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1.
BMC Infect Dis ; 22(1): 871, 2022 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36414946

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In Bangladesh, safely managed sanitation (SMS) coverage is low, and diarrheal disease is a significant health problem. This study estimated the inequality in access to SMS facilities at the national and sub-national levels and assessed the prevalence of diarrheal diseases in connection with these improved facilities. METHODS: Data were extracted from the Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey, conducted during 2017-2018. SMS was defined as using an improved sanitation facility, which designed to hygienically separate excreta from human contact and include the use of a flush toilet connected to piped sewer system, septic tank, ventilated improved pit latrine, pit latrine with a slab, and composting toilet. The slope index of inequality (SII) and multi-level regression models were used for inequality and risk factors of SMS respectively. RESULTS: The national coverage of SMS was 44.0% (45.3% and 43.5% in urban and rural areas, respectively). At the sub-national level, the lowest and highest coverage of SMS was observed in Mymensingh (32.9%) and Chittagong (54.1%) divisions, respectively. The national level SII indicated that wealthy households had access to higher SMS by 60.8 percentage points than poor households. Additionally, greater inequality was observed in rural areas, which was 71.9 percentage points higher in the richest households than in the poorest households. The coverage gap between the rich and poor was highest in the Sylhet division (85.3 percentage points higher in rich than in poor) and lowest in Dhaka (34.9 percentage points). Old and highly educated household heads and richest households had better access to higher levels of adequate sanitation. After adjusting for confounding variables, the prevalence of diarrheal disease was 14.0% lower in the SMS user group than in their counterparts. CONCLUSION: Substantial inequalities in access to SMS exist at both national and sub-national levels of Bangladesh, with the prevalence of diarrhea being lower among SMS users. These findings may help to prioritize resources for reducing inequality and expanding the coverage of improved sanitation in Bangladesh.


Assuntos
População Rural , Saneamento , Humanos , Prevalência , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , Diarreia/epidemiologia
2.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0278097, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36417416

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Wasting is perhaps one of the signs of malnutrition that has been linked to the deaths of children suffering from malnutrition. As a result, understanding its correlations and drivers is critical. Using quantile regression analysis, this research aims to contribute to the discussion on under-5 malnutrition by analyzing the predictors of wasting in Bangladesh. METHODS AND MATERIALS: The dataset was extracted from the 2017-18 Bangladesh demographic and health survey (BDHS) data. The weight-for-height (WHZ) z-score based anthropometric indicator was used in the study as the target variable. The weighted sample constitutes 8,334 children of under-5 years. However, after cleaning the missing values, the analysis is based on 8,321 children. Sequential quantile regression was used for finding the contributing factors. RESULTS: The findings of this study depict that the prevalence of wasting in children is about 8 percent and only approximately one percent of children are severely wasted in Bangladesh. Age, mother's BMI, and parental educational qualification, are all major factors of the WHZ score of a child. The coefficient of the female child increased from 0.1 to 0.2 quantiles before dropping to 0.75 quantile. For a child aged up to three years, the coefficients have a declining tendency up to the 0.5 quantile, then an increasing trend. Children who come from the richest households had 16.3%, 3.6%, and 15.7% higher WHZ scores respectively than children come from the poorest households suggesting that the risk of severe wasting in children under the age of five was lower in children from the wealthiest families than in children from the poorest families. The long-term malnutrition indicator (wasting) will be influenced by the presence of various childhood infections and vaccinations. Furthermore, a family's economic position is a key determinant in influencing a child's WHZ score. CONCLUSIONS: It is concluded that socioeconomic characteristics are correlated with the wasting status of a child. Maternal characteristics also played an important role to reduce the burden of malnutrition. Thus, maternal nutritional awareness might reduce the risk of malnutrition in children. Moreover, the findings disclose that to enrich the nutritional status of children along with achieving Sustainable Development Goal (SDG)-3 by 2030, a collaborative approach should necessarily be taken by the government of Bangladesh, and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) at the community level in Bangladesh.


