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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e251438, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345560

RESUMO

Abstract The northwestern portion of the Upper Paraná Atlantic Forest ecoregion is one of the most disturbed and fragmented areas in the Atlantic Forest, and little is known about the local avifauna. In this study, we have described the composition and diversity of the aquatic avifauna of this region and analyzed the patterns of similarity with respect to the seasonal as well as spatial distribution. We used the line transect sampling technique in six distinct humid areas (including lentic and lotic water bodies) during the dry and rainy seasons of 2012 and 2013. A total of 52 species of waterfowl were recorded. The species richness of the studied areas was surprisingly distinct; only seven waterfowl species, namely Cairina moschata (Linnaeus, 1758), Tigrisoma lineatum (Boddaert, 1783), Rosthramus sociabilis (Vieillot, 1817), Aramus guarauna (Linnaeus, 1766), Vanellus chilensis (Molina, 1782), Jacana jacana (Linnaeus, 1766), and Arundinicola leucocephala (Linnaeus, 1764), were common to these six studied areas. This indicated that the other bird species that were observed might be habitat selective. Moreover, the analysis of the composition of birds in the two seasons (dry and rainy) combined with their spatial distributions showed significant dissimilarities between the areas with lotic (river and constructed wetland) and lentic (lagoons) characteristics. Nevertheless, despite the small extent and low total richness of the entire study area, it was found to be home to 1/3 of all freshwater aquatic birds documented in the state of São Paulo, with the record of 5 migratory species and 11 new species added to the northwest of the state. The heterogeneity of local aquatic environments, habitat selection combined with seasonality, and the absence of other humid locations in the surroundings can explain the diversity and distribution of these birds in the water bodies of this uninvestigated Atlantic Forest ecoregion.


Resumo A porção noroeste da ecorregião Floresta Atlântica do Alto Paraná é uma das mais alteradas e fragmentadas da Mata Atlântica, da qual pouco se sabe sobre a avifauna local. Nosso objetivo foi descrever a diversidade e composição da avifauna aquática, bem como analisar os padrões de similaridade quanto a distribuição temporal e espacial destas aves nesta ecorregião. Utilizamos a transecção linear para amostragem em seis áreas úmidas (corpos d'água lênticos e lóticos), nos períodos de seca e chuva entre 2012 e 2013. Registramos 52 espécies de aves aquáticas e as riquezas das áreas mostraram-se distintas, pois apenas Cairina moschata (Linnaeus, 1758), Tigrisoma lineatum (Boddaert, 1783), Rosthramus sociabilis (Vieillot, 1817), Aramus guarauna (Linnaeus, 1766), Vanellus chilensis (Molina, 1782), Jacana jacana (Linnaeus, 1766), and Arundinicola leucocephala (Linnaeus, 1764) foram comuns às seis áreas, o que indica seleção de habitat. Quando analisada a composição das aves nos dois períodos aliada à distribuição espacial, encontramos dissimilaridades temporais acentuadas entre os ambientes com características lóticas (rio e aterro) e lênticas (lagoas). Isto mostra que, além das diferentes épocas sazonais, é necessário analisar separadamente os diferentes tipos de áreas úmidas. Por fim, apesar da extensão pequena e baixa riqueza total, a área amostrada abrigou 1/3 das aves aquáticas de água doce para o estado de São Paulo, cinco espécies migratórias e 11 novas espécies para o noroeste do estado. A heterogeneidade de ambientes aquáticos locais, forte seleção de habitat aliada à sazonalidade e ausência de outros locais úmidos em seu entorno, explicam a diversidade e distribuição destas aves estreitamente relacionadas aos corpos d'água desta desconhecida ecorregião da Mata Atlântica.


Assuntos
Animais , Aves , Biodiversidade , Estações do Ano , Brasil , Florestas , Ecossistema
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e255055, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355865

RESUMO

Abstract This study was aimed to investigate Carbofuran (CF)-induced pathological changes in cattle egret. Two hundred cattle egrets were reared and equally divided into four groups and given different CF concentrations (0.03 mg/L, 0.02 mg/L, 0.01 mg/L and 0 mg/L (control group)). Hematology, serum biochemistry, histopathology, and immunological markers were studied. Our results confirm that CF induces anemic conditions, leukocytosis, elevated liver enzymatic activity, and alterations in renal biomarkers. Moreover, specific microscopic lesions such as multifocal necrosis, pyknotic nuclei, hemorrhages, congestion, and inflammatory cell proliferation were observed in the liver, kidney, spleen, and thymus. These findings suggest that CF can induce harmful effects, so the application of this pesticide in the field must be strictly monitored to mitigate the possibility of exposure to non-target species.


