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1.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(12)2021 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34205763

RESUMO

Flocks of birds may cause major damage to fruit crops in the ripening phase. This problem is addressed by various methods for bird scaring; in many cases, however, the birds become accustomed to the distraction, and the applied scaring procedure loses its purpose. To help eliminate the difficulty, we present a system to detect flocks and to trigger an actuator that will scare the objects only when a flock passes through the monitored space. The actual detection is performed with artificial intelligence utilizing a convolutional neural network. Before teaching the network, we employed videocameras and a differential algorithm to detect all items moving in the vineyard. Such objects revealed in the images were labeled and then used in training, testing, and validating the network. The assessment of the detection algorithm required evaluating the parameters precision, recall, and F1 score. In terms of function, the algorithm is implemented in a module consisting of a microcomputer and a connected videocamera. When a flock is detected, the microcontroller will generate a signal to be wirelessly transmitted to the module, whose task is to trigger the scaring actuator.


Assuntos
Inteligência Artificial , Frutas , Animais , Aves , Redes Neurais de Computação
3.
J Environ Manage ; 294: 113149, 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34218073

RESUMO

Anthropogenic structures are increasingly encroaching wildlife habitats, creating conflicts between humans and animals. Scaling up renewable energy requires new infrastructures such as power lines, that cause high mortality among birds since they act as obstacles to flight and are used for perching and nesting, which can result in collisions or electrocutions. These interactions often endanger wildlife populations and may also result in high financial costs for companies. Flight behaviour plays a crucial role in collision risk, and the study of flight altitudes enables us to understand what drives birds to fly at collision risk altitudes. This allows the identification of high-risk areas, conditions and bird behaviours, and the implementation of mitigation measures by power line companies. In this study, we use boosted random tree modelling to identify drivers of white stork (Ciconia ciconia) flight altitudes and to investigate the factors that lead them to fly at collision risk altitudes. We found that the main drivers of flight altitude for this soaring bird species were time of day, distance to the nearest landfill site and cloud cover density. Bird age, habitat type and season were comparatively less important. Collision risk increases during crepuscular hours near landfill sites, also in days with high cloud cover density and during the breeding season. In recent years, hundreds to thousands of storks congregate daily at landfill sites to take advantage of the predictability and superabundance of anthropogenic food waste. Some of these sites have high density of power lines, becoming collision risk hotspots for storks and other landfill users. Despite being susceptible to collision, our results suggest that white storks can avoid power lines to a certain extent, by changing their flight altitude at ca. 80 m from these structures. This study shows that the implementation of mitigation measures for existing power lines should be prioritized in areas in the vicinity of landfill sites within white stork distribution ranges, and the projection of new lines should avoid those areas. These measures would benefit species vulnerable to mortality due to power line collision, and it would also reduce associated power outages and economic costs.


Assuntos
Altitude , Eliminação de Resíduos , Animais , Aves , Voo Animal , Alimentos , Humanos , Melhoramento Vegetal , Instalações de Eliminação de Resíduos
4.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(8): 2224-2227, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34287138

RESUMO

Two variants of highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N8) virus were detected in dead poultry in Western Siberia, Russia, during August and September 2020. One variant was represented by viruses of clade 2.3.4.4b and the other by a novel reassortant between clade 2.3.4.4b and Eurasian low pathogenicity avian influenza viruses circulating in wild birds.


Assuntos
Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H5N8 , Influenza Aviária , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Aves , Surtos de Doenças , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H5N8/genética , Influenza Aviária/epidemiologia , Filogenia , Vírus Reordenados/genética , Federação Russa/epidemiologia , Sibéria/epidemiologia
5.
J Exp Biol ; 224(13)2021 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34232314

