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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e254095, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355860

RESUMO

Abstract In northern central Chile, ephemeral pools constitute shallow isolated water bodies with a favourable habitat for fauna adapted to seasonal changes. Based on the limited knowledge about the fauna—particularly insects—associated to these ecosystems, the objective of this study was to characterize the richness, composition, structure and similarity of the insect communities associated with ephemeral pools in Huentelauquén (29º S, Coquimbo Region, Chile). By using pitfall traps, 10,762 individuals were captured, represented by 7 orders, 27 families, and 51 species. Coleoptera and Hymenoptera were the best represented orders, with Neuroptera, Orthoptera and Plecoptera being poorly represented groups. The non-parametric estimators evaluated showed wealth values above those observed for all the studied pools, and their accumulation curves suggest the existence of an incomplete species inventory in the studied community. Additionally, the hierarchical and ordering analysis showed groupings of pools located in the northwest and southeast of Huentelauquén. Preliminarily we found a negative correlation between the area of the pools and the richness (species) and abundance of insects. Additional studies (on other arthropod groups and other seasons of the year) could provide a better understanding of the local processes of extinction and colonization of the species inhabiting these fragile coastal environments.


Resumo No norte central do Chile, lagoas efêmeras constituem corpos de água isolados e pouco profundos, com um habitat favorável para a fauna adaptada as mudanças sazonais que as zonas úmidas estão sujeitas. Com relação a estes ecossistemas, sabe-se pouco sobre sua fauna, principalmente a de insetos. O objetivo do presente estudo foi caracterizar a riqueza, composição, estrutura e similaridade das comunidades de insetos que habitam as lagoas temporárias de Huentelauquén (29º S, Região de Coquimbo, Chile). Usando armadilhas de interceptação, se capturou um total de 10.762 indivíduos, pertencentes a 7 ordens, 27 famílias e 51 espécies. Coleoptera e Hymenoptera foram as ordens mais representativas, enquanto Neuroptera, Orthoptera e Plecoptera foram grupos pouco representativos. Os estimadores não paramétricos avaliados mostraram valores de riqueza superiores ao observados para todas as lagoas estudadas, e suas curvas de acumulação parecem indicar que o inventario da comunidade estudada está incompleto. A análise hierárquica e de ordenamento revelou agrupamentos de lagoas correspondentes a zona nordeste e sudeste de Huentelauquén. Preliminarmente encontramos uma correlação negativa entre a área de lagoas efêmeras e a riqueza (espécies) e abundância de insetos. É necessário realizar estudos adicionais (sobre outros grupos de artrópodes e em outras estações do ano) para melhor compreensão dos processos locais de extinção e colonização das espécies que habitam estes frágeis ambientes costeiros estudados.


Assuntos
Humanos , Animais , Besouros , Ecossistema , Estações do Ano , Chile , Biodiversidade , Insetos
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e253218, 2024. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355863

RESUMO

Abstract Indices are used to help on decision-making. This study aims to develop and test an index, which can determine the loss (e.g., herbivorous insects) and solution (e.g., natural enemies) sources. They will be classified according to their importance regarding the ability to damage or to reduce the source of damage to the system when the final production is unknown. Acacia auriculiformis (Fabales: Fabaceae), a non-native pioneer species in Brazil with fast growth and rusticity, is used in restoration programs, and it is adequate to evaluate a new index. The formula was: Percentage of the Importance Indice-Production Unknown (% I.I.-PU) = [(ks1 x c1 x ds1)/Σ (ks1 x c1 x ds1) + (ks2 x c2 x ds2) + (ksn x cn x dsn)] x 100. The loss sources Aethalion reticulatum L., 1767 (Hemiptera: Aethalionidae), Aleyrodidae (Hemiptera), Stereoma anchoralis Lacordaire, 1848 (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), and Tettigoniidae, and solution sources Uspachus sp. (Araneae: Salticidae), Salticidae (Araneae), and Pseudomyrmex termitarius (Smith, 1877) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) showed the highest % I.I.-PU on leaves of A. auriculiformis saplings. The number of Diabrotica speciosa Germar, 1824 (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) was reduced per number of Salticidae; that of A. reticulatum that of Uspachus sp.; and that of Cephalocoema sp. (Orthoptera: Proscopiidae) that of P. termitarius on A. auriculiformis saplings. However, the number of Aleyrodidae was increased per number of Cephalotes sp. (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) and that of A. reticulatum that of Brachymyrmex sp. (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) on A. auriculiformis saplings. The A. reticulatum damage was reduced per number of Uspachus sp., but the Aleyrodidae damage was increased per number of Cephalotes sp., totaling 23.81% of increase by insect damages on A. auriculiformis saplings. Here I show and test the % I.I.-PU. It is an new index that can detect the loss or solution sources on a system when production is unknown. It can be applied in some knowledge areas.