Resumo Este estudo teve como objetivo investigar as alterações patológicas induzidas por carbofurano (CF) em garças-vaqueiras. Duzentas dessas garças foram criadas e divididas igualmente em quatro grupos e receberam diferentes concentrações de CF: 0,03 mg/L; 0,02 mg/L; 0,01 mg/L; e 0 mg/L (grupo controle). Foram realizadas análises de hematologia, bioquímica sérica, histopatologia e marcadores imunológicos. Nossos resultados confirmaram que CF induz condições anêmicas, leucocitose, atividade enzimática hepática elevada e alterações nos biomarcadores renais. Além disso, lesões microscópicas específicas, como necrose multifocal, núcleos picnóticos, hemorragias, congestão e proliferação de células inflamatórias, foram observadas no fígado, rim, baço e timo. Esses achados sugerem que o CF pode causar efeitos nocivos, portanto a aplicação desse agrotóxico no campo deve ser rigorosamente monitorada para mitigar a possibilidade de exposição a espécies não alvo.


Assuntos
Animais , Carbofurano/toxicidade , Aves , Bovinos
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e250280, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355867

RESUMO

Abstract Endozoochory by waterbirds is particularly relevant to the dispersal of non-flying aquatic invertebrates. This ecological function exercised by birds has been demonstrated in different biogeographical regions, but there are no studies for the neotropical region. In this work, we identified propagules of invertebrates in faeces of 14 syntopic South American waterbird species representing six families, and hatched additional invertebrates from cultured faeces. We tested whether propagule abundance, species richness and composition varied among bird species, and between the cold and warm seasons. We found 164 invertebrate propagules in faecal samples from seven different waterbirds species, including eggs of the Temnocephalida and Notonectidae, statoblasts of bryozoans (Plumatella sp.) and ephippia of Cladocera. Ciliates (including Paramecium sp. and Litostomatea), nematodes and rotifers (Adineta sp. and Nottomatidae) hatched from cultured samples. Potential for endozoochory was confirmed for 12 of 14 waterbird species. Our statistical models suggest that richness and abundance of propagules are associated with bird species and not affected by seasonality. Dispersal by endozoochory is potentially important to a broad variety of invertebrates, being promoted by waterbirds with different ecological and morphological traits, which are likely to drive the dispersal of invertebrates in neotropical wetlands.


Resumo A endozoocoria promovida por aves aquáticas é particularmente relevante para a dispersão de invertebrados aquáticos não-voadores. Essa função ecológica exercida pelas aves tem sido demonstrada para diferentes regiões biogeográficas, porém, não existem estudos para a região neotropical. Neste trabalho nós identificamos propágulos de invertebrados encontrados em fezes de 14 espécies sintópicas de aves aquáticas da América do Sul, representando seis famílias de aves, e também invertebrados emergidos de amostras fecais cultivadas em laboratório. Testamos se a abundância, riqueza de espécies e composição de propágulos de invertebrados variavam entre as espécies de aves e entre estações. Nós encontramos 164 propágulos de invertebrados em amostras fecais de sete espécies de aves, incluindo ovos de Temnocephalida e Notonectidae, estatoblastos de briozoários (Plumatella sp.) e efípios de Cladocera. Ciliados (incluindo Paramecium sp. e Litostomatea), nematóides e rotíferos (Adineta sp. e Nottomatidae) eclodiram de amostras cultivadas. O potencial para endozoocoria foi confirmado para 12 das 14 espécies de aves aquáticas investigadas. Nossos modelos estatísticos sugerem que a riqueza e abundância de propágulos estão associadas às espécies de aves e não são afetadas pela sazonalidade. A dispersão por endozoocoria é importante para uma ampla variedade de invertebrados, sendo promovida por aves aquáticas com diferentes características ecológicas e morfológicas as quais provavelmente regulam a dispersão de invertebrados entre áreas úmidas neotropicais.


Assuntos
Humanos , Animais , Áreas Alagadas , Invertebrados , Estações do Ano , Aves
4.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e247915, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339396

RESUMO

Abstract Wildlife trade is a profitable economic activity. Birds are among the most heavily traded animals worldwide, with numerous species threatened by pet trade. The present case study was stretched for period of one year to find out the status of wild birds' trade in Bannu and Dera Ismael Khan Divisions. The study was aimed to find out the types of species, commercial prices of bird, trade routes, overall income generated from birds' trade and the status of dealers whether licensed or not. Bimonthly visits were conducted to interview 52 bird dealers/pet shops owners/venders (23 in Dera Ismael Khan and 29 in Bannu). A sum of 16 conceivable sites were visited during the study period. Out of these, 8 sites were located in Dera Ismael Khan and 8 sites in Bannu Division. The highest priced species was Demoiselle crane (Grus virgo) and the lowest priced species was house sparrow (Passer domesticus). Total number of species traded in both regions were 8 and 14 while the income generated by bird trade was amounting to PkR 1,322,200 and 7,128,950 in Dera Ismael Khan and Bannu respectively. Majority of the birds were trapped locally with the exception of few from adjacent areas. Commercial activity led by illegal bird traders was found 75% and 100% species in Dera Ismael Khan and Bannu respectively. There was no significant difference between prices of birds, number of species sold and income generated by bird trade in two divisions.


