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1.
Food Chem ; 398: 133945, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35986990

RESUMO

Olive oils from seven Portuguese regions were selected to study the effect of the geographical origin on the oils' composition. Quality parameters, fatty acids, tocopherols, hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol derivatives, and oxidative stability were evaluated. All olive oils could be classified as extra virgin, and the geographical origin significantly affected the oils chemical composition. Principal component analysis further confirmed the significant impact of the geographical origin on the composition and, indirectly, on stability of the oils, showing that the evaluated parameters could be used as markers for geographical origin identification. Alternatively, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was applied, allowing to establish a linear discriminant model that correctly identified the geographical origin of the olive oils with a mean sensitivity of 99 ± 3 % (internal validation), confirming the impact of the oil origin on its characteristics. This finding allowed foreseeing the future application of the spectroscopy approach as a green, fast and non-invasive authentication tool.


Assuntos
Galega , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Azeite de Oliva/química , Óleos Vegetais/química , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Tocoferóis/química
2.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 300: 115739, 2023 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36126784

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Arnebia euchroma (Royle) I.M.Johnst. (AE) is a Chinese medicinal herb that is traditionally used to treat various circulatory diseases. It exhibits certain effects, such as the promotion of blood circulation and cooling, rash clearance, and detoxification. AIM OF THE STUDY: This study was designed to explore the hepatoprotective and hemostatic effects of the ethyl acetate extract of AE in rats with carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver injury. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Wistar rats were treated via oral gavage with different doses of the ethyl acetate extract of AE (3.5, 7, or 14 g kg-1·day-1) for 14 consecutive days, following which hemostatic and liver function tests were conducted. For the hemostatic tests, the platelet count, blood platelet aggregation, blood platelet adhesion to fibrinogen, platelet factor 4 (PF-4) secretion from blood platelets, prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), thrombin time (TT), and fibrinogen levels were measured at the end of the treatment period. For the liver function tests, 0.25 mL/200 g (1.25 mL kg-1·day-1) of olive oil was injected into the abdominal cavity of the control rats, whereas 15% CCl4 plus olive oil (prescription: 7.5 mL CCl4 + 42.5 olive oil) was injected into that of the treated rats at 1 h after extract administration on day 6, 13, and 20. Additionally, food and water were withheld from all the animals. On the following day, the rats were anesthetized and their albumin, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT), serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT), gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), reactive oxygen species (ROS), methane dicarboxylic aldehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione (GSH) levels were measured. Glutathione S-transferase (GST), glutathione reductase (GR), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) levels among the groups were determined using a one-way analysis of variance. RESULTS: The platelet count and blood platelet aggregation, blood platelet adhesion to fibrinogen and PF-4 secretion levels were significantly increased in the (3.5 g kg-1 day-1) AE group as compared to those in the control group (all p < 0.001; for the 7 and 14 g kg-1 day-1 AE groups, all p > 0.05, respectively). Although the PT and aPTT were not affected by the AE extract (all p > 0.05), the TT was reduced and the FIB levels were significantly increased in all AE groups (p < 0.05). Liver function tests showed that CCl4 caused significant liver damage, thereby decreasing the albumin, SOD, CAT, GSH, GST, GR, and GPx levels, while increasing the AST, ALT, ALP, SGOT, SGPT, GGT, LDH, ROS, and MDA levels (all p < 0.001). By contrast, treatment with the different doses of AE extract reversed the CCl4 effects on all these parameters. Compared with the levels in the CCl4 group, the GSH and GR levels in the three AE groups (3.5, 7, and 14 g kg-1·day-1) were significantly higher (p < 0.05, p < 0.01, and p < 0.001, respectively), whereas the differences in the other parameters for these three groups were all at the significance levels of p < 0.05, p < 0.05, and p < 0.01, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: AE extracts administered orally exhibited hepatoprotective activity by affecting platelet production and blood coagulation and ameliorating liver function-damaging modifications. Specifically, a dosage of 3.5 g kg-1·day-1 resulted in the most optimal effects.