Assuntos
Desnutrição , Criança , Humanos , Feminino , Prevalência , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , Desnutrição/epidemiologia , Caquexia , Estado Nutricional
3.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0278101, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36417472

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Life expectancy (LE) is increasing all over the world, and relying on LE alone is no longer sufficient to identify whether a country is having a healthier population. Examining the increase in LE in relation to health - health expectancy estimation - is advised to ascertain the increase (or decrease) in LE without disability over time. This study examines the trends in health expectancy at age 60 in Bangladesh from 1996 to 2016. METHODS: Mortality information from United Nations and World Health Organization and morbidity information from Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics were combined using the Sullivan method. RESULTS: With an overall declining trend over the study period and a big drop in disability rates during 2012-2013, the disability rates were observed 1.6-1.7% in 2016. The declining trend in disability may have two-fold implications: (1) among the 98.3% older adults (≥60 years) with no severe/extreme disability, those were in jobs could have continued their work if there was no mandatory retirement at age 59, and (2) the 1.7% (translates into 0.2 million in 2020) older adults with severe/extreme disability require care assistance with their daily activities. The observed gain in disability-free life expectancy, the decrease in life expectancy with disability and its proportion allude to the compression of morbidity and healthier older adults over time. CONCLUSION: In 2020, Bangladesh had 13.2 million (i.e., 8% of the total population) older adults, which is increasing day by day. The policy makers and government are suggested to prioritize the issues of older adults, particularly disability, care needs, retirement age, and health in the light of the current study's findings. Utilizing health expectancy research is suggested to understand the combined effect of disability and mortality for considering policy changes.


Assuntos
Pessoas com Deficiência , Expectativa de Vida , Humanos , Idoso , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , Nível de Saúde , Aposentadoria
4.
BMJ Open ; 12(11): e066653, 2022 11 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36410810

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The study aimed to determine the seroprevalence, the fraction of asymptomatic infections, and risk factors of SARS-CoV-2 infections among the Forcibly Displaced Myanmar Nationals (FDMNs). DESIGN: It was a population-based two-stage cross-sectional study at the level of households. SETTING: The study was conducted in December 2020 among household members of the FDMN population living in the 34 camps of Ukhia and Teknaf Upazila of Cox's Bazar district in Bangladesh. PARTICIPANTS: Among 860 697 FDMNs residing in 187 517 households, 3446 were recruited for the study. One individual aged 1 year or older was randomly selected from each targeted household. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Blood samples from respondents were tested for total antibodies for SARS-CoV-2 using Wantai ELISA kits, and later positive samples were validated by Kantaro kits. RESULTS: More than half (55.3%) of the respondents were females, aged 23 median (IQR 14-35) years and more than half (58.4%) had no formal education. Overall, 2090 of 3446 study participants tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 antibody. The weighted and test adjusted seroprevalence (95% CI) was 48.3% (45.3% to 51.4%), which did not differ by the sexes. Children (aged 1-17 years) had a significantly lower seroprevalence 38.6% (95% CI 33.8% to 43.4%) compared with adults (58.1%, 95% CI 55.2% to 61.1%). Almost half (45.7%, 95% CI 41.9% to 49.5%) of seropositive individuals reported no relevant symptoms since March 2020. Antibody seroprevalence was higher in those with any comorbidity (57.8%, 95% CI 50.4% to 64.5%) than those without (47.2%, 95% CI 43.9% to 50.4%). Multivariate logistic regression analysis of all subjects identified increasing age and education as risk factors for seropositivity. In children (≤17 years), only age was significantly associated with the infection. CONCLUSIONS: In December 2020, about half of the FDMNs had antibodies against SARS-CoV-2, including those who reported no history of symptoms. Periodic serosurveys are necessary to recommend appropriate public health measures to limit transmission.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Criança , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Estudos Transversais , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , Mianmar/epidemiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Anticorpos Antivirais
5.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0277875, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36413560

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: During the COVID-19 pandemic, healthcare workers had a high workload and were exposed to multiple psychosocial stressors. However, a knowledge gap exists about the levels of burnout among Bangladeshi frontline doctors during this COVID-19 pandemic. The study investigated burnout syndrome (BOS) among frontline doctors in two public secondary and tertiary care hospitals in Chattogram, Bangladesh. MATERIALS & METHODS: This cross-sectional study involved frontline doctors working at two hospitals treating COVID-19 and non-COVID patients from June to August 2020. A self-administered questionnaire that included Maslach Burnout Inventory for Human Services Survey (MBI-HSS) was used to capture demographic and workplace environment information. ANOVA and t-test were used to determine the statistical differences in the mean values of the three dimensions of MBI-HSS. Scores for three domains of burnout: emotional exhaustion (EE), depersonalization (DP), and personal accomplishment (PA) were calculated. Post-hoc analysis was done to identify the significant pair-wise differences when the ANOVA test result was significant. Multiple logistic regression was performed to determine the influence of factors associated with BOS. RESULTS: A total of 185 frontline doctors were invited to participate by convenience sampling, and 168 responded. The response rate was 90.81%. The overall prevalence of BOS was 55.4% (93/168) (95% CI: 47.5% to 63.0%). Moderate to high levels of EE was found in 95.8% of the participants. High DP and reduced PA were observed in 98.2% and 97% of participants. Younger age (25-29 years), being female, and working as a medical officer were independently associated with high levels of burnout in all three domains. EE was significantly higher in females (P = 0.011). DP was significantly higher in medical officers, those at earlier job periods, and those working more than 8 hours per day. CONCLUSION: During the COVID-19 outbreak, BOS was common among Bangladeshi frontline doctors. Females, medical officers, and younger doctors tended to be more susceptible to BOS. Less BOS was experienced when working in the non-COVID ward than in the mixed ward.