Resumo O comércio de animais selvagens é uma atividade econômica lucrativa. Os pássaros estão entre os animais mais comercializados em todo o mundo, com inúmeras espécies ameaçadas pelo comércio de animais de estimação. O presente estudo de caso foi estendido por um período de um ano para descobrir a situação do comércio de aves selvagens nas Divisões Bannu e Dera Ismael Khan. O estudo teve como objetivo descobrir os tipos de espécies, os preços comerciais das aves, as rotas comerciais, a receita geral gerada pelo comércio de aves e o status dos negociantes, licenciados ou não. Visitas bimestrais foram realizadas para entrevistar 52 comerciantes de pássaros / proprietários / vendedores de pet shops (23 em Dera Ismael Khan e 29 em Bannu). Uma soma de 16 locais concebíveis foram visitados durante o período de estudo. Destes, 8 sites estavam localizados em Dera Ismael Khan e 8 sites na Divisão Bannu. A espécie com preço mais alto foi o guindaste Demoiselle (Grus virgo) e a espécie com preço mais baixo foi o pardal (Passer domesticus). O número total de espécies comercializadas em ambas as regiões foi de 8 e 14, enquanto a receita gerada pelo comércio de aves foi de PkR 1.322.200 e 7.128.950 em Dera Ismael Khan e Bannu, respectivamente. A maioria das aves foi capturada localmente, com exceção de algumas das áreas adjacentes. A atividade comercial liderada por comerciantes ilegais de aves foi encontrada com 75% e 100% de espécies em Dera Ismael Khan e Bannu, respectivamente. Não houve diferença significativa entre os preços das aves, o número de espécies vendidas e a receita gerada pelo comércio de aves nas duas divisões.


Assuntos
Animais , Aves , Animais Selvagens , Paquistão
5.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e248814, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339390

RESUMO

Abstract The karyotype and constitutive heterochromatin pattern of the white stork Ciconia ciconia samples obtained from Manzala lake, Dimiaat, Egypt was described. Somatic cells of Ciconia ciconia samples have diploid number 2n= 68 chromosomes. Out of 68 chromosomes, 11 pairs including sex chromosomes were macrochromosomes and the remaining pairs were microchromosomes. Of the 11 macrochromosome pairs, no.1, 2, 4 and 5 were submetacentric and pairs no. 6, 7 and 8 were described as metacentric. In addition, the autosome pair no.3 was subtelocentric, while autosome pair no.9 was acrocentric. Also, the sex chromosome Z represents the fourth one in size and it was classified as submetacentric while, W chromosome appeared as medium size and was acrocentric. Furthermore, C-banding pattern (constitutive heterochromatin) revealed variation in their sizes and occurrence between macrochromosomes. Pairs no. 7 and 8 of autosomes exhibited unusual distribution of heterochromatin, where they appeared as entirely heterochromatic. This may be related to the origin of sex chromosomes Z and W. However, there is no sufficient evidence illustrate the appearance of entirely heterochromatic autosomes. Therefore, there is no available cytogenetic literature that describes the C-banding and karyotype of Ciconia Ciconia, so the results herein are important and may assist in cytogenetic study and evolutionary pattern of Ciconiiformes.


Resumo O cariótipo e o padrão constitutivo de heterocromatina das amostras de cegonha-branca Ciconia ciconia obtidas no lago Manzala, Dimiaat, Egito, foram descritos. As células somáticas de amostras de Ciconia ciconia possuem número diploide 2n = 68 cromossomos. Dos 68 cromossomos, 11 pares incluindo cromossomos sexuais eram macrocromossomos e os pares restantes eram microcromossomos. Dos 11 pares de macrocromossomos, os nos 1, 2, 4 e 5 eram submetacêntricos, e os pares nos 6, 7 e 8 foram descritos como metacêntricos. Além disso, o par de autossomos no 3 era subtelocêntrico, enquanto o par de autossomos no 9 era acrocêntrico. Além disso, o cromossomo sexual Z representa o quarto em tamanho e foi classificado como submetacêntrico, enquanto o cromossomo W apareceu como de tamanho médio e acrocêntrico. Além disso, o padrão de bandamento C (heterocromatina constitutiva) revelou variação em seus tamanhos e ocorrência entre macrocromossomos. Pares nos 7 e 8 dos autossomos exibiram distribuição incomum de heterocromatina, onde apareceram como totalmente heterocromáticos. Isso pode estar relacionado à origem dos cromossomos sexuais Z e W. No entanto, não há evidências suficientes para ilustrar o aparecimento de autossomos totalmente heterocromáticos. Portanto, não há literatura citogenética disponível que descreva o bandamento C e o cariótipo de Ciconia ciconia, portanto os resultados aqui apresentados são importantes e podem auxiliar no estudo citogenético e no padrão evolutivo de Ciconiiformes.


