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1.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 23(4): 608-635, jul. 2024. tab, ilus, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1538071

RESUMO

Chile has two certified origin olive products: Extra-Virgin Olive Oil (EVOO) from Huasco valley and the Azapa variety table olive from the Azapa valley. However, efficient methodologies are needed to determine the varieties and raw materials involved in the end products. In this study, we assessed the size of alleles from ten microsatellites in 20 EVOOs and in leaves and fruits of 16 olive varieties cultivated in Chile to authenticate their origins. The identification of varieties relied on specific allele sizes derived from microsatellites markers UDO99-011 and DCA18-M found in leaves and fruit mesocarp. While most Chilean single-variety EVOOs matched the variety declared on the label, inconsistencies were observed in single-variety EVOOs containing multiple varieties. Our findings confirm that microsatellites serve as a valuable as diagnostic tools for ensuring the quality control of Geographical Indication certification for Azapa olives and EVOO with Designation of Origin from Huasco.


Chile cuenta con dos productos de oliva de origen certificado: El aceite de oliva virgen extra (AOVE) del valle del Huasco y la aceituna de mesa de la variedad Azapa del valle de Azapa. Sin embargo, se necesitan metodologías eficientes para determinar las variedades y materias primas involucradas en los productos finales. En este estudio, evaluamos el tamaño de los alelos de diez microsatélites en 20 AOVEs y en hojas y frutos de 16 variedades de aceituna cultivadas en Chile para autentificar sus orígenes. La identificación de las variedades se basó en los tamaños alélicos específicos derivados de los marcadores microsatélites UDO99-011 y DCA18-M encontrados en las hojas y el mesocarpio de los frutos. Aunque la mayoría de los AOVEs chilenos monovarietales coincidían con la variedad declarada en la etiqueta, se observaron incoherencias en los AOVEs monovarietales que contenían múltiples variedades. Nuestros hallazgos confirman que los microsatélites sirven como valiosas herramientas de diagnóstico para asegurar el control de calidad de la certificación de Indicación Geográfica para aceitunas de Azapa y AOVE con Denominación de Origen de Huasco.


Assuntos
Azeite de Oliva/química , Geografia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Chile , Estruturas Vegetais/química
2.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 108(1): 358, 2024 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38829381

RESUMO

Biosurfactants are in demand by the global market as natural commodities suitable for incorporation into commercial products or utilization in environmental applications. Fungi are promising producers of these molecules and have garnered interest also for their metabolic capabilities in efficiently utilizing recalcitrant and complex substrates, like hydrocarbons, plastic, etc. Within this framework, biosurfactants produced by two Fusarium solani fungal strains, isolated from plastic waste-contaminated landfill soils, were analyzed. Mycelia of these fungi were grown in the presence of 5% olive oil to drive biosurfactant production. The characterization of the emulsifying and surfactant capacity of these extracts highlighted that two different components are involved. A protein was purified and identified as a CFEM (common in fungal extracellular membrane) containing domain, revealing a good propensity to stabilize emulsions only in its aggregate form. On the other hand, an unidentified cationic smaller molecule exhibits the ability to reduce surface tension. Based on the 3D structural model of the protein, a plausible mechanism for the formation of very stable aggregates, endowed with the emulsifying ability, is proposed. KEY POINTS: • Two Fusarium solani strains are analyzed for their surfactant production. • A cationic surfactant is produced, exhibiting the ability to remarkably reduce surface tension. • An identified protein reveals a good propensity to stabilize emulsions only in its aggregate form.


Assuntos
Proteínas Fúngicas , Fusarium , Tensoativos , Fusarium/metabolismo , Fusarium/genética , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Proteínas Fúngicas/química , Proteínas Fúngicas/genética , Tensoativos/metabolismo , Tensoativos/química , Emulsificantes/metabolismo , Emulsificantes/química , Microbiologia do Solo , Emulsões/química , Emulsões/metabolismo , Tensão Superficial , Cisteína/metabolismo , Cisteína/química , Azeite de Oliva/metabolismo , Azeite de Oliva/química , Micélio/metabolismo
3.
Anal Chim Acta ; 1312: 342740, 2024 Jul 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38834260