RESUMO

The Arctic is warming at approximately twice the global rate, with well-documented indirect effects on wildlife. However, few studies have examined the direct effects of warming temperatures on Arctic wildlife, leaving the importance of heat stress unclear. Here, we assessed the direct effects of increasing air temperatures on the physiology of thick-billed murres (Uria lomvia), an Arctic seabird with reported mortalities due to heat stress while nesting on sun-exposed cliffs. We used flow-through respirometry to measure the response of body temperature, resting metabolic rate, evaporative water loss and evaporative cooling efficiency (the ratio of evaporative heat loss to metabolic heat production) in murres while experimentally increasing air temperature. Murres had limited heat tolerance, exhibiting: (1) a low maximum body temperature (43.3°C); (2) a moderate increase in resting metabolic rate relative that within their thermoneutral zone (1.57 times); (3) a small increase in evaporative water loss rate relative that within their thermoneutral zone (1.26 times); and (4) a low maximum evaporative cooling efficiency (0.33). Moreover, evaporative cooling efficiency decreased with increasing air temperature, suggesting murres were producing heat at a faster rate than they were dissipating it. Larger murres also had a higher rate of increase in resting metabolic rate and a lower rate of increase in evaporative water loss than smaller murres; therefore, evaporative cooling efficiency declined with increasing body mass. As a cold-adapted bird, murres' limited heat tolerance likely explains their mortality on warm days. Direct effects of overheating on Arctic wildlife may be an important but under-reported impact of climate change.


Assuntos
Termotolerância , Animais , Aves , Regulação da Temperatura Corporal , Temperatura Alta , Perda Insensível de Água
6.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 53(4): 414, 2021 Jul 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34312716

RESUMO

Avian chlamydiosis is one of the important neglected diseases with critical zoonotic potential. Chlamydia psittaci, the causative agent, affects most categories of birds, livestock, companion animals, and humans. It has many obscured characters and epidemiological dimensions, which makes it unique among other bacterial agents. Recent reports on transmission from equine to humans alarmed the public health authorities, and it necessitates the importance of routine screening of this infectious disease. High prevalence of spill-over infection in equines was associated with reproductive losses. Newer avian chlamydial species are being reported in the recent years. It is a potential biological warfare agent and the disease is an occupational hazard mainly to custom officers handling exotic birds. Prevalence of the disease in wild birds, pet birds, and poultry causes economic losses to the poultry industry and the pet bird trade. Interestingly, there are speculations on the 'legal' and 'illegal' bird trade that may be the global source of some of the most virulent strains of this pathogen. The mortality rate generally ranges from 5 to 40% in untreated cases, but it can sometimes be higher in co-infection. The intracellular lifestyle of this pathogen makes the diagnosis more complicated and there is also lack of accurate diagnostics. Resistance to antibiotics is reported only in some pathogens of the Chlamydiaceae family, but routine screening may assess the actual situation in all pathogens. Due to the diverse nature of the pathogen, the organism necessitates the One Health partnerships to have complete understanding. The present review focuses on the zoonotic aspects of avian chlamydiosis with its new insights into the pathogenesis, transmission, treatment, prevention, and control strategies. The review also briefs on the basic understandings and complex epidemiology of avian chlamydiosis, highlighting the need for research on emerging one health perspectives.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves , Doenças dos Cavalos , Psitacose , Animais , Doenças das Aves/epidemiologia , Aves , Cavalos , Doenças Negligenciadas/veterinária , Psitacose/epidemiologia , Psitacose/veterinária , Zoonoses/epidemiologia
7.
Viruses ; 13(7)2021 06 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34209881

RESUMO

The viral family Coronaviridae comprises four genera, termed Alpha-, Beta-, Gamma-, and Deltacoronavirus. Recombination events have been described in many coronaviruses infecting humans and other animals. However, formal analysis of the recombination patterns, both in terms of the involved genome regions and the extent of genetic divergence between partners, are scarce. Common methods of recombination detection based on phylogenetic incongruences (e.g., a phylogenetic compatibility matrix) may fail in cases where too many events diminish the phylogenetic signal. Thus, an approach comparing genetic distances in distinct genome regions (pairwise distance deviation matrix) was set up. In alpha, beta, and delta-coronaviruses, a low incidence of recombination between closely related viruses was evident in all genome regions, but it was more extensive between the spike gene and other genome regions. In contrast, avian gammacoronaviruses recombined extensively and exist as a global cloud of genes with poorly corresponding genetic distances in different parts of the genome. Spike, but not other structural proteins, was most commonly exchanged between coronaviruses. Recombination patterns differed between coronavirus genera and corresponded to the modular structure of the spike: recombination traces were more pronounced between spike domains (N-terminal and C-terminal parts of S1 and S2) than within domains. The variability of possible recombination events and their uneven distribution over the genome suggest that compatibility of genes, rather than mechanistic or ecological limitations, shapes recombination patterns in coronaviruses.


