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1.
J Struct Biol ; 215(4): 108036, 2023 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37832837

RESUMO

The widespread decline of shallow-water coral reefs has fueled interest in assessing whether mesophotic reefs can act as refugia replenishing deteriorated shallower reefs through larval exchange. Here we explore the morphological and molecular basis facilitating survival of planulae and adults of the coral Porites astreoides (Lamarck, 1816; Hexacorallia: Poritidae) along the vertical depth gradient in Bermuda. We found differences in micro-skeletal features such as bigger calyxes and coarser surface of the skeletal spines in shallow corals. Yet, tomographic reconstructions reveal an analogous mineral distribution between shallow and mesophotic adults, pointing to similar skeleton growth dynamics. Our study reveals patterns of host genetic connectivity and minimal symbiont depth-zonation across a broader depth range than previously known for this species in Bermuda. Transcriptional variations across life stages showed different regulation of metabolism and stress response functions, unraveling molecular responses to environmental conditions at different depths. Overall, these findings increase our understanding of coral acclimatory capability across broad vertical gradients, ultimately allowing better evaluation of the refugia potential of mesophotic reefs.


Assuntos
Antozoários , Poríferos , Animais , Antozoários/genética , Bermudas , Recifes de Corais , Água , Ecossistema
2.
Nature ; 620(7972): 104-109, 2023 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37532817

RESUMO

Iron is important in regulating the ocean carbon cycle1. Although several dissolved and particulate species participate in oceanic iron cycling, current understanding emphasizes the importance of complexation by organic ligands in stabilizing oceanic dissolved iron concentrations2-6. However, it is difficult to reconcile this view of ligands as a primary control on dissolved iron cycling with the observed size partitioning of dissolved iron species, inefficient dissolved iron regeneration at depth or the potential importance of authigenic iron phases in particulate iron observational datasets7-12. Here we present a new dissolved iron, ligand and particulate iron seasonal dataset from the Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study (BATS) region. We find that upper-ocean dissolved iron dynamics were decoupled from those of ligands, which necessitates a process by which dissolved iron escapes ligand stabilization to generate a reservoir of authigenic iron particles that settle to depth. When this 'colloidal shunt' mechanism was implemented in a global-scale biogeochemical model, it reproduced both seasonal iron-cycle dynamics observations and independent global datasets when previous models failed13-15. Overall, we argue that the turnover of authigenic particulate iron phases must be considered alongside biological activity and ligands in controlling ocean-dissolved iron distributions and the coupling between dissolved and particulate iron pools.


Assuntos
Ferro , Minerais , Água do Mar , Ferro/análise , Ferro/química , Ferro/metabolismo , Ligantes , Minerais/análise , Minerais/química , Minerais/metabolismo , Ciclo do Carbono , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Oceano Atlântico , Água do Mar/análise , Água do Mar/química , Bermudas , Fatores de Tempo , Estações do Ano , Soluções/química , Internacionalidade
3.
J Hered ; 114(5): 459-469, 2023 08 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37162284

RESUMO

The Bermuda petrel Pterodroma cahow is an island endemic seabird that belongs to the Procellariiformes, one of the most endangered orders of birds. Historical records suggest a significant population size decline following human settlement in Bermuda, bringing the species to near extinction. Since the 1950s, the population has been recovering aided by the implementation of an ongoing conservation plan. However, it still faces several threats, and negative genetic effects resulting from that drastic decline are to be expected, including inbreeding and genetic drift. We studied genetic diversity and levels of inbreeding, and their effects on individual fitness and mating choice. We also tested for a genetic signature of the recent demographic bottleneck. For this, we analyzed variation in thousands of nuclear single-nucleotide polymorphisms derived from double digest restriction site-associated DNA sequencing and 1 mitochondrial gene (cytochrome oxidase I). The results revealed that the Bermuda petrel suffered a recent genetic bottleneck and shows low mitochondrial diversity compared with other petrel species. Conversely, nuclear diversity was similar to that of other endangered petrels. Inbreeding levels were not high overall, although some individuals were highly inbred. However, we found no evidence that individual inbreeding or relatedness between mates affected hatching success, or that mate choice is influenced by kinship in this very small population.