Assuntos
Esgotamento Profissional , COVID-19 , Humanos , Feminino , Adulto , Masculino , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Esgotamento Profissional/epidemiologia , Esgotamento Profissional/psicologia
6.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0277574, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36409683

RESUMO

Antimicrobial resistance against shigellosis is increasingly alarming. However, evidence-based knowledge gaps regarding the changing trends of shigellosis in Bangladesh exist due to the scarcity of longitudinal data on antimicrobial resistance. Our study evaluated the last 20 years antimicrobial resistance patterns against shigellosis among under-5 children in the urban and rural sites of Bangladesh. Data were extracted from the Diarrheal Disease Surveillance System (DDSS) of Dhaka Hospital (urban site) and Matlab Hospital (rural site) of the International Centre for Diarrheal Disease Research, Bangladesh (icddr,b) between January 2001 and December 2020. We studied culture-confirmed shigellosis cases from urban Dhaka Hospital (n = 883) and rural Matlab Hospital (n = 1263). Since 2001, a declining percentage of shigellosis in children observed in urban and rural sites. Moreover, higher isolation rates of Shigella were found in the rural site [1263/15684 (8.1%)] compared to the urban site [883/26804 (3.3%)] in the last 20 years. In both areas, S. flexneri was the predominant species. The upward trend of S. sonnei in both the study sites was statistically significant after adjusting for age and sex. WHO-recommended 1st line antibiotic ciprofloxacin resistance gradually reached more than 70% in both the urban and rural site by 2020. In multiple logistic regression after adjusting for age and sex, ciprofloxacin, azithromycin, mecillinam, ceftriaxone, and multidrug resistance (resistance to any two of these four drugs) among under-5 children were found to be increasing significantly (p<0.01) in the last 20 years in both sites. The study results underscore the importance of therapeutic interventions for shigellosis by appropriate drugs based on their current antibiogram for under-5 children. These observations may help policymakers in formulating better case management strategies for shigellosis.


Assuntos
Disenteria Bacilar , Criança , Humanos , Disenteria Bacilar/tratamento farmacológico , Disenteria Bacilar/epidemiologia , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Hospitais Rurais , Ciprofloxacina/uso terapêutico
7.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 101(46): e31698, 2022 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36409880

RESUMO

In recent years, breast cancer incidences and related deaths have been rising among Bangladeshi women and will be a major threat by 2040. So, conducting more population-based studies is crucial. This case-control study was designed to quantitatively evaluate potential risk factors for breast cancer. In this population-based case-control study, 52 random breast cancer cases and 59 matched healthy controls, aged between 25 and 70 years, were included. The breast cancer patient samples were collected from the National Institute of Cancer Research and Hospital (NICRH), Dhaka, Bangladesh, from December 2021 to February 2022. The study was conducted fully following the Declaration of Helsinki guidelines. The collected socio-demographic data and blood samples of the study participants were analyzed. Chi-square analysis was used to compare study characteristics between cases and controls, Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were derived by univariate-logistic regression, and models were adjusted where necessary for study characteristics. Summary demographic characteristics of the 111 study participants suggested that higher age: (≥45): [OR 4.38, 95% CI (1.94-9.89), P value <.001], height: (<1.5 m): [OR 3.01, 95% CI (1.12-8.12), P value .029], low-incomes: [OR 6.83, 95% CI (2.11-22.05), P value .001], and illiteracy: [OR 12.65, 95% CI (3.49-45.79), P value .0001] showed significant correlations with breast cancer. The patient's body mass index (BMI) (≥30) indicated an association with breast cancer: [OR 3.91, 95% CI (1.00-15.31), P value .05]. The lipid profile: [triglycerides (TG): OR = 3.20, 95% CI (1.36-7.53), P value .008; TG/high-density lipid (HDL): OR = 8.82, 95% CI (2.81-27.68), P value <.001; and a lowered HDL: OR = 3.32, 95% CI (1.38-7.98), P value .007], hypertension: [systolic: OR 4.32, 95% CI (1.71-10.93), P value .002; and diastolic: OR 7.32, 95% CI (2.51-21.34), P value <.001], and gastric issues: [OR 6.07, 95% CI (2.00-18.37), P value .001], all showed significant association with breast cancer. The ER- breast cancer subtype was significantly associated with the overweight (OW) group (P value .046) whereas the PR-patients were significantly higher in the normal BMI group (P value .013). Results from this study might aid in the prevention, management, and raising of awareness against the specific risk factors among Bangladeshi women in near future.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Hiperlipidemias , Hipertensão , Humanos , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Neoplasias da Mama/complicações , Hiperlipidemias/epidemiologia , Hiperlipidemias/complicações , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/complicações , Fatores de Risco , Demografia , Lipídeos
8.
Asian J Psychiatr ; 78: 103309, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36368146