Assuntos
Coronavirus/classificação , Coronavirus/genética , Evolução Molecular , Variação Genética , Genoma Viral , Recombinação Genética , Animais , Aves/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Filogenia , Proteínas Virais/genética
10.
Science ; 373(6551): 226-231, 2021 07 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34244416

RESUMO

Early events in the evolutionary history of a clade can shape the sensory systems of descendant lineages. Although the avian ancestor may not have had a sweet receptor, the widespread incidence of nectar-feeding birds suggests multiple acquisitions of sugar detection. In this study, we identify a single early sensory shift of the umami receptor (the T1R1-T1R3 heterodimer) that conferred sweet-sensing abilities in songbirds, a large evolutionary radiation containing nearly half of all living birds. We demonstrate sugar responses across species with diverse diets, uncover critical sites underlying carbohydrate detection, and identify the molecular basis of sensory convergence between songbirds and nectar-specialist hummingbirds. This early shift shaped the sensory biology of an entire radiation, emphasizing the role of contingency and providing an example of the genetic basis of convergence in avian evolution.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Néctar de Plantas , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas G/química , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas G/metabolismo , Aves Canoras/fisiologia , Percepção Gustatória , Aminoácidos , Animais , Proteínas Aviárias/química , Proteínas Aviárias/metabolismo , Aves/fisiologia , Carboidratos , Dieta , Comportamento Alimentar , Multimerização Proteica , Sacarose
11.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 30(3): e006521, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34259741

RESUMO

Protozoan parasites of the genus Sarcocystis are obligatory heteroxenous cyst-forming coccidia that infect a wide variety of animals and encompass approximately 200 described species. At least four Sarcocystis spp. (S. falcatula, S. neurona, S. lindsayi and S. speeri) use opossums (Didelphis spp.) as definitive hosts, and two of them, S. neurona and S. falcatula, are known to cause disease in horses and birds, respectively. Opossums are restricted to the Americas, but their distribution in the Americas is heterogeneous. Five Didelphis spp. are distributed in South America (D. aurita, D. albiventris, D. marsupialis, D. imperfecta and D. pernigra) whereas just one opossum species (D. virginiana) is found in North America. Studies conducted in the last decades show that Sarcocystis spp., derived from South American Didelphis spp., have biological and genetic differences in relation to Sarcocystis spp. shed by the North American opossum D. virginiana. The aim of this review was to address the peculiar scenario of Sarcocystis species shed by South American opossums, with a special focus on diagnosis, epidemiology, and animal infections, as well as the genetic characteristics of these parasites.


Assuntos
Didelphis , Doenças dos Cavalos , Sarcocystis , Sarcocistose , Animais , Aves , Cavalos , Gambás , Sarcocistose/diagnóstico , Sarcocistose/epidemiologia , Sarcocistose/veterinária , América do Sul
12.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4163, 2021 07 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34230463

RESUMO

The nighttime environment is being altered rapidly over large areas worldwide through introduction of artificial lighting, from streetlights and other sources. This is predicted to impact the visual ecology of many organisms, affecting both their intra- and interspecific interactions. Here, we show the effects of different artificial light sources on multiple aspects of hawkmoth visual ecology, including their perception of floral signals for pollination, the potential for intraspecific sexual signalling, and the effectiveness of their visual defences against avian predators. Light sources fall into three broad categories: some that prevent use of chromatic signals for these behaviours, others that more closely mimic natural lighting conditions, and, finally, types whose effects vary with light intensity and signal colour. We find that Phosphor Converted (PC) amber LED lighting - often suggested to be less harmful to nocturnal insects - falls into this third disruptive group, with unpredictable consequences for insect visual ecology depending on distance from the light source and the colour of the objects viewed. The diversity of impacts of artificial lighting on hawkmoth visual ecology alone argues for a nuanced approach to outdoor lighting in environmentally sensitive areas, employing intensities and spectra designed to limit those effects of most significant concern.