Assuntos
Animais , Cromossomos Sexuais/genética , Heterocromatina/genética , Aves , Cariótipo , Cariotipagem
6.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e249229, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339374

RESUMO

Abstract Birds are very valuable indicators of species richness and endemic patterns in a specified ecosystem, which eventually help the scientist to measure the environmental degradation. The aim of present study was to know human knowledge and attitude toward urban birds in Faisalabad city, Pakistan. The study conducted in four consecutive months: November 2019 to February 2020. Population of birds was noted from eight residential towns of Faisalabad city, data were collected through questionnaire. Faisalabad has a reasonably large population of birds and present data show that, there is a significant difference between favorite bird of residential areas and institutions. The pigeon received the most likeness in bird population among residential area residents, while the myna received the least. The most popular bird in Faisalabad institutions was the sparrow, while the least popular bird was the common myna. Bird adaptation percentage of residential areas and institutional areas of Faisalabad was the highest for parrot and sparrow respectively. People in residential areas and institutions, on the other hand, adapted least to common myna. It is concluded that people of the study area like birds and offered food and high population of birds are present in study area.


Resumo Os pássaros são indicadores muito valiosos da riqueza de espécies e padrões endêmicos em um determinado ecossistema, o que acaba ajudando o cientista a medir a degradação ambiental. O objetivo do presente estudo foi conhecer o conhecimento humano e a atitude em relação às aves urbanas na cidade de Faisalabad, Paquistão. O estudo foi conduzido em quatro meses consecutivos: novembro de 2019 a fevereiro de 2020. A população de pássaros foi observada em oito cidades residenciais da cidade de Faisalabad, os dados foram coletados por meio de questionário. Faisalabad tem uma população razoavelmente grande de pássaros, e os dados atuais mostram que há uma diferença significativa entre as aves favoritas de áreas residenciais e instituições. O pombo recebeu mais semelhanças na população de pássaros entre os residentes de áreas residenciais, enquanto o myna recebeu menos. A ave mais popular nas instituições de Faisalabad era o pardal, enquanto a ave menos popular era o myna comum. A porcentagem de adaptação de pássaros em áreas residenciais e institucionais de Faisalabad foi a mais alta para papagaios e pardais, respectivamente. As pessoas em áreas residenciais e instituições, por outro lado, se adaptaram menos ao myna comum. Conclui-se que pessoas da área de estudo como pássaros e alimentos oferecidos e alta população de pássaros estão presentes na área de estudo.


Assuntos
Humanos , Animais , Aves , Ecossistema , Paquistão , Cidades , Biodiversidade
7.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e248842, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339343

RESUMO

Abstract Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity levels can be used as an indicator for AChE inhibition due to pesticide poisoning in bird species. We assessed the comparative brain cholinesterase (AChE) activity level of five bird species inhabiting pesticide exposed croplands and Protected Area i.e. Deva Vatala National Park (DVNP), Bhimber by using a spectrophotometric method. AChE activity levels ranged from 56.3 to 85.9 µmol/min/g of brain tissue of birds representing DVNP. However, AChE activity levels ranged from 27.6 to 79.9 µmol/min/g of brain tissue of birds representing croplands. AChE activity levels observed in Jungle babbler, Common babbler, and Red-vented bulbul showed significant differences (P < 0.05) at two sites. However, White wagtail and Black drongo demonstrated non-significant differences (P > 0.05). Maximum inhibition was recorded in Jungle babbler (53%) followed by Common babbler (35%), Red-vented bulbul (18%), White wagtail (15%), and Black drongo (7%). The brain cholinesterase inhibition levels under-protected ecosystems (DVNP, Bhimber) and agricultural landscape suggest insecticidal contamination and its impact on avifauna diversity. The study also emphasizes on the importance of pesticide-free zones to protect the biodiversity of birds.


Resumo Os níveis de atividade da acetilcolinesterase (AChE) podem ser usados ​​como um indicador para a inibição da AChE devido ao envenenamento por pesticidas em espécies de aves. Avaliamos o nível de atividade comparativa da colinesterase cerebral (AChE) de cinco espécies de aves que habitam áreas cultivadas expostas a pesticidas e Área Protegida, ou seja, Deva Vatala National Park (DVNP), Bhimber, usando um método espectrofotométrico. Os níveis de atividade da AChE variaram de 56,3 a 85,9 µmol / min / g de tecido cerebral de aves representando DVNP. No entanto, os níveis de atividade da AChE variaram de 27,6 a 79,9 µmol / min / g de tecido cerebral de aves representando áreas de cultivo. Os níveis de atividade de AChE observados no tagarela da selva, tagarela comum e bulbul vermelho exalado mostraram diferenças significativas (P < 0,05) em dois locais. No entanto, alvéola branca e drongo preto demonstraram diferenças não significativas (P > 0,05). A inibição máxima foi registrada no tagarela da selva (53%), seguido pelo tagarela comum (35%), bulbul vermelho (18%), alvéola branca (15%) e drongo preto (7%). Os níveis de inibição da colinesterase cerebral nos ecossistemas subprotegidos (DVNP, Bhimber) e na paisagem agrícola sugerem contaminação por inseticida e seu impacto na diversidade da avifauna. O estudo também enfatiza a importância das zonas livres de pesticidas para proteger a biodiversidade das aves.