Assuntos
Variação Genética , Depressão por Endogamia , Humanos , Animais , Bermudas , Aves/genética , Endogamia , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção
4.
Zoo Biol ; 42(2): 223-230, 2023 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36163695

RESUMO

The study of rare or cryptic species in zoos can provide insights into natural history and behavior that would be difficult to obtain in the field. Such information can then be used to refine population assessment protocols and conservation management. The Bermuda skink (Plestiodon longirostris) is an endemic Critically Endangered lizard. Chester Zoo's successful conservation breeding program is working to safeguard, increase and reinforce skink populations in the wild. A key aim of this program is to develop our understanding of the behavior of this species. In this study, using 24 h video recordings, we examined the daily activity patterns, basking behavior and food preferences of four pairs of Bermuda skinks. The skinks displayed a bimodal pattern of activity and basking, which may have evolved to avoid the strength of the midday sun in exposed habitats in Bermuda. Captive Bermuda skinks appear to prefer a fruit-based diet to orthopteran prey. We also documented their reproductive behavior and compared it against two closely related species. Although there were many similarities between the courtship and mating behaviors of the three species, there was a significantly shorter period of cloacal contact in the Bermuda skink. Oophagia was also documented for the first time in this species. This knowledge has enabled the evaluation of the current ex-situ management practices of this species, filled gaps in knowledge that would be challenging to obtain in the field, and enabled the enhancement of both animal husbandry and reproductive success for the conservation breeding program.


Assuntos
Espécies em Perigo de Extinção , Lagartos , Animais , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Bermudas , Animais de Zoológico , Melhoramento Vegetal
5.
Kingston; PAHO; 2022-11-23. (PAHO/JAM/22-0001).
Não convencional em Inglês | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr2-56352

RESUMO

This Pan American Health Organization/World Health Organization Annual Report outlines contributions and achievements in Jamaica, Bermuda, and the Cayman Islands in the year 2021. The report also reinforces PAHO/WHO's core mission, through focus on the country level, recognizing that progress toward sustainable development hinges on improved health at the local and national levels. In 2021, PAHO/WHO supported Jamaica, Bermuda and the Cayman Islands on their path toward disaster risk reduction as well as the ongoing implementation of Phase II of the Smart Health Care Facilities in the Caribbean Project. This project, which aims to enhance the resilience of health facilities to ensure continuity of service delivery before, during and after hazards, such as hurricanes, has led to the upgrade of nine facilities so far. Working toward the upcoming restructuring of the Jamaican Ministry of Health and Wellness (MOHW) and Regional Health Authorities (RHAs) and health care reform in Jamaica, the country signed a technical cooperation agreement with PAHO to provide a national voluntary contribution, with projects developed to strengthen public financial management and results-based management, as well as a strategic plan for health information systems and a concept note for policy on health research. PAHO supported Jamaica’s efforts as the pandemic impact underscored the need to include mental health in emergency and disaster management, as well as activities that contributed to achieving milestones in tobacco control and road safety. Furthermore, PAHO assisted with initiatives to tackle the high prevalence of Noncommunicable Diseases (NCDs) in the population and promote better nutrition, such as the National Infant and Young Child Feeding Policy and Strategic Plan and front-of-package labelling.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Emergências , Sistemas de Saúde , Serviços de Saúde , Doenças não Transmissíveis , Equidade , Equidade de Gênero , Diversidade Cultural , Cooperação Técnica , Região do Caribe , Jamaica , Bermudas , Índias Ocidentais
6.
Global Health ; 18(1): 89, 2022 10 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36271432