RESUMO

This paper highlights the current situation of the COVID-19 pandemic and adolescents' mental health in Bangladesh. It contains a thorough literature review that summarizes relevant articles and newspapers on the mental health of adolescents. In Bangladesh, the COVID-19 pandemic is worsening adolescent mental health issues. To maintain the safety and security of adolescents mental health issues are becoming increasingly frequent in Bangladesh as a result of lockdowns, financial stress, and livelihood scarcity; this trend cannot be ignored. This study will aid policymakers, government officials, and non-government officials in the development of more effective social safety net measures.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Saúde Mental , Adolescente , Humanos , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis
9.
Afr Health Sci ; 22(2): 475-479, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36407348

RESUMO

Objective: The purpose of this present study to investigate the lipid profile levels and basal body mass index in preeclampsia and normal pregnancy in Bangladeshi women. Material and methods: This case-control study was conducted at Sheba Hospital Kaligonj Bangladesh with 70 participants among 35 normal pregnancy (control) and 35 preeclampsia women (case) were enrolled from August 2018 to July 2019. Blood samples were obtained for analysis of total cholesterol, triglyceride and high-density lipoprotein by enzymatic assays and low-density lipoprotein by using Fried Ewald's formula in between 22-36 weeks of gestation. Results: This study found the mean age of preeclampsia and normal pregnancy women were 24.71±2.56 and 23.09±2.1 respectively with significant (P= 0.005). Basal body mass index, total cholesterol, triglyceride and low-density lipoprotein significantly higher (P=0.002), (P= 0.000), (P= 0.022) and (P=0.000) in preeclampsia compared to normal pregnancy respectively. While high-density lipoprotein comparatively lower in preeclampsia than normal pregnancy and consider significant as (P=0.037). Conclusion: Abnormal lipid profile and increased body mass index is contributed to the development of preeclampsia. The frequent antenatal monitoring of lipid profiles provides the status which helps to require management and reduces the preeclampsia which enhances maternal and fetal wellbeing and fetal outcome.


Assuntos
Pré-Eclâmpsia , Humanos , Feminino , Gravidez , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , Triglicerídeos , HDL-Colesterol , Lipoproteínas HDL , Lipoproteínas LDL
10.
Biomed Res Int ; 2022: 8027712, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36398069

RESUMO

Introduction: In recent times, Bangladesh has made significant improvements in various health outcomes, but not so much in maternal death. The current flat trend in reducing maternal mortality in Bangladesh has been mainly due to the lower coverage of maternal health care. To improve the coverage, it is essential to find biosocial factors related to adequate maternal health care. Therefore, this study is aimed at finding out the socioeconomic correlates of adequate maternal health care in Bangladesh. Methods: The study used data from the Bangladeshi demographic and health survey 2017-18. The total unweighted sample of 4012 women who reported pregnancy before three years of the survey was analyzed. A composite binary indicator of adequate maternal care has been constructed using the variables-access to maternal care service, four antenatal care visits, at least one visit with qualified providers, and institutional delivery. A binary logistic regression model was employed to find out the socioeconomic correlate of adequate maternal care. Results: Only 24.4% percent of sample women received adequate maternal care. The result of the logistic regression model shows that urban, Khulna, Rajshahi, and Rangpur were associated with an increase in the odds of having adequate maternal care. High education and health care decisions taken by the partner or husband were also associated with an increased odd of adequate maternal care. Islam and lower wealth status were associated with a lower probability of adequate maternal care. Conclusions: Policymakers and health administration should pay attention to the variation in the utilization of maternal health care across residence, region, religion, education, and wealth status to ensure safe motherhood.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde Materna , Feminino , Gravidez , Humanos , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , Cuidado Pré-Natal , Mortalidade Materna , Escolaridade
11.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0276966, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36355800

