Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 8.363
Filtrar
1.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 121(15): e2307525121, 2024 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38557189

RESUMO

Changes in climate can alter environmental conditions faster than most species can adapt. A prediction under a warming climate is that species will shift their distributions poleward through time. While many studies focus on range shifts, latitudinal shifts in species' optima can occur without detectable changes in their range. We quantified shifts in latitudinal optima for 209 North American bird species over the last 55 y. The latitudinal optimum (m) for each species in each year was estimated using a bespoke flexible non-linear zero-inflated model of abundance vs. latitude, and the annual shift in m through time was quantified. One-third (70) of the bird species showed a significant shift in their optimum. Overall, mean peak abundances of North American birds have shifted northward, on average, at a rate of 1.5 km per year (±0.58 SE), corresponding to a total distance moved of 82.5 km (±31.9 SE) over the last 55 y. Stronger poleward shifts at the continental scale were linked to key species' traits, including thermal optimum, habitat specialization, and territoriality. Shifts in the western region were larger and less variable than in the eastern region, and they were linked to species' thermal optimum, habitat density preference, and habitat specialization. Individual species' latitudinal shifts were most strongly linked to their estimated thermal optimum, clearly indicating a climate-driven response. Displacement of species from their historically optimal realized niches can have dramatic ecological consequences. Effective conservation must consider within-range abundance shifts. Areas currently deemed "optimal" are unlikely to remain so.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Clima , Animais , Aves/fisiologia , Ecossistema , América do Norte
2.
Chaos ; 34(4)2024 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38558050

RESUMO

During sleep, sporadically, it is possible to find neural patterns of activity in areas of the avian brain that are activated during the generation of the song. It has recently been found that in the vocal muscles of a sleeping bird, it is possible to detect activity patterns during these silent replays. In this work, we employ a dynamical systems model for song production in suboscine birds in order to translate the vocal muscles activity during sleep into synthetic songs. Besides allowing us to translate muscle activity into behavior, we argue that this approach poses the biomechanics as a unique window into the avian brain, with biophysical models as its probe.


Assuntos
Aves , Vocalização Animal , Animais , Vocalização Animal/fisiologia , Aves/fisiologia , Encéfalo/fisiologia
3.
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci ; 379(1902): 20230013, 2024 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38583472

RESUMO

Species respond dynamically to climate change and exhibit time lags. Consequently, species may not occupy their full climatic niche during range shifting. Here, we assessed climate niche tracking during recent range shifts of European and United States (US) birds. Using data from two European bird atlases and from the North American Breeding Bird Survey between the 1980s and 2010s, we analysed range overlap and climate niche overlap based on kernel density estimation. Phylogenetic multiple regression was used to assess the effect of species morphological, ecological and biogeographic traits on range and niche metrics. European birds shifted their ranges north and north-eastwards, US birds westwards. Range unfilling was lower than expected by null models, and niche expansion was more common than niche unfilling. Also, climate niche tracking was generally lower in US birds and poorly explained by species traits. Overall, our results suggest that dispersal limitations were minor in range shifting birds in Europe and the USA while delayed extinctions from unfavourable areas seem more important. Regional differences could be related to differences in land use history and monitoring schemes. Comparative analyses of range and niche shifts provide a useful screening approach for identifying the importance of transient dynamics and time-lagged responses to climate change. This article is part of the theme issue 'Ecological novelty and planetary stewardship: biodiversity dynamics in a transforming biosphere'.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Aves , Animais , Estados Unidos , Filogenia , Aves/fisiologia , Mudança Climática , América do Norte , Ecossistema
4.
Commun Biol ; 7(1): 406, 2024 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38570618