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Several governments have introduced taxes on products with high sugar content as part of their obesity prevention strategies. Bermuda is the first jurisdiction to apply such measures in the Caribbean - a region of small island developing states and territories with high obesity prevalence and substantial reliance on imported food products. This study examines how commercial and health actors framed the proposed introduction of a 75% import tariff on high-sugar products, based on written submissions to the Bermudan government. METHODS: Eleven submissions containing written comments were analysed with reference to their framing of the proposed import tariff, the 'problem' of obesity, and the relationship between the two (including alternative policy approaches for tackling obesity). RESULTS: Key emergent frames were complexity, partnership, products, personal responsibility, affordability and evidence. Respondents favoured different framings, depending on whether they supported or opposed the proposed import duty. Commercial actors were universally opposed, presenting obesity as a 'complex' problem that would be better addressed through government-industry partnerships (a framing particularly favoured by international and regional business associations). Increased product range and an emphasis on personal responsibility were also positioned as policy alternatives. Health actors expressed partial support for the proposed sugar tax, although this was tempered by a perceived lack of evidence where the proposal differed from sugar taxes introduced elsewhere. Like commercial respondents, health actors framed obesity as a 'complex' problem and emphasised the need for other measures, including efforts to address the affordability of fruits and vegetables. CONCLUSION: In responding to a proposed 'sugar tax' in Bermuda, commercial actors opposed the proposal and stated a clear preference for 'partnership' approaches to tackling obesity. Commercial responses were dominated by local businesses (with only two responses received from international or regional business associations), perhaps reflecting Bermuda's reliance on tourism and hospitality and the specificity of the proposed intervention (that is, an import tariff rather than an excise tax). The much smaller number of responses from health actors suggests limited civil society capacity. Nevertheless, the Bermudan government successfully introduced a 75% tariff on high-sugar imports, demonstrating the potential for policy innovation to address obesity in small-island jurisdictions.


Assuntos
Açúcares , Impostos , Humanos , Bermudas , Governo , Obesidade/prevenção & controle , Encaminhamento e Consulta
7.
J Phycol ; 58(6): 731-745, 2022 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36054695

RESUMO

Continuing molecular studies of the red algal genus Dasya collected off the coast of Bermuda have revealed two new species in the developing D. cryptica species complex-one from each the euphotic and mesophotic zones, D. orae sp. nov. and D. bathypelagica sp. nov., respectively. Furthermore, what was known as D. baillouviana in Bermuda is shown to represent D. hibernae sp. nov., a sibling of D. pedicellata from New England and New York, USA. Despite morphological similarities to the recently described shallow subtidal species from the islands, D. cryptica, molecular sequencing and morphological comparisons demonstrated that a new set of inshore specimens represented D. orae. The larger, new deep-water species, D. bathypelagica, was genetically compared with recent Bermuda collections of D. baillouviana and others worldwide morphologically falling under this epithet and represented a new species also grouping in the D. cryptica complex. The specimens of D. hibernae from Bermuda were shown to be genetically distinct from specimens of D. pedicellata from southern New England and New York. Molecular analyses necessitated the resurrection of D. pedicellata and uncovered undescribed species in the D. baillouviana complex in the western Atlantic. Based upon genetic evidence provided here, the generitype of Rhodoptilum nested among species in the D. baillouviana complex including the generitype. This finding required the synonymy of the genus Rhodoptilum with Dasya and allowed for the reinstatement of D. plumosa. Furthermore, Dasya collinsiana resolved in the lineage including a closely related species to the generitype of Dasysiphonia, necessitating the transfer of this Bermudian species and others worldwide from the genus Dasya to Dasysiphonia.


Assuntos
Rodófitas , Filogenia , Bermudas , Rodófitas/genética , New York
8.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 1557, 2022 08 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35974346

