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1.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 1126, 2024 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38321046

RESUMO

Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) A H5, particularly clade 2.3.4.4, has caused worldwide outbreaks in domestic poultry, occasional spillover to humans, and increasing deaths of diverse species of wild birds since 2014. Wild bird migration is currently acknowledged as an important ecological process contributing to the global dispersal of HPAIV H5. However, this mechanism has not been quantified using bird movement data from different species, and the timing and location of exposure of different species is unclear. We sought to explore these questions through phylodynamic analyses based on empirical data of bird movement tracking and virus genome sequences of clade 2.3.4.4 and 2.3.2.1. First, we demonstrate that seasonal bird migration can explain salient features of the global dispersal of clade 2.3.4.4. Second, we detect synchrony between the seasonality of bird annual cycle phases and virus lineage movements. We reveal the differing exposed bird orders at geographical origins and destinations of HPAIV H5 clade 2.3.4.4 lineage movements, including relatively under-discussed orders. Our study provides a phylodynamic framework that links the bird movement ecology and genomic epidemiology of avian influenza; it highlights the importance of integrating bird behavior and life history in avian influenza studies.


Assuntos
Migração Animal , Vírus da Influenza A , Influenza Aviária , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Aves , Vírus da Influenza A/genética , Influenza Aviária/transmissão , Filogenia , Aves Domésticas
2.
J Helminthol ; 98: e17, 2024 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38325410

RESUMO

Corvids are highly adaptive birds that respond well to anthropogenic changes in their environment. Trematode communities of corvids were studied mainly in the 1950s through 1970s in regularly flooded parts of the Volga River delta in Russia; more recent studies and data from other regions where the corvids are in less contact with postflooding habitats are limited. Data for Corvus corax were lacking. Using our samples obtained from 1963 to 2023, we performed a large-scale analysis of trematode species composition and community structure in Corvus frugilegus, Corvus cornix, C. corax, Coloeus monedula, Pica pica, and Garrulus glandarius; all originated from the Czech Republic. We identified corvids as hosts of mutually overlapping component communities of only a few species of trematodes (Brachylecithum lobatum, Lyperosomum petiolatum, Lyperosomum longicauda, Tamerlania zarudnyi, Urogonimus macrostomus), with the presence of many rare and incidental findings of other trematode species. Only a few species used corvids as their core hosts (L. longicauda and B. lobatum). Trematode component communities in first-year birds included Prosthogonimus cuneatus, Prosthogonimus ovatus, Plagiorchis asperus, and Morishitium dollfusi due to an increased share of insects (intermediate hosts of Prosthogonimus and Plagiorchis) and snails (intermediate hosts of Morishitium) in the diet of juveniles. The trematode component communities of corvid species overlapped but were heterogeneous at the level of host individuals, likely reflecting differences in food sources related to the respective host ages and nesting sites.


Assuntos
Aves , Dicrocoeliidae , Trematódeos , Animais , Aves/parasitologia , República Tcheca , Ecossistema
3.
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci ; 379(1898): 20220514, 2024 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38310930

RESUMO

Biological clocks are evolved time-keeping systems by which organisms rhythmically coordinate physiology within the body, and align it with rhythms in their environment. Clocks are highly sensitive to light and are at the interface of several major endocrine pathways. Worryingly, exposure to artificial-light-at-night (ALAN) is rapidly increasing in ever more extensive parts of the world, with likely impact on wild organisms mediated by endocrine-circadian pathways. In this overview, we first give a broad-brush introduction to biological rhythms. Then, we outline interactions between the avian clock, endocrine pathways, and environmental and internal modifiers. The main focus of this review is on the circadian hormone, melatonin. We summarize information from avian field and laboratory studies on melatonin and its relationships with behaviour and physiology, including often neglected developmental aspects. When exposed to ALAN, birds are highly vulnerable to disruption of behavioural rhythms and of physiological systems under rhythmic control. Several studies suggest that melatonin is likely a key mediator for a broad range of effects. We encourage further observational and experimental studies of ALAN impact on melatonin, across the full functional range of this versatile signalling molecule, as well as on other candidate compounds at the endocrine-circadian interface. This article is part of the theme issue 'Endocrine responses to environmental variation: conceptual approaches and recent developments'.


