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1.
BMC Psychol ; 12(1): 231, 2024 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38725022

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Disability marginalises a large portion of Bangladesh's population. Global pre- and post-pandemic research evidently states that, this group is more prone to develop mental health problems, which increases the risk of self-harm and suicide among them. It is crucial to comprehend and mitigate the mental health challenges among the people with disabilities which in turn can promote their greater participation in community, and in national socioeconomic development. However, currently there is limited information available, regarding the suicidal behaviour of this group in Bangladesh. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the prevalence and contributing factors of suicidal behaviour among people with disabilities. METHOD: A cross-sectional survey was conducted during September and October 2022, among the participants who had selected disabilities, by using probability proportional to size sampling technique across all eight divisions of Bangladesh. A semi-structured questionnaire comprising information about sociodemographic, lifestyle, health; and Suicidal Behaviour Questionnaire-Revision (SBQ-R) was used. The association between the determinants and mental health outcome was investigated using the Chi-square test, and the contributing factors were investigated using the multiple binary logistic regression. RESULT: About 10.45% of the participants reported to have suicidal behaviour (e.g., suicidal ideation, attempts, completed suicide), considering the cut-off score as 7 for the SBQ-R in the study period. Approximately, 40% respondents mentioned suicidal ideation in their lifetime, whereas, 9.01% had suicidal ideation over the past 12 months. Additionally, 8.87% of the person with disabilities, mentioned about their suicidal intent to the family members, and 5.94% reported the likelihood of suicide in the future. Being female, having multiple disabilities, and not being connected with family and friends were found to be significantly associated with suicidal behaviour. CONCLUSION: This research demonstrates the significance of treating mental health issues and expanding accessibility to pre-existing services to lessen the impact of the limitations generated by disabilities. Policymakers can utilize this baseline findings to design large scale research and develop measures for suicide prevention, and management for at-risk groups.


Assuntos
Pessoas com Deficiência , Autorrelato , Ideação Suicida , Humanos , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , Feminino , Masculino , Estudos Transversais , Adulto , Pessoas com Deficiência/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoas com Deficiência/psicologia , Prevalência , Adulto Jovem , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adolescente , Tentativa de Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Tentativa de Suicídio/psicologia , Fatores de Risco
2.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0302571, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38723060

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Several safety measures like movement restrictions, closure of educational institutions, and social distancing measures continue over the world including Bangladesh during the COVID-19 pandemic. This study aimed to examine the patterns of eating behaviors, physical activity, and lifestyle modifications among adolescents during the COVID-19 pandemic residing in Bangladesh. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed among 490 adolescents in Bangladesh from December 2020 to May 2021. The survey was carried out through a semi-structured web-based questionnaire that asked questions about socio-demographics (i.e., age, sex, marital status, education, residence), perceived health status and quality of life, anthropometrics (i.e., height, weight), dietary habits (i.e., frequency of eating, daily intake of certain foods, number of meals eaten daily), and physical activity (i.e., modified version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire Short Form [IPAQ-SF]), as well as, pre- and during COVID-19 information on stress, and sleep. RESULTS: During the pandemic, 43.7% participants reported weight gain; and 23.5% reported an increased number of meals per day during COVID-19. Additionally, the participants' eating habits diverged from the local balanced diet principles and were more akin to 'unhealthy' eating patterns. Though, during the COVID-19 pandemic, physical exercise slightly increased (>3 times/ week: 8.2% vs. 13.5%; p<0.001) compared to pre-COVID-19 period, the screen time for entertainment increased drastically (>5 hours/ week: 12.2% vs. 27.3%; p<0.001). Compared to the pre-pandemic, a sizeable proportion of individuals experienced more physical tiredness, emotional exhaustion, irritation, and stress (p<0.001) during the pandemic. During the pandemic, 47.5% of participants experienced different sleep difficulties. CONCLUSIONS: Although lockdowns and social distancing are important safety measures to protect people from COVID-19, findings reveal that they might cause a variety of lifestyle changes, physical inactivity, and psychological issues in Bangladeshi adolescents.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Exercício Físico , Comportamento Alimentar , Estilo de Vida , Pandemias , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , Feminino , Masculino , Estudos Transversais , Inquéritos e Questionários , SARS-CoV-2 , Qualidade de Vida
3.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 10417, 2024 05 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38710893