RESUMO

Adaptations are driven by specific natural selection pressures throughout biological evolution. However, these cannot inherently align with future shifts in selection dynamics, thus manifesting in opposing directions. We performed field experiments on cuckoo hosts to investigate the coexistence and conflict between two evolutionarily successive but opposing behavioral adaptations-egg retrieval and rejection. Our findings provide key insights. (1) Egg rejection against brood parasites in hosts reshapes egg retrieval to flexible reactions-retrieval, ignoring, or outright rejection of foreign eggs outside the nest cup, departing from instinctual retrieval. (2) Parasitism pressure and egg mimicry by parasites remarkably alter the proportions of the three host reactions. Host species with higher parasitism pressure exhibit frequent and rapid rejection of non-mimetic foreign eggs and reduced ignoring or retrieval responses. Conversely, heightened egg mimicry enhances retrieval behaviors while diminishing ignoring responses. (3) Cuckoos employ consistent mechanisms for rejecting foreign eggs inside or outside the nest cup. Direct rejection of eggs outside the nest cup shows that rejection precedes retrieval, indicating prioritization of specific adaptation over instinct. (4) Cuckoo hosts navigate the conflict between the intentions and motivations associated with egg rejection and retrieval by ignoring foreign eggs, a specific outcome of the rejection-retrieval tradeoff.


Assuntos
Aves , Comportamento de Nidação , Animais , Comportamento de Nidação/fisiologia , Aves/fisiologia , Evolução Biológica
5.
Cell ; 187(8): 1922-1935.e20, 2024 Apr 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38554707

RESUMO

The hippocampus is critical for episodic memory. Although hippocampal activity represents place and other behaviorally relevant variables, it is unclear how it encodes numerous memories of specific events in life. To study episodic coding, we leveraged the specialized behavior of chickadees-food-caching birds that form memories at well-defined moments in time whenever they cache food for subsequent retrieval. Our recordings during caching revealed very sparse, transient barcode-like patterns of firing across hippocampal neurons. Each "barcode" uniquely represented a caching event and transiently reactivated during the retrieval of that specific cache. Barcodes co-occurred with the conventional activity of place cells but were uncorrelated even for nearby cache locations that had similar place codes. We propose that animals recall episodic memories by reactivating hippocampal barcodes. Similarly to computer hash codes, these patterns assign unique identifiers to different events and could be a mechanism for rapid formation and storage of many non-interfering memories.


Assuntos
Aves , Hipocampo , Memória Episódica , Animais , Aves/fisiologia , Comportamento Alimentar , Alimentos , Hipocampo/citologia , Hipocampo/fisiologia , Neurônios/citologia
6.
Am Nat ; 203(4): 490-502, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38489779

RESUMO

AbstractGregarious species must distinguish group members from nongroup members. Olfaction is important for group recognition in social insects and mammals but rarely studied in birds, despite birds using olfaction in social contexts from species discrimination to kin recognition. Olfactory group recognition requires that groups have a signature odor, so we tested for preen oil and feather chemical similarity in group-living smooth-billed anis (Crotophaga ani). Physiology affects body chemistry, so we also tested for an effect of egg-laying competition, as a proxy for reproductive status, on female chemical similarity. Finally, the fermentation hypothesis for chemical recognition posits that host-associated microbes affect host odor, so we tested for covariation between chemicals and microbiota. Group members were more chemically similar across both body regions. We found no chemical differences between sexes, but females in groups with less egg-laying competition had more similar preen oil, suggesting that preen oil contains information about reproductive status. There was no overall covariation between chemicals and microbes; instead, subsets of microbes could mediate olfactory cues in birds. Preen oil and feather chemicals showed little overlap and may contain different information. This is the first demonstration of group chemical signatures in birds, a finding of particular interest given that smooth-billed anis live in nonkin breeding groups. Behavioral experiments are needed to test whether anis can distinguish group members from nongroup members using odor cues.