Assuntos
Melatonina , Animais , Melatonina/metabolismo , Ritmo Circadiano/fisiologia , Relógios Biológicos/fisiologia , Aves , Transdução de Sinais , Luz
4.
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci ; 379(1898): 20220508, 2024 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38310940

RESUMO

As humans alter landscapes worldwide, land and wildlife managers need reliable tools to assess and monitor responses of wildlife populations. Glucocorticoid (GC) hormone levels are one common physiological metric used to quantify how populations are coping in the context of their environments. Understanding whether GC levels can reflect broad landscape characteristics, using data that are free and commonplace to diverse stakeholders, is an important step towards physiological biomarkers having practical application in management and conservation. We conducted a phylogenetic comparative analysis using publicly available datasets to test the efficacy of GCs as a biomarker for large spatial-scale avian population monitoring. We used hormone data from HormoneBase (51 species), natural history information and US national land cover data to determine if baseline or stress-induced corticosterone varies with the amount of usable land cover types within each species' home range. We found that stress-induced levels, but not baseline, positively correlated with per cent usable land cover both within and across species. Our results indicate that GC concentrations may be a useful biomarker for characterizing populations across a range of habitat availability, and we advocate for more physiological studies on non-traditional species in less studied populations to build on this framework. This article is part of the theme issue 'Endocrine responses to environmental variation: conceptual approaches and recent developments'.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Glucocorticoides , Animais , Humanos , Filogenia , Animais Selvagens , Aves/fisiologia , Biomarcadores , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Biodiversidade
5.
Avian Dis ; 67(4): 474-479, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38300666

RESUMO

Avian vaccines are a key factor when it comes to ensuring the availability of products derived from healthy poultry and preventing the transmission of infections from domestic and wildlife birds to humans. A marketing authorization for veterinary vaccines is granted after the product's quality, safety, and efficacy have been confirmed. During the licensing procedure, the manufacturing process is assessed to guarantee consistent quality and stability of the vaccine components. Furthermore, both the safety for the target species and the risk for the user, the consumer, and the environment must be demonstrated. In addition, specific tests and studies are required to support the efficacy of the vaccine. The authorization procedures and related licensing requirements for avian vaccines to be marketed in the European Union (EU) based on the requirements of Regulation (EU) 2019/6 Article 8 and the Commission Delegated Regulation (EU) 2021/805 amending Annex II to Regulation (EU) No. 2019/6 are explained in the paper.


Requisitos de licencia para vacunas aviares dentro de la Unión Europea. Las vacunas aviares son un factor clave a la hora de garantizar la disponibilidad de productos derivados de aves sanas y prevenir la transmisión de infecciones de aves domésticas y silvestres a los humanos. La autorización de comercialización de vacunas veterinarias se concede una vez confirmada la calidad, seguridad y eficacia del producto. Durante el procedimiento de concesión de licencia, se evalúa el proceso de fabricación para garantizar una calidad y estabilidad constantes de los componentes de la vacuna. Además, se debe demostrar tanto la seguridad para las especies a las que dicha vacuna está destinada, así como el riesgo para el usuario, el consumidor y el medio ambiente. Además, se requieren pruebas y estudios específicos que respalden la eficacia de la vacuna. En este documento se explican los procedimientos de autorización y los requisitos de licencia relacionados para las vacunas aviares que se comercializarán en la Unión Europea (U.E.) con base en los requisitos de la Regulación (U.E.) 2019/6 Artículo 8 y la Regulación Delegada de la Comisión (U.E.) 2021/805 que modifica el Anexo II del Reglamento. (U.E.) No. 2019/6.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves Domésticas , Vacinas , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Aves , União Europeia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/prevenção & controle
6.
Avian Dis ; 67(4): 480-488, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38300667

RESUMO

Veterinary vaccines need to be authorized by relevant authorities before they can be used in the field. This paper briefly describes the development and authorization process of vaccines. It also highlights important regulatory trends, challenges and opportunities from the veterinary vaccine industry standpoint in EU, US, Asia and Latin America, with a specific focus on avian vaccines' relevant topics.