Assuntos
Ecologia , Flores , Iluminação , Polinização , Animais , Aves , Comportamento Alimentar , Insetos , Luz , Manduca
13.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 52(2): 427-436, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34130384

RESUMO

The Association of Zoos and Aquariums Reproductive Management Center (RMC) in the US and the European Association of Zoos and Aquaria Reproductive Management Group (RMG) in Europe monitor efficacy of contraceptive products in participating institutions and use those results to inform contraceptive recommendations. This study used the joint RMC-RMG Contraception Database to analyze efficacy of deslorelin implants (Suprelorin®), a contraceptive used in a wide range of mammalian taxa. More recently its use has increased in birds and in some reptiles and fish. Deslorelin, a gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist, stimulates the reproductive system before downregulating receptors on pituitary cells that produce hormones that stimulate gonadal steroids in both males (testosterone) and females (estradiol and progesterone), interrupting sperm production and ovulation, respectively. Nevertheless, it has been used mostly in females. Efficacy has been high in mammals, with failures resulting in offspring in only 1.3% of treated individuals and 0.5% of treatment bouts. The failure rate has been higher in birds, with 14.7% of individuals in 7.2% of bouts producing eggs, perhaps reflecting differences in avian GnRH molecules. Too few reptiles and fish have been treated for meaningful analysis. Although deslorelin appears very safe, a possible exception exists in carnivores, because the stimulatory phase can result in ovulation and subsequent sustained progesterone secretion that may cause endometrial pathology. However, the stimulatory phase can be prevented by treatment with megestrol acetate for 7 d before and 7 d after implant insertion. The two current formulations of Suprelorin are effective for minimums of 6 (4.7 mg) or 12 mo (9.4 mg). The data indicate that Suprelorin is an effective and safe contraceptive option for female mammals, although it may not be effective in males of some mammalian species. Further research is needed to ascertain its usefulness in nonmammalian taxa.


Assuntos
Animais de Zoológico , Anticoncepcionais/administração & dosagem , Pamoato de Triptorrelina/análogos & derivados , Animais , Aves , Coleta de Dados , Implantes de Medicamento , Feminino , Masculino , Mamíferos , América do Norte , Pamoato de Triptorrelina/administração & dosagem
14.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 52(2): 671-679, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34130410

RESUMO

Island species are particularly vulnerable to environmental disturbances and introduced pathogens. Conducting health assessments of wild populations in the Galápagos improves the ability of wildlife managers and veterinarians to detect deteriorations in health status. Seabirds in particular are useful species to monitor due to their colonial breeding and wide migration range. Nazca boobies (Sula granti) in a breeding colony at Daphne Major (n = 30) were given physical examinations, and blood samples were collected for hematology and biochemistry using an iSTAT Portable Clinical Analyzer. Female boobies had longer wing length than males, as well as lower blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, and white blood cell counts. This could be attributed to sexual dimorphism or differences in foraging and mating strategies between the sexes. The time between capture and blood collection had a significant inverse relationship on plasma sodium, potassium, hemoglobin, anion gaps, and lymphocyte counts, suggesting that blood sampling in Nazca boobies should be done in less than 5 m to avoid the impacts of stress on hematological parameters. This is the first health assessment on the breeding colony of Nazca boobies at Daphne Major, and the results can inform future monitoring in this species as well as other sulids.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves/diagnóstico , Aves/sangue , Animais , Doenças das Aves/epidemiologia , Equador/epidemiologia , Feminino , Testes Hematológicos/veterinária , Masculino , Testes Sorológicos/veterinária
15.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 52(2): 689-697, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34130412