RESUMO

The rise in temperatures and changes in other meteorological variables have exposed millions of people to health risks in Bangladesh, a densely populated, hot, and humid country. To better assess the threats climate change poses to human health, the wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT) is an important indicator of human heat stress. This study utilized high-resolution reanalysis data from the fifth-generation European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF ERA5) to analyze the spatiotemporal changes in outdoor WBGT across Bangladesh from 1979 to 2021, employing Liljegren's model. The study revealed an increase in the annual average WBGT by 0.08-0.5 °C per decade throughout the country, with a more pronounced rise in the southeast and northeast regions. Additionally, the number of days with WBGT levels associated with high and extreme risks of heat-related illnesses has shown an upward trend. Specifically, during the monsoon period (June to September), there has been an increase of 2-4 days per decade, and during the pre-monsoon period (March to May), an increase of 1-3 days per decade from 1979 to 2021. Furthermore, the results indicated that the escalation in WBGT has led to a five-fold increase in affected areas and a three-fold increase in days of high and extreme heat stress during the monsoon season in recent years compared to the earlier period. Trend and relative importance analyses of various meteorological variables demonstrated that air temperature is the primary driver behind Bangladesh's rising WBGT and related health risks, followed by specific humidity, wind speed, and solar radiation.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Temperatura Alta , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , Humanos , Temperatura Alta/efeitos adversos , Umidade , Estações do Ano , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor/epidemiologia , Tempo (Meteorologia)
4.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0303305, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38743648

RESUMO

The study aimed to assess the level of potentially toxic elements (As, Cd, Pb, Zn, Cu, Cr, Mn, and Ni) and associated health implications through commonly consumed rice cultivars of Bangladesh available in Capital city, Dhaka. The range of As, Cd, Pb, Zn, Cu, Cr, Mn, and Ni in rice grains were 0.04-0.35, 0.01-0.15, 0.01-1.18, 10.74-34.35, 1.98-13.42, 0.18-1.43, 2.51-22.08, and 0.21-5.96 mg/kg fresh weight (FW), respectively. The principal component analysis (PCA) identified substantial anthropogenic activities to be responsible for these elements in rice grains. The estimated daily intake (EDI) of the elements was below the maximum tolerable daily intake (MTDI) level. The hazard index (HI) was above the threshold level, stating non-carcinogenic health hazards from consuming these rice cultivars. The mean target cancer risk (TCR) of As and Pb exceeded the USEPA acceptable level (10-6), revealing carcinogenic health risks from the rice grains.


Assuntos
Oryza , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , Oryza/química , Humanos , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Carcinógenos/análise , Carcinógenos/toxicidade , Metais Pesados/análise , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Análise de Componente Principal
5.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0300882, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38739609

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diarrhoea is a global health problem. More than a quarter of diarrhoeal deaths occur among children less than five years. Different literatures analyzed presentation and outcomes of less than five diarrhoeal children. The world has made remarkable progress in reducing child mortality. So, older children are growing in number. Our aim was to identify clinical differentials and variations of pathogens among younger (less than five) and older (five to nine years) diarrhoeal children. METHOD: Data were extracted from the diarrhoeal disease surveillance system (DDSS) of Dhaka Hospital (urban site) and Matlab Hospital (rural site) of the International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh for the period of January 2012 to December 2021. Out of 28,781 and 12,499 surveillance patients in Dhaka and Matlab Hospital, 614 (2.13%) and 278 (2.22%) children were five to nine-years of age, respectively. Among under five children, 2456 from Dhaka hospital and 1112 from Matlab hospital were selected randomly for analysis (four times of five to nine years age children, 1:4). RESULTS: Vomiting, abdominal pain, and dehydrating diarrhoea were significantly higher in older children in comparison to children of less than five years age (p-value <0.05) after adjusting study site, gender, antibiotic use before hospitalization, diarrhoeal duration < 24 hours, intake of oral rehydration fluid at home, parental education, WASH practice and history of cough. Vibrio. cholerae, Salmonella, and Shigella were the common fecal pathogen observed among older children compared to under five after adjusting for age, gender and study site. CONCLUSION: Although percentage of admitted diarrhoeal children with five to nine years is less than under five years children but they presented with critical illness with different diarrhoeal pathogens. These observations may help clinicians to formulate better case management strategies for children of five to nine years that may reduce morbidity.


Assuntos
Diarreia , Humanos , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Diarreia/microbiologia , Pré-Escolar , Masculino , Feminino , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , Criança , Lactente , Fatores Etários , Vômito/epidemiologia , Dor Abdominal/epidemiologia , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos
6.
J Health Popul Nutr ; 43(1): 64, 2024 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38741173