Resumo Índices são usados para ajudar na tomada de decisões. Este trabalho teve como objetivo desenvolver e testar um índice capaz de determinar fontes de perda (ex.: insetos herbívoros) e de solução (ex.: inimigos naturais). Eles serão classificados de acordo com sua importância quanto a habilidade de danificar ou reduzir danos no sistema, quando a produção final é desconhecida. Acacia auriculiformis (Fabales: Fabaceae), uma espécie pioneira não nativa do Brasil com rápido crescimento e rusticidade, usada em programas de restauração, é adequada para avaliar um novo índice. A fórmula foi: Porcentagem de Índice de Importância-Produção Desconhecida (% I.I.-PD) = [(ks1 x c1 x ds1)/Σ (ks1 x c1 x ds1) + (ks2 x c2 x ds2) + (ksn x cn x dsn)] x 100. As fontes de perda Aethalion reticulatum L., 1767 (Hemiptera: Aethalionidae), Aleyrodidae (Hemiptera), Stereoma anchoralis Lacordaire, 1848 (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) e Tettigoniidae, e as fontes de solução Uspachus sp. (Araneae: Salticidae), Salticidae (Araneae) e Pseudomyrmex termitarius (Smith, 1877) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) apresentaram maiores % I.I.-PD nas folhas das mudas de A. auriculiformis. O número de Diabrotica speciosa Germar, 1824 (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) foi reduzido pelo número de Salticidae; o de A. reticulatum pelo de Uspachus sp.; e o de Cephalocoema sp. (Orthoptera: Proscopiidae) pelo de P. termitarius em mudas de A. auriculiformis. Entretanto, o número de Aleyrodidae foi aumentado pelo número de Cephalotes sp. (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) e o de A. reticulatum pelo de Brachymyrmex sp. (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) em mudas de A. auriculiformis. O dano de A. reticulatum foi reduzido pelo número de Uspachus sp., mas o dano de Aleyrodidae foi aumentado pelo número de Cephalotes sp., totalizando 23,81% de aumento de danos em mudas de A. auriculiformis. Aqui eu apresento e testo o % I.I.-PD. Ele é um novo índice capaz de detectar fontes de perda e de solução no sistema quando não se conhece a produção final. Ele pode ser aplicado em algumas áreas do conhecimento.


Assuntos
Animais , Formigas , Besouros , Acacia , Hemípteros , Insetos
4.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e248154, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339365