Assuntos
Animais , Praguicidas/toxicidade , Paquistão , Acetilcolinesterase , Aves , Inibidores da Colinesterase/toxicidade , Ecossistema , Produtos Agrícolas
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35051629

RESUMO

Reproduction, and parental care in particular, are among the most energy-demanding activities within the annual cycle of adult birds. Parents that cannot meet the metabolic demands and other physiological costs of raising offspring may opt to abandon chicks in favour of self-maintenance and future reproduction. Recent work examining reproductive trade-offs in birds revealed an important role of oxygen carrying capacity in mediating variation in parental effort. This study explores the aerobic factors underlying the success or failure of parental care in two closely-related petrel species during their breeding season on Bird Island, South Georgia: northern giant petrels (Macronectes halli) and southern giant petrels (M. giganteus). Failed breeders of both sexes and species had significantly lower hematocrit levels (by 5.48 ± 0.64%) than successful breeders, and reticulocyte counts also tended to be lower in failed males, consistent with the hypothesis that parental care and workload depend on aerobic capacity. We discuss these results in relation to differences in the foraging ecology of both species and sexes.


Assuntos
Aves , Reprodução , Animais , Aves/fisiologia , Feminino , Masculino , Reprodução/fisiologia , Estações do Ano
9.
PLoS One ; 17(8): e0271405, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35944024

RESUMO

Identifying biological processes that structure natural communities has long interested ecologists. Community structure may be determined by various processes, including differential responses of species to environmental characteristics, regional-level spatial influences such as dispersal, or stochasticity generated from ecological drift. Few studies have used the metacommunity paradigm (interacting communities linked by dispersal) to investigate avian community composition along an urban gradient, yet such a theoretical construct may provide insights into species turnover even in unnatural settings such as rural to urban gradients. We measured the influence of spatial and environmental characteristics on two aspects of avian community structure across a gradient of urbanization: 1) taxonomic composition and 2) functional richness based on diet, foraging strategies, nesting locations and morphology. We also measured the relationship between species traits and environmental variables with an RLQ-fourth corner analysis. Together, environmental and spatial processes were significantly related to taxonomic structure and functional richness, but spatial variables accounted for more variation than environmental variables. Fine spatial scales were positively correlated with insectivorous birds and negatively correlated with body and wing size. Urbanization was positively correlated with birds that forage at the canopy level, while emergent wetlands were negatively correlated with birds that nested in cliffs and frugivorous birds. Functional richness and urbanization were significantly related to fine spatial variables. Spatial and environmental factors played an important role in taxonomic and functional structure in avian metacommunity structure. This study highlights the importance of studying multiple aspects of biodiversity, such as taxonomic and functional dimensions, especially when examining effects of complementary spatial and environmental processes.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Aves , Animais , Aves/fisiologia , Ecossistema , Urbanização , Áreas Alagadas
10.
Harmful Algae ; 117: 102270, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35944958

RESUMO

Harmful algal blooms produce biotoxins that can injure or kill fish, wildlife, and humans. These blooms occur naturally but have intensified in many locations globally due to recent climatic changes, including ocean warming. Such changes are especially pronounced in northern regions, where the effects of paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) on marine wildlife are of growing concern. In Alaska, seabird mortality events have increased in frequency, magnitude, and duration since 2015 alongside anomalously high ocean temperatures. Although starvation has been implicated as the apparent cause of death in many of these die-offs, saxitoxin (STX) and other PSTs have been identified as possible contributing factors. Here, we describe a mortality event at a nesting colony of Arctic Terns (Sterna paradisaea) near Juneau, Alaska in 2019 and report elevated concentrations of PSTs in bird, forage fish, and mussel samples. Concentrations of STX and other PSTs in tern tissues (2.5-51.2 µg 100g-1 STX-equivalents [STX-eq]) were of similar magnitude to those reported from other PST-induced bird die-offs. We documented high PST concentrations in blue mussels (>11,000 µg 100g-1 STX-eq; Mytilus edulis spp.) collected from nearby beaches, as well as in forage fish (up to 494 µg 100g-1 STX-eq) retrieved from Arctic Tern nests, thereby providing direct evidence of PST exposure via the terns' prey. At maximum concentrations measured in this study, a single 5 g Pacific Sand Lance (Ammodytes personatus) could exceed the median lethal STX dose (LD50) currently estimated for birds, offering strong support for PSTs as a likely source of tern mortality. In addition to describing this localized bird mortality event, we used existing energetics data from adult and nestling Arctic Terns to calculate estimated cumulative daily PST exposure based on ecologically relevant concentrations in forage fish. Our estimates revealed potentially lethal levels of PST exposure even at relatively low (≤30 ug 100g-1 STX-eq) toxin concentrations in prey. These findings suggest that PSTs present a significant hazard to Arctic Terns and other northern seabirds and should be included in future investigations of avian mortality events as well as assessments of population health.


