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1.
Gene ; 766: 145159, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32971186

RESUMO

Considering the relevance of insect α-amylases and natural α-amylase inhibitors present in plants to protect against insect damage, we investigated the effect of white bean and rapeseed protein extracts on digestive α-amylase gene expression of the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say). For this purpose, in vitro and in vivo trials were performed to determine the inhibitory activity of seed proteins on the third and fourth instar larvae. In both trials, the significant inhibitory effect of each extracts on the third and fourth instar larval α-amylase activity and considerable mortality in treatments were observed compared to control trials. In the RT-qPCR, expression ratio demonstrated that the α-amylase gene of two different larval stages grown on both proteins treated leaves had significantly differentiated expression and was up-regulated in third instar larvae and down-regulated in fourth instar larvae compared to control. Results suggest that the hyper-production of α-amylase in third instar larvae is elicited to compensate for the enzyme activity inhibition at an earlier stage and also down-regulation suggests the existence of a negative feedback of plant proteins on the last instar larvae via impaired food intake and digestive α-amylase activity in Colorado potato beetle. Therefore, disruption of the insect's digestive physiology by plant defensive proteins can be considered in the development of innovative controlling methods of this crucial potato pest.


Assuntos
Besouros/efeitos dos fármacos , Besouros/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Proteínas de Plantas/farmacologia , alfa-Amilases/genética , Animais , Digestão/efeitos dos fármacos , Digestão/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/genética , Larva/genética , Folhas de Planta/química , Solanum tuberosum/parasitologia
2.
Food Chem ; 336: 127679, 2021 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32768903

RESUMO

This study investigated the effect of aqueous fat separation and defatting using organic solvents (99% methanol, ethanol, and n-hexane) on the characteristics and functionality of proteins extracted from Protaetia brevitarsis. The defatting efficiency, amino acid composition, protein solubility, and technical properties were the highest when proteins were defatted using n-hexane. Proteins defatted using ethanol were similar in foam capacity and emulsifying capacity. Surface hydrophobicity decreased when using organic solvents, and excessive fat content disrupted the functional properties of the extracted proteins. Proteins extracted using the different solvents displayed different pH values. The pH of the aqueous extract was the lowest. CIE L* a* b* color values also differed using the different extraction methods. Although n-hexane might be the most efficient solvent for defatting the proteins extracted from edible insects, ethanol could also be used to obtain similar foam and emulsifying capacities.


Assuntos
Besouros/química , Proteínas de Insetos/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas de Insetos/metabolismo , Larva/química , Compostos Orgânicos/química , Solventes/química , Aminoácidos/química , Animais , Ácidos Graxos/química , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Proteínas de Insetos/química , Solubilidade
3.
Chemosphere ; 262: 127818, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32771707

RESUMO

Yellow mealworms (Tenebrio molitor larvae) are capable of biodegrading polystyrene (PS) and low-density polyethylene (LDPE). This study tested biodegradation of one expanded PS (EPS) with a weight-average molecular weight (Mw) 256.4 kDa and two LDPE foams with respective Mw of 130.6 kDa (PE-1) and 288.7 kDa (PE-2) in T. monitor larvae obtained in Beijing, China. The larvae consumed EPS and both LDPEs over a 60 day. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analyses of frass confirmed the formation of new oxygen-containing functional groups, as well as a change in physical property and chemical modification, indicating that biodegradation of EPS and LDPE occurred. Gel permeation chromatography analysis confirmed broad depolymerization of EPS and PE-1 (i.e., a decrease in both Mw and a number-average molecular weight (Mn)) but revealed limited extent depolymerization of PE-2 (i.e., increase in Mn and decrease in Mw). For all materials, the size-average molecular weight (Mz) was decreased. Biodegradation and oxidation of EPS and LDPE were confirmed using FTIR and TGA analysis. Depression of gut microbes by the antibiotic gentamicin resulted in significant inhibition of EPS depolymerization but did not stop LDPE depolymerization, resulting in the increase in Mn and revealing that PS biodegradation was gut microbe-dependent but LDPE biodegradation was less dependent or independent of gut microbes. Gut microbial community analysis indicated that, as expected, under different dietary conditions, the intestinal flora significantly shifted to communities associated with biodegradation of EPS and LDPE. The results indicated the complexity and limitation of biodegradation of plastics in plastics-eating T. molitor larvae.


Assuntos
Biodegradação Ambiental , Besouros/metabolismo , Poliestirenos/metabolismo , Tenebrio/metabolismo , Animais , Antibacterianos/metabolismo , Pequim , China , Cromatografia em Gel , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Gentamicinas , Larva/metabolismo , Plásticos/metabolismo , Polietileno/metabolismo , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier
4.
Sci Total Environ ; 750: 141306, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32846245

RESUMO

Tree mortality associated with drought and concurrent bark beetle outbreaks is expected to increase with further climate change. When these two types of disturbance occur in concert it complicates our ability to accurately predict future forest mortality. The recent extreme California USA drought and bark beetle outbreaks resulted in extensive tree mortality and provides a unique opportunity to examine questions of why some trees die while others survive these co-occurring disturbances. We use plot-level data combined with a three-proxy tree-level approach using radial growth, carbon