RESUMO

Abstract The cotton boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is a key cotton crop pest in Brazil. Adverse climatic factors, such as high temperatures and low soil moisture, dehydrate oviposited cotton squares (bud flowers) on the ground and cause high mortality of its offspring within these plant structures. The objective of this research was to evaluate the mortality of the cotton boll weevil in drip and sprinkler irrigated cotton crops. The experimental design was in randomized blocks with two treatments: drip (T1) and sprinkler (T2, control) irrigated cotton crops with sixteen replications. Each parcel had one emergence cage, installed between two cotton rows per irrigation system, with 37 cotton squares with opened oviposition punctures and yellowish bracts, to capture adult cotton boll weevils. The average number of boll weevils that emerged from the cotton squares and the causes of mortality at different development stages were determined per treatment. Third-generation life tables of the boll weevil were prepared using the natural mortality data in drip and sprinkler irrigation treatments and plus actual, apparent and indispensable mortality rates and the lethality of each mortality cause. We conclude that the application of water directly to the root zone of the plants in a targeted manner, using the drip irrigation system, can cause high mortality of the cotton boll weevil immature stages inside cotton squares fallen on the ground. This is because the cotton squares fallen on the drier and hotter soil between the rows of drip-irrigated cotton dehydrates causing the boll weevils to die. This is important because it can reduce its population density of the pest and, consequently, the number of applications of chemical insecticides for its control. Thus, contributing to increase the viability of cotton production, mainly in areas of the Brazilian semiarid region where the cotton is cultivated in organic system.


Resumo O bicudo-do-algodoeiro, Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), é uma praga-chave da cultura do algodão no Brasil. Fatores climáticos adversos, como altas temperaturas e baixa umidade do solo, desidratam os botões florais de algodão ovipositados caídos ao solo e causam alta mortalidade de seus descendentes dentro dessas estruturas vegetais.O objetivo desta pesquisa foi avaliar a mortalidade do bicudo-do-algodoeiro em lavouras de algodão irrigadas por gotejamento e aspersão. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados com dois tratamentos: cultivo de algodão irrigado por gotejamento (T1) e aspersão (T2, testemunha) com dezesseis repetições. Cada parcela possuía uma gaiola de emergência, instalada entre duas fileiras de algodão por sistema de irrigação, com 37 botões florais de algodão com orifícios de oviposição, brácteas abertas e amarelecidas, para captura do bicudo adulto. O número médio de bicudos que emergiu dos botões florais de algodão e as causas de mortalidade, em diferentes estágios de desenvolvimento, foram determinados por tratamento. As tabelas de vida de terceira geração do bicudo-do-algodoeiro foram preparadas usando os dados de mortalidade natural em tratamentos de irrigação por gotejamento e aspersão e as taxas de mortalidade reais, aparentes e indispensáveis e a letalidade de cada causa de mortalidade. Concluímos que a aplicação de água diretamente na zona radicular das plantas de forma direcionada, utilizando o sistema de irrigação por gotejamento, pode causar altas mortalidade dos estágios imaturos do bicudo-do-algodoeiro nos botões florais de algodão caídos no solo. Isso ocorre porque os botões florais de algodão caídos no solo mais seco e mais quente entre as fileiras do algodão irrigado por gotejamento desidratam, causando a morte dos bicudos. Isso é importante por poder reduzir a densidade populacional desse inseto e, consequentemente, o número de aplicações de inseticidas químicos para seu controle. Assim, contribuindo para aumentar a viabilidade da produção de algodão, principalmente em áreas do semiárido brasileiro em sistema orgânico.


Assuntos
Animais , Besouros , Gorgulhos , Inseticidas , Oviposição , Produtos Agrícolas
6.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e237813, 2023. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278553

RESUMO

Abstract Bamboo (Bambusa sp.) is a grass species with high potential for exploitation, however, this raw material is easily attacked by xylophagous agents such as Coleoptera. The objective of this study is thus to analyse the presence of wood-boring beetles associated with Bambusa sp. in Alta Floresta, Mato Grosso, Brazil. The study was carried out in a bamboo plantation, from August 2016 to July 2017. Two models of ethanolic traps were used, PET Santa Maria and ESALQ-84. Three families of wood-boring beetles were observed in this study: Bostrichidae, Cerambycidae and Curculionidae. 2,144 individuals were identified, belonging to 19 species, in four subfamilies and 11 tribes, and the species Xyleborus affinis was the most frequently collected. Thus, this study constitutes an important contribution to the knowledge of coleoborers associated with bamboo plantations, with the registration of the occurrence of species, as well as contributing to the knowledge of the entomofauna associated with species cultivated in the Southern Amazon.