RESUMO

Mortality forecasts are essential part for policymaking in any aging society. In recent years, methods to model and forecast mortality have improved considerably. Among them, Lee-Carter method is one of the most influential method. In this paper, Lee-Carter method is applied to forecast mortality and life expectancy of Bangladesh. A functional data analysis approach is used to decompose the smoothed log-mortality rates in Lee-Carter framework for higher goodness-of-fit of the models and for longer forecast horizons. Bangladesh has been experiencing a mortality transition and has gained life expectancy in last few decades. The fitted model here showed higher pace of mortality decline for women in Bangladesh than that of men. The forecasts showed continuation of mortality improvement in long run and by 2060 life expectancy at birth is expected to reach over 80 years for both sexes in Bangladesh. The study also predicts the effect of reduction in infant mortality on the life expectancy in Bangladesh.


Assuntos
Mortalidade Infantil , Expectativa de Vida , Masculino , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Humanos , Feminino , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , Previsões , Envelhecimento , Mortalidade
12.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 2063, 2022 11 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36368965

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In low- and middle- income countries such as Bangladesh, urban slum dwellers are particualry vulnerable to hypertension due to inadequate facilities for screening and management, as well as inadequate health literacy among them. However, there is scarcity of evidence on hypertension among the urban slum dwellers in Bangladesh. The present study aimed to determine the prevalence and factors associated with hypertension among urban slum dwellers in Bangladesh. METHODS: Data were collected as part of a large-scale cross-sectional survey conducted by Building Resources Across Communities (BRAC) between October 2015 and January 2016. The present analysis was performed among 1155 urban slum dwellers aged 35 years or above. A structured questionnaire was adminstered to collect data electronically and blood pressure measurements were taken using standardised procedures. Binary logistic regression with generalized estimating equation modelling was performed to estimate the factors associated with hypertension. RESULTS: The prevalence of hypertension was 28.3% among urban slum dwellers aged 35 years and above. In adjusted analysis, urban slum dwellers aged 45-54 years (AOR: 1.64, 95% CI: 1.17-2.28), 55-64 years (AOR: 2.47, 95% CI: 1.73-3.53) and ≥ 65 years (AOR: 2.34, 95% CI: 1.47-3.72), from wealthier households (AOR: 1.94, 95% CI: 1.18-3.20), sleeping < 7 h per day (AOR: 1.87, 95% CI: 1.39-2.51), who were overweight (AOR: 1.53, 95% CI: 1.09-2.14) or obese (AOR: 2.34, 95% CI: 1.71-3.20), and having self-reported diabetes (AOR: 3.08, 95% CI: 1.88-5.04) had an increased risk of hypertension. Moreover, 51.0% of the participants were taking anti-hypertensive medications and 26.4% of them had their hypertension in control. CONCLUSIONS: The findings highlight a high burden of hypertension and poor management of it among the slum dwellers in Bangladesh requiring a novel approach to improve care. It is integral to effectively implement the available national non-communicable disease (NCD) control guidelines and redesign the current urban primary health care system to have better coordination.


Assuntos
Hipertensão , Áreas de Pobreza , Humanos , Prevalência , Estudos Transversais , População Urbana , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Fatores de Risco
13.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0277694, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36383545