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The high incidence of low birth weight (LBW) is associated with an increased risk of infant mortality, adverse pregnancy outcomes for mothers, and a decline in overall health and well-being. The current study aimed to identify the various determinants of LBW and its effect on adverse health and nutritional outcomes of children aged 0-23 months in Bangladesh. METHODS: Bangladesh Demography and Health Survey (BDHS) 2017-18 data was used. A chi-square test and multivariable logistic regression analysis were used to find out the associations between independent variables and outcomes (e.g., LBW, child illness and undernutrition). RESULTS: The overall prevalence of LBW among was 16.3%. Mother with no formal education (AOR = 2.64, 95% CI = 0.55-3.30, p = 0.01), female child (AOR = 1.31, 95% CI = 1.04-1.65, p = 0.023); and poorest economic status (AOR = 1.69, 95% CI = 1.13-2.51, p = 0.010), were identified significant determinants of LBW. Of home environment and hygiene factors, unimproved toilet facilities (AOR = 1.38, 95% CI = 1.03-1.84, p = 0.030) had a significant effect on LBW. In addition, children born with LBW were more likely to suffer fever (AOR = 1.26, 95% CI = 1.05-1.60, p = 0.050), stunting (AOR = 2.42, 95% CI = 1.86-3.15, p = < 0.001), wasting (AOR = 1.47, 95% CI = 1.02-2.25 p = 0.049), and underweight (AOR = 3.19, 95% CI = 2.40-4.23, p = < 0.001). CONCLUSION: One out of five children was LBW in Bangladesh. Maternal education, sex of child, wealth index, and toilet facilities had significant effects on LBW. In addition, LWB contributed to children's poor health and nutritional outcomes. Enhancing maternal pregnancy, and child health outcomes necessitates policies addressing poverty, gender inequality, and social disparities. Key strategies include promoting regular prenatal care, early medical intervention, reproductive health education, and safe hygiene practices. To combat the negative impacts of LBW, a comprehensive strategy is vital, encompassing exclusive breastfeeding, nutritional support, growth monitoring, accessible healthcare, and caregiver education.


Assuntos
Saúde da Criança , Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso , Humanos , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , Feminino , Recém-Nascido , Lactente , Masculino , Adulto , Saúde da Criança/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem , Prevalência , Estado Nutricional , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Gravidez , Adolescente , Estudos Transversais
7.
Trials ; 25(1): 315, 2024 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38741174

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends balanced energy and protein (BEP) supplementation be provided to all pregnant women living in undernourished populations, usually defined as having a prevalence > 20% of underweight women, to reduce the risk of stillbirths and small-for-gestational-age neonates. Few geographies meet this threshold, however, and a large proportion of undernourished women and those with inadequate gestational weight gain could miss benefiting from BEP. This study compares the effectiveness of individual targeting approaches for supplementation with micronutrient-fortified BEP vs. multiple micronutrient supplements (MMS) alone as control in pregnancy in improving birth outcomes. METHODS: The TARGET-BEP study is a four-arm, cluster-randomized controlled trial conducted in rural northwestern Bangladesh. Eligible participants are married women aged 15-35 years old identified early in pregnancy using a community-wide, monthly, urine-test-based pregnancy detection system. Beginning at 12-14 weeks of gestation, women in the study area comprising 240 predefined sectors are randomly assigned to one of four intervention arms, with sector serving as the unit of randomization. The interventions involving daily supplementation through end of pregnancy are as follows: (1) MMS (control); (2) BEP; (3) targeted BEP for those with pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) < 18.5 kg/m2 and MMS for others; (4) targeted BEP for those with pre-pregnancy BMI < 18.5 kg/m2, MMS for others, and women with inadequate gestational weight gain switched from MMS to BEP until the end of pregnancy. Primary outcomes include birth weight, low birth weight (< 2500 g), and small for gestational age, defined using the 10th percentile of the INTERGROWTH-21st reference, for live-born infants measured within 72 h of birth. Project-hired local female staff visit pregnant women monthly to deliver the assigned supplements, monitor adherence biweekly, and assess weight regularly during pregnancy. Trained data collectors conduct pregnancy outcome assessment and measure newborn anthropometry in the facility or home depending on the place of birth. DISCUSSION: This study will assess the effectiveness of targeted balanced energy and protein supplementation to improve birth outcomes among pregnant women in rural Bangladesh and similar settings. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT05576207. Registered on October 5th, 2022.


Assuntos
Proteínas Alimentares , Suplementos Nutricionais , Ganho de Peso na Gestação , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Humanos , Feminino , Gravidez , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , Adulto , Adulto Jovem , Adolescente , Proteínas Alimentares/administração & dosagem , Ingestão de Energia , Estado Nutricional , Recém-Nascido , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Materna , Peso ao Nascer , Complicações na Gravidez/prevenção & controle , Micronutrientes/administração & dosagem , Resultado do Tratamento , Idade Gestacional , Fatores de Tempo
8.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 3494, 2024 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38693163