Assuntos
Aves , Plumas , Animais , Feminino , Aves/fisiologia , Reprodução , Olfato , Mamíferos
7.
Bioinspir Biomim ; 19(3)2024 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38467074

RESUMO

A limiting factor in the design of smaller size uncrewed aerial vehicles is their inability to navigate through gust-laden environments. As a result, engineers have turned towards bio-inspired engineering approaches for gust mitigation techniques. In this study, the aerodynamics of a red-tailed hawk's response to variable-magnitude discrete transverse gusts was investigated. The hawk was flown in an indoor flight arena instrumented by multiple high-speed cameras to quantify the 3D motion of the bird as it navigated through the gust. The hawk maintained its flapping motion across the gust in all runs; however, it encountered the gust at different points in the flapping pattern depending on the run and gust magnitude. The hawk responded with a downwards pitching motion of the wing, decreasing the wing pitch angle to between -20∘and -5∘, and remained in this configuration until gust exit. The wing pitch data was then applied to a lower-order aerodynamic model that estimated lift coefficients across the wing. In gusts slower than the forward flight velocity (low gust ratio), the lift coefficient increases at a low-rate, to a maximum of around 2-2.5. In gusts faster than the forward flight velocity (high gust ratio), the lift coefficient initially increased rapidly, before increasing at a low-rate to a value around 4-5. In both regimes, the hawk's observed height change due to gust interaction was similar (and small), despite larger estimated lift coefficients over the high gust regime. This suggests another mitigation factor apart from the wing response is present. One potential factor is the tail pitching response observed here, which prior work has shown serves to mitigate pitch disturbances from gusts.


Assuntos
Falcões , Animais , Voo Animal/fisiologia , Aves/fisiologia , Movimento (Física) , Asas de Animais/fisiologia , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Modelos Biológicos
8.
PLoS One ; 19(3): e0301391, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38547306

RESUMO

Grasslands represent a biodiversity hotspot in the European agricultural landscape, their restoration is necessary and offers a great opportunity to mitigate or halt harmful processes. These measures require a comprehensive knowledge of historical landscape changes, but also adequate management strategies. The required data was gathered from the sand grasslands of northern Serbia, as this habitat is of high conservation priority. This area also has a long history of different habitat management approaches (grazing and mowing versus unmanaged), which has been documented over of the last two decades. This dataset enabled us to quantify the effects of different measures across multiple taxa (plants, insect pollinators, and birds). We linked the gathered data on plants, pollinators, and birds with habitat management measures. Our results show that, at the taxon level, the adopted management strategies were beneficial for species richness, abundance, and composition, as the highest diversity of plant, insect pollinator, and bird species was found in managed areas. Thus, an innovative modelling approach was adopted in this work to identify and explain the effects of management practices on changes in habitat communities. The findings yielded can be used in the decision making as well as development of new management programmes. We thus posit that, when restoring and establishing particular communities, priority needs to be given to species with a broad ecological response. We recommend using the decision tree as a suitable machine learning model for this purpose.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Pradaria , Animais , Sérvia , Biodiversidade , Agricultura , Insetos , Plantas , Aves/fisiologia
9.
Am J Bot ; 111(3): e16303, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38531667

RESUMO

PREMISE: Vertical stratification is a key feature of tropical forests and plant-frugivore interactions. However, it is unclear whether equally strong patterns of vertical stratification exist for plant-nectarivore interactions and, if so, which factors drive these patterns. Further, nectar-inhabiting bacteria, acting as "hidden players" in plant-nectarivore interactions, might be vertically stratified, either in response to differences among strata in microenvironmental conditions or to the nectarivore community serving as vectors. METHODS: We observed visitations by a diverse nectarivore community to the liana Marcgravia longifolia in a Peruvian rainforest and characterized diversity and community composition of nectar-inhabiting bacteria. Unlike most other plants, M. longifolia produces inflorescences across forest strata, enabling us to study effects of vertical stratification on plant-nectarivore interactions without confounding effects of plant species and stratum. RESULTS: A significantly higher number of visits were by nectarivorous bats and hummingbirds in the midstory than in the understory and canopy, and the visits were strongly correlated to flower availability and nectar quantity and quality. Trochiline hummingbirds foraged across all strata, whereas hermits remained in the lower strata. The Shannon diversity index for nectar-inhabiting bacterial communities was highest in the midstory. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that vertical niche differentiation in plant-nectarivore interactions seems to be partly driven by resource abundance, but other factors such as species-specific preferences of hummingbirds, likely caused by competition, play an important role. We conclude that vertical stratification is an important driver of a species' interaction niche highlighting its role for promoting biodiversity and ecosystem functioning.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Néctar de Plantas , Animais , Florestas , Biodiversidade , Flores , Aves/fisiologia
10.
Proc Biol Sci ; 291(2017): 20232264, 2024 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38378147