Desarrollo y concesión de licencias para vacunas aviares: Perspectiva de la industria de producción de vacunas. Las vacunas veterinarias deben ser autorizadas por las autoridades pertinentes antes de que puedan usarse en el campo. Este artículo describe brevemente el proceso de desarrollo y autorización de vacunas. También destaca importantes tendencias regulatorias, desafíos y oportunidades desde el punto de vista de la industria de vacunas veterinarias en la Unión Europea, los Estados Unidos, Asia y América Latina, con un enfoque específico en los temas relevantes de las vacunas aviares.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves Domésticas , Vacinas , Animais , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/prevenção & controle , Aves
7.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 2701, 2024 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38302634

RESUMO

Anthrophony is an important determinant of habitat quality in the Anthropocene. Acoustic adaptation of birds at lower levels of anthrophony is known. However, threshold anthrophony, beyond which biophony starts decreasing, is less explored. Here, we present empirical results of the relationship between anthrophony and biophony in four terrestrial soundscapes. The constancy of the predicted threshold vector normalised anthropogenic power spectral density (~ 0.40 Watts/Hz) at all the study sites is intriguing. We propose the threshold value of anthropogenic power spectral density as an indicator of the avian acoustic tolerance level in the study sites. The findings pave the way to determine permissible sound levels within protected landscapes and directly contribute to conservation planning.


Assuntos
Efeitos Antropogênicos , Aves , Ecossistema , Som , Animais , Acústica , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Índia
8.
Influenza Other Respir Viruses ; 18(2): e13254, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38314064

RESUMO

Background: The introduction of multiple avian influenza virus (AIV) subtypes into Nigeria has resulted in several poultry outbreaks purportedly linked to trade and wild birds. The role of wild birds in perpetuating AIV in Nigeria was, therefore, elucidated. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among wild aquatic bird species at the Hadejia-Nguru wetlands in Northeastern Nigeria between March and April 2022. A total of 452 swabs (226 cloacae and 226 oropharyngeal) were collected using a mist net to capture the birds. These samples were tested by RT-qPCR, followed by sequencing. Results: Highly pathogenic AIV of the H5N1 subtype was identified in clinically healthy wild bird species, namely, African jacana, ruff, spur-winged goose, squared-tailed nightjar, white-faced whistling ducks, and white stork. A prevalence of 11.1% (25/226) was recorded. Phylogenetic analysis of the complete HA gene segment indicated the presence of clade 2.3.4.4b. However, these H5N1 viruses characterized from these wild birds cluster separately from the H5N1 viruses characterized in Nigerian poultry since early 2021. Specifically, the viruses form two distinct genetic groups both linked with the Eurasian H5N1 gene pool but likely resulting from two distinct introductions of the virus in the region. Whole-genome characterization of the viruses reveals the presence of mammalian adaptive marker E627K in two Afro-tropical resident aquatic ducks. This has zoonotic potential. Conclusion: Our findings highlight the key role of surveillance in wild birds to monitor the diversity of viruses in this area, provide the foundations of epidemiological understanding, and facilitate risk assessment.