RESUMO

H9N2 avian influenza viruses (AIVs) are a major concern for the poultry sector and human health in countries where this subtype is endemic. By fitting a model simulating H9N2 AIV transmission to data from a field experiment, we characterise the epidemiology of the virus in a live bird market in Bangladesh. Many supplied birds arrive already exposed to H9N2 AIVs, resulting in many broiler chickens entering the market as infected, and many indigenous backyard chickens entering with pre-existing immunity. Most susceptible chickens become infected within one day spent at the market, owing to high levels of viral transmission within market and short latent periods, as brief as 5.3 hours. Although H9N2 AIV transmission can be substantially reduced under moderate levels of cleaning and disinfection, effective risk mitigation also requires a range of additional interventions targeting markets and other nodes along the poultry production and distribution network.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H9N2 , Influenza Aviária , Animais , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H9N2/isolamento & purificação , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H9N2/imunologia , Influenza Aviária/transmissão , Influenza Aviária/epidemiologia , Influenza Aviária/virologia , Galinhas/virologia , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/transmissão , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/virologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/epidemiologia , Modelos Biológicos
9.
J Diabetes ; 16(5): e13559, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38708437

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To explore associations between type and number of abnormal glucose values on antenatal oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) with postpartum diabetes in South Asian women diagnosed with gestational diabetes (GDM) using International Association of the Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups criteria. METHODS: This post-hoc evaluation of the Lifestyle Intervention IN Gestational Diabetes (LIVING) study, a randomized controlled trial, was conducted among women with GDM in the index pregnancy, across 19 centers in Bangladesh, India, and Sri Lanka. Postpartum diabetes (outcome) was defined on OGTT, using American Diabetes Association (ADA) criteria. RESULTS: We report data on 1468 women with GDM, aged 30.9 (5.0) years, and with median (interquartile range) follow-up period of 1.8 (1.4-2.4) years after childbirth following the index pregnancy. We found diabetes in 213 (14.5%) women with an incidence of 8.7 (7.6-10.0)/100 women-years. The lowest incidence rate was 3.8/100 women years, in those with an isolated fasting plasma glucose (FPG) abnormality, and highest was 19.0/100 women years in participants with three abnormal values. The adjusted hazard ratios for two and three abnormal values compared to one abnormal value were 1.73 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.18-2.54; p = .005) and 3.56 (95% CI, 2.46-5.16; p < .001) respectively. The adjusted hazard ratio for the combined (combination of fasting and postglucose load) abnormalities was 2.61 (95% CI, 1.70-4.00; p < .001), compared to isolated abnormal FPG. CONCLUSIONS: Risk of diabetes varied significantly depending upon the type and number of abnormal values on antenatal OGTT. These data may inform future precision medicine approaches such as risk prediction models in identifying women at higher risk and may guide future targeted interventions.


Assuntos
Glicemia , Diabetes Gestacional , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose , Período Pós-Parto , Humanos , Feminino , Gravidez , Diabetes Gestacional/epidemiologia , Diabetes Gestacional/diagnóstico , Diabetes Gestacional/sangue , Adulto , Glicemia/análise , Glicemia/metabolismo , Fatores de Risco , Incidência , Sri Lanka/epidemiologia , Índia/epidemiologia , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , Prognóstico , Seguimentos
10.
BMC Public Health ; 24(1): 1213, 2024 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38698353

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Risk factors of infant mortality in Africa and south Asian countries have been broadly discussed. However, infant morbidity is largely underestimated. We analyzed the data from a randomized vaccine trial in Bangladesh to identify and assess the effect of risk factors on infant morbidity. METHODS: Pregnant women were randomly assigned to receive either inactivated influenza vaccine or pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine and the infants were randomly assigned to receive 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine or Hib conjugate vaccine at week 6, 10 and 14. The data were collected from August 2004 through December 2005. Each pair of infant and mother were followed for 24 weeks after birth with weekly visits. Generalized estimating equations (GEE) for repeated measurements and Poisson regression models were used to identify the risk factors and evaluate their effect on the longitudinal incidence and total number of episodes of respiratory illness with fever (RIF), diarrhea disease, ear problem and pneumonia. RESULTS: A total of 340 pregnant women were randomized with mean age of 25 years. The baseline mother and infant characteristics were similar between two treatment groups. Exclusive breastfeeding and higher paternal education level were common factors associated with lower infant morbidity of RIF (adjusted OR = 0.40 and 0.94 with p < 0.01 and p = 0.02, respectively), diarrhea disease (adjusted OR = 0.39 and 0.95 with p < 0.01 and p = 0.04, respectively), and ear problem (adjusted OR = 0.20 and 0.76 with p < 0.01 and p < 0.01, respectively). Maternal influenza vaccine significantly reduced the incidence of RIF (adjusted OR = 0.54; p < 0.01) but not diarrhea disease or ear problem (p > 0.05). Female infants had lower incidence of diarrhea disease (adjusted OR = 0.67; p = 0.01) and ear problem (adjusted OR = 0.12; p = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Maternal influenza vaccination, exclusive breastfeeding, female children, and higher paternal education level significantly reduced the infant morbidity within the 24 weeks after birth in Bangladesh.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra Influenza , Vacinas Pneumocócicas , Humanos , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , Feminino , Gravidez , Adulto , Lactente , Vacinas contra Influenza/administração & dosagem , Vacinas Pneumocócicas/administração & dosagem , Fatores de Risco , Recém-Nascido , Adulto Jovem , Morbidade , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino
11.
Blood Press ; 33(1): 2339434, 2024 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38696746