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) represent a diverse group of organic compounds characterized by the fusion of two or more benzene rings arranged in various structural forms. Due to their harmful effects on human health, it is essential to implement monitoring systems and preventive measures to regulate human exposure. Given the affinity of PAHs for lipids, extensive research has been focused on their presence in vegetable oils. This study aimed to develop an on-line liquid-gas chromatography (LC-GC) method (using tandem mass spectrometry) with minimized solvent consumption for the determination of 16 PAHs in extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO). RESULTS: A side-by-side comparison of the selected-ion-monitoring and the pseudo multiple-reaction-monitoring (p-MRM) acquisition modes was performed, in terms of specificity and detectability. The results obtained using the p-MRM mode were superior, and for this reason it was selected. The method was linear over the concentration range 1-200 µg kg-1 (except in five cases, over 2-200 and 5-200 µg kg-1 ranges). Accuracy (at the 2 µg kg-1 and 20 µg kg-1 concentration levels) was in the 86.9-109.3 % range, with an RSD <10 %. Intra-day and inter-day precision (at 2 µg kg-1 and 20 µg kg-1 concentration levels) were in the 1.2-9.7 % and 3.2-10.8 % ranges, respectively. For all the PAHs, a negative matrix effect was observed. Three out of sixteen PAHs were detected in three EVOOs (among ten samples), albeit at the low ppb level. Limits of quantification were satisfactory in relation to EU legislation on the presence of PAHs in vegetable oils. SIGNIFICANCE: A dilute-and-inject LC-GC-tandem mass spectrometry method is herein proposed fulfilling EU legislation requirements; sample preparation was very simple, inasmuch that it involved only a dilution step, thus avoiding extraction, clean-up, and thus a high consumption of organic solvents. In fact, considering both oil dilution and the LC mobile phase, less than 8 mL of solvents were used.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Azeite de Oliva , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Azeite de Oliva/química , Azeite de Oliva/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Cromatografia Líquida/métodos
4.
J Orthop Surg Res ; 19(1): 338, 2024 Jun 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38849876

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We aimed to analyze the outcomes of intraarticular extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) injection on mechanically induced rabbit knee osteoarthritis (OA) by studying the morphological, histological, and radiological findings. METHODS: The study was conducted on 32 New Zealand White rabbits. The randomly numbered subjects were divided into two main groups. The rabbits numbered 1 to 16 were selected to be the group to receive EVOO, and the remaining were selected into a control group. Both groups were separated into two subgroups for short-term (five weeks) and long-term (10 weeks) follow-up. Anterior cruciate ligament transection was applied on the left knees of all the rabbits via medial parapatellar arthrotomy to simulate knee instability. Immediately after the surgical procedure, 0.2 cc of EVOO was injected into the knee joint of rabbits numbered 1-16, and the control group received 0.2 cc of sterile saline. On the 14th day, long-term group subjects were administered another dose of 0.2 cc EVOO intraarticularly. RESULTS: The gross morphological scores of the control group subjects were significantly different from the EVOO group for both short-term (p = 0,055) and long-term (p = 0,041) scores. In parallel, the MRI results of the EVOO subjects were significantly different from the control group for both short-term and long-term follow-up assessment scores (p = 0.017, p = 0.014, respectively). The Mankin scoring results showed that there were statistically significant differences between the EVOO and control group in the comparison of both total scores (p = 0.001 for short-term and p = 0.004 for long-term) and subgroup scoring, including macroscopic appearance, chondrocyte cell number, staining, and Tidemark integrity in both short-term (p = 0.005, p = 0.028, p = 0.001, p = 0.005, respectively) and long-term assessments (p = 0.002, p = 0.014, p < 0.001, p = 0. 200, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: We have observed promising outcomes of intra-articular application of extra virgin olive oil in the treatment of acute degenerative osteoarthritis in rabbit knees. Due to its potential cartilage restorative and regenerative effects, EVOO, when administered intra-articularly, may be a promising agent to consider for further research in the treatment of OA.


Assuntos
Azeite de Oliva , Osteoartrite do Joelho , Coelhos , Animais , Azeite de Oliva/administração & dosagem , Injeções Intra-Articulares , Osteoartrite do Joelho/diagnóstico por imagem , Osteoartrite do Joelho/tratamento farmacológico , Osteoartrite do Joelho/patologia , Masculino
5.
Planta Med ; 90(7-08): 554-560, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38843795

RESUMO

A selective Oxone-induced oxidation of oleocanthal and oleacein, the two main secoiridoids of olive oil, to their bis-oxidized products is described. This protocol is based on a Baeyer-Villiger mechanism and the concentration of Oxone in the final solution. The bis-oxidation of the aldehydic compounds could be extended for the synthesis of various semisynthetic analogs. The obtained acids exhibit strong antioxidant activity, being efficient free radical scavengers.