Assuntos
Boraginaceae , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas , Hemostáticos , Plantas Medicinais , Acetatos , Alanina Transaminase , Albuminas/farmacologia , Aldeídos , Fosfatase Alcalina , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Aspartato Aminotransferases , Tetracloreto de Carbono/farmacologia , Catalase , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/tratamento farmacológico , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/prevenção & controle , Fibrinogênio , Glutationa/farmacologia , Glutationa Peroxidase , Glutationa Redutase , Glutationa Transferase , Hemostáticos/farmacologia , Lactato Desidrogenases , Fígado , Metano/farmacologia , Azeite de Oliva , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Fator Plaquetário 4/farmacologia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio , Superóxido Dismutase , gama-Glutamiltransferase
3.
Food Chem ; 399: 133942, 2023 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36037685

RESUMO

An objective sensory evaluation of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO), involving the chemical characterization of positive attributes, is of interest. These attributes are objectively divided, according to fruitiness, into "green" and "ripe" fruity. This work studied the differentiation in the volatile profile of EVOOs into these two classes, obtained by three analytical methods, including different extraction techniques and detectors and two data processing strategies, and their relation with sensory results. According to the results, each method allowed the characterization of the two classes, providing information on different volatile compounds, which increased in number through PARADISe software (14 more than the conventional processing). Moreover, some volatile compounds showed significant differences between the two classes, 16 highlighted by the variables with importance in projection (VIP) for green fruity (e.g. (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol, methyl ether) and 23 for ripe fruity EVOOs (e.g. (Z)-2-hexen-1-ol), which could be considered as useful markers to complement quality assessment.


Assuntos
Frutas , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis , Biomarcadores/análise , Frutas/química , Azeite de Oliva/química , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise
4.
Food Chem ; 402: 134416, 2023 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36303378

RESUMO

The impact and relative relevance of in vitro gastrointestinal digestion, processing temperature (room temperature or 180 °C), and gelling agent (GA) (carrageenan and alginate) on the bioactive compounds and oxidation status of olive and echium oils gelled formulations with 40% lipid incorporation was assessed. In vitro digestion was not affected by the GA, with >90% lipolysis in all formulations, but was the most relevant variable, promoting oxidation (MDA) regardless of the oil type, GA or temperature applied. Tocopherols and phenolic decreased with digestion, which could be interpreted as a protective response to pro-oxidative conditions during digestion. Temperature decreased olive oil phenolics. Gelification of echium oil using alginate reduced secondary oxidation products formation in comparison with carrageenan, with oxidation degrees after digestion equivalent to those shown with olive oil. The use of alginate with olive oil resulted in the most stable formulations, although not protecting its minor bioactive compounds from thermal degradation.


Assuntos
Echium , Olea , Emulsões , Azeite de Oliva , Temperatura , Carragenina , Oxirredução , Óleos , Fenóis , Excipientes , Alginatos , Óleos Vegetais
5.
Food Chem ; 403: 134423, 2023 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36183472

RESUMO

A novel, fast, and cost-effective indirect enzymatic method was successfully developed to assess the total 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD) in canned food's oil fraction by the action of Burkholderia cepacia lipase. The total 3-MCPD were derivatized with n-Heptafluorobutyrylimidazole (HFBI) for GC-MS analysis during dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME). An asymmetrical 2213//8 screening design was used to study the influence of critical factors on the method's effectiveness. The analytical features of the proposed method were assessed following Food and Drug Administration (FDA) guidelines using extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) as a blank sample. Outstanding results were achieved in terms of linearity (r2 = 0.9995), sensitivity, precision (2.1 % to 10.4 % RSD), and accuracy (98.7 % ≤ recovery ≤ 101.9 %). Method efficacy was tested by comparing the results of 10 edible oils for total 3-MCPD with those reported in previous works. A total of 41 samples were analyzed. The lowest 3-MCPD content was found in samples of albacore canned in EVOO oil, while the highest amounts were found in albacore, mackerel, and Atlantic saury samples, all preserved in refined sunflower oil.


Assuntos
alfa-Cloridrina , alfa-Cloridrina/análise , Ésteres/análise , Azeite de Oliva/análise , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Óleos de Peixe , Óleos Vegetais/análise
6.
J Sci Food Agric ; 103(1): 48-56, 2023 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35794785