RESUMO

Complex incubation strategies have evolved to solve the trade-off between parent survival and care for their eggs with often brief departures (recesses) that maximize egg survival, and infrequent extended recesses maximizing adult condition. Here we examined incubation behaviour of sanderlings (Calidris alba), a species that exhibits both biparental and uniparental incubation behaviour. During 11 breeding seasons in Greenland, we have quantified incubation variability with thermologgers placed in nests. We estimated the impact of environmental conditions and individual characteristics on the occurrence and the duration of recesses. We found that extended recesses are a unique feature of uniparentals, and their frequency and duration increased in colder temperatures. The relationship was mediated by body condition, with individuals in poor condition performing longer extended recesses in colder temperatures. This suggests that extended recesses may represent a shift towards self-maintenance at the expense of the egg care, allowing birds to continue incubating under unfavourable conditions. Our study illustrates how extended recesses may be a key breeding strategy to overcome high energetic costs associated with incubation. Quantifying such behavioural flexibility paves the way for tracking future behavioural responses of individuals in the face of changing environments.


Assuntos
Charadriiformes , Humanos , Animais , Temperatura , Aves/fisiologia , Temperatura Baixa , Cruzamento
11.
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci ; 379(1898): 20220508, 2024 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38310940

RESUMO

As humans alter landscapes worldwide, land and wildlife managers need reliable tools to assess and monitor responses of wildlife populations. Glucocorticoid (GC) hormone levels are one common physiological metric used to quantify how populations are coping in the context of their environments. Understanding whether GC levels can reflect broad landscape characteristics, using data that are free and commonplace to diverse stakeholders, is an important step towards physiological biomarkers having practical application in management and conservation. We conducted a phylogenetic comparative analysis using publicly available datasets to test the efficacy of GCs as a biomarker for large spatial-scale avian population monitoring. We used hormone data from HormoneBase (51 species), natural history information and US national land cover data to determine if baseline or stress-induced corticosterone varies with the amount of usable land cover types within each species' home range. We found that stress-induced levels, but not baseline, positively correlated with per cent usable land cover both within and across species. Our results indicate that GC concentrations may be a useful biomarker for characterizing populations across a range of habitat availability, and we advocate for more physiological studies on non-traditional species in less studied populations to build on this framework. This article is part of the theme issue 'Endocrine responses to environmental variation: conceptual approaches and recent developments'.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Glucocorticoides , Animais , Humanos , Filogenia , Animais Selvagens , Aves/fisiologia , Biomarcadores , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Biodiversidade
12.
Am Nat ; 203(2): 174-188, 2024 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38306285

RESUMO

AbstractWhen organisms respond behaviorally to a stimulus, they exhibit plasticity, but some individuals respond to the same stimulus consistently differently than others, thereby also exhibiting personality differences. Parent house sparrows express individual differences in how often they feed offspring and how that feeding rate changes with nestling age. Mean feeding rate and its slope with respect to nestling age were positively correlated at median nestling ages but not at hatching, indicating that individuality is primarily in plasticity. Individual differences could arise because of (1) interactions between environmental variables, (2) differences in underlying state or "quality," or (3) differences in the ability to update cues of changing nestling demand. Individual slopes were modestly repeatable across breeding attempts, hinting at the likely action of additional environmental variables, but only brood size was important. I also found few correlates suggesting quality differences. I used short-term brood size manipulations at two nestling ages to test divergent predictions between the three hypotheses. The pattern of correlations between response to the manipulation and individual slope did not fit any single hypothesis. Patterns of sparrow parental care reveal that personality and plasticity are not cleanly separable, and their biology is likely intertwined. New thinking may be needed about the factors parents use in decisions about care and the relevant fitness consequences.