Assuntos
Aldeídos , Azeite de Oliva , Oxirredução , Aldeídos/química , Azeite de Oliva/química , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Fenóis/química , Furanos/química , Monoterpenos Ciclopentânicos/química
6.
Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand) ; 70(6): 1-6, 2024 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38836689

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate the antibacterial and antimicrobial activity of ozone gel against oral biofilms grown on titanium dental implant discs. The experiment used medical grade five titanium discs on which peri-implant isolated biofilms were grown. The experimental groups were control, Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) and Granulicatella adiacens (G. adiacens), (n = 6). The oral microbes grown on titanium discs were exposed to ozone gel for 3 minutes and the antibacterial activity was assessed by turbidity test and adherence test for the antibiofilm activity test. Bacterial morphology and confluence were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), (n=3). Two bacterial species were identified from the peri-implant sample, S. mutans and G. adiacens. The results showed that adding ozone to the bacterial biofilm on titanium dental implants did not exhibit significant antibacterial activity against S. mutans. Moreover, there was no significant difference in antibiofilm activity between control and treatment groups. However, significant antibacterial and antibiofilm effect was exhibited by ozone gel against G. adiacens. Ozonated olive oil can be considered as a potential antimicrobial agent for disinfecting dental implant surfaces and treating peri-implantitis.


Assuntos
Biofilmes , Implantes Dentários , Azeite de Oliva , Ozônio , Peri-Implantite , Streptococcus mutans , Ozônio/farmacologia , Azeite de Oliva/farmacologia , Azeite de Oliva/química , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Biofilmes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Peri-Implantite/microbiologia , Peri-Implantite/tratamento farmacológico , Streptococcus mutans/efeitos dos fármacos , Streptococcus mutans/fisiologia , Humanos , Implantes Dentários/microbiologia , Titânio/farmacologia , Titânio/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana
7.
Cell Commun Signal ; 22(1): 309, 2024 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38835076

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Neuroinflammation is widely acknowledged as a characteristic feature of almost all neurological disorders and specifically in depression- and anxiety-like disorders. In recent years, there has been significant attention on natural compounds with potent anti-inflammatory effects due to their potential in mitigating neuroinflammation and neuroplasticity. METHODS: In the present study, we aimed to evaluate the neuroprotective effects of oleacein (OC), a rare secoiridoid derivative found in extra virgin olive oil. Our goal was to explore the BDNF/TrkB neurotrophic activity of OC and subsequently assess its potential for modulating neuroinflammatory response using human neuroblastoma cells (SH-SY5Y cells) and an in vivo model of depression induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-mediated inflammation. RESULTS: In SH-SY5Y cells, OC exhibited a significant dose-dependent increase in BDNF expression. This enhancement was absent when cells were co-treated with inhibitors of BDNF's receptor TrkB, as well as downstream molecules PI3K and MEK. Whole-transcriptomics analysis revealed that OC upregulated cell cycle-related genes under normal conditions, while downregulating inflammation-associated genes in LPS-induced conditions. Furthermore, surface plasmon resonance (SPR) assays demonstrated that OC exhibited a stronger and more stable binding affinity to TrkB compared to the positive control, 7,8-dihydroxyflavone. Importantly, bioluminescence imaging revealed that a single oral dose of OC significantly increased BDNF expression in the brains of Bdnf-IRES-AkaLuc mice. Furthermore, oral administration of OC at a dosage of 10 mg/kg body weight for 10 days significantly reduced immobility time in the tail suspension test compared to the LPS-treated group. RT-qPCR analysis revealed that OC significantly decreased the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines Tnfα, Il6, and Il1ß, while simultaneously enhancing Bdnf expression, as well as both pro and mature BDNF protein levels in mice hippocampus. These changes were comparable to those induced by the positive control antidepressant drug fluoxetine. Additionally, microarray analysis of mouse brains confirmed that OC could counteract LPS-induced inflammatory biological events. CONCLUSION: Altogether, our study represents the first report on the potential antineuroinflammatory and antidepressant properties of OC via modulation of BDNF/TrkB neurotrophic activity. This finding underscores the potential of OC as a natural therapeutic agent for depression- and anxiety-related disorders.


Assuntos
Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo , Lipopolissacarídeos , Receptor trkB , Animais , Humanos , Receptor trkB/metabolismo , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/metabolismo , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/genética , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Camundongos , Doenças Neuroinflamatórias/tratamento farmacológico , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Monoterpenos Ciclopentânicos/farmacologia , Masculino , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/uso terapêutico , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Azeite de Oliva/farmacologia , Azeite de Oliva/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamação/patologia , Aldeídos , Glicoproteínas de Membrana , Fenóis
8.
J Contemp Dent Pract ; 25(3): 260-266, 2024 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38690700