Assuntos
Virus da Influenza A Subtipo H5N1 , Vírus da Influenza A , Influenza Aviária , Humanos , Animais , Virus da Influenza A Subtipo H5N1/genética , Influenza Aviária/epidemiologia , Filogenia , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Áreas Alagadas , Aves , Vírus da Influenza A/genética , Animais Selvagens , Aves Domésticas , Patos , Mamíferos
9.
Environ Monit Assess ; 196(3): 235, 2024 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38315434

RESUMO

In the Arabian Gulf (called also Persian Gulf; hereafter 'the Gulf'), Jana and Karan Islands are recognized as one of the most Important Bird Areas in the region. Many migratory breeding seabirds, like the Greater Crested Tern Thalasseus bergii, White-cheeked Tern Sterna repressa and Bridled Tern Onychoprion anaethetus, depend on these islands during the breeding season. However, these aquatic wildlife species are suffering from intensified urban and industrial coastal development and various contamination events including wars and related oil spills. In this study, we used these three piscivorous top predator birds to analyse the levels of 19 trace elements (TEs; i.e. Al, As, Ba, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, Sr, V and Zn) in 15 muscular tissue samples from Jana and Karan Islands. PERMANOVA analysis showed no difference in contamination profile between sites nor between species probably due to their spatial and ecological proximity and therefore similar levels of exposure to TEs. Comparing these levels with existing literature, our results showed no particular concern for all elements, except for Al (maximum values recorded = 116.5 µg g-1 d.w.) and, in two samples, Ba (33.67 µg g-1 d.w.) and Pb (5.6 µg g-1 d.w.). The results can be considered as an initial step for supplementary evaluations with a larger number of samples and specified time intervals for the collection of specimens. This study provided baseline information on the pollution status of these two ecologically important sites which require a continuous biomonitoring programme.


Assuntos
Charadriiformes , Metais Pesados , Oligoelementos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Metais Pesados/análise , Oligoelementos/análise , Chumbo/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Aves , Músculos/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
10.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 3126, 2024 02 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38326368

RESUMO

Disease outbreaks can drastically disturb the environment of surviving animals, but the behavioural, ecological, and epidemiological consequences of disease-driven disturbance are poorly understood. Here, we show that an outbreak of High Pathogenicity Avian Influenza Virus (HPAIV) coincided with unprecedented short-term behavioural changes in Northern gannets (Morus bassanus). Breeding gannets show characteristically strong fidelity to their nest sites and foraging areas (2015-2019; n = 120), but during the 2022 HPAIV outbreak, GPS-tagged gannets instigated long-distance movements beyond well-documented previous ranges and the first ever recorded visits of GPS-tagged adults to other gannet breeding colonies. Our findings suggest that the HPAIV outbreak triggered changes in space use patterns of exposed individuals that amplified the epidemiological connectivity among colonies and may generate super-spreader events that accelerate disease transmission across the metapopulation. Such self-propagating transmission from and towards high density animal aggregations may explain the unexpectedly rapid pan-European spread of HPAIV in the gannet.


Assuntos
Vírus da Influenza A , Influenza Aviária , Animais , Aves , Surtos de Doenças , Comportamento Alimentar , Influenza Aviária/epidemiologia , Virulência
11.
Environ Monit Assess ; 196(3): 276, 2024 Feb 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38366261

RESUMO

The ongoing depletion of natural systems and associated biodiversity decline is of growing international concern. Climate change is expected to exacerbate anthropogenic impacts on wild populations. The scale of impact on ecosystems and ecosystem services will be determined by the impact on a multitude of species and functional groups, which due to their biology and numbers are difficult to monitor. The IPCC has argued that surveillance or monitoring is critical and proposed that monitoring systems should be developed, which not only track developments but also function as "early warning systems." Human populations are already generating large continuous datasets on multiple taxonomic groups through internet searches. These time series could in principle add substantially to current monitoring if they reflect true changes in the natural world. We here examined whether information on internet search frequencies delivered by the Danish population and captured by Google Trends (GT) appropriately informs on population trends in 106 common Danish bird species. We compared the internet search activity with independent equivalent population trend assessments from the Danish Ornithological Society (BirdLife Denmark/DOF). We find a fair concordance between the GT trends and the assessments by DOF. A substantial agreement can be obtained by omitting species without clear temporal trends. Our findings suggest that population trend proxies from internet search frequencies can be used to supplement existing wildlife population monitoring and to ask questions about an array of ecological phenomena, which potentially can be integrated into an early warning system for biodiversity under climate change.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Ferramenta de Busca , Animais , Humanos , Big Data , Monitoramento Ambiental , Aves , Dinamarca
13.
PLoS One ; 19(2): e0297637, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38354167