Resumo O bambu (Bambusa sp.) é uma espécie de gramínea com alto potencial de exploração de fibras, no entanto, essa matéria-prima é facilmente atacada por agentes xilófagos, como os coleópteros. O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar a presença de besouros associados a Bambusa sp. em Alta Floresta, Mato Grosso, Brasil. O estudo foi realizado em um plantio de bambu, no período de agosto de 2016 a julho de 2017. Foram utilizados dois modelos de armadilhas etanólicas, o PET Santa Maria e ESALQ-84. Três famílias de coleobrocas foram observadas neste estudo: Bostrichidae, Cerambycidae e Curculionidae. Foram identificados 2,144 indivíduos, pertencentes a 19 espécies, em quatro subfamílias e 11 tribos, e Xyleborus affinis foi a espécie com maior número de indivíduos coletados. Assim, este estudo constitui-se em uma importante contribuição para o conhecimento de coleobrocas associadas a plantios de bamboo, com o registro de ocorrência de espécies, bem como contribui para o conhecimento da entomofauna associada a espécies cultivadas na Amazônia Meridional.


Assuntos
Animais , Besouros , Bambusa , Gorgulhos , Madeira , Brasil
7.
Gene ; 850: 146917, 2023 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36174905

RESUMO

Among bioluminescent beetles of the Elateroidea superfamily, Phengodidae is the third largest family, with 244 bioluminescent species distributed only in the Americas, but is still the least studied from the phylogenetic and evolutionary points of view. The railroad worm Phrixothrix hirtus is an essential biological model and symbolic species due to its bicolor bioluminescence, being the only organism that produces true red light among bioluminescent terrestrial species. Here, we performed partial genome assembly of P. hirtus, combining short and long reads generated with Illumina sequencing, providing the first source of genomic information and a framework for comparative analyses of the bioluminescent system in Elateroidea. This is the largest genome described in the Elateroidea superfamily, with an estimated size of ∼3.4 Gb, displaying 32 % GC content, and 67 % transposable elements. Comparative genomic analyses showed a positive selection of genes and gene family expansion events of growth and morphogenesis gene products, which could be associated with the atypical anatomical development and morphogenesis found in paedomorphic females and underdeveloped males. We also observed gene family expansion among distinct odorant-binding receptors, which could be associated with the pheromone communication system typical of these beetles, and retrotransposable elements. Common genes putatively regulating bioluminescence production and control, including two luciferase genes corresponding to lateral lanterns green-emitting and head lanterns red-emitting luciferases with 7 exons and 6 introns, and genes potentially involved in luciferin biosynthesis were found, indicating that there are no clear differences about the presence or absence of gene families associated with bioluminescence in Elateroidea.


Assuntos
Besouros , Ferrovias , Animais , Feminino , Filogenia , Elementos de DNA Transponíveis , Odorantes , Besouros/genética , Besouros/metabolismo , Luciferases/metabolismo , Morfogênese , Feromônios
8.
Semin Cell Dev Biol ; 138: 117-127, 2023 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35469676

RESUMO

Adult females and males of most species differ in many aspects of their morphology, physiology and behavior, in response to sex-specific selective pressures that maximize fitness. While we have an increasingly good understanding of the genetic mechanisms that initiate these differences, the sex-specific developmental trajectories that generate them are much less well understood. Here we review recent advances in the sex-specific regulation of development focusing on two models where this development is increasingly well understood: Sexual dimorphism of body size in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster and sexual dimorphism of horns in the horned beetle Onthophagus taurus. Because growth and development are also supported by metabolism, the regulation of sex-specific metabolism during and after development is an important aspect of the generation of female and male phenotypes. Hitherto, the study of sex-specific development has largely been independent of the study of sex-specific metabolism. Nevertheless, as we discuss in this review, recent research has begun to reveal considerable overlap in the cellular and physiological mechanisms that regulate sex-specific development and metabolism.