RESUMO

Objective: The study aimed to assess health-seeking behaviour (HSB) and associated factors among hypertensive patients in Bangladesh.Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in the Hypertension & Research Centre, Rangpur, Bangladesh, between January 2022 and June 2022. A total of 497 hypertensive adults were recruited consecutively. A pre-tested structured questionnaire was deployed by the research team for data collection. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to explore the predictors of HSB.Results: The mean age of the hypertensive patients was 52 ± 11 (SD) years. Most of them were aged between 51 and 60 years (33%), female (55%), came from rural areas (57%), and belonged to middle socioeconomic class (68%). One-fourth of the patients (27%) had chosen informal healthcare providers for their first consultation. Fear of stroke (244, 45%), headache (170, 36%), and neck pain (81, 17%) were the three most common compelling causes of their visit to the hypertension centre. Age (aOR 0.78, 95% CI 0.68 - 0.89), male sex (aOR: 1.79, 95% CI 1.05 - 3.10), living in semi-urban (aOR 4.68, 95% CI 1.45 - 15.10) and rural area (aOR 1.68, 95% CI 1.01 - 2.80), farmers as occupation (aOR: 3.24, 95%CI: 1.31 - 8.06) and belonging to lower social economic class (aOR 4.24, 95% CI 1.68 - 10.69) were predictors of visiting informal providers of hypertensive patient. One-fourth of the hypertensive patients received consultation from informal healthcare providers.Conclusions: Raising awareness among patients and proper referral to specialised hypertension centres could promulgate the patients towards appropriate behaviour.


Assuntos
Hipertensão , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/psicologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Feminino , Masculino , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Adulto , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Idoso
12.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 8487, 2024 04 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38605059

RESUMO

Breast cancer has rapidly increased in prevalence in recent years, making it one of the leading causes of mortality worldwide. Among all cancers, it is by far the most common. Diagnosing this illness manually requires significant time and expertise. Since detecting breast cancer is a time-consuming process, preventing its further spread can be aided by creating machine-based forecasts. Machine learning and Explainable AI are crucial in classification as they not only provide accurate predictions but also offer insights into how the model arrives at its decisions, aiding in the understanding and trustworthiness of the classification results. In this study, we evaluate and compare the classification accuracy, precision, recall, and F1 scores of five different machine learning methods using a primary dataset (500 patients from Dhaka Medical College Hospital). Five different supervised machine learning techniques, including decision tree, random forest, logistic regression, naive bayes, and XGBoost, have been used to achieve optimal results on our dataset. Additionally, this study applied SHAP analysis to the XGBoost model to interpret the model's predictions and understand the impact of each feature on the model's output. We compared the accuracy with which several algorithms classified the data, as well as contrasted with other literature in this field. After final evaluation, this study found that XGBoost achieved the best model accuracy, which is 97%.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Humanos , Feminino , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Teorema de Bayes , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , Mama , Aprendizado de Máquina , Hidrolases
13.
J Vector Borne Dis ; 61(1): 123-128, 2024 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38648414

RESUMO

BACKGROUND OBJECTIVES: Bangladesh is afflicted with periodic dengue outbreak every few years and one of the worst upsurges was recorded in 2019 during which there was an increasing trend of dengue with unusual symptoms which were not so common before. This study aims to describe the experience of three tertiary care centres of Dhaka regarding the clinical and laboratory, hospital outcome and management profile of the Expanded Dengue Syndrome (EDS) cases admitted from the 2019 outbreak. METHODS: The current work was a cross-sectional observational study which took place from August 1 to December 31 2019 at three major tertiary care centres in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Out of total 2017 screened dengue cases, 49 met the inclusion criteria and 39 were enrolled after taking informed written consent. Data was analysed using Microsoft Excel and Graph pad prism 9.3.1. A probability value of p<0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS: Out of the 39 cases, majority were male (79.49%) with median (±IQR) age of 33(±9) years. Hypertension (4; 10.26%) was the most commonly associated co-morbidity. Among the systemic manifestations, most prevalent was hepatitis (38.49%) followed by encephalopathy (12.82%). Majority of the patients were suffering from primary infection (85%). Case fatality rate was 15.38%. Hepatitis and meningoencephalitis were the predominant cause of death. This study records the only known case report of Acute respiratory dress syndrome (ARDS) complicating dengue from Bangladesh. None of the patients from our cohort were managed by steroids. Only two (5.13%) out of 39 cases received antibiotics. INTERPRETATION CONCLUSION: In the year 2019, an unusual rise in EDS cases with about 15.4% fatalities were observed in this study. Hepatitis was the most common presentation and cause of death. Here, we report the first ARDS case encountered in Bangladesh. Despite the multifaceted presentation of EDS, indiscriminate use of antibiotics and steroid was minimal. Early recognition of multifarious features of EDS is important for choosing the targeted treatment option which can avert many deaths. The results of this study underline the necessity for more in-depth research into the risk factors that are contributing to mortality in EDS cases.