Assuntos
Aves , Personalidade , Animais , Aves/fisiologia , Comportamento Animal
13.
Oecologia ; 204(3): 603-612, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38393366

RESUMO

Tree diversity promotes predator abundance and diversity, but evidence linking these effects to increased predation pressure on herbivores remains limited. In addition, tree diversity effects on predators can vary temporally as a function of environmental variation, or due to contrasting responses by different predator types. In a multi-year study, we assessed temporal variation in tree diversity effects on bird community abundance, diversity, and predation rates as a whole and by functional group based on feeding guild (omnivores vs. insectivores) and migratory status (migrant vs. resident). To this end, we conducted bird point counts in tree monocultures and polycultures and assessed attacks on clay caterpillars four times over a 2-year period in a tree diversity experiment in Yucatan, Mexico. Tree diversity effects on the bird community varied across surveys, with positive effects on bird abundance and diversity in most but not all surveys. Tree diversity had stronger and more consistent effects on omnivorous and resident birds than on insectivorous and migratory species. Tree diversity effects on attack rates also varied temporally but patterns did not align with variation in bird abundance or diversity. Thus, while we found support for predicted increases in bird abundance, diversity, and predation pressure with tree diversity, these responses exhibited substantial variation over time and the former two were uncoupled from patterns of predation pressure, as well as contingent on bird functional traits. These results underscore the need for long-term studies measuring responses by different predator functional groups to better understand tree diversity effects on top-down control.


Assuntos
Herbivoria , Árvores , Animais , Árvores/fisiologia , Insetos/fisiologia , Aves/fisiologia , Comportamento Predatório/fisiologia , Ecossistema
14.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 1711, 2024 01 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38243068

RESUMO

The increasing demand for cultivated lands driven by human population growth, escalating consumption and activities, combined with the vast area of uncultivated land, highlight the pressing need to better understand the biodiversity conservation implications of land use change in Sub-Saharan Africa. Land use change alters natural wildlife habitats with fundamental consequences for biodiversity. Consequently, species richness and diversity typically decline as land use changes from natural to disturbed. We assess how richness and diversity of avian species, grouped into feeding guilds, responded to land use changes, primarily expansion of settlements and cultivation at three sites in the Lake Victoria Basin in western Kenya, following tsetse control interventions. Each site consisted of a matched pair of spatially adjacent natural/semi-natural and settled/cultivated landscapes. Significant changes occurred in bird species richness and diversity in the disturbed relative to the natural landscape. Disturbed areas had fewer guilds and all guilds in disturbed areas also occurred in natural areas. Guilds had significantly more species in natural than in disturbed areas. The insectivore/granivore and insectivore/wax feeder guilds occurred only in natural areas. Whilst species diversity was far lower, a few species of estrildid finches were more common in the disturbed landscapes and were often observed on the scrubby edges of modified habitats. In contrast, the natural and less disturbed wooded areas had relatively fewer estrildid species and were completely devoid of several other species. In aggregate, land use changes significantly reduced bird species richness and diversity on the disturbed landscapes regardless of their breeding range size or foraging style (migratory or non-migratory) and posed greater risks to non-migratory species. Accordingly, land use planning should integrate conservation principles that preserve salient habitat qualities required by different bird species, such as adequate patch size and habitat connectivity, conserve viable bird populations and restore degraded habitats to alleviate adverse impacts of land use change on avian species richness and diversity.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Lagos , Animais , Humanos , Quênia , Ecossistema , Biodiversidade , Aves/fisiologia
15.
Glob Chang Biol ; 30(1): e17148, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38273513

RESUMO

Phenological responses to climate change frequently vary among trophic levels, which can result in increasing asynchrony between the peak energy requirements of consumers and the availability of resources. Migratory birds use multiple habitats with seasonal food resources along migration flyways. Spatially heterogeneous climate change could cause the phenology of food availability along the migration flyway to become desynchronized. Such heterogeneous shifts in food phenology could pose a challenge to migratory birds by reducing their opportunity for food availability along the migration path and consequently influencing their survival and reproduction. We develop a novel graph-based approach to quantify this problem and deploy it to evaluate the condition of the heterogeneous shifts in vegetation phenology for 16 migratory herbivorous waterfowl species in Asia. We show that climate change-induced heterogeneous shifts in vegetation phenology could cause a 12% loss of migration network integrity on average across all study species. Species that winter at relatively lower latitudes are subjected to a higher loss of integrity in their migration network. These findings highlight the susceptibility of migratory species to climate change. Our proposed methodological framework could be applied to migratory species in general to yield an accurate assessment of the exposure under climate change and help to identify actions for biodiversity conservation in the face of climate-related risks.