Assuntos
Besouros , Drosophila melanogaster , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Besouros/genética , Tamanho Corporal , Caracteres Sexuais
9.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2599: 69-97, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36427144

RESUMO

The spatiotemporal control of tissue-specific gene expression is coordinated by cis-regulatory elements (CREs) and associated trans-acting factors. Despite major advances in genome-wide annotation of candidate CREs, the in situ regulatory composition of the vast majority of CREs remain unknown. To address this challenge, we developed the CRISPR affinity purification in situ of regulatory elements (CAPTURE) toolbox that employs an in vivo biotinylated nuclease-deficient Cas9 (dCas9) protein and programmable single-guide RNAs (sgRNAs) to identify CRE-associated macromolecular complexes and chromatin looping. In this chapter, we provide a detailed protocol for implementing the latest iteration of the CRISPR-based CAPTURE methods to interrogate the molecular composition of locus-specific chromatin complexes and configuration in a mammalian genome.


Assuntos
Cromatina , Besouros , Animais , Cromatina/genética , Cromatografia de Afinidade , Proteína 9 Associada à CRISPR , Endonucleases , Mamíferos
10.
Sci Total Environ ; 857(Pt 3): 159451, 2023 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36252663

RESUMO

Artificial light at night, often referred to as 'light pollution', is a global environmental problem that threatens many nocturnal organisms. One such species is the European common glow-worm (Lampyris noctiluca), in which reproduction relies on the ability of sedentary bioluminescent females to attract flying males to mate. Previous studies show that broad-spectrum white artificial light interferes with mate attraction in this beetle. However, much less is known about wavelength-specific effects. In this study, we experimentally investigate how the peak wavelength (color) of artificial light affects glow-worm mate attraction success in the field by using dummy females that trap males landing to mate. Each dummy was illuminated from above by either a blue (peak wavelength: 452 nm), white (449 nm), yellow (575 nm), or red (625 nm) LED lighting, or light switched off in the control. We estimated mate attraction success as both the probability of attracting at least one male and the number of males attracted. In both cases, mate attraction success depended on the peak wavelength of the artificial light, with short wavelengths (blue and white) decreasing it more than long wavelengths (yellow and red). Hence, adjusting the spectrum of artificial light can be an effective measure for mitigating the negative effects of light pollution on glow-worm reproduction.


Assuntos
Besouros , Vaga-Lumes , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Reprodução , Cor
11.
Mol Ecol Resour ; 23(1): 64-80, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35852519

RESUMO

Quantifying species trophic interaction strengths is crucial for understanding community dynamics and has significant implications for pest management and species conservation. DNA-based methods to identify species interactions have revolutionized these efforts, but a significant limitation is the poor ability to quantify the strength of trophic interactions, that is the biomass or number of prey consumed. We present an improved pipeline, called Lazaro, to map unassembled shotgun reads to a comprehensive arthropod mitogenome database and show that the number of prey reads detected is quantitatively predicted from the prey biomass consumed, even for indirect predation. Two feeding bioassays were performed: starved coccinellid larvae consuming different numbers of aphids (Prey Quantity bioassay), and starved coccinellid larvae consuming a chrysopid larvae that had consumed aphids (Direct and Indirect Predation bioassay). Prey taxonomic assignment against a mitochondrial genome database had high accuracy (99.8% positive predictive value) and the number of prey reads was directly related to the number of prey consumed and inversely related to the elapsed time since consumption with high significance (r2  = .932, p = 4.92E-6). Aphids were detected up to 6 h after direct predation plus 3 h after indirect predation (9 h in total) and detection was related to the predator-specific decay rates. Lazaro enabled quantitative predictions of prey consumption across multiple trophic levels with high taxonomic resolution while eliminating all false positives, except for a few confirmed contaminants, and may be valuable for characterizing prey consumed by field-sampled predators. Moreover, Lazaro is readily applicable for species diversity determination from any degraded environmental DNA.