RESUMO

Fossil deposits with exceptional preservation ("lagerstätten") provide important details not typically preserved in the fossil record, such that they hold an outsized influence on our understanding of biodiversity and evolution. In particular, the potential bias imparted by this so-called "lagerstätten effect" remains a critical, but underexplored aspect of reconstructing evolutionary relationships. Here, we quantify the amount of phylogenetic information available in the global fossil records of 1,327 species of non-avian theropod dinosaurs, Mesozoic birds, and fossil squamates (e.g., lizards, snakes, mosasaurs), and then compare the influence of lagerstätten deposits on phylogenetic information content and taxon selection in phylogenetic analyses to other fossil-bearing deposits. We find that groups that preserve a high amount of phylogenetic information in their global fossil record (e.g., non-avian theropods) are less vulnerable to a "lagerstätten effect" that leads to disproportionate representation of fossil taxa from one geologic unit in an evolutionary tree. Additionally, for each taxonomic group, we find comparable amounts of phylogenetic information in lagerstätten deposits, even though corresponding morphological character datasets vary greatly. Finally, we unexpectedly find that ancient sand dune deposits of the Late Cretaceous Gobi Desert of Mongolia and China exert an anomalously large influence on the phylogenetic information available in the squamate fossil record, suggesting a "lagerstätten effect" can be present in units not traditionally considered lagerstätten. These results offer a phylogenetics-based lens through which to examine the effects of exceptional fossil preservation on biological patterns through time and space, and invites further quantification of evolutionary information in the rock record.


Assuntos
Dinossauros , Lagartos , Animais , Filogenia , Fósseis , Evolução Biológica , Lagartos/genética , Lagartos/anatomia & histologia , Dinossauros/genética , Dinossauros/anatomia & histologia , Aves
14.
Bioinspir Biomim ; 19(2)2024 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38306681

RESUMO

To better understand the secret of natural flying vertebrates such as how humming-birds twist their wings to achieve superb flight ability, we presented a numerical investigation of dynamic twisting based on a hummingbird-like flapping wing model. Computational fluid dynamic simulations were performed to examine the effects of dynamic twisting on the unsteady flow field, the generation of instantaneous aerodynamic forces, and the time-averaged aerodynamic performance. This research reveals the details of leading-edge vortices (LEVs) and the underlying mechanisms behind the positive effects of wing torsion. The results demonstrated that wing torsion can effectively maintain the favorable distribution of effective angle of attack along the wing spanwise, resulting in a higher time-averaged thrust and vertical force. Further, the proper parameters of dynamic twisting can also improve the propulsive efficiency in forward flight. Dynamic twisting also showed a superior ability in controlling the airflow separation over the wing surface and maintaining the stability of the LEV. The amplitudes of effective angle of attack associated with the highest peak thrust and the maximum thrust-to-power at different advanced ratios were also explored, and it was found that the amplitudes decrease with increasing advanced ratio. To improve the efficiency during larger advanced ratio, specific modifications to the pitching of the wing were proposed in this work. The research in this paper has promising implications for the bio-inspired flapping wing.