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: This study aims to investigate the health-related quality of life and coping strategies among COVID-19 survivors in Bangladesh. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study of 2198 adult, COVID-19 survivors living in Bangladesh. Data were collected from previously diagnosed COVID-19 participants (confirmed by an RT-PCR test) via door-to-door interviews in the eight different divisions in Bangladesh. For data collection, Bengali-translated Brief COPE inventory and WHO Brief Quality of Life (WHO-QoLBREF) questionnaires were used. The data collection period was from October 2020 to March 2021. RESULTS: Males 72.38% (1591) were more affected by COVID-19 than females 27.62% (607). Age showed significant correlations (p<0.005) with physical, psychological and social relationships, whereas gender showed only a significant correlation with physical health (p<0.001). Marital status, occupation, living area, and co-morbidities showed significant co-relation with all four domains of QoL (p<0.001). Education and affected family members showed significant correlation with physical and social relationship (p<0.001). However, smoking habit showed a significant correlation with both social relationship and environment (p<0.001). Age and marital status showed a significant correlation with avoidant coping strategies (p<0.001); whereas gender and co-morbidities showed a significant correlation with problem-focused coping strategies (p<0.001). Educational qualification, occupation and living area showed significant correlation with all three coping strategies(p<0.001). CONCLUSION: Survivors of COVID-19 showed mixed types of coping strategies; however, the predominant coping strategy was avoidant coping, followed by problem-focused coping, with emotion-focused coping reported as the least prevalent. Marital status, occupation, living area and co-morbidities showed a greater effect on QoL in all participants. This study represents the real scenario of nationwide health-associated quality of life and coping strategies during and beyond the Delta pandemic.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Qualidade de Vida , Adulto , Masculino , Feminino , Humanos , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , Adaptação Psicológica , Sobreviventes
14.
BMC Psychiatry ; 22(1): 737, 2022 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36443729

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in serious mental health conditions, particularly among older adults. This research explored the prevalence of COVID-19-related anxiety and its associated factors among older adults residing in Bangladesh. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted among 1,045 older Bangladeshi adults aged ≥ 60 years through telephone interviews in September 2021. A semi-structured interview schedule was used to collect data on participants' characteristics and COVID-19-related anxiety. The anxiety level was measured using the Bengali version of the five-point Coronavirus Anxiety Scale (CAS). A linear regression model explored the factors associated with COVID-19-related anxiety. RESULTS: Overall, the prevalence of COVID-19-related anxiety was 23.2%. The regression analysis revealed that the average COVID-19-related anxiety score was significantly higher among females (ß: 0.43, 95% CI: 0.05 to 0.81), and among those who faced difficulty getting medicine (ß: 0.57, 95% CI: 0.16 to 0.97), felt isolated (ß: 0.60, 95% CI: 0.24 to 0.95), and felt requiring additional care during the pandemic (ß: 0.53, 95% CI: 0.16 to 0.91). Alternatively, the average COVID-19-related anxiety score was significantly lower among those who were widowed (ß: -0.46, 95% CI: -0.87 to -0.04) and living distant from the health centre (ß: -0.48, 95% CI: -0.79 to -0.17). CONCLUSION: The findings of the present study suggest providing immediate psychosocial support package to the older adults, particularly females and those who are vulnerable to receive health and social care support during the COVID-19 pandemic in Bangladesh.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Feminino , Humanos , Idoso , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Pandemias , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , Ansiedade/epidemiologia
15.
Viruses ; 14(11)2022 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36423138

RESUMO

Lumpy skin disease (LSD) emerged in Bangladesh in mid-2019, leading to great economic losses for cattle farmers. This study describes the recent occurrence of the LSDV in Bangladesh and examines the clinical manifestation of the disease in local cattle breeds, characteristic epidemiological features, and pathological findings in affected animals. In addition, a full-genome sequencing of two local LSDV isolates was carried out. A total of 565 animals from 88 households were investigated, and 165 samples (skin lesions, saliva, nasal discharge, feces, and milk) were collected for virus detection. Pathology and immunohistochemistry were performed on nodule biopsies. Fever, nodular skin lesions, and swelling of the joints were the most common clinical manifestations. Skin lesions had a higher concentration of viral DNA compared to other sample types and were therefore selected for virus isolation and characterization. Pathology of the LSD skin nodules comprised a granulomatous reaction in the dermis and hypodermis that extended to the surrounding tissues. Development of the skin lesions started with swelling of keratinocytes with cytoplasmic vacuolation, vasculitis, panniculitis, thrombosis, and infarction. Altogether, the LSDV produced transmural, hemorrhagic, necrotizing, proliferative and ulcerative dermatitis. The LSD viral antigen was detected occasionally in the macrophages, epithelial cells, and vascular smooth muscle cells. The complete genome sequence analysis revealed that the two Bangladeshi field strains (BD-V392.1 and BD-V395.1) were distinct from the contemporary field strains and were closely related to the ancestral African Neethling strain. The findings of this study will improve the diagnosis, monitoring, and control of LSD in Bangladesh.