Assuntos
Afídeos , Besouros , Animais , Cadeia Alimentar , Besouros/genética , Comportamento Predatório , Afídeos/genética , DNA/genética
12.
Sci Total Environ ; 857(Pt 3): 159629, 2023 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36280058

RESUMO

Hormesis occurs as a result of biphasic dose relationship resulting in stimulatory responses at low doses and inhibitory ones at high doses. In this framework, environmental factors are often studied to understand how this exposure benefits the animal. In the current study we used anoxia, the total absence of oxygen, as the most extreme version of low oxygen hormesis. Our goal was to determine the dose, the extent of the effect, and the cost of that response in Tenebrio molitor. We identified that the hormetic range (1 to 3 h of anoxia) was similar to that of other insects. Individuals that were exposed to 3 h had high emergence, increased activity throughout life, and lived longer. Beetles that experienced 1 h of anoxia performed better than the controls while the 6-h group had compromised performance. These boosts in performance at 3 h were accompanied by significant costs. Treated individuals had a delay in development and once matured they had decreased fitness. There were also transgenerational effects of hormesis and F1 beetles also experienced a delay in development. Additionally, the F1 generation had decreased developmental completion (i.e., stress-induced developmental halt). Our data suggests that anoxia hormesis triggers a trade-off where individuals benefiting from improved performance and living longer experience a decrease in reproduction.


Assuntos
Besouros , Hormese , Animais , Longevidade , Reprodução , Hipóxia , Oxigênio
13.
Food Chem ; 405(Pt B): 134891, 2023 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36403468

RESUMO

Intestinal contents affect the characterization of edible insect bioactive compounds. Two empty intestine methods, namely, traditional static method (TSM) or salt immersion stress method (SISM), associated with extraction solvents water (W), 50 % water-ethanol (W:E) or 100 % ethanol (E), were used to obtain six Protaetia brevitarsis larval extracts. The total flavonoid content (TFC) in the W:E extracts was significantly higher than that in the W and E extracts, with TSM-W:E the highest (p < 0.05). The relative contents of 132 bioactive compounds, especially p-hydroxyphenylacetic acid, citric acid, and dehydroepiandrosterone, were different between TSM-W and SISM-W. TSM-W:E had significantly higher 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydroxy· (DPPH) scavenging and pancreatic lipase (PL) inhibitory activity than SISM-W:E (p < 0.05). DPPH scavenging and PL inhibitory activities were highly correlated with TFC and carbohydrates, respectively. Thus, bioactive compounds in P. brevitarsis extracts can be obtained selectively using pretreatment methods, which might be beneficial for high-value utilization of P. brevitarsis.


Assuntos
Besouros , Insetos Comestíveis , Animais , Larva , Ácido Cítrico , Etanol , Flavonoides , Lipase
15.
PLoS One ; 17(12): e0276331, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36454945

RESUMO

The ability to acquire chemical defenses through the diet has evolved across several major taxa. Chemically defended organisms may need to balance chemical defense acquisition and nutritional quality of prey items. However, these dietary preferences and potential trade-offs are rarely considered in the framework of diet-derived defenses. Poison frogs (Family Dendrobatidae) acquire defensive alkaloids from their arthropod diet of ants and mites, although their dietary preferences have never been investigated. We conducted prey preference assays with the Dyeing Poison frog (Dendrobates tinctorius) to test the hypothesis that alkaloid load and prey traits influence frog dietary preferences. We tested size preferences (big versus small) within each of four prey groups (ants, beetles, flies, and fly larvae) and found that frogs preferred interacting with smaller prey items of the fly and beetle groups. Frog taxonomic prey preferences were also tested as we experimentally increased their chemical defense load by feeding frogs decahydroquinoline, an alkaloid compound similar to those naturally found in their diet. Contrary to our expectations, overall preferences did not change during alkaloid consumption, as frogs across groups preferred fly larvae over other prey. Finally, we assessed the protein and lipid content of prey items and found that small ants have the highest lipid content while large fly larvae have the highest protein content. Our results suggest that consideration of toxicity and prey nutritional value are important factors in understanding the evolution of acquired chemical defenses and niche partitioning.