RESUMO

AIM AND BACKGROUND: This study aimed to explore the potential synergistic interaction of virgin coconut oil (VCO) and virgin olive oil (VOO) mixture against Streptococcus sanguinis, Streptococcus mutans, and Lactobacillus casei in a single and mixture species through the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC), antiadherence, and antibiofilm activities. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The broth microdilution technique was used to individually determine the MIC of both oils and an oil mixture (in the ratio of 1:1) in a 96-well microtiter plate. As for the MBC, the subcultured method was used. The fractional inhibitory concentration index (ΣFIC) was determined to identify the interaction types between both oils. The oil mixture at its MIC was then tested on its antibiofilm and antiadherence effect. RESULTS: The MIC of the oil mixture against the tested microbiota was 50-100%. The oil mixture was bactericidal at 100% concentration for all the mentioned microbes except S. mutans. The ΣFIC value was 2 to 4, indicating that the VCO and VOO acted additively against the microbiota. Meanwhile, the oil mixture at MIC (50% for S. sanguinis and L. casei; 100% for S. mutans and mixture species) exhibited antiadherence and antibiofilm activity toward the microbiota in mixture species. CONCLUSION: The oil mixture possesses antibacterial, antibiofilm, and antiadherence properties toward the tested microbiota, mainly at 50-100% concentration of oil mixture. There was no synergistic interaction found between VCO and VOO. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Children and individuals with special care may benefit from using the oil mixture, primarily to regulate the biofilm formation and colonization of the bacteria. Furthermore, the oil mixture is natural and nontoxic compared to chemical-based oral healthcare products. How to cite this article: Ng YM, Sockalingam SNMP, Shafiei Z, et al. Biological Activities of Virgin Coconut and Virgin Olive Oil Mixture against Oral Primary Colonizers: An In Vitro Study. J Contemp Dent Pract 2024;25(3):260-266.


Assuntos
Biofilmes , Óleo de Coco , Lacticaseibacillus casei , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Azeite de Oliva , Streptococcus mutans , Streptococcus sanguis , Azeite de Oliva/farmacologia , Streptococcus mutans/efeitos dos fármacos , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Óleo de Coco/farmacologia , Técnicas In Vitro , Streptococcus sanguis/efeitos dos fármacos , Lacticaseibacillus casei/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Aderência Bacteriana/efeitos dos fármacos
9.
J Vis Exp ; (206)2024 Apr 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38709074

RESUMO

Utilizing vegetable oil as a sustainable feedstock, this study presents an innovative approach to ultrasonic-assisted transesterification for biodiesel synthesis. This alkaline-catalyzed procedure harnesses ultrasound as a potent energy input, facilitating the rapid conversion of extra virgin olive oil into biodiesel. In this demonstration, the reaction is run in an ultrasonic bath under ambient conditions for 15 min, requiring a 1:6 molar ratio of extra virgin olive oil to methanol and a minimum amount of KOH as the catalyst. The physiochemical properties of biodiesel are also reported. Emphasizing the remarkable advantages of ultrasonic-assisted transesterification, this method demonstrates notable reductions in reaction and separation times, achieving near-perfect purity (~100%), high yields, and negligible waste generation. Importantly, these benefits are achieved within a framework that prioritizes safety and environmental sustainability. These compelling findings underscore the effectiveness of this approach in converting vegetable oil into biodiesel, positioning it as a viable option for both research and practical applications.


Assuntos
Biocombustíveis , Óleos de Plantas , Óleos de Plantas/química , Esterificação , Hidróxidos/química , Azeite de Oliva/química , Ondas Ultrassônicas , Compostos de Potássio/química , Catálise
10.
JAMA Netw Open ; 7(5): e2410021, 2024 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38709531