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intensive olive (Olea europaea L.) orchards are fertilized, mostly with the macronutrients nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K). The effects of different application levels of these nutrients on olive oil composition and quality were studied over 6 years in a commercial intensively cultivated 'Barnea' olive orchard in Israel. RESULTS: Oil quality and composition were affected by N, but not P or K availability. Elevated N levels increased free fatty acid content and reduced polyphenol level in the oil. Peroxide value was not affected by N, P or K levels. The relative concentrations of palmitoleic, linoleic and linolenic fatty acids increased with increasing levels of N application, whereas that of oleic acid, monounsaturated-to-polyunsaturated fatty acid ratio and oleic-to-linoleic ratio decreased. CONCLUSION: These results indicate that intensive olive orchard fertilization should be carried out carefully, especially where N application is concerned, to avoid a decrease in oil quality due to over-fertilization. Informed application of macronutrients requires leaf and fruit analyses to establish good agricultural practices, especially in view of the expansion of olive cultivation to new agricultural regions and soils. © 2022 The Authors. Journal of The Science of Food and Agriculture published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Olea , Azeite de Oliva/química , Olea/química , Frutas/química , Ácidos Graxos Monoinsaturados , Nutrientes , Fertilização , Ácidos Graxos/química , Óleos Vegetais/química
7.
Environ Res ; 216(Pt 3): 114399, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36309216

RESUMO

Olive mill wastewater (OMW), produced during olive oil production, contains high levels of salt contents, organic matter, suspended particles, and toxic chemicals (particularly phenols), which all result in increased biological and chemical oxygen demand. Olive Oil Mills' Wastes (OMW), which have dark brown color with unpleasant smell, consist mainly of water, high organic (mainly phenols and polyphenols) and low inorganic compounds (e.g. potassium and phosphorus), as well as grease. OMW components can negatively affect soil's physical, chemical, and biological properties, rendering it phytotoxic. However, OMW can positively affect plants' development when it's applied to the soil after pretreatment and treatment processes due to its high mineral contents and organic matter. There are various approaches for removing impurities and the treatment of OMW including chemical, biological, thermal, physiochemical, and biophysical processes. Physical techniques involve filtration, dilution, and centrifugation. Thermal methods include combustion and pyrolysis; biological techniques use anaerobic and aerobic techniques, whereas adsorption and electrocoagulation act as physiochemical methods, and coagulation and flocculation as biophysical methods. In contrast, combined biological treatment methods use co-digestion and composting. A comparison of the effects of both treated and untreated OMW samples on plant development and soil parameters can help us to understand the potential role of OMW in increasing soil fertility. This review discusses the impacts of untreated OMW and treated OMW in terms of soil characteristics, seed germination, and plant growth. This review summarizes all alternative approaches and technologies for pretreatment, treatment, and recovery of valuable byproducts and reuse of OMW across the world.


Assuntos
Olea , Águas Residuárias , Águas Residuárias/química , Olea/química , Azeite de Oliva , Solo/química , Fenóis/análise , Resíduos Industriais/análise , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos/métodos
8.
Food Chem ; 404(Pt B): 134696, 2023 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36323036

RESUMO

In the context of the olive oil flavoured with chili peppers, the aim of this study was to compare co-milling of sound olives and fresh chili peppers at mill scale to infusion of dried chili peppers in oil, using the same batch of olives for all oils. Capsaicinoids by HPLC-DAD, volatile profile by HS-SPME-GC-MS and HS-GC-IMS and sensory profile were characterized. Capsaicinoids were statistically higher in oils prepared with green (52.0-68.0 mg/kg) than red (48.0-60.2 mg/kg) chili peppers. Oils flavoured by infusion showed higher contents of volatile compounds linked to defects such as acetic acid, with winey/vinegary sensory defect (median, 1.72-2.02) and no fresh pepper flavour. Oils prepared by co-milling resulted rich in the typical esters of chili pepper (6.175 and 4.156 mg/kg with green and red chili peppers, respectively), with pleasant hotness sensation and fresh pepper flavour. Overall, the co-milling approach allowed obtaining flavoured samples with improved sensory quality.


Assuntos
Capsicum , Olea , Piper nigrum , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis , Azeite de Oliva , Aromatizantes , Paladar
9.
Food Chem ; 404(Pt B): 134748, 2023 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36327502

RESUMO

Carotenoids play an important role in the stability, freshness, and nutritional value of extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO). However, the carotenoid content in EVOO changes over time as a function of olive ripening and degrading events. A reliable quality marker is the ratio between the two most abundant carotenoids, namely lutein and ß-carotene, since the second degrades more rapidly. Thus, to obtain a fast quantification of the lutein/ß-carotene ratio in olive oil could deserve a certain interest. Resonant Raman spectroscopy is a rapid and non-destructive technique, widely applied for food chemical characterization. In this work, using high-performance liquid chromatography and UV-vis absorption spectroscopy as calibration techniques, we present a reliable method to assess the lutein/ß-carotene ratio in EVOO using a single Raman spectrum. The novel approach deserves several methodological and applicative interests, since it would allow rapid, on-site screening of EVOO quality and authenticity, especially if implemented as a portable system.