Assuntos
Alcaloides , Antineoplásicos , Formigas , Besouros , Venenos , Animais , Anuros , Dieta , Larva , Lipídeos
16.
PLoS One ; 17(12): e0278473, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36454989

RESUMO

In recent years, many new immunologically active peptides from insects have been identified. Unfortunately, in most cases, their physiological functions are not fully known. One example is yamamarin, a pentapeptide isolated from the caterpillars of the Antheraea yamamai moth. This peptide has strong antiproliferative properties and is probably involved in the regulation of diapause. Additionally, antiviral activity was discovered. The results of the research presented in this paper are, to our knowledge, the first attempt to characterize the biological effects of yamamarin on the functioning of the reproductive processes and embryonic development of insects using a model species, the beetle Tenebrio molitor, a commonly known pest of grain storage. Simultaneously, we tested the possible activity of the molecule in an in vivo system. In this research, we present the multifaceted effects of yamamarin in this beetle. We show that yamamarin influences ovarian growth and development, maturation of terminal oocytes, level of vitellogenin gene transcript, the number of laid eggs, duration of embryonic development, and larval hatching. In experiments with palmitic acid-conjugated yamamarin (C16-yamamarin), we also showed that this peptide is a useful starting molecule for the synthesis of biopharmaceuticals or new peptidomimetics with gonadotropic activity and effects on embryonic development. The data obtained additionally provide new knowledge about the possible function of yamamarin in insect physiology, pointing to the important role of this pentapeptide as a regulator of reproductive processes and embryonic development in a heterologous bioassay with T. molitor.


Assuntos
Besouros , Mariposas , Tenebrio , Feminino , Animais , Genitália , Desenvolvimento Embrionário , Peptídeos/farmacologia
17.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 20735, 2022 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36456650

RESUMO

Habitat selection, the choice of a habitat based on its perceived quality, is a key mechanism structuring freshwater communities. To date, individual variability in habitat selection has been neglected, and specialisation has never been considered in this type of studies. We examined the individual differences in the habitat selection of backswimmers (Notonectidae) and diving beetles (Dytiscidae). From each family, we selected one habitat generalist able to coexist with fish (Notonecta glauca, Dytiscus marginalis), and one species specialised to fishless habitats (Notonecta obliqua, Acilius sulcatus). We performed a mesocosm experiment quantifying the consistency in individuals' decisions in response to fish and vegetation structure, in relation to sex and specialisation. Neither the overall pattern of preferences nor consistency in individuals' decisions differed between specialists and generalists or between the sexes, but both were consistent within families. At the population level, backswimmers preferred fishless pools with submersed and floating macrophytes, while diving beetles showed no clear preferences. Individual decisions of backswimmers were consistent and likely driven by conspecific/heterospecific attraction. In diving beetles, individual decisions were primarily density-dependent. Our results reinforce the significance of habitat selectivity for aquatic community assembly, while suggesting a range of mechanisms driving variability in individual behaviour.


Assuntos
Besouros , Heterópteros , Humanos , Animais , Insetos , Especialização , Ecossistema
18.
Front Immunol ; 13: 1003247, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36466834

RESUMO

Evidence has shown that gut microbiota play a key role in host metabolism and health; however, little is known about the microbial community in the donkey hindgut as well as the interactions that occur between gut microbes and the host. This study aimed to explore the gut microbiome differences by analyzing the microbial community and differentially expressed genes (DEGs) related to lipid metabolism and the immune system along the donkey hindgut. The hindgut tissues (cecum, ventral colon, and dorsal colon) were separated, and the contents of each section were collected from six male donkeys for multi-omics analysis. There were significant differences in terms of dominant bacteria among the three sections, especially between the cecum and dorsal colon sites. For instance, species belonging to Prevotella and Treponema were most abundant in the cecum, while the Clostridiales_bacterium, Streptococcus_equinus, Ruminococcaceae_bacterium, etc., were more abundant in the dorsal colon. Apart from propionate, the concentrations of acetate, isobutyrate, valerate and isovalerate were all lower in the cecum than in the dorsal colon (p < 0.05). Furthermore, we identified some interesting DEGs related to lipid metabolism (e.g., ME1, MBOAT1, ACOX1, ACOX2 and LIPH) and the immune system (e.g., MUC3B, mucin-2-like, IL17RC, IL1R2, IL33, C1QA, and MMP9) between the cecum and dorsal colon and found that the PPAR pathway was mainly enriched in the cecum. Finally, we found a complex relationship between the gut microbiome and gene expression, especially with respect to the immune system, and combined with protein-protein interaction (PPI) data, suggesting that the PPAR pathway might be responsible, at least in part, for the role of the hindgut microbiota in the donkeys' gut homeostasis. Our data provide an in-depth understanding of the interaction between the microbiota and function in the healthy equine hindgut and may also provide guidance for improving animal performance metrics (such as product quality) and equine welfare.