Assuntos
Voo Animal , Modelos Biológicos , Animais , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Fenômenos Mecânicos , Asas de Animais , Aves
15.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 3673, 2024 02 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38351024

RESUMO

Aerial images obtained by drones are increasingly used for ecological research such as wildlife monitoring. Yet detectability issues resulting from animal activity or visibility are rarely considered, although these may lead to biased population size and trend estimates. In this study, we investigated detectability in a census of Malagasy pond heron Ardeola idae colonies on the island of Mayotte. We conducted repeated drone flights over breeding colonies in mangrove habitats during two breeding seasons. We then identified individuals and nests in the images and fitted closed capture-recapture models on nest-detection histories. We observed seasonal variation in the relative abundance of individuals, and intra-daily variation in the relative abundance of individuals-especially immature birds-affecting the availability of nests for detection. The detection probability of nests estimated by capture-recapture varied between 0.58 and 0.74 depending on flyover days and decreased 25% from early to late morning. A simulation showed that three flyovers are necessary to detect a 5-6% decline in colonies of 50 to 200 nests. These results indicate that the detectability of nests of forest-canopy breeding species from airborne imagery can vary over space and time; we recommend the use of capture-recapture methods to control for this bias.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Florestas , Humanos , Animais , Aves , Densidade Demográfica , Estações do Ano
16.
Proc Biol Sci ; 291(2016): 20232618, 2024 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38351798

RESUMO

The origin of crown birds (Neornithes) remains contentious owing to conflicting divergence time hypotheses obtained from alternative sources of data. The fossil record suggests limited diversification of Neornithes in the Late Mesozoic and a substantial radiation in the aftermath of the Cretaceous-Palaeogene (K-Pg) mass extinction, approximately 66 Ma. Molecular clock studies, however, have yielded estimates for neornithine origins ranging from the Early Cretaceous (130 Ma) to less than 10 Myr before the K-Pg. We use Bayes factors to compare the fit of node ages from different molecular clock studies to an independent morphological dataset. Our results allow us to reject scenarios of crown bird origins deep in the Early Cretaceous, as well as an origin of crown birds within the last 10 Myr of the Cretaceous. The scenario best supported by our analyses is one where Neornithes originated between the Early and Late Cretaceous (ca 100 Ma), while numerous divergences within major neoavian clades either span or postdate the K-Pg. This study affirms the importance of the K-Pg on the diversification of modern birds, and the potential of combined-evidence tip-dating analyses to illuminate recalcitrant 'rocks versus clocks' debates.


Assuntos
Aves , Extinção Biológica , Animais , Filogenia , Teorema de Bayes , Aves/anatomia & histologia , Fósseis , Evolução Biológica
17.
J Environ Manage ; 353: 120257, 2024 Feb 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38330843

RESUMO

The typical lake wetlands in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River are important wintering sites of cranes in China. The spatiotemporal evolution of crane populations and their habitats has great value in clarifying the pivotal role of regional lake wetlands in biodiversity conservation. Therefore, 2562 data points of four crane species were selected in this study. The data reflected the distributional position of the cranes over the period 2000-2020. Twelve surrounding environmental factors were selected to investigate the spatiotemporal evolution in the study area by using the MaxEnt model. The Jackknife method was used to identify the main environmental factors affecting the choice of crane habitats. The results indicated that: (1) Developed land in the study area increased by 42,795.81 hm2. The crane populations were mainly distributed in the farmland and mudflat, and their number decreased yearly. (2) From 2000 to 2020, the area of suitable crane habitat experienced an overall decrease. Specifically, the mid-suitable area dwindled by 6234.23 hm2, marking a substantial reduction of 52.05 %. Similarly, the most suitable area saw a decline of 786.41 hm2, representing a noteworthy decrease of 71.09 %. (3) The findings from the analysis of influencing factors revealed a dynamic pattern over the years. Habitat type, water density, and distance to water were the main influencing factors in the study area from 2000 to 2020. This study provides a new perspective on the conservation and structural habitat restoration of crane populations in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River.