Assuntos
Luteína , beta Caroteno , Azeite de Oliva/química , beta Caroteno/análise , Análise Espectral Raman , Carotenoides/análise
10.
Food Chem ; 404(Pt A): 134543, 2023 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36240558

RESUMO

Extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO) is subjected to different frauds. This work aimed at integrating the untargeted phenolic and sterol signatures with supervised multivariate discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) and Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) for tracing the authenticity (as a function of variety, origin, and the blending) of Taggiasca Ligure, a renowned Italian EVOO. Overall, 408 samples from three consecutive growing seasons were used. Despite the cultivar, season, growth altitude, and geographical origin were all contributing to phytochemical profile, OPLS-DA models allowed identifying specific markers of authenticity. Cholesterol-derivatives and phenolics (tyrosols and oleuropeins, stilbenes, lignans, phenolic acids, and flavonoids) were the best markers, based on statistics. Thereafter, ANN was used to discriminate authentic Taggiasca, and the sensitivity was 100% (32/32) thus indicating an excellent classification. Our results strengthen the concept of "terroir" for EVOO and indicate that profiling sterols and phenolics can support EVOO integrity if adequate data treatments are adopted.


Assuntos
Fitosteróis , Esteróis , Azeite de Oliva/análise , Fenóis/análise , Flavonoides , Redes Neurais de Computação
11.
Food Chem ; 404(Pt A): 134474, 2023 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36244061

RESUMO

In this work, a new method has been developed to detect adulterations in avocado oil by combining optical images and their treatment with deep learning algorithms. For this purpose, samples of avocado oil adulterated with refined olive oil at concentrations from 1 % to 15 % (v/v) were prepared. Two groups of images of the different samples were obtained, one in conditions considered as bright and the other as dark, obtaining a total of 1,800 photographs. To obtain these images under both conditions, the exposure or shutter speed of the camera was modified (1/30 s for light conditions and 1/500 s for dark conditions). A residual neural network (ResNet34) was used to process and classify the images obtained. A different model was developed for each condition, and during blind validation of the models, ∼95 % of the images were correctly classified.


Assuntos
Persea , Óleos Vegetais , Óleos Vegetais/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Azeite de Oliva/análise , Redes Neurais de Computação
12.
Food Chem ; 402: 134247, 2023 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36152560

RESUMO

Extra virgin olive oil is a typical product of Mediterranean area, and its origin protection is continuously improved. 24 olive oil samples from different geographical origin were analyzed and 40 elements were evaluated with chemometric techniques. This study aims at elaborating a method to determine mineral composition of this matrix and at validating the method used to determine its reliability. The high-level laboratory facilities for trace element/isotopic analysis realized in ENEA Brasimone (Italy) is a useful tool to reduce the limit of detection of elements, cutting down pollutants. Both Clean Laboratory for sample pre-treatment and Clean Room Standard ISO 6 are constantly monitored to guarantee the control quality. The results obtained using ICP-MS Triple Quadrupoles show changes between the analysed samples. Finally, Principal Component Analysis was conducted to better characterize olive oil products from different geographical origin, providing a fingerprint of the element patterns in the samples.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Oligoelementos , Azeite de Oliva/análise , Oligoelementos/análise , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Minerais , Poluentes Ambientais/análise
13.
J Med Food ; 25(11): 1021-1028, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36322892

RESUMO

This study investigated the effect of perilla oil (PO) on an ulcerative colitis mouse model. Five-week-old male C57BL/6J mice were divided into HD (high-fat diet control), HDD (high-fat diet along with dextran sodium sulfate [DSS] administration), HDD + FO, HDD + PO, and HDD + OO where HDD + FO, HDD + PO, and HDD + OO groups were treated with fish oil (FO), PO, and olive oil (OO), respectively. Biochemical analysis of serum, quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and western blotting of colon tissue were conducted to measure inflammatory marker levels. Administration of DSS resulted in colon shortening and a higher disease activity score than HD group. These symptoms were significantly reversed in the oil-treated groups. The body weight loss after DSS administration was significantly lower in the HDD + PO and HDD + OO groups than in the HDD and HDD + FO groups. PO significantly attenuated the levels of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-1ß in the serum and colon. The mRNA expression levels of proinflammatory markers in the colon were reduced, whereas those of tight junction proteins and epithelial defense barrier-associated markers were increased by PO treatment. The protein expression of p-p65 was significantly lower in the PO-treated group than the HDD group. In summary, this study revealed that PO improved colitis in the DSS-induced mouse model, indicating its potential role in managing conditions such as ulcerative colitis.