Assuntos
Charadriiformes , Alaska , Animais , Aves , Peixes , Humanos , Saxitoxina , Alimentos Marinhos , Frutos do Mar/análise
11.
Proc Biol Sci ; 289(1980): 20221105, 2022 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35946156

RESUMO

The presence of migratory birds on islands results in seasonal variation in species richness. These patterns and their geographical correlates within the context of island biogeography theory have not been examined. We used 21 years of bird observations on 690 islands from eBird to determine how seasonal species richness estimates vary as a function of island area, isolation and latitude. Species richness was highest on islands within the northern mid-latitudes during migration and on islands within tropical latitudes during the non-breeding season. Area defined positive, nonlinear relationships with species richness across seasons, with the steepest slopes occurring with islands greater than 1100 km2. Distance to mainland defined negative, nonlinear relationships with species richness across seasons, with the strongest slopes occurring with islands located greater than 150 km from the mainland. Species-area relationships were weakest for the most remote islands and strongest for islands at intermediate distances to the mainland. Intermediate proximity to other islands was a poor predictor of species richness. Our findings emphasize the presence of seasonally dynamic geographical relationships, the enhanced role of evolutionary processes on larger islands, the unique ecology of the world's most remote islands, and the importance of islands as stopover sites and wintering grounds for migratory bird species.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Aves , Animais , Geografia , Ilhas , Estações do Ano
12.
PLoS One ; 17(8): e0270498, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35947546

RESUMO

Determining the acoustic ecology of extinct or rare species is challenging due to the inability to record their acoustic signals or hearing thresholds. Katydids and their relatives (Orthoptera: Ensifera) offer a model for inferring acoustic ecology of extinct and rare species, due to allometric parameters of their sound production organs. Here, the bioacoustics of the orthopteran Prophalangopsis obscura are investigated. This species is one of only eight remaining members of an ancient family with over 90 extinct species that dominated the acoustic landscape of the Jurassic. The species is known from only a single confirmed specimen-the 150-year-old holotype material housed at the London Natural History Museum. Using Laser-Doppler Vibrometry, 3D surface scanning microscopy, and known scaling relationships, it is shown that P. obscura produces a pure-tone song at a frequency of ~4.7 kHz. This frequency range is distinct but comparable to the calls of Jurassic relatives, suggesting a limitation of early acoustic signals in insects to sonic frequencies (<20 kHz). The acoustic ecology and importance of this species in understanding ensiferan evolution, is discussed.


Assuntos
Ortópteros , Acústica , Animais , Aves , Insetos , Som
13.
PLoS One ; 17(8): e0272836, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35947613

RESUMO

Charadriiformes represent one of the largest orders of birds; members of this order are diverse in morphology, behavior and reproduction, making them an excellent model for studying evolution. It is accepted that the avian putative ancestral karyotype, with 2n = 80, remains conserved for about 100 million years. So far, only a few species of Charadriiformes have been studied using molecular cytogenetics. Here, we performed chromosome painting on metphase chromosomes of two species of Charadriidae, Charadrius collaris and Vanellus chilensis, with whole chromosome paint probes from Burhinus oedicnemus. Charadrius collaris has a diploid number of 76, with both sex chromosomes being submetacentric. In V. chilensi a diploid number of 78 was identified, and the Z chromosome is submetacentric. Chromosome painting suggests that chromosome conservation is a characteristic common to the family Charadriidae. The results allowed a comparative analysis between the three suborders of Charadriiformes and the order Gruiformes using chromosome rearrangements to understand phylogenetic relationships between species and karyotypic evolution. However, the comparative analysis between the Charadriiformes suborders so far has not revealed any shared rearrangements, indicating that each suborder follows an independent evolutionary path, as previously proposed. Likewise, although the orders Charadriiformes and Gruiformes are placed on sister branches, they do not share any signature chromosomal rearrangements.


Assuntos
Anfípodes , Charadriiformes , Anfípodes/genética , Animais , Aves/genética , Charadriiformes/genética , Coloração Cromossômica/métodos , Evolução Molecular , Filogenia , Cromossomos Sexuais/genética
14.
PLoS One ; 17(8): e0272875, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35947631