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Taxes on discretionary foods and sugar-sweetened beverages have emerged as a strategy for health promotion. Between 2018-2019, the Bermuda government introduced a phased tax on imported sugar-sweetened beverages, confectionery, products containing cocoa and pure sugar, and eliminated import duties on select healthy food items. The aim of this study was to conduct an mixed methods evaluation of perceptions of the tax among the general population and key stakeholders. METHODS: We conducted a survey of the general population (N = 400), and semi-structured interviews with key informants (N = 14) from the government, food and beverage, and health sectors to understand awareness, acceptability, and perceived impact of the tax after implementation. Survey data was analysed using thematic analysis, summary statistics, and Chi-squared tests. Key informant interviews were analysed using the framework method. RESULTS: General population respondents had high awareness of the sugar tax (94%) but low awareness of the healthy food subsidy (32%). Most respondents (67%) felt the tax was not an appropriate way to motivate healthier consumption due to beliefs the tax would not be effective (44%), and because of the high price of healthy food (20%). However, nearly half (48%) reported consuming fewer taxed products, primarily for health reasons but also motivated by price increases. Key informants indicated there was high awareness but limited understanding of the tax policy. Informants expressed support for taxation as a health promotion strategy, conditional on policy implementation. The lack of clear price differentiation between taxed and un-taxed products and the absence of accompanying health education were key factors believed to affect the impact of the tax. No informants were aware of use of tax revenues for health purposes and tax revenue was reportedly re-directed to other priorities after implementation. CONCLUSIONS: There was high awareness, but limited acceptability of the Bermuda sugar tax as implemented. Clarity in the tax policy, appropriateness of the tax mechanism, and use of revenue in alignment with the tax aim are critical components for acceptance. The absence of complementary education and health promotion affected acceptance and may limit potential health impacts. The lessons learned in Bermuda can inform similar policies in other settings.


Assuntos
Bebidas Adoçadas com Açúcar , Açúcares , Bermudas , Bebidas , Comércio , Humanos , Impostos
9.
Mar Environ Res ; 168: 105328, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33853013

RESUMO

The stable carbon isotope composition (δ13C) in coral skeletons can be used to reconstruct the evolution of the dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) in surface seawater, and its long-term declining trend during the past 200 years (~1800-2000) reflects the effect of anthropogenic Suess effect on carbonate chemistry in surface oceans. The global atmospheric CO2 concentration still has been increasing since 2000, and the Suess effect is intensifying. Considering the coral's ability of resilience and acclimatization to external environmental stressors, the response of coral δ13C to Suess effect may change and needs to be re-evaluated. In this study, ten long coral δ13C time series synthesized from different oceans were used to re-evaluate the response of coral carbonate chemistry to Suess effect under the changing environments. These δ13C time series showed a long-term declining trend since 1960s, but the declining rates slowed in eight time series since around 2000s. Considering that the declining rates of the DIC-δ13C in surface seawater from the Hawaii Ocean Time-series Station and Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Station has not changed since 2000 compared with those during 1960-1999, the change in the coral δ13C trends at eight of ten locations may indicate that the response of coral δ13C to the anthropogenic Suess effect has changed since around 2000s. This change may have resulted from coral acclimatization to external environmental stressors. To adapt to acidifying oceans, coral may have the ability to regulate the source of DIC in extracellular calcifying fluid and/or the utilization way of DIC, therefore the response of coral δ13C to anthropogenic Suess effect will change accordingly.


Assuntos
Antozoários , Animais , Bermudas , Carbono/análise , Isótopos de Carbono/análise , Recifes de Corais , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Oceanos e Mares , Água do Mar
10.
J Med Entomol ; 58(3): 1188-1196, 2021 05 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33570154

RESUMO

Although parasites are by definition costly to their host, demonstrating that a parasite is regulating its host abundance in the field can be difficult. Here we present an example of a gregarine parasite, Ascogregarina taiwanensis Lien and Levine (Apicomplexa: Lecudinidae), regulating its mosquito host, Aedes albopictus Skuse (Diptera: Culicidae), in Bermuda. We sampled larvae from container habitats over 2 yr, assessed parasite prevalence, and estimated host abundance from egg counts obtained in neighboring ovitraps. We regressed change in average egg count from 1 yr to the next on parasite prevalence and found a significant negative effect of parasite prevalence. We found no evidence of host density affecting parasite prevalence. Our results demonstrate that even for a parasite with moderate virulence, host regulation can occur in the field.