Assuntos
Dengue , Surtos de Doenças , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Humanos , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Dengue/epidemiologia , Dengue/diagnóstico , Adulto Jovem , Centros de Atenção Terciária/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
14.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 9250, 2024 04 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38649415

RESUMO

Canine distemper virus (CDV) is a highly contagious virus that affects domestic and wild animals, causing severe illness with high mortality rates. Rapid monitoring and sequencing can provide valuable information about circulating CDV strains, which may foster effective vaccination strategies and the successful integration of these into conservation programs. During two site visits in Bangladesh in 2023, we tested a mobile, deployable genomic surveillance setup to explore the genetic diversity and phylogenetic patterns of locally circulating CDV strains. We collected and analysed 355 oral swab samples from stray dogs in Rajshahi and Chattogram cities, Bangladesh. CDV-specific real-time RT-PCR was performed to screen the samples. Out of the 355 samples, 7.4% (10/135) from Rajshahi city and 0.9% (2/220) from Chattogram city tested positive for CDV. We applied a real-time RT-PCR assay and a pan-genotype CDV-specific amplicon-based Nanopore sequencing technology to obtain the near-completes. Five near-complete genome sequences were generated, with phylogenetic relation to the India-1/Asia-5 lineage previously identified in India. This is the first study to provide genomic data on CDV in Bangladesh and the first demonstration of a mobile laboratory setup as a powerful tool in rapid genomic surveillance and risk assessment for CDV in low resource regions.


Assuntos
Vírus da Cinomose Canina , Cinomose , Sequenciamento por Nanoporos , Filogenia , Vírus da Cinomose Canina/genética , Vírus da Cinomose Canina/isolamento & purificação , Vírus da Cinomose Canina/classificação , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , Animais , Cães , Cinomose/virologia , Cinomose/epidemiologia , Sequenciamento por Nanoporos/métodos , Genoma Viral , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/métodos , Genótipo , RNA Viral/genética
15.
Vaccine ; 42(13): 3247-3256, 2024 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38627143

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the era of Gavi's 5.0 vision of "leaving no one behind with immunization", childhood routine vaccination in missed communities is considered as a priority concern. Despite having a success story at the national level, low uptake of immunization is still persistent in selected pocket areas of Bangladesh. However, prevalence and the associated factors of zero-dose (ZD) and under-immunization (UI) are still unknown at those geo-pockets of Bangladesh. Thus, the study aims to report and identify the factors associated with ZD and UI in selected geographical locations. METHODS: This study used data from a Lot Quality Assurance Sampling (LQAS) survey where 504 households from 18 clusters of four hard to reach (HTR) and one urban slum were included. Caregivers of children aged 4.5 to 23 months were interviewed. Three outcome variables- ZD, UI and ZD/UI were considered and several related attributes were considered as independent variables. Data were analyzed through bivariate analysis, binary logistic regression and dominance analysis. RESULTS: Overall, 32% of the children were either ZD (8%) or UI (26%) in the selected areas. The adjusted odds of ZD/UI for urban slum and haor (wetlands) areas were 5.62 and 3.61 respectively considering coastal areas as reference. However, distance of nearest EPI center, availability of EPI card, age of caregivers, education and occupation of mother and number of earning members in household were influential factors for ZD/UI. According to dominance analysis, availability of EPI card can explain the most of the variation of ZD/UI in this study. CONCLUSION: The study findings highlight the high prevalence ZD/UI in certain geo-pockets of the country. It provided a powerful insight of current situation and associated factors in regards to ZD/UI in the country which will help policy-makers and programme managers in designing programmes to reduce missed communities in Bangladesh.