Assuntos
Lagos , Áreas Alagadas , Animais , Ecossistema , Biodiversidade , Aves , China , Água
18.
Virology ; 592: 110009, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38330852

RESUMO

Swine influenza viruses pose ongoing threat to pork industry throughout the world. In 2023, fattening pigs from a swine farm in Inner Mongolia of China experienced influenza-like symptoms. Co-infection of influenza A virus with Pasteurella multocida was diagnosed in lung tissues of diseased pigs and a genotype 4 (G4) Eurasian avian-like (EA) H1N1 virus was isolated, which was named as A/swine/Neimenggu/0326/2023. We demonstrated the virus preferentially bound human-like SAα2,6Gal receptor. It was noteworthy that the virus possessed multiple genetic markers for mammalian adaptation in the internal genes. Animal studies showed that compared with genotype 1 (G1) EA H1N1 virus and early prevalent G4 EA H1N1 virus, A/swine/Neimenggu/0326/2023 virus exhibited increased virus shedding, enhanced replication in lungs, and caused more severe lung lesions in pigs. These findings indicate that the G4 EA H1N1 virus poses increased threat to pork industry, controlling the prevailing viruses in pigs should be promptly implemented.


Assuntos
Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1 , Vírus da Influenza A , Influenza Humana , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae , Pneumonia , Doenças dos Suínos , Suínos , Humanos , Animais , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/genética , Vírus da Influenza A/genética , Genótipo , Aves , China/epidemiologia , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/veterinária , Vírus Reordenados/genética , Mamíferos
19.
Am Nat ; 203(3): 411-431, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38358807

RESUMO

AbstractThe fitness of immigrants and their descendants produced within recipient populations fundamentally underpins the genetic and population dynamic consequences of immigration. Immigrants can in principle induce contrasting genetic effects on fitness across generations, reflecting multifaceted additive, dominance, and epistatic effects. Yet full multigenerational and sex-specific fitness effects of regular immigration have not been quantified within naturally structured systems, precluding inference on underlying genetic architectures and population outcomes. We used four decades of song sparrow (Melospiza melodia) life history and pedigree data to quantify fitness of natural immigrants, natives, and their F1, F2, and backcross descendants and test for evidence of nonadditive genetic effects. Values of key fitness components (including adult lifetime reproductive success and zygote survival) of F1 offspring of immigrant-native matings substantially exceeded their parent mean, indicating strong heterosis. Meanwhile, F2 offspring of F1-F1 matings had notably low values, indicating surprisingly strong epistatic breakdown. Furthermore, magnitudes of effects varied among fitness components and differed between female and male descendants. These results demonstrate that strong nonadditive genetic effects on fitness can arise within weakly structured and fragmented populations experiencing frequent natural immigration. Such effects will substantially affect the net degree of effective gene flow and resulting local genetic introgression and adaptation.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens , Vigor Híbrido , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Aves , Emigração e Imigração
20.
Annu Rev Anim Biosci ; 12: 161-185, 2024 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38358836

RESUMO

Hummingbirds share biologically distinctive traits: sustained hovering flight, the smallest bird body size, and high metabolic rates fueled partially by nectar feeding that provides pollination to plant species. Being insectivorous and sometimes serving as prey to larger birds, they fulfill additional important ecological roles. Hummingbird species evolved and radiated into nearly every habitat in the Americas, with a core of species diversity in South America. Population declines of some of their species are increasing their risk of extinction. Threats to population health and genetic diversity are just beginning to be identified, including diseases and hazards caused by humans. We review the disciplines of population health, disease ecology, and genomics as they relate to hummingbirds. We appraise knowledge gaps, causes of morbidity and mortality including disease, and threats to population viability. Finally, we highlight areas of research need and provide ideas for future studies aimed at facilitating hummingbird conservation.


Assuntos
Néctar de Plantas , Polinização , Humanos , Animais , Aves/genética , Genômica
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