RESUMO

We investigated the cumulative effects of predation by piscivorous colonial waterbirds on the survival of multiple salmonid (Oncorhynchus spp.) populations listed under the U.S. Endangered Species Act (ESA) and determined what proportion of all sources of fish mortality (1 -survival) were due to birds in the Columbia River basin, USA. Anadromous juvenile salmonids (smolts) were exposed to predation by Caspian terns (Hydroprogne caspia), double-crested cormorants (Nannopterum auritum), California gulls (Larus californicus), and ring-billed gulls (L. delawarensis), birds known to consume both live and dead fish. Avian consumption and survival probabilities (proportion of available fish consumed or alive) were estimated for steelhead trout (O. mykiss), yearling Chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha), sub-yearling Chinook salmon, and sockeye salmon (O. nerka) during out-migration from the lower Snake River to the Pacific Ocean during an 11-year study period (2008-2018). Results indicated that probabilities of avian consumption varied greatly across salmonid populations, bird species, colony location, river reach, and year. Cumulative consumption probabilities (consumption by birds from all colonies combined) were consistently the highest for steelhead, with annual estimates ranging from 0.22 (95% credible interval = 0.20-0.26) to 0.51 (0.43-0.60) of available smolts. The cumulative effects of avian consumption were significantly lower for yearling and sub-yearling Chinook salmon, with consumption probabilities ranging annually from 0.04 (0.02-0.07) to 0.10 (0.07-0.15) and from 0.06 (0.3-0.09) to 0.15 (0.10-0.23), respectively. Avian consumption probabilities for sockeye salmon smolts was generally higher than for Chinook salmon smolts, but lower than for steelhead smolts, ranging annually from 0.08 (0.03-0.22) to 0.25 (0.14-0.44). Although annual consumption probabilities for birds from certain colonies were more than 0.20 of available smolts, probabilities from other colonies were less than 0.01 of available smolts, indicating that not all colonies of birds posed a substantial risk to smolt mortality. Consumption probabilities were lowest for small colonies and for colonies located a considerable distance from the Snake and Columbia rivers. Total mortality attributed to avian consumption was relatively small for Chinook salmon (less than 10%) but was the single greatest source of mortality for steelhead (greater than 50%) in all years evaluated. Results suggest that the potential benefits to salmonid populations of managing birds to reduce smolt mortality would vary widely depending on the salmonid population, the species of bird, and the size and location of the breeding colony.


Assuntos
Oncorhynchus mykiss , Oncorhynchus , Migração Animal , Animais , Aves , Oceano Pacífico , Rios , Salmão
15.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 4727, 2022 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35953489

RESUMO

Bergmann's and Allen's rules state that endotherms should be larger and have shorter appendages in cooler climates. However, the drivers of these rules are not clear. Both rules could be explained by adaptation for improved thermoregulation, including plastic responses to temperature in early life. Non-thermal explanations are also plausible as climate impacts other factors that influence size and shape, including starvation risk, predation risk, and foraging ecology. We assess the potential drivers of Bergmann's and Allen's rules in 30 shorebird species using extensive field data (>200,000 observations). We show birds in hot, tropical northern Australia have longer bills and smaller bodies than conspecifics in temperate, southern Australia, conforming with both ecogeographical rules. This pattern is consistent across ecologically diverse species, including migratory birds that spend early life in the Arctic. Our findings best support the hypothesis that thermoregulatory adaptation to warm climates drives latitudinal patterns in shorebird size and shape.


Assuntos
Aclimatação , Clima , Animais , Aves , Tamanho Corporal/fisiologia , Temperatura
16.
BMC Ecol Evol ; 22(1): 95, 2022 08 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35918644

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Metabolic activity and environmental energy are two of the most studied putative drivers of molecular evolutionary rates. Their extensive study, however, has resulted in mixed results and has rarely included the exploration of interactions among various factors impacting molecular evolutionary rates across large clades. Taking the diverse avian family Furnariidae as a case study, we examined the association between several estimates of molecular evolutionary rates with proxies of metabolic demands imposed by flight (wing loading and wing shape) and proxies of environmental energy across the geographic ranges of species (temperature and UV radiation). RESULTS: We found weak evidence of a positive effect of environmental and morphological variables on mitochondrial substitution rates. Additionally, we found that temperature and UV radiation interact to explain molecular rates at nucleotide sites affected by selection and population size (non-synonymous substitutions), contrary to the expectation of their impact on sites associated with mutation rates (synonymous substitutions). We also found a negative interaction between wing shape (as described by the hand-wing index) and body mass explaining mitochondrial molecular rates, suggesting molecular signatures of positive selection or reduced population sizes in small-bodied species with greater flight activity. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that the demands of flight and environmental energy pose multiple evolutionary pressures on the genome either by driving mutation rates or via their association with natural selection or population size. Data from whole genomes and detailed physiology across taxa will bring a more complete picture of the impact of metabolism, population size, and the environment on avian genome evolution.