Assuntos
Amostragem para Garantia da Qualidade de Lotes , Humanos , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , Lactente , Masculino , Feminino , Prevalência , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos , Cobertura Vacinal/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Características da Família , Programas de Imunização/estatística & dados numéricos
16.
BMC Psychiatry ; 24(1): 322, 2024 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38664623

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The surge in digital media consumption, coupled with the ensuing consequences of digital addiction, has witnessed a rapid increase, particularly after the initiation of the COVID-19 pandemic. Despite some studies exploring specific technological addictions, such as internet or social media addiction, in Bangladesh, there is a noticeable gap in research focusing on digital addiction in a broader context. Thus, this study aims to investigate digital addiction among students taking the university entrance test, examining its prevalence, contributing factors, and geographical distribution using GIS techniques. METHODS: Data from a cross-sectional survey were collected from a total of 2,157 students who were taking the university entrance test at Jahangirnagar University, Bangladesh. A convenience sampling method was applied for data collection using a structured questionnaire. Statistical analyses were performed with SPSS 25 Version and AMOS 23 Version, whereas ArcGIS 10.8 Version was used for the geographical distribution of digital addiction. RESULTS: The prevalence of digital addiction was 33.1% (mean score: 16.05 ± 5.58). Those students who are attempting the test for a second time were more likely to be addicted (42.7% vs. 39.1%), but the difference was not statistically significant. Besides, the potential factors predicted for digital addiction were student status, satisfaction with previous mock tests, average monthly expenditure during the admission test preparation, and depression. No significant difference was found between digital addiction and districts. However, digital addiction was higher in the districts of Manikganj, Rajbari, Shariatpur, and Chittagong Hill Tract areas, including Rangamati, and Bandarban. CONCLUSIONS: The study emphasizes the pressing need for collaborative efforts involving educational policymakers, institutions, and parents to address the growing digital addiction among university-bound students. The recommendations focus on promoting alternative activities, enhancing digital literacy, and imposing restrictions on digital device use, which are crucial steps toward fostering a healthier digital environment and balanced relationship with technology for students.


Assuntos
Sistemas de Informação Geográfica , Transtorno de Adição à Internet , Estudantes , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , Estudantes/psicologia , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Universidades , Estudos Transversais , Prevalência , Adulto Jovem , Transtorno de Adição à Internet/epidemiologia , Transtorno de Adição à Internet/psicologia , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/psicologia , Comportamento Aditivo/epidemiologia , Comportamento Aditivo/psicologia , Adulto , Adolescente , Inquéritos e Questionários
17.
Popul Health Metr ; 22(1): 7, 2024 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38643138

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Disability-free life expectancy (DFLE) has been used to gain a better understanding of the population's quality of life. OBJECTIVES: The authors aimed to estimate age and sex-specific disability-free life expectancy (DFLE) for urban and rural areas of Bangladesh, as well as to investigate the differences in DFLE between males and females of urban and rural areas. METHODS: Data from the Bangladesh Sample Vital Statistics-2016 and the Bangladesh Household Income and Expenditure Survey (HIES)-2016 were used to calculate the disability-free life expectancy (DFLE) of urban and rural males and females in Bangladesh in 2016. The DFLE was calculated using the Sullivan method. RESULTS: With only a few exceptions, rural areas have higher mortality and disability rates than urban areas. For both males and females, statistically significant differences in DFLE were reported between urban and rural areas between the ages of birth and 39 years. In comparison to rural males and females, urban males and females had a longer life expectancy (LE), a longer disability-free life expectancy, and a higher share of life without disability. CONCLUSION: This study illuminates stark urban-rural disparities in LE and DFLE, especially among individuals aged < 1-39 years. Gender dynamics reveal longer life expectancy but shorter disability-free life expectancy for Bangladeshi women compared to men, emphasizing the need for targeted interventions to address these pronounced health inequalities.


Assuntos
Pessoas com Deficiência , Expectativa de Vida Saudável , Masculino , Humanos , Feminino , Adulto , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , Qualidade de Vida , Expectativa de Vida , Renda
18.
Environ Health Perspect ; 132(4): 47006, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38602833

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diarrheal disease is a leading cause of childhood morbidity and mortality globally. Household water, sanitation, and handwashing (WASH) interventions can reduce exposure to diarrhea-causing pathogens, but meteorological factors may impact their effectiveness. Information about effect heterogeneity under different weather conditions is critical to refining these targeted interventions. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to determine whether temperature and precipitation modified the effect of low-cost, point-of-use WASH interventions on child diarrhea. METHODS: We analyzed data from a trial in rural Bangladesh that compared child diarrhea prevalence between clusters (N=720) that were randomized to different WASH interventions between 2012 and 2016 (NCT01590095). We matched temperature and precipitation measurements to diarrhea outcomes (N=12,440 measurements, 6,921 children) by geographic coordinates and date. We estimated prevalence ratios (PRs) using generative additive models and targeted maximum likelihood estimation to assess the effectiveness of each WASH intervention under different weather conditions. RESULTS: Generally, WASH interventions most effectively prevented diarrhea during monsoon season, particularly following weeks with heavy rain or high temperatures. The PR for diarrhea in the WASH interventions group compared with the control group was 0.49 (95% CI: 0.35, 0.68) after 1 d of heavy rainfall, with a less-protective effect [PR=0.87 (95% CI: 0.60, 1.25)] when there were no days with heavy rainfall. Similarly, the PR for diarrhea in the WASH intervention group compared with the control group was 0.60 (95% CI: 0.48, 0.75) following above-median temperatures vs. 0.91 (95% CI: 0.61, 1.35) following below-median temperatures. The influence of precipitation and temperature varied by intervention type; for precipitation, the largest differences in effectiveness were for the sanitation and combined WASH interventions. DISCUSSION: WASH intervention effectiveness was strongly influenced by precipitation and temperature, and nearly all protective effects were observed during the rainy season. Future implementation of these interventions should consider local environmental conditions to maximize effectiveness, including targeted efforts to maintain latrines and promote community adoption ahead of monsoon seasons. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP13807.