Assuntos
Doença Nodular Cutânea , Vírus da Doença Nodular Cutânea , Bovinos , Animais , Doença Nodular Cutânea/epidemiologia , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , Dietilamida do Ácido Lisérgico , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária
16.
Nutrients ; 14(21)2022 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36364949

RESUMO

Low birth weight (LBW) is a global public health problem with the highest prevalence in South Asia. It is strongly associated with maternal undernutrition. In South Asia, intra-household food distribution is inequitable, with lower dietary adequacy in women. Evidence that nutrition education improves diet during pregnancy and reduces LBW is weak. We assessed the impact of nutrition education for pregnant women on birth weight in rural Bangladesh. We conducted a parallel, two-arm, cluster-randomised controlled trial, with 36 clusters allocated equally to intervention (n = 445) or standard care (n = 448). From their first trimester until delivery, intervention participants received education about eating balanced meals to meet daily dietary requirements with diverse food groups. The primary outcome of mean birth weight was 127.5 g higher in the intervention compared to control women, and the intervention reduced the risk of LBW by 57%. Post hoc analyses showed a significantly higher birth weight and a greater reduction in LBW amongst adolescent mothers. The mean number of food groups consumed was significantly higher in the intervention from the third month of pregnancy than in the control. A community-based balanced plate nutrition education intervention effectively increased mean birth weight and reduced LBW, and improved dietary diversity in rural Bangladeshi women.


Assuntos
Estado Nutricional , Gestantes , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Peso ao Nascer , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Pré-Natal
17.
PLoS One ; 17(10): e0275344, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36219607

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease that causes thousands of deaths in Bangladesh. Bangladesh is one of the 30 high TB burden countries. In this study, we aimed to assess the knowledge, practices, and attitude toward TB, and to determine the factors associated with them among people who have internet access in Bangladesh. Design, Setting, and Participant: A web-based anonymous cross-sectional survey was conducted from May 20 to August 10, 2021, among people (age> = 18 years) who have internet access in Bangladesh. A comprehensive consent statement was included at the beginning of the survey and informed consent was taken. OUTCOME MEASURES: This study's outcomes of interest were respondents' adequate knowledge, good practices, and positive attitudes toward TB and were coded binarily. The association between respondents' socio-demographic factors and knowledge, attitude, and practices toward TB was inspected using the Chi-square test and Multivariable logistic regression model. RESULTS: Among 1,180 respondents, 58.64% were males, and 62.37% were married. The majority of the participants (78.28%) were aged between 18 to 44 years. Overall adequate knowledge, favorable attitudes, and good practices about TB were found respectively in 47.8%, 44.75%, and 31.19% of the people with internet access in Bangladesh. Almost the same sets of associated factors were found to influence adequate knowledge, favorable attitudes, and good practices toward TB among social media users in Bangladesh. Males, young, unmarried, social media users with higher education, and urban social media users were more likely to have adequate knowledge, favorable attitudes, and good practices toward TB. CONCLUSION: Policymakers need to design programs and interventions to improve knowledge, attitudes, and practices toward TB in Bangladesh with a particular focus on females, young and older people, people who live in rural areas, and illiterate/less educated people. Social media can be a powerful medium for disseminating scientific facts on TB and other diseases.


Assuntos
Mídias Sociais , Tuberculose , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
18.
BMJ Open ; 12(10): e061920, 2022 10 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36216425

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Preterm delivery (PD) is a worldwide health burden particularly in low-income and middle-income countries such as Bangladesh. It is a key indicator of neonatal mortality and a risk of morbidity in later life. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of PD and its associated factors among mothers in Northern region of Bangladesh. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Multistage sampling technique was used to select samples covering all the population from 9 Upazilas in Rajshahi district with 233 community clinics. A total of 540 mothers and their under-5 children were enrolled for the study. Descriptive statistics, χ2 test and logistic regression model were used to analyse the data. RESULTS: Among all live births, the prevalence of PD was found to be 14.6%. Multiple binary logistic regression model suggested five factors of PD: (1) mothers who used contraceptive pill had lower chance of PD (p<0.05); (2) mothers with high fever during pregnancy period were more likely to have PD (p<0.05); (3) mothers who did not receive antenatal care service less than four times during pregnancy period had higher chance of PD (p<0.01); (4) mothers first married before 18 years who were more likely to have PD (p<0.01); (5) PD delivered mothers had more chance to get low birth weight children (p<0.05). In addition, unadjusted model demonstrated that mothers delivered first baby before their age<20 years were more risk to get PD (p<0.05). CONCLUSION: Approximately one in seven infants was born preterm in our study area. Family planning method, number of antenatal care visit, mothers' age at marriage and high fever during pregnancy were the most important predictors of PD, these factors could be considered to reduce PD among Bangladeshi mothers. PD risk could be reduced by counselling and encouraging women to take antenatal care facilities from trained health providers.