RESUMO

A retrospective study of neoplasia was conducted from necropsy and histologic reports of 446 cranes representing all 15 extant species. Cases were obtained from the International Crane Foundation (ICF), Northwest ZooPath (NWZP), and six other zoologic institutions in the United States during 1993 to 2019. Only reports from ICF (n = 61) and NWZP (n = 374) were used for estimates of disease prevalence. Overall prevalence of neoplasia was 7.35% (32 of 435), with a metastasis rate of 31.8%. Seventeen types of neoplasms were identified. Geriatric cranes were the most common age class affected (60%). The digestive system was most frequently involved (n = 12; 27.3%), followed by urinary (n = 8; 18.2%) and integumentary systems (n = 6; 13.6%). Carcinoma was the most common tumor type across all species (n = 15; 34.0%) followed by benign epithelial tumors (adenomas; n = 11; 25.0%). Multiple neoplasms were observed in only one crane. Of the cases with metastasis, hematopoietic, reproductive, and respiratory tumors had 100% metastasis (2 of 2, 2 of 2, and 3 of 3, respectively), whereas tumors of the integumentary, nervous, and musculoskeletal systems had no evidence of metastasis (0 of 7, 0 of 3, and 0 of 1, respectively). Overall, Gruidae species were found to have a high prevalence of neoplasia but a low rate of metastasis compared with other avian species with the highest species-specific rates in Eurasian (Grus grus), demoiselle (Anthropoides virgo), and wattled cranes (Bugeranus carunculatus) (40.0%, 21.4%, and 19.0%, respectively). This is the first large-scale study of neoplasia in cranes.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves/patologia , Neoplasias/veterinária , Envelhecimento , Animais , Animais de Zoológico , Doenças das Aves/epidemiologia , Aves , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/patologia , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Especificidade da Espécie , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
16.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 52(2): 787-794, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34130427

RESUMO

There are numerous reports on envenomation, even fatal, secondary to bee attacks in humans and other mammals. In birds, reports on those incidents are scarce and there are none regarding honeybee (Apis mellifera) stings in toucans. In the first case presented, an adult female red-breasted toucan (Ramphastos dicolorus) received at least five bee stings in the periophthalmic area. Within 5 h the bird was lethargic and dehydrated. The urates were yellowish. Three days later the bird showed a moderate anemia, but no changes in the leukocyte count, beyond an elevated heterophil: lymphocyte ratio. Blood chemistry showed hyperglycemia, hypoalbuminemia and elevated aspartate aminotransferase and creatine kinase. Alterations in electrolyte values were also noted. Fourteen days later bile acid elevation was observed. Hematocrit levels normalized after 2 wk. A second incident involved a breeding pair of toco toucans (Ramphastos toco). While the female toco toucan received 10 stings and showed mild clinical manifestations, the male toco toucan was more severely attacked, receiving 40 stings, and died overnight. Despite the relative gravity of the attack (in terms of number of stingers in relation to body weight) both surviving birds recovered in less than 2 wk. To the authors' knowledge, fatal bee envenomation in birds has been reported only in pigeons and macaws. The findings described in this report suggest that toucans are less sensitive to bee venom when compared with pigeons and may have higher tolerance to bee venom compared with mammals. Honeybee envenomation must be considered a potential threat when considering toucan husbandry in zoos and collections.


Assuntos
Venenos de Abelha/toxicidade , Doenças das Aves/etiologia , Mordeduras e Picadas de Insetos/veterinária , Animais , Animais de Zoológico , Doenças das Aves/sangue , Doenças das Aves/patologia , Aves , Evolução Fatal , Feminino , Mordeduras e Picadas de Insetos/patologia , Masculino
17.
Zootaxa ; 4984(1): 733, 2021 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34186698

RESUMO

The scientific life of Prof. Dr Jochen Martens (Germany: Mainz) is illuminated on occasion of his 80th birthday. Facts and impressions are given as well as lists of his publications (329), taxa he has described (2 families, 29 genera, 296 species) and that have been dedicated to him (11 genera, 219 species, 1 subspecies). Jochen Martens is a renowned specialist for birds (Aves) and for harvestmen (Opiliones). So far, he travelled to 27 countries in 80 journeys with Nepal and the Himalayas as one geographic focus.