Assuntos
Besouros , Gastrópodes , Masculino , Cavalos , Animais , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Equidae , Receptores Ativados por Proliferador de Peroxissomo , Ceco , Colo
19.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 20830, 2022 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36460722

RESUMO

Although biological invasions play an important role in ecosystem change worldwide, little is known about how invasions are influenced by local abiotic stressors. Broadly, abiotic stressors can cause large-scale community changes in an ecosystem that influence its resilience. The possibility for these stressors to increase as global changes intensify highlights the pressing need to understand and characterize the effects that abiotic drivers may have on the dynamics and composition of a community. Here, we analyzed 26 years of weekly abundance data using the theory of regime shifts to understand how the structure of a resident community of dung beetles (composed of dweller and tunneler functional groups) responds to climatic changes in the presence of the invasive tunneler Digitonthophagus gazella. Although the community showed an initial dominance by the invader that decreased over time, the theory of regime shifts reveals the possibility of an ecological transition driven by climate factors (summarized here in a climatic index that combines minimum temperature and relative humidity). Mid and low values of the driver led to the existence of two alternative stable states for the community structure (i.e. dominance of either dwellers or tunnelers for similar values of the climatic driver), whereas large values of the driver led to the single dominance by tunnelers. We also quantified the stability of these states against climatic changes (resilience), which provides insight on the conditions under which the success of an invasion and/or the recovery of the previous status quo for the ecosystem are expected. Our approach can help understand the role of climatic changes in community responses, and improve our capacity to deal with regime shifts caused by the introduction of exotic species in new ecosystems.


Assuntos
Besouros , Ecossistema , Animais , Fezes , Febre
20.
Food Res Int ; 162(Pt A): 111979, 2022 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36461224

RESUMO

Fucoxanthin (FUC) is a hydrophobic carotenoid that has a protective effect on the colon. To exert the beneficial effects of FUC in the colon and expand its application in functional food, FUC was encapsulated in carboxymethyl konjac glucomannan (CMKGM)-coated gliadin nanoparticles (Gli-CMKGM NPs) in this paper. Gli-CMKGM NPs were prepared at pH 5.0 with Gli/CMKGM mass ratio of 1:1. The formation of Gli-CMKGM NPs was associated with hydrogen bonding, hydrophobic interactions and electrostatic attractions. Additionally, Gli-CMKGM NPs exhibited good stability to pH, salt, heating and storage. The results showed that FUC had been successfully encapsulated in Gli-CMKGM NPs, and the encapsulation efficiency of FUC-Gli-CMKGM NPs was significantly higher than that of uncoated FUC-Gli NPs. FUC-Gli-CMKGM NPs had a nano-spherical structure, and embedded FUC in Gli-CMKGM NPs improved their stabilities to photodegradation and thermal degradation. Furthermore, in vitro release and in vivo organ distribution studies showed that FUC-Gli-CMKGM NPs had an excellent colon targeting function. Overall, our findings illustrated the promise of CMKGM-coated Gli NPs for constructing targeted delivery systems for FUC.


Assuntos
Besouros , Nanopartículas , Animais , Gliadina , Colo
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