RESUMO

Importance: Age-standardized dementia mortality rates are on the rise. Whether long-term consumption of olive oil and diet quality are associated with dementia-related death is unknown. Objective: To examine the association of olive oil intake with the subsequent risk of dementia-related death and assess the joint association with diet quality and substitution for other fats. Design, Setting, and Participants: This prospective cohort study examined data from the Nurses' Health Study (NHS; 1990-2018) and Health Professionals Follow-Up Study (HPFS; 1990-2018). The population included women from the NHS and men from the HPFS who were free of cardiovascular disease and cancer at baseline. Data were analyzed from May 2022 to July 2023. Exposures: Olive oil intake was assessed every 4 years using a food frequency questionnaire and categorized as (1) never or less than once per month, (2) greater than 0 to less than or equal to 4.5 g/d, (3) greater than 4.5 g/d to less than or equal to 7 g/d, and (4) greater than 7 g/d. Diet quality was based on the Alternative Healthy Eating Index and Mediterranean Diet score. Main Outcome and Measure: Dementia death was ascertained from death records. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regressions were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs adjusted for confounders including genetic, sociodemographic, and lifestyle factors. Results: Of 92 383 participants, 60 582 (65.6%) were women and the mean (SD) age was 56.4 (8.0) years. During 28 years of follow-up (2 183 095 person-years), 4751 dementia-related deaths occurred. Individuals who were homozygous for the apolipoprotein ε4 (APOE ε4) allele were 5 to 9 times more likely to die with dementia. Consuming at least 7 g/d of olive oil was associated with a 28% lower risk of dementia-related death (adjusted pooled HR, 0.72 [95% CI, 0.64-0.81]) compared with never or rarely consuming olive oil (P for trend < .001); results were consistent after further adjustment for APOE ε4. No interaction by diet quality scores was found. In modeled substitution analyses, replacing 5 g/d of margarine and mayonnaise with the equivalent amount of olive oil was associated with an 8% (95% CI, 4%-12%) to 14% (95% CI, 7%-20%) lower risk of dementia mortality. Substitutions for other vegetable oils or butter were not significant. Conclusions and Relevance: In US adults, higher olive oil intake was associated with a lower risk of dementia-related mortality, irrespective of diet quality. Beyond heart health, the findings extend the current dietary recommendations of choosing olive oil and other vegetable oils for cognitive-related health.


Assuntos
Demência , Azeite de Oliva , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , Demência/mortalidade , Demência/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Idoso , Dieta Mediterrânea/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Risco , Adulto , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Dieta Saudável/estatística & dados numéricos
11.
Nutrients ; 16(9)2024 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38732529

RESUMO

The Mediterranean diet, renowned for its health benefits, especially in reducing cardiovascular risks and protecting against diseases like diabetes and cancer, emphasizes virgin olive oil as a key contributor to these advantages. Despite being a minor fraction, the phenolic compounds in olive oil significantly contribute to its bioactive effects. This review examines the bioactive properties of hydroxytyrosol and related molecules, including naturally occurring compounds (-)-oleocanthal and (-)-oleacein, as well as semisynthetic derivatives like hydroxytyrosyl esters and alkyl ethers. (-)-Oleocanthal and (-)-oleacein show promising anti-tumor and anti-inflammatory properties, which are particularly underexplored in the case of (-)-oleacein. Additionally, hydroxytyrosyl esters exhibit similar effectiveness to hydroxytyrosol, while certain alkyl ethers surpass their precursor's properties. Remarkably, the emerging research field of the effects of phenolic molecules related to virgin olive oil on cell autophagy presents significant opportunities for underscoring the anti-cancer and neuroprotective properties of these molecules. Furthermore, promising clinical data from studies on hydroxytyrosol, (-)-oleacein, and (-)-oleocanthal urge further investigation and support the initiation of clinical trials with semisynthetic hydroxytyrosol derivatives. This review provides valuable insights into the potential applications of olive oil-derived phenolics in preventing and managing diseases associated with cancer, angiogenesis, and atherosclerosis.


Assuntos
Inibidores da Angiogênese , Azeite de Oliva , Fenóis , Álcool Feniletílico , Azeite de Oliva/química , Humanos , Fenóis/farmacologia , Inibidores da Angiogênese/farmacologia , Álcool Feniletílico/análogos & derivados , Álcool Feniletílico/farmacologia , Dieta Mediterrânea , Aterosclerose/prevenção & controle , Aterosclerose/tratamento farmacológico , Monoterpenos Ciclopentânicos , Neoplasias/prevenção & controle , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Catecóis/farmacologia , Aldeídos/farmacologia , Animais , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia
12.
Molecules ; 29(9)2024 Apr 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38731426

RESUMO

The use of by-products as a source of bioactive compounds with economic added value is one of the objectives of a circular economy. The olive oil industry is a source of olive pomace as a by-product. The olive pomace used in the present study was the exhausted olive pomace, which is the by-product generated from the air drying and subsequent hexane extraction of residual oil from the olive pomace. The objective was to extract bioactive compounds remaining in this by-product. Various types of green extraction were used in the present study: solvent extraction (water and hydroalcoholic); ultrasound-assisted extraction; Ultra-Turrax-assisted extraction; and enzyme-assisted extraction (cellulase; viscoenzyme). The phenolic profile of each extract was determined using HPLC-DAD and the total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant activity (ABTS, DPPH, and ORAC) were determined as well. The results showed significant differences in the yield of extraction among the different methods used, with the enzyme-assisted, with or without ultrasound, extraction presenting the highest values. The ultrasound-assisted hydroethanolic extraction (USAHE) was the method that resulted in the highest content of the identified phenolic compounds: 2.021 ± 0.29 mg hydroxytyrosol/100 mg extract, 0.987 ± 0.09 mg tyrosol/100 mg extract, and 0.121 ± 0.005 mg catechol/100 mg extract. The conventional extraction with water at 50 °C produced the best results for TPC and antioxidant activity of the extracts. The extracts from the USAHE were able to inhibit Gram-positive bacteria, especially Bacillus cereus, showing 67.2% inhibition at 3% extract concentration.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Azeite de Oliva , Extratos Vegetais , Polifenóis , Azeite de Oliva/química , Polifenóis/isolamento & purificação , Polifenóis/química , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Química Verde/métodos , Olea/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Solventes/química
13.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0302161, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38748938