Assuntos
Aedes/fisiologia , Apicomplexa/fisiologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Mosquitos Vetores/fisiologia , Aedes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Aedes/parasitologia , Animais , Bermudas , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/parasitologia , Larva/fisiologia , Mosquitos Vetores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Mosquitos Vetores/parasitologia , Dinâmica Populacional
11.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0241854, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33175884

RESUMO

The North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) has been hypothesized to drive interannual variability in Bermudan coral extension rates and reef-scale calcification through the provisioning of nutritional pulses associated with negative NAO winters. However, the direct influence of the NAO on Bermudan coral calcification rates remains to be determined and may vary between species and reef sites owing to implicit differences in coral life history strategies and environmental gradients across the Bermuda reef platform. In this study, we investigated the connection between negative NAO winters and Bermudan Diploria labyrinthiformis, Pseudodiploria strigosa, and Orbicella franksi coral calcification rates across rim reef, lagoon, and nearshore reef sites. Linear mixed effects modeling detected an inverse correlation between D. labyrinthiformis calcification rates and the winter NAO index, with higher rates associated with increasingly negative NAO winters. Conversely, there were no detectable correlations between P. strigosa or O. franksi calcification rates and the winter NAO index suggesting that coral calcification responses associated with negative NAO winters could be species-specific. The correlation between coral calcification rates and winter NAO index was significantly more negative at the outer rim of the reef (Hog Reef) compared to a nearshore reef site (Whalebone Bay), possibly indicating differential influence of the NAO as a function of the distance from the reef edge. Furthermore, a negative calcification anomaly was observed in 100% of D. labyrinthiformis cores in association with the 1988 coral bleaching event with a subsequent positive calcification anomaly in 1989 indicating a post-bleaching recovery in calcification rates. These results highlight the importance of assessing variable interannual coral calcification responses between species and across inshore-offshore gradients to interannual atmospheric modes such as the NAO, thermal stress events, and potential interactions between ocean warming and availability of coral nutrition to improve projections for future coral calcification rates under climate change.


Assuntos
Antozoários/fisiologia , Animais , Oceano Atlântico , Bermudas , Calcificação Fisiológica , Mudança Climática , Recifes de Corais
13.
J Assist Reprod Genet ; 37(7): 1553-1561, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32462416

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the causes of infertility and artificial reproductive technology (ART) outcomes in women of African descent living in the Caribbean and Bermuda. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study composed of a questionnaire administered to providers who care for women undergoing ART in the Caribbean and Bermuda. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A questionnaire from the Deerfield Institute was adapted to meet the aims of our study with their permission. Eight infertility clinics in the Caribbean and Bermuda were identified. The primary physician at each site was contacted via email and invited to participate in the study. Questionnaires were completed via interview or electronically. Responses were collected in a REDCap database for statistical analysis. RESULTS: There were five respondents from Barbados, Bermuda (× 2), Puerto Rico, and the Bahamas. The most commonly reported etiologies of infertility among Afro-Caribbean patients were female-male factor and uterine factor. In vitro fertilization (IVF) combined with intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) is performed more often than conventional IVF. The cumulative live birth rates (LBR) after ART for those ages ≤ 34, 35-37, 38-42, and > 42 were 52%, 40%, 22%, and 12%, respectively. The cumulative live birth rate was 31.5% for total patients. The factors reported to be most important in hindering patients from cycling were coping emotionally with poor ovarian response and cost. The biggest restraints to infertility care were costs and a lack of local IVF centers on all islands. CONCLUSION: Afro-Caribbean women receiving infertility care in the Caribbean may have better ART outcomes compared to African-American women in the United States (US).


