forenses/métodos , Linguística , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
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