Assuntos
Migração Animal , Mudança Climática , Animais , Aves/fisiologia , Ecossistema , Estações do Ano
16.
Glob Chang Biol ; 30(1): e17067, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38273562

RESUMO

Climate change is increasing the frequency, intensity, and duration of extreme weather events across the globe. Understanding the capacity for ecological communities to withstand and recover from such events is critical. Typhoons are extreme weather events that are expected to broadly homogenize ecological dynamics through structural damage to vegetation and longer-term effects of salinization. Given their unpredictable nature, monitoring ecological responses to typhoons is challenging, particularly for mobile animals such as birds. Here, we report spatially variable ecological responses to typhoons across terrestrial landscapes. Using a high temporal resolution passive acoustic monitoring network across 24 sites on the subtropical island of Okinawa, Japan, we found that typhoons elicit divergent ecological responses among Okinawa's diverse terrestrial habitats, as indicated by increased spatial variability of biological sound production (biophony) and individual species detections. This suggests that soniferous communities are capable of a diversity of different responses to typhoons. That is, spatial insurance effects among local ecological communities provide resilience to typhoons at the landscape scale. Even though site-level typhoon impacts on soundscapes and bird detections were not particularly strong, monitoring at scale with high temporal resolution across a broad spatial extent nevertheless enabled detection of spatial heterogeneity in typhoon responses. Further, species-level responses mirrored those of acoustic indices, underscoring the utility of such indices for revealing insight into fundamental questions concerning disturbance and stability. Our findings demonstrate the significant potential of landscape-scale acoustic sensor networks to capture the understudied ecological impacts of unpredictable extreme weather events.


Assuntos
Tempestades Ciclônicas , Animais , Ecossistema , Mudança Climática , Aves/fisiologia , Acústica
17.
Glob Chang Biol ; 30(1): e17136, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38273501

RESUMO

As global average surface temperature increases, extreme climatic events such as heatwaves are becoming more frequent and intense, which can drive biodiversity responses such as rapid population declines and/or shifts in species distributions and even local extirpations. However, the impacts of extreme climatic events are largely ignored in conservation plans. Birds are known to be susceptible to heatwaves, especially in dryland ecosystems. Understanding which birds are most vulnerable to heatwaves, and where these birds occur, can offer a scientific basis for adaptive management and conservation. We assessed the relative vulnerability of 1196 dryland bird species to heatwaves using a trait-based approach. Among them, 888 bird species are estimated to be vulnerable to heatwaves (170 highly vulnerable, eight extremely vulnerable), of which ~91% are currently considered non-threatened by the IUCN, which suggests that many species will likely become newly threatened with intensifying climate change. We identified the top three hotspot areas of heatwave-vulnerable species in Australia (208 species), Southern Africa (125 species) and Eastern Africa (99 species). Populations of vulnerable species recorded in the Living Planet Database were found to be declining significantly faster than those of non-vulnerable species (p = .048) after heatwaves occurred. In contrast, no significant difference in population trends between vulnerable and non-vulnerable species was detected when no heatwave occurred (p = .34). This suggests that our vulnerability framework correctly identified vulnerable species and that heatwaves are already impacting the population trends of these species. Our findings will help prioritize heatwave-vulnerable birds in dryland ecosystems in risk mitigation and adaptation management as the frequency of heatwaves accelerates in the coming decades.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Ecossistema , Animais , Austrália , Aves/fisiologia , Mudança Climática
18.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 121(6): e2312438121, 2024 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38285933