Assuntos
Infertilidade/terapia , Técnicas de Reprodução Assistida , Adulto , Bahamas , Barbados , Bermudas , Coeficiente de Natalidade , População Negra , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Fertilização in vitro , Humanos , Infertilidade/epidemiologia , Nascido Vivo , Masculino , Médicos , Gravidez , Porto Rico , Técnicas de Reprodução Assistida/economia , Técnicas de Reprodução Assistida/estatística & dados numéricos , Injeções de Esperma Intracitoplásmicas , Inquéritos e Questionários , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
mBio ; 11(2)2020 03 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32127450

RESUMO

Host-associated microbial communities are shaped by extrinsic and intrinsic factors to the holobiont organism. Environmental factors and microbe-microbe interactions act simultaneously on the microbial community structure, making the microbiome dynamics challenging to predict. The coral microbiome is essential to the health of coral reefs and sensitive to environmental changes. Here, we develop a dynamic model to determine the microbial community structure associated with the surface mucus layer (SML) of corals using temperature as an extrinsic factor and microbial network as an intrinsic factor. The model was validated by comparing the predicted relative abundances of microbial taxa to the relative abundances of microbial taxa from the sample data. The SML microbiome from Pseudodiploria strigosa was collected across reef zones in Bermuda, where inner and outer reefs are exposed to distinct thermal profiles. A shotgun metagenomics approach was used to describe the taxonomic composition and the microbial network of the coral SML microbiome. By simulating the annual temperature fluctuations at each reef zone, the model output is statistically identical to the observed data. The model was further applied to six scenarios that combined different profiles of temperature and microbial network to investigate the influence of each of these two factors on the model accuracy. The SML microbiome was best predicted by model scenarios with the temperature profile that was closest to the local thermal environment, regardless of the microbial network profile. Our model shows that the SML microbiome of P. strigosa in Bermuda is primarily structured by seasonal fluctuations in temperature at a reef scale, while the microbial network is a secondary driver.IMPORTANCE Coral microbiome dysbiosis (i.e., shifts in the microbial community structure or complete loss of microbial symbionts) caused by environmental changes is a key player in the decline of coral health worldwide. Multiple factors in the water column and the surrounding biological community influence the dynamics of the coral microbiome. However, by including only temperature as an external factor, our model proved to be successful in describing the microbial community associated with the surface mucus layer (SML) of the coral P. strigosa The dynamic model developed and validated in this study is a potential tool to predict the coral microbiome under different temperature conditions.


Assuntos
Antozoários/microbiologia , Microbiota , Modelos Teóricos , Temperatura , Animais , Bermudas , Metagenômica , Interações Microbianas , Muco/microbiologia
15.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0226189, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32208420

RESUMO

The Bermuda Testbed Mooring (BTM) and Bay of Bengal Ocean Acidification (BOBOA) mooring measurements were used to identify changes in the partial pressure of CO2 at the sea surface (pCO2sea) and air-sea CO2 fluxes (FCO2) associated with passage of two tropical cyclones (TCs), Florence and Hudhud. TC Florence passed about 165 km off the BTM mooring site with strong wind speeds of 24.8 m s-1 and translation speed of 7.23 m s-1. TC Hudhud passed about 178 km off the BOBOA mooring site with wind speeds of 14.0 m s-1 and translation speed of 2.58 m s-1. The present study examined the effect of temperature, salinity, dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), total alkalinity (TA), air-sea CO2 flux, and phytoplankton chlorophyll a change on pCO2sea as a response to TCs. Enhanced mixed layer depths were observed due to TCs-induced vertical mixing at both mooring sites. Decreased pCO2sea (-15.16±5.60 µatm) at the BTM mooring site and enhanced pCO2sea (14.81±7.03 µatm) at the BOBOA mooring site were observed after the passage of Florence and Hudhud, respectively. Both DIC and TA are strongly correlated with salinity in the upper layer of the isothermal layer depth (ILD). Strong (weak) vertical gradient in salinity is accompanied by strong (weak) vertical gradients in DIC and TA. Strong vertical salinity gradient in the upper layer of the ILD (0.031 psu m-1), that supply much salinity, dissolved inorganic carbon and total alkalinity from the thermocline was the cause of the increased pCO2sea in the BOBOA mooring water. Weak vertical salinity gradient in the upper layer of the ILD (0.003 psu m-1) was responsible for decreasing pCO2sea in the BTM mooring water. The results of this study showed that the vertical salinity gradient in the upper layer of the ILD is a good indicator of the pCO2sea variation after the passages of TCs.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono/química , Tempestades Ciclônicas , Modelos Biológicos , Fitoplâncton/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Salinidade , Bermudas , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Oceanos e Mares
16.
Int Marit Health ; 71(1): 12-19, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32212143