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Episiotomy is associated with side effects, such as pain and wound infection. Additionally, discomfort after episiotomy affects the quality of life of both the mother and the baby. Medicinal herbs are one alternative method for the treatment of episiotomy wounds. This study will investigate the effectiveness of the combination of olive and black seed oil on pain intensity and the healing of episiotomy wounds in primiparous women. METHODS: This randomized clinical trial will be conducted on primiparous women who have had a normal delivery with an episiotomy. There are 3 groups in this study: one group will receive a combination of olive oil and black seed oil, another group will receive olive oil alone, and the use of oils will start 24 hours after delivery. Ten drops will be applied topically 3 times a day for 10 days. The third group (control) will receive only routine care. Data will be collected through a demographic characteristics questionnaire, REEDA (Redness, Edema, Ecchymosis, Discharge, and Approximation) Scale, and Visual Analog Scale. To determine and compare the effects of pharmaceutical interventions on pain intensity and episiotomy wound healing in the groups, an analysis of variance (ANOVA) test with repeated measurements will be used with SPSS version 22. DISCUSSION: The results of this study will show the effects of a combination of olive and black seed oil, as well as olive oil alone, on pain intensity and episiotomy wound healing in primiparous women. The positive effects observed in this trial with these oils could be valuable for women who have undergone an episiotomy.


Assuntos
Episiotomia , Azeite de Oliva , Óleos de Plantas , Cicatrização , Humanos , Feminino , Episiotomia/efeitos adversos , Azeite de Oliva/administração & dosagem , Cicatrização/efeitos dos fármacos , Óleos de Plantas/administração & dosagem , Óleos de Plantas/farmacologia , Adulto , Gravidez , Medição da Dor , Paridade , Adulto Jovem
14.
Nutrients ; 16(10)2024 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38794712

RESUMO

Extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) is a symbol of the Mediterranean diet, constituting its primary source of fat. The beneficial effect of EVOO is strictly related to the presence of fatty acids and polyphenols, bioactive compounds endowed with nutraceutical properties. Among EVOO polyphenols, lignans possess a steroid-like chemical structure and are part of the phytoestrogen family, which is renowned for its health properties. The natural lignans (+)-pinoresinol and 1-acetoxypinoresinol (1-AP) are commonly present in olives and in EVOO. Although (+)-pinoresinol is found in different edible plants, such as flaxseed, beans, whole-grain cereals, sesame seeds, and certain vegetables and fruit, 1-AP was exclusively identified in olives in 2000. So far, the scientific literature has extensively covered different aspects of (+)-pinoresinol, including its isolation and nutraceutical properties. In contrast, less is known about the olive lignan 1-AP. Therefore, this review aimed to comprehensively evaluate the more important aspects of 1-AP, collecting all the literature from 2016 to the present, exploring its distribution in different cultivars, analytical isolation and purification, and nutraceutical properties.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais , Lignanas , Olea , Azeite de Oliva , Lignanas/análise , Olea/química , Humanos , Azeite de Oliva/química , Frutas/química , Furanos
15.
Nutrients ; 16(10)2024 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38794645

RESUMO

To maintain a beneficial concentration of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), the efficient conversion of its precursor, α-linolenic acid (α-LA), is important. Here, we studied the conversion of α-LA to EPA using ICR and C57BL/6 mice. A single dose of perilla oil rich-in α-LA or free α-LA had not been converted to EPA 18 h following administration. The α-LA was absorbed into the circulation, and its concentration peaked 6 h after administration, after which it rapidly decreased. In contrast, EPA administration was followed by an increase in circulating EPA concentration, but this did not decrease between 6 and 18 h, indicating that the clearance of EPA is slower than that of α-LA. After ≥1 week perilla oil intake, the circulating EPA concentration was >20 times higher than that of the control group which consumed olive oil, indicating that daily consumption, but not a single dose, of α-LA-rich oil might help preserve the physiologic EPA concentration. The consumption of high concentrations of perilla oil for 4 weeks also increased the hepatic expression of Elovl5, which is involved in fatty acid elongation; however, further studies are needed to characterize the relationship between the expression of this gene and the conversion of α-LA to EPA.