Assuntos
Colite Ulcerativa , Colite , Camundongos , Masculino , Animais , Sulfato de Dextrana/efeitos adversos , Colite Ulcerativa/induzido quimicamente , Colite Ulcerativa/tratamento farmacológico , Colite Ulcerativa/metabolismo , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Colite/induzido quimicamente , Colite/tratamento farmacológico , Colite/metabolismo , Colo , Óleos de Peixe/efeitos adversos , Óleos de Peixe/metabolismo , Azeite de Oliva , Modelos Animais de Doenças
14.
Food Funct ; 13(22): 11915-11928, 2022 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36321712

RESUMO

Exhausted olive pomace (EOP) is produced in olive-pomace oil extractors as a by-product. However, the obtention of bioactive compounds from EOP can reinsert it into the economy as a new bioresource before applying other exploitation ways. The objective of the present study was to investigate the phytochemical differences between aqueous and aqueous acetonic extracts from EOP (AE-EOP and AAE-EOP, respectively) obtained by hydrothermal and ultrasound-assisted extraction, respectively. The in vitro antioxidant activities and the in vivo hepatopreventive potential were evaluated. Using RP-HPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS, the chemical profile revealed that AE-EOP and AAE-EOP showed similar qualitative profiles, with some quantitative differences. Hydroxytyrosol and mannitol were the major compounds of the extracts. The investigation of antioxidant properties in vitro highlighted that AE-EOP was slightly more efficient in scavenging DPPH, ABTS, superoxide, and hydrogen peroxide radicals, when compared to AAE-EOP. Additionally, AE-EOP and AAE-EOP showed dose-dependent suppressive effects on pancreatic lipase activity. In vivo studies showed that AE-EOP and AAE-EOP presented interesting hepatopreventive capacities against CCl4 induced liver injury, as evidenced by (i) the preventive effects against DNA damage, (ii) the normalised hepatic biomarker parameters (ALT, AST, GGT, and LDH) and (iii) the normalised lipid profile (LDL-C, TC, TG, and HDL-C) through diminishing their levels, (iv) which was supported by Oil Red O analysis. Furthermore, AE-EOP and AAE-EOP reduced the oxidative stress in liver tissue by inhibiting lipid peroxidation together with the enhancement of the hepatic antioxidant activities (CAT, SOD and GPx) and GSH content. Additionally, AE-EOP and AAE-EOP exhibited an antifibrotic effect, which was clearly demonstrated by the histopathological examination using Picrosirius red staining. The obtained results support the use of EOP extracts in industries without further purification as antioxidants and against free radical induced damage.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Olea , Extratos Vegetais , Antioxidantes/química , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/metabolismo , Peroxidação de Lipídeos , Fígado/metabolismo , Manitol/metabolismo , Olea/química , Azeite de Oliva/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química
15.
Molecules ; 27(21)2022 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36364080

RESUMO

'Picual' olive oil was stored in different types of containers for 10 months and monitored via quality parameters. In combination with the mentioned analysis, non-destructive fluorescence spectroscopy was performed combined with multivariate analysis to monitor and quantify oil quality levels. Excitation emission matrices (EMMs) were analyzed using parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC). According to the quality parameters, it was observed that Transparent Crystal (TC) and Opaque Crystal (OC) samples were the ones that deteriorated faster due to their higher exposure to light in comparison with Plastic (P) and Canned (C) samples. In a fast and non-destructive manner, the fluorescence spectroscopy-based prototype successfully monitored the oxidation changes in the EVOOs. Unfolded partial least squares (U-PLS) was used to generate a regression model to quantify quality parameters. Good correlation coefficients were found for the peroxide index, K232 and the oxidative stability index (r2 between 0.90 and 0.94 for cross-validation and validation). For all of that, the results obtained confirmed the ability of fluorescence spectroscopy to monitor the quality of olive oil and EEMs combined with U-PLS can be used to analyze these parameters, eluding the classical methods.