Assuntos
Aracnídeos/classificação , Aves/classificação , Animais , História do Século XX
18.
Zootaxa ; 4984(1): 66, 2021 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34186699

RESUMO

To process a Festschrift is an honour and a unique opportunity to show respect to someone who made important contributions over many years in a special field of scientific research. In the case of Jochen Martens the contribution is to not only in one field, but in several: harvestmen, birds, high mountains, taxonomy, systematics, evolution etc.


Assuntos
Classificação , Animais , Aracnídeos/classificação , Evolução Biológica , Aves/classificação , Ecossistema , História do Século XX
19.
Environ Pollut ; 284: 117502, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34098370

RESUMO

Multidisciplinary approaches are essential to diligently assess environmental health status of ecosystems. In this study, year-round chemical elements' exposure and impacts were assessed on the wide-ranging Cory's shearwater Calonectris borealis breeding in Berlenga Island, offshore Portugal, North Atlantic Ocean. The aim was to identify potential contamination and oxidative stress sources associated with trophic ecology, habitat and spatial use, and foraging patterns. A set of 20 chemical elements were quantified, along with oxidative stress biomarkers, stable isotope analyses, and GPS tracking data. Birds presented higher accumulation to some non-essential elements along the year (i.e. arsenic, As; cadmium, Cd; mercury, Hg; lead, Pb; and strontium, Sr), in which concentrations were similar or surpassed other procellariform seabird populations all over the world. No significant differences were found for any of the elements between different periods within the breeding season, with exception of Hg. However, a Principal Component Analysis taking into consideration a group of elements showed differences between pre-laying and chick-rearing periods, with overall higher concentrations in the former. Individuals spending more time engaging in an intensive search for food, and in more coastal environments, presented overall higher element concentrations, and particularly Hg. Contrary to expectations, no relationships were found between chemical elements and oxidative stress. On the other hand, spatial use and foraging patterns of Cory's shearwaters influenced their oxidative stress responses. Our results highlight the need for multidisciplinary approaches to deepen understanding of the large-scale vulnerability of bioindicators such as seabirds and, by extension, the overall environmental health of ecosystems in which they rely.


Assuntos
Aves , Ecossistema , Animais , Oceano Atlântico , Estresse Oxidativo , Portugal
20.
Environ Sci Technol ; 55(13): 8947-8954, 2021 07 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34110128

RESUMO

Pollutants, such as toxic metals, negatively influence organismal health and performance, even leading to population collapses. Studies in model organisms have shown that epigenetic marks, such as DNA methylation, can be modulated by various environmental factors, including pollutants, influencing gene expression, and various organismal traits. Yet experimental data on the effects of pollution on DNA methylation from wild animal populations are largely lacking. We here experimentally investigated for the first time the effects of early-life exposure to environmentally relevant levels of a key pollutant, arsenic (As), on genome-wide DNA methylation in a wild bird population. We experimentally exposed nestlings of great tits (Parus major) to arsenic during their postnatal developmental period (3 to 14 days post-hatching) and compared their erythrocyte DNA methylation levels to those of respective controls. In contrast to predictions, we found no overall hypomethylation in the arsenic group. We found evidence for loci to be differentially methylated between the treatment groups, but for five CpG sites only. Three of the sites were located in gene bodies of zinc finger and BTB domain containing 47 (ZBTB47), HIVEP zinc finger 3 (HIVEP3), and insulin-like growth factor 2 mRNA binding protein 1 (IGF2BP1). Further studies are needed to evaluate whether epigenetic dysregulation is a commonly observed phenomenon in polluted populations and what are the consequences for organism functioning and for population dynamics.


Assuntos
Arsênio , Poluentes Ambientais , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Arsênio/toxicidade , Aves/genética , Metilação de DNA , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade
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