Assuntos
Ácido Eicosapentaenoico , Fígado , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Óleos de Plantas , Ácido alfa-Linolênico , Animais , Ácido alfa-Linolênico/administração & dosagem , Ácido Eicosapentaenoico/sangue , Ácido Eicosapentaenoico/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Óleos de Plantas/administração & dosagem , Camundongos , Fígado/metabolismo , Elongases de Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Azeite de Oliva/administração & dosagem , Acetiltransferases/metabolismo , Acetiltransferases/genética
16.
J Agric Food Chem ; 72(19): 11124-11139, 2024 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38698543

RESUMO

Terpenes and pentene dimers are less studied volatile organic compounds (VOCs) but are associated with specific features of extra virgin olive oils (EVOOs). This study aimed to analyze mono- and sesquiterpenes and pentene dimers of Italian monovarietal EVOOs over 3 years (14 cultivars, 225 samples). A head space-solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC-MS) method recently validated was used for terpene and pentene dimer quantitation. The quantitative data collected were used for both the characterization and clustering of the cultivars. Sesquiterpenes were the molecules that most characterized the different cultivars, ranging from 3.908 to 38.215 mg/kg; different groups of cultivars were characterized by different groups of sesquiterpenes. Pentene dimers (1.336 and 3.860 mg/kg) and monoterpenes (0.430 and 1.794 mg/kg) showed much lower contents and variability among cultivars. The application of Kruskal-Wallis test-PCA-LDA-HCA to the experimental data allowed defining 4 clusters of cultivars and building a predictive model to classify the samples (94.3% correct classification). The model was further tested on 33 EVOOs, correctly classifying 91% of them.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Olea , Azeite de Oliva , Controle de Qualidade , Microextração em Fase Sólida , Terpenos , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis , Microextração em Fase Sólida/métodos , Azeite de Oliva/química , Itália , Terpenos/química , Terpenos/análise , Olea/química , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/química , Quimiometria/métodos , Dimerização
17.
Molecules ; 29(10)2024 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38792098

RESUMO

The olive oil industry recently introduced a novel multi-phase decanter with the "Leopard DMF" series, which gives a by-product called pâté, made up of pulp and olive wastewater with a high content of phenolic substances and without pits. This study aims to create a new culture medium, the Olive Juice Broth (OJB), from DMF pâté, and apply it to select bacteria strains able to survive and degrade the bitter substances normally present in the olive fruit. Thirty-five different bacterial strains of Lactiplantibacillus plantarum from the CREA-IT.PE Collection of Microorganisms were tested. Seven strains characterized by ≥50% growth in OJB (B31, B137, B28, B39, B124, B130, and B51) showed a degradation of the total phenolic content of OJB ≥ 30%. From this set, L. plantarum B51 strain was selected as a starter for table olive production vs. spontaneous fermentation. The selected inoculant effectively reduced the debittering time compared to spontaneous fermentation. Hydroxytyrosol, derived from oleuropein and verbascoside degradation, and tyrosol, derived from ligstroside degradation, were produced faster than during spontaneous fermentation. The OJB medium is confirmed to be useful in selecting bacterial strains resistant to the complex phenolic environment of the olive fruit.


Assuntos
Meios de Cultura , Fermentação , Olea , Fenóis , Olea/microbiologia , Olea/metabolismo , Olea/química , Fenóis/metabolismo , Fenóis/química , Meios de Cultura/química , Lactobacillales/metabolismo , Azeite de Oliva/química , Azeite de Oliva/metabolismo , Álcool Feniletílico/metabolismo , Álcool Feniletílico/química , Álcool Feniletílico/análogos & derivados , Glucosídeos Iridoides/metabolismo , Glucosídeos/metabolismo , Glucosídeos/química , Lactobacillus plantarum/metabolismo , Polifenóis
18.
Molecules ; 29(10)2024 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38792161