Assuntos
Óleos Vegetais , Azeite de Oliva/química , Oxirredução , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Espectrometria de Fluorescência/métodos , Análise Multivariada , Óleos Vegetais/química
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36429639

RESUMO

The purpose was to identify and summarize the existing evidence on the efficacy and safety of the topical application of olive oil for preventing pressure ulcers (PUs). We included only randomized controlled trials (RCTs) involving patients at risk of developing PUs, testing the topical application of olive oil versus other products for PU prevention. We assessed the risk of bias using the RoB 2 tool, and the certainty of the evidence with GRADE. Four RCTs met the eligibility criteria. All studies were judged at a low risk of bias overall. The meta-analysis showed that the clinical efficacy of olive oil for prevention occurs by reducing the incidence of PUs (RR = 0.56, 95% CI = 0.30 to 0.79, I2 = 0%); with no differences in adverse effects, it may be associated with a shorter development time of PUs and shorter hospital stays. The certainty of the evidence assessed by the GRADE approach was moderate and low. The topical application of olive oil is effective and safe in reducing the incidence of PUs compared to other treatments. These findings could provide new insights into olive oil as a preventive and alternative treatment for PUs as it is accessible and inexpensive compared to other products.


Assuntos
Lesão por Pressão , Humanos , Lesão por Pressão/prevenção & controle , Lesão por Pressão/epidemiologia , Azeite de Oliva , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Incidência , Supuração
17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(22)2022 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36430484

RESUMO

Hydrogels, based on natural polymers, such as hyaluronic acid, are gaining an increasing popularity because of their biological activity. The antibacterial effect of ozone is widely known and used, but the instability the gas causes, severely limits its application. Ozone entrapment in olive oil by its reaction with an unsaturated bond, allows for the formation of stable, therapeutically active ozone derivatives. In this study, we obtained an innovative hydrogel, based on hyaluronic acid containing micro/nanocapsules of ozonated olive oil. By combination of the biocompatible polymer with a high regenerative capacity and biologically active ingredients, we obtained a hydrogel with regenerative properties and a very weak inhibitory effect against both bacterial commensal skin microbiota and pathogenic Candida-like yeasts. We assessed the stability and rheological properties of the gel, determined the morphology of the composite, using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and particle size by the dynamic light scattering (DLS) method. We also performed Attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (FTIR-ATR) spectroscopy. The functional properties, including the antimicrobial potential were assessed by the microbiological analysis and in vitro testing on the HaCat human keratinocyte cell line. The studies proved that the obtained emulsions were rheologically stable, exhibited an antimicrobial effect and did not show cytotoxicity in the HaCat keratinocyte model.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Ozônio , Humanos , Cápsulas , Ácido Hialurônico , Azeite de Oliva , Hidrogéis/farmacologia , Hidrogéis/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Polímeros/química , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Ozônio/farmacologia
18.
Molecules ; 27(21)2022 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36364398

RESUMO

Since there is an urgent need for novel treatments to combat the current coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, in silico molecular docking studies were implemented as an attempt to explore the ability of selected bioactive constituents of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) to act as potent SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) antiviral compounds, aiming to explore their ability to interact with SARS-CoV-2 Spike key therapeutic target protein. Our results suggest that EVOO constituents display substantial capacity for binding and interfering with Spike (S) protein, both wild-type and mutant, via the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of Spike, or other binding targets such as angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) or the RBD-ACE2 protein complex, inhibiting the interaction of the virus with host cells. This in silico study provides useful insights for the understanding of the mechanism of action of the studied compounds at a molecular level. From the present study, it could be suggested that the studied active phytochemicals could potentially inhibit the Spike protein, contributing thus to the understanding of the role that they can play in future drug designing and the development of anti-COVID-19 therapeutics.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humanos , Antivirais/farmacologia , Antivirais/química , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/metabolismo , Azeite de Oliva , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/metabolismo , Sítios de Ligação , Ligação Proteica
19.
Nutrients ; 14(22)2022 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36432399