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Little has been reported about mortality among crews in passenger shipping. The aim of the study was to determine the detailed causes and circumstances of deaths from unnatural causes among crews employed in United Kingdom (UK) and Bermudan registered passenger shipping, their trends, how they relate to the type of passenger ship and crew rank and to discuss preventative measures. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A longitudinal study from 1976 to 2018, based on reviews of marine accident investigation reports, death inquiry files, cruise shipping websites and online searches. RESULTS: One hundred and forty crew fatalities in UK (127) and Bermudan (13) passenger ships were identified: from accidents and drowning (91), suicides and disappearances at sea (38), homicide, other and unexplained causes (11). Over the 43-year study period, a reduction in mortality (per 1000 ship-years) from accidents and drowning was identified (mean annual reduction: 4.3%; 95% confidence interval: 2.1-6.5%) but no significant reduction for suicides and disappearances at sea (annual reduction: 1.2% confidence interval: -1.3% to +3.7%). Most suicides and disappearances (70%) were among customer service Staff and, of 19 employed on large cruise ships, most (79%) were non-Europeans. CONCLUSIONS: The number of suicides and probable suicides is a cause for concern, especially among customer service staff on cruise ships. These findings indicate the need for interventions to reduce suicide risks. Further studies are needed to improve the targeting of interventions. These will need both to analyse the circumstances of individual deaths and derive suicide rates according to rank, department and nationality, based on reliable population denominators.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trabalho/mortalidade , Afogamento/epidemiologia , Medicina Naval/estatística & dados numéricos , Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Bermudas/epidemiologia , Causas de Morte , Feminino , Homicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Navios/estatística & dados numéricos , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
17.
Artigo em Inglês | AIM (África) | ID: biblio-1256861

RESUMO

Background: South African scholarship on intellectual disability has produced a sizeable body of research, yet there are numerous areas where there is a paucity of research. One area in which there is a conspicuous paucity of research is historical studies of people with intellectual disability (PWID). The existing works devoted to the history of PWID in South Africa are primarily focused on the legal provisions and institutions for the protection and care of PWID. Missing from these works are the life stories and experiences of PWID. Objectives: The article offers a study devoted to the life stories and experiences of the children with intellectual disability (CWID) who were admitted to the Institute for Imbecile Children from 1895 to 1913. The institute opened in April 1895 in Makhanda (formerly known as Grahamstown), South Africa. The institute was the first of its kind in the Cape Colony for CWID. Method: The study presents a qualitative investigation of the life stories and experiences of the children that were recorded in the institute's casebook. The entire set of 101 cases contained in the casebook was analysed by adopting a Gadamerian approach to hermeneutics. Results: The examination of the institute's casebook identified several broad themes relating to the children's admittance, daily life at the institute and their routes out of the institute. The study also extols the individuality of each child's life story to provide an awareness and richer appreciation of the humanness and personhood of the children. Conclusion: The article contributes a positive narrative to the identity and the history of South African children with intellectual disability living in the late 19th and early 20th centuries


Assuntos
Bermudas , Estudos sobre Deficiências , Crianças com Deficiência , Pessoalidade , África do Sul
18.
Zootaxa ; 4657(1): zootaxa.4657.1.5, 2019 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716799