Assuntos
Voo Animal , Asas de Animais , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Aves/genética , Evolução Molecular , Voo Animal/fisiologia , Filogenia , Asas de Animais/anatomia & histologia
17.
PLoS One ; 17(8): e0270957, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35925977

RESUMO

Determining the dynamics of where and when individuals occur is necessary to understand population declines and identify critical areas for populations of conservation concern. However, there are few examples where a spatially and temporally explicit model has been used to evaluate the migratory dynamics of a bird population across its entire annual cycle. We used geolocator-derived migration tracks of 84 Dunlin (Calidris alpina) on the East Asian-Australasian Flyway (EAAF) to construct a migratory network describing annual subspecies-specific migration patterns in space and time. We found that Dunlin subspecies exhibited unique patterns of spatial and temporal flyway use. Spatially, C. a. arcticola predominated in regions along the eastern edge of the flyway (e.g., western Alaska and central Japan), whereas C. a. sakhalina predominated in regions along the western edge of the flyway (e.g., N China and inland China). No individual Dunlin that wintered in Japan also wintered in the Yellow Sea, China seas, or inland China, and vice-versa. However, similar proportions of the 4 subspecies used many of the same regions at the center of the flyway (e.g., N Sakhalin Island and the Yellow Sea). Temporally, Dunlin subspecies staggered their south migrations and exhibited little temporal overlap among subspecies within shared migration regions. In contrast, Dunlin subspecies migrated simultaneously during north migration. South migration was also characterized by individuals stopping more often and for more days than during north migration. Taken together, these spatial-temporal migration dynamics indicate Dunlin subspecies may be differentially affected by regional habitat change and population declines according to where and when they occur. We suggest that the migration dynamics presented here are useful for guiding on-the-ground survey efforts to quantify subspecies' use of specific sites, and to estimate subspecies' population sizes and long-term trends. Such studies would significantly advance our understanding of Dunlin space-time dynamics and the coordination of Dunlin conservation actions across the EAAF.


Assuntos
Migração Animal , Charadriiformes , Animais , Aves , Ecossistema , Humanos , Estações do Ano
18.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 13452, 2022 Aug 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35927554

RESUMO

Reversing large-scale habitat degradation and deforestation goes beyond what can be achieved by site-level ecological restoration and a landscape ecology perspective is fundamental. Here we assess the relative importance of tree cover and its configuration on forest-dependent birds and late-successional tree seedlings in restoration sites in southern Costa Rica. The abundance and species richness of birds increased in landscapes with more corridors, higher tree cover, and lower levels of fragmentation, highlighting the importance of riparian corridors for connectivity, and continuous tree cover as suitable habitat. Landscape variables affected abundance and species richness of seedlings similarly, but effects were weaker, possibly because seedlings face establishment limitation in addition to dispersal limitation. Moreover, the scale of landscape effects on seedlings was small, likely because proximal individual trees can significantly influence recruitment in restoration plots. Results underscore the importance of incorporating landscape-level metrics to restoration projects, as knowing the extent, and how the landscape may affect restoration outcomes can help to infer what kind of species will arrive to restoration plots.


Assuntos
Florestas , Clima Tropical , Animais , Aves , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Ecossistema , Plântula , Árvores
19.
J R Soc Interface ; 19(193): 20220325, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35919980

RESUMO

Hundreds of studies have found that weak magnetic fields can significantly influence various biological systems. However, the underlying mechanisms behind these phenomena remain elusive. Remarkably, the magnetic energies implicated in these effects are much smaller than thermal energies. Here, we review these observations, and we suggest an explanation based on the radical pair mechanism, which involves the quantum dynamics of the electron and nuclear spins of transient radical molecules. While the radical pair mechanism has been studied in detail in the context of avian magnetoreception, the studies reviewed here show that magnetosensitivity is widespread throughout biology. We review magnetic field effects on various physiological functions, discussing static, hypomagnetic and oscillating magnetic fields, as well as isotope effects. We then review the radical pair mechanism as a potential unifying model for the described magnetic field effects, and we discuss plausible candidate molecules for the radical pairs. We review recent studies proposing that the radical pair mechanism provides explanations for isotope effects in xenon anaesthesia and lithium treatment of hyperactivity, magnetic field effects on the circadian clock, and hypomagnetic field effects on neurogenesis and microtubule assembly. We conclude by discussing future lines of investigation in this exciting new area of quantum biology.


Assuntos
Aves , Campos Magnéticos , Animais , Biologia , Aves/fisiologia
20.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 181: 113884, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35809474

RESUMO

Mercury (Hg) is globally-distributed, with severe toxic effects on wildlife. Methylmercury biomagnifies within food webs, so long-lived, top predators such as seabirds are prone to high mercury concentrations. We synthesized historical and contemporary data on mercury concentrations in seabirds from the North Atlantic. We collected 614 values determined from 39 species and 115 locations, ranging from 1895 to 1940 and from 1970 to 2020. Highest blood-equivalent Hg values were in Phalacrocoracidae. For the same species/tissue/collection site, blood-equivalent values were lower during pre-1940 than post-1970 period. In almost 5 % of post-1970 values, mean blood-equivalent Hg concentrations were above those considered to pose severe risks of adverse effects, and 21 % were above the high-risk effect. We found an imbalance in sample effort and did not find Hg values for many species. We argue that stronger, trans-Atlantic Hg monitoring schemes are required to coordinate research and better compare trends across a wide scale.


Assuntos
Mercúrio , Compostos de Metilmercúrio , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Aves , Monitoramento Ambiental , Cadeia Alimentar , Mercúrio/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
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