RESUMO

How individual animals respond to climate change is key to whether populations will persist or go extinct. Yet, few studies investigate how changes in individual behavior underpin these population-level phenomena. Shifts in the distributions of migratory animals can occur through adaptation in migratory behaviors, but there is little understanding of how selection and plasticity contribute to population range shift. Here, we use long-term geolocator tracking of Balearic shearwaters (Puffinus mauretanicus) to investigate how year-to-year changes in individual birds' migrations underpin a range shift in the post-breeding migration. We demonstrate a northward shift in the post-breeding range and show that this is brought about by individual plasticity in migratory destination, with individuals migrating further north in response to changes in sea-surface temperature. Furthermore, we find that when individuals migrate further, they return faster, perhaps minimizing delays in return to the breeding area. Birds apparently judge the increased distance that they will need to migrate via memory of the migration route, suggesting that spatial cognitive mechanisms may contribute to this plasticity and the resulting range shift. Our study exemplifies the role that individual behavior plays in populations' responses to environmental change and highlights some of the behavioral mechanisms that might be key to understanding and predicting species persistence in response to climate change.


Assuntos
Migração Animal , Mudança Climática , Humanos , Animais , Migração Animal/fisiologia , Estações do Ano , Aves/fisiologia , Cruzamento
19.
Oecologia ; 204(1): 241-255, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38244056

RESUMO

Climate change remains one of the most urgent challenges for biodiversity conservation. Recent studies have highlighted that climate extremes (CLEXs) can lead to widespread and negative effects across all taxa and ecological levels, but most of these studies are based on short-term periods and small spatial scales and lack a multi-species approach. Here, using generalised additive models (GAMs) and the UK Breeding Bird Survey (BBS), we described response curves for the abundance of 100 resident bird species over large spatial and temporal scales and identified the species showing a greater sensitivity to CLEXs. We used five climatic indices computed at 1-km spatial resolution as proxies of CLEXs during the winter or breeding season and considered both 1- and 2-year lagged effects. The results demonstrated widespread and significant effects of CLEXs on bird abundances at both time lags and in both seasons. Winter frost days (FD0), summer days (SU25) during the breeding season and simple precipitation intensity index (SDII) during the breeding season mainly showed negative effects. Daily temperature range (DTR) in both winter and breeding season and dry days (DD) during the breeding season led to diversified responses across the species, with a prevalence of positive effects. A large proportion of species showed a high sensitivity to CLEXs, highlighting that these species may deserve attention in future studies aimed at biodiversity conservation. We demonstrated that CLEXs can represent a significant driver affecting population abundances over large spatial and temporal scales, emphasising the need for understanding mechanistic processes at the basis of the observed effects.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Aves , Animais , Aves/fisiologia , Estações do Ano , Mudança Climática , Reino Unido
20.
Photochem Photobiol Sci ; 23(1): 197-212, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38038950

RESUMO

Photoperiod regulation of gonadal cycles is well studied and documented in both birds and mammals. Change in photoperiod is considered as the most effective and important cue to time the initiation of the annual physiological cycles in birds. Approaching of long days (as observed in summer months), signal long-day breeding birds to initiation reproduction and other related functions. Birds and other non-mammalian vertebrates use the extraocular photoreceptors which may be present in the mediobasal hypothalamus (MBH) or associated regions to measure the photoperiodic time and so are different from mammals where only the eyes are lone photoreceptive organs. The downstream signaling involves thyroid responsive genes playing a crucial role in mediating photoperiodic signals in both birds and mammals. Role of eyes in the avian seasonal cycle has been a questionable issue with evidences both favoring and negating any role. We propose that morphological as well as physiological data argue that retinal photoreceptors can participate in gonadal cycle, at least in the quail and duck. The present review details the studies of photoneuroendocrine control of gonadal axis in birds and review evidences to decipher the role eyes in photoperiodic mediated physiologies in birds.


Assuntos
Ritmo Circadiano , Fotoperíodo , Animais , Estações do Ano , Ritmo Circadiano/fisiologia , Aves/fisiologia , Mamíferos/fisiologia
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...