RESUMO

Nine new species of Duplominona and one new Pseudominona (Platyhelminthes, Proseriata, Monocelididae) are described from the Caribbean coast of Panama and from Puerto Rico.                Duplominona aduncospina n. sp.; D. terdigitata n. sp.; D. pusilla n. sp.; D. bocasana n. sp. (from Panama) and D. dissimilispina n. sp.; D. chicomendesi n. sp.; D. macrocirrus n. sp.; D. diademata n. sp.; D. puertoricana n. sp. (from Puerto Rico) can be distinguished from the numerous congeneric species based on fine details of the sclerotized structures of the copulatory organ. Duplominona aduncospina n. sp. is characterised by a cirrus provided with 3-4 rows of recurve spines, 2-3 µm long. D. terdigitata n. sp. shows a tripartite tail, and needle-shaped cirrus spines, 1.5-9 µm long. Cirrus spines of D. pusilla n. sp. are scale-like, 1.5-3 µm long. D. bocasana n. sp. has triangular spines, 1.5-6 µm long. D. dissimilispina n. sp. has needle-shaped spines, 3.5-15 µm long. D. chicomendesi n. sp. has a small cirrus, with few, strongly curved spines, 2-7.5 µm long. D. macrocirrus n. sp. has a large cirrus, provided with spines 3-9 µm long, with the longest spines placed medially. D. diademata n. sp. has a cirrus with two separate spiny areas, with spines 7-13 µm long. D. puertoricana n. sp. has a very long cirrus, with poorly sclerotised proximal spines, and distal spines to 6 µm long. A taxonomic key of the genus Duplominona is provided. Pseudominona cancan n. sp. from Panama differs from P. dactylifera from Bermuda, the only species known in the genus so far, for its shorter cirrus and fewer, triangular spines 3-5 µm long, and for the position of the vagina, close to mouth. A specimen attributed to P. dactylifera collected in Puerto Rico is described. Distribution of the new species suggests a complete separation of Panamanian and Puerto Rican proseriate fauna, confirming previous reports of restricted ranges and high endemicity of mesopsammic Platyhelminthes.


Assuntos
Platelmintos , Animais , Bermudas , Feminino , Panamá , Porto Rico , Índias Ocidentais
19.
Zootaxa ; 4629(1): zootaxa.4629.1.4, 2019 Jul 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31712533

RESUMO

The distribution of the western Atlantic snapping shrimp Alpheus peasei (Armstrong, 1940) has a large gap (approx. 12° of latitude) between Tobago and the northeast of Brazil (State of Ceará). Here we analyzed specimens of A. peasei from its entire distribution range and type-locality (Bermuda), to test the hypothesis that they belong to a single species. The morphological analysis included the usual taxonomic characters as well as additional ones (such as mouthparts). The molecular analysis was based on the mitochondrial genes Cytochrome Oxidase I and 16S rRNA. The results of both analyses were congruent and indicated that A. peasei is a single species throughout its known distribution. As such, they indicated a connectivity between Northwestern and Southwestern Atlantic populations of A. peasei. The gap in distribution may be explained by scarce samplings in the North Brazil Shelf province and/or by passive larval dispersal. Our results also extend the known distribution of A. peasei in the northwestern Atlantic (Barbados, Belize and Costa Rica), and add a new record from the Brazilian coast (Pernambuco).


Assuntos
Decápodes , Animais , Belize , Bermudas , Brasil , Costa Rica , Decápodes/genética , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Trinidad e Tobago
20.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 149: 110492, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31437615

RESUMO

Marine antifouling paints (MAPs) are widely used to prevent organisms from fouling vessel hulls. When scraped from vessels as part of regular maintenance, MAP particles discharged into the seawater become a source of toxic substances, like copper (Cu), to the environment, and biocides leaching from them are known to cause toxic effects on non-target organisms. We investigated the toxicity of MAP particles collected from a Bermuda boatyard on local copepod communities using two experiments. Copepod survival, Chlorophyll a and total dissolved Cu concentrations were measured before and after MAP particles addition. In an acute toxicity test, the addition of 0.3 g/L of MAP particles resulted in 0% copepods survival within 88 h and increased dissolved Cu by 1.8 µM. A significant inverse relationship was observed between copepod survival and MAP particles quantity, highlighting the toxic effects of MAP particles from boat maintenance on copepod communities in the surrounding seawater.


Assuntos
Copépodes , Cobre , Desinfetantes , Animais , Bermudas , Clorofila A , Copépodes/efeitos dos fármacos , Cobre/farmacologia , Cobre/toxicidade , Desinfetantes/farmacologia , Desinfetantes/toxicidade , Pintura , Água do Mar , Navios , Testes de Toxicidade Aguda , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
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