Assuntos
Saneamento , Água , Criança , Humanos , Temperatura , Desinfecção das Mãos , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Diarreia/prevenção & controle
19.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0298071, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38603719

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of Type 2 Diabetes (T2D) in urban and rural settings and identify the specific risk factors for each location. METHOD: We conducted this study using data from the 2017-18 Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS), sourced from the DHS website. The survey employed a stratified two-stage sampling method, which included 7,658 women and 7,048 men aged 18 and older who had their blood glucose levels measured. We utilized chi-square tests and ordinal logistic regression to analyze the association between various selected variables in both urban and rural settings and their relationship with diabetes and prediabetes. RESULTS: The prevalence of T2D was 10.8% in urban areas and 7.4% in rural areas, while pre-diabetes affected 31.4% and 27% of the populations in these respective settings. The study found significant factors influencing diabetes in both urban and rural regions, particularly in the 55-64 age group (Urban: AOR = 1.88, 95% CI [1.46, 2.42]; Rural: AOR = 1.87, 95% CI [1.54, 2.27]). Highly educated individuals had lower odds of T2D, while wealthier and overweight participants had higher odds in both areas. In rural regions, T2D risk was higher among caffeinated drink consumers and those not engaged in occupation-related physical activity, while these factors did not show significant influence in urban areas. Furthermore, urban participants displayed a significant association between T2D and hypertension. CONCLUSION: Our study outlines a comprehensive strategy to combat the increasing prevalence of T2D in both urban and rural areas. It includes promoting healthier diets to control BMI level, encouraging regular physical activity, early detection through health check-ups, tailored awareness campaigns, improving healthcare access in rural regions, stress management in urban areas, community involvement, healthcare professional training, policy advocacy like sugary drink taxation, research, and monitoring interventions. These measures collectively address the T2D challenge while accommodating the distinct features of urban and rural settings.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Hipertensão , Estado Pré-Diabético , Masculino , Humanos , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Estado Pré-Diabético/epidemiologia , População Rural , População Urbana
20.
BMJ Open ; 14(4): e079451, 2024 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38604626

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Menstrual health is essential for gender equity and the well-being of women and girls. Qualitative research has described the burden of poor menstrual health on health and education; however, these impacts have not been quantified, curtailing investment. The Adolescent Menstrual Experiences and Health Cohort (AMEHC) Study aims to describe menstrual health and its trajectories across adolescence, and quantify the relationships between menstrual health and girls' health and education in Khulna, Bangladesh. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: AMEHC is a prospective longitudinal cohort of 2016 adolescent girls recruited at the commencement of class 6 (secondary school, mean age=12) across 101 schools selected through a proportional random sampling approach. Each year, the cohort will be asked to complete a survey capturing (1) girls' menstrual health and experiences, (2) support for menstrual health, and (3) health and education outcomes. Survey questions were refined through qualitative research, cognitive interviews and pilot survey in the year preceding the cohort. Girls' guardians will be surveyed at baseline and wave 2 to capture their perspectives and household demographics. Annual assessments will capture schools' water, sanitation and hygiene, and support for menstruation and collect data on participants' education, including school attendance and performance (in maths, literacy). Cohort enrolment and baseline survey commenced in February 2023. Follow-up waves are scheduled for 2024, 2025 and 2026, with plans for extension. A nested subcohort will follow 406 post-menarche girls at 2-month intervals throughout 2023 (May, August, October) to describe changes across menstrual periods. This protocol outlines a priori hypotheses regarding the impacts of menstrual health to be tested through the cohort. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: AMEHC has ethical approval from the Alfred Hospital Ethics Committee (369/22) and BRAC James P Grant School of Public Health Institutional Review Board (IRB-06 July 22-024). Study materials and outputs will be available open access through peer-reviewed publication and study web pages.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Menstruação , Feminino , Adolescente , Humanos , Criança , Menstruação/psicologia , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Menarca
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