RESUMO

The San Carlos Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) prevention study, a nutritional intervention RCT based on a Mediterranean Diet (MedDiet), has been shown to reduce the incidence of GDM. The objective of this study is to investigate the relationship of leptin, adiponectin, interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), insulin and HOMA-IRand circulating miRNAs (miR-29a-3p, miR-103a-3p, miR-132-3p, miR-222-3p) with the appearance of GDM and with MedDiet-based nutritional intervention, at 24-28 gestational weeks (GW), and in glucose regulation 2-3 years post-delivery (PD). A total of 313 pregnant women, 77 with GDM vs. 236 with normal glucose tolerance (NGT), 141 from the control group (CG, MedDiet restricting the consumption of dietary fat including EVOO and nuts during pregnancy) vs. 172 from the intervention group (IG, MedDiet supplemented with extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) and pistachios during pregnancy) were compared at Visit 1 (8-12 GW), Visit 2 (24-28 GW) and Visit 3 (2-3 years PD). Expression of miRNAs was determined by the Exiqon miRCURY LNA RT-PCR system. Leptin, adiponectin, IL-6 and TNF-α, were measured by Milliplex® immunoassays on Luminex 200 and insulin by RIA. Women with GDM vs. NTG had significantly higher leptin median (Q1-Q3) levels (14.6 (9.2-19.4) vs. 9.6 (6.0-15.1) ng/mL; p < 0.05) and insulin levels (11.4 (8.6-16.5) vs. 9.4 (7.0-12.8) µUI/mL; p < 0.001) and lower adiponectin (12.9 (9.8-17.2) vs. 17.0 (13.3-22.4) µg/mL; p < 0.001) at Visit 2. These findings persisted in Visit 3, with overexpression of miR-222-3p (1.45 (0.76-2.21) vs. 0.99 (0.21-1.70); p < 0.05)) and higher levels of Il-6 and TNF-α. When the IG is compared with the CG lower levels of insulin, HOMA-IR-IR, IL-6 levels at Visit 2 and 3 and leptin levels only at Visit 2 were observed. An overexpression of miR-222-3p and miR-103a-3p were also observed in IG at Visit 2 and 3. The miR-222-3p and miR103a-3p expression correlated with insulin levels, HOMA-IR, IL-6 and TNF-α at Visit 2 (all p < 0.05). These data support the association of leptin, adiponectin and insulin/HOMA-IR with GDM, as well as the association of insulin/HOMA-IR and IL-6 and miR-222-3p and miR-103a-3p expression with a MedDiet-based nutritional intervention.


Assuntos
Diabetes Gestacional , Dieta Mediterrânea , MicroRNAs , Gravidez , Feminino , Humanos , Adipocinas , Leptina , Glucose , Adiponectina , Interleucina-6 , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa , Insulina , MicroRNAs/genética , Azeite de Oliva
20.
Eur J Med Res ; 27(1): 267, 2022 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36437468

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Osteoporosis is characterized by deterioration of bone microarchitecture and reduced bone mass and can increase the risk of fracture. To reduce this risk, the aim of this study was to compare the combination effects of olive oil and Lepidium sativum compared to the conventional drug therapy alendronate. METHODS: Osteoporosed-induced rat model was established by administration of dexamethasone in female adult albino rats. The serum level of Ca2+, P3+, and osteocalcin was assessed. In addition, histopathological changes and immunohistochemical expression of osteopontin within bone specimens were performed. RESULTS: Our results showed that a combination of olive oil and Lepidium sativum had a beneficial therapeutic effect in the treatment of osteoporosis as compared to alendronate therapy. This was demonstrated by increase of serum Ca2+, P3+, and osteocalcin levels in treated compared to control groups. Intriguingly, the highest effect was noticed in rats that received a combination of olive oil and Lepidium sativum compared to the individual treatment. This was reflected by an increase in the cortical bone thickness and a decrease in immunohistochemical expression of osteopontin compared to individual treated groups. CONCLUSION: We concluded that the administration of a combination of olive oil and Lepidium sativum improves bone mineral health and intensity and reduces the risk of osteoporosis in a rat model.


Assuntos
Lepidium sativum , Osteoporose , Animais , Azeite de Oliva/farmacologia , Azeite de Oliva/uso terapêutico , Osteopontina/genética , Osteopontina/uso terapêutico , Alendronato/farmacologia , Alendronato/uso terapêutico , Osteocalcina/uso terapêutico , Osteoporose/induzido quimicamente , Osteoporose/tratamento farmacológico , Dexametasona/uso terapêutico
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