Assuntos
Nascimento Prematuro , Adulto , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , Criança , Anticoncepcionais , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso , Recém-Nascido , Mães , Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36232205

RESUMO

(a) Objective: To build an evidence base on effective water, sanitation, and hygiene interventions to reduce diarrheal diseases in cholera hotspots, we developed the CHoBI7 Cholera Rapid Response Program. (b) Methods: Once a cholera patient (confirmed by bacterial culture) is identified at a health facility, a health promoter delivers a targeted WASH intervention to the cholera hotspot (households within 20 m of a cholera patient) through both in-person visits during the first week and bi-weekly WASH mobile messages for the 3-month program period. A randomized controlled trial of the CHoBI7 Cholera Rapid Response Program was conducted with 284 participants in 15 cholera hotspots around cholera patients in urban Dhaka, Bangladesh. This program was compared to the standard message in Bangladesh on the use of oral rehydration solution for dehydration. Five-hour structured observation of handwashing with soap and diarrhea surveillance was conducted monthly. (c) Findings: Handwashing with soap at food- and stool-related events was significantly higher in the CHoBI7 Cholera Rapid Response Program arm compared to the standard message arm at all timepoints (overall 54% in the CHoBI7 arm vs. 23% in the standard arm, p < 0.05). Furthermore, there was a significant reduction in diarrheal prevalence for all participants (adults and children) (Prevalence Ratio (PR) 0.35, 95% CI: 0.14-0.85) and for children under 5 years of age (PR: 0.27, 95% CI: 0.085-0.87) during the 3-month program. (d) Conclusions: These findings demonstrate that the CHoBI7 Cholera Rapid Response Program is effective in lowering diarrhea prevalence and increasing handwashing with soap for a population at high risk of cholera.


Assuntos
Cólera , Adulto , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cólera/epidemiologia , Cólera/prevenção & controle , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Diarreia/prevenção & controle , Desinfecção das Mãos , Hospitais , Humanos , Soluções para Reidratação , Saneamento , Sabões , Água
20.
PLoS One ; 17(10): e0273809, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36201257

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As COVID-19 was declared a global pandemic, the major focus of healthcare organizations shifted towards preparing healthcare systems to handle the inevitable COVID-19 burden at different phases and levels. A series of in-person training programs were operated in collaboration with government and partner organizations for the healthcare workers (HCW) of Bangladesh. This study aimed to assess the knowledge of HCWs regarding SARS-CoV-2 infection, their case management, infection prevention and control to fight against the ongoing pandemic. METHODS: As a part of the National Preparedness and Response Plan for COVID-19 in Bangladesh, the training program was conducted at four district-level hospitals and one specialized hospital in Bangladesh from July 1, 2020 to June 30, 2021. A total of 755 HCWs participated in the training sessions. Among them, 357 (47%) were enrolled for the evaluation upon completion of the data, collected from one district hospital (Feni) and one specialized hospital (National Institute of Mental Health). RESULTS: The mean percentage of pre-test and post-test scores of all the participants were found to be 57% (95% CI 8.34-8.91; p 0.01) and 65% (95% CI 9.56-10.15; p <0.001) respectively. The difference of score (mean) between the groups was significant (p<0.001). After categorizing participants' knowledge levels as poor, average and fair, doctors' group has shown to have significant enhancement from level of average to fair compared to that of the nurses. Factors associated with knowledge augmentation of doctors were working in primary health care centers (aOR: 4.22; 95% CI: 1.80, 9.88), job experience less than 5 years (aOR: 4.10; 95% CI: 1.01, 16.63) and experience in caring of family member with COVID-19 morbidity (aOR: 2.06; 95% CI: 1.03, 4.10), after adjusting for relevant covariates such as age, sex and prior COVID-19 illness. CONCLUSION: Considering the series of waves of COVID-19 pandemic with newer variants, the present paper underscores the importance of implementing the structured in-person training program on case management, infection prevention and control for the HCWs that may help for successful readiness prior to future pandemics that may further help to minimize the pandemic related fatal consequences.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Administração de Caso , Atenção à Saúde , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , SARS-CoV-2
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