RESUMO

Olive oil production is characterized by large amounts of waste, and yet is considerably highly valued. Olive pomace can serve as a cheap source of bioactive compounds (BACs) with important antioxidant activity. Novel technologies like Pulsed Electric Fields (PEF) and High Pressure (HP) and microwave (MW) processing are considered green alternatives for the recovery of BACs. Different microwave (150-600 W), PEF (1-5 kV/cm field strength, 100-1500 pulses/15 µs width), and HP (250-650 MPa) conditions, in various product/solvent ratios, methanol concentrations, extraction temperatures, and processing times were investigated. Results indicated that the optimal MW extraction conditions were 300 W at 50 °C for 5 min using 60% v/v methanol with a product/solvent ratio of 1:10 g/mL. Similarly, the mix of 40% v/v methanol with olive pomace, treated at 650 MPa for the time needed for pressure build-up (1 min) were considered as optimal extraction conditions in the case of HP, while for PEF the optimal conditions were 60% v/v methanol with a product/solvent ratio of 1:10 g/mL, treated at 5000 pulses, followed by 1 h extraction under stirring conditions. Therefore, these alternative extraction technologies could assist the conventional practice in minimizing waste production and simultaneously align with the requirements of the circular bioeconomy concept.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Eletricidade , Micro-Ondas , Olea , Pressão , Olea/química , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/química , Solventes/química , Azeite de Oliva/química , Metanol/química
19.
Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand) ; 70(5): 59-68, 2024 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38814234

RESUMO

Development of novel functional foods is trending as one of the hot topics in food science and food/beverage industries. In the present study, the anti-diabetic, anti-hyperlipidemic and histo-protective effects of the extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) enriched with the organosulfur diallyl sulfide (DAS) (DAS-rich EVOO) were evaluated in alloxan-induced diabetic mice. The ingestion of EVOO (500µL daily for two weeks) attenuated alloxan-induced elevated glucose, alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), urea and creatinine. It also normalized the levels of triglycerides (TG), total cholesterols (TC), low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-c) and their consequent atherogenic index of plasma (AIP) in diabetic animals. Additionally, EVOO prevented lipid peroxidation (MDA) and reduced the level of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in diabetic animals. Concomitantly, it enhanced the activity of the antioxidant enzymes catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), reducing thereby tissue oxidative stress injury. The overall histologic (pancreas, liver, and kidney) alterations were also improved after EVOO ingestion. The manifest anti-diabetic, lipid-lowering and histo-protective properties of EVOO were markedly potentiated with DAS-rich EVOO suggesting possible synergistic interactions between DAS and EVOO lipophilic bioactive ingredients. Overall, EVOO and DAS-rich EVOO show promise as functional foods and/or adjuvants for the treatment of diabetes and its complications.


Assuntos
Compostos Alílicos , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental , Hipoglicemiantes , Hipolipemiantes , Azeite de Oliva , Sulfetos , Animais , Azeite de Oliva/química , Azeite de Oliva/farmacologia , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/metabolismo , Compostos Alílicos/farmacologia , Compostos Alílicos/uso terapêutico , Sulfetos/farmacologia , Sulfetos/uso terapêutico , Sulfetos/química , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Camundongos , Hipolipemiantes/farmacologia , Masculino , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Glicemia/metabolismo , Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Pâncreas/efeitos dos fármacos , Pâncreas/patologia , Pâncreas/metabolismo , Glutationa Peroxidase/metabolismo , Catalase/metabolismo , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Rim/metabolismo , Rim/patologia , Alanina Transaminase/sangue , Alanina Transaminase/metabolismo , Aspartato Aminotransferases/metabolismo , Aspartato Aminotransferases/sangue , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Triglicerídeos/metabolismo
20.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(9)2024 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38732097

RESUMO

The olive oil sector is a fundamental food in the Mediterranean diet. It has been demonstrated that the consumption of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) with a high content of phenolic compounds is beneficial in the prevention and/or treatment of many diseases. The main objective of this work was to study the relationship between the content of phenolic compounds and the in vitro neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory activity of EVOOs from two PDOs in the province of Granada. To this purpose, the amounts of phenolic compounds were determined by liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) and the inhibitory activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) enzymes by spectrophotometric and fluorimetric assays. The main families identified were phenolic alcohols, secoiridoids, lignans, flavonoids, and phenolic acids. The EVOO samples with the highest total concentration of compounds and the highest inhibitory activity belonged to the Picual and Manzanillo varieties. Statistical analysis showed a positive correlation between identified compounds and AChE and COX-2 inhibitory activity, except for lignans. These results confirm EVOO's compounds possess neuroprotective potential.


Assuntos
Fármacos Neuroprotetores , Azeite de Oliva , Fenóis , Azeite de Oliva/química , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/química , Fenóis/análise , Fenóis/química , Fenóis/farmacologia , Espanha , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/metabolismo , Acetilcolinesterase/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Inibidores da Colinesterase/farmacologia , Inibidores da Colinesterase/química , Inibidores de Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/farmacologia , Inibidores de Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/química , Flavonoides/análise , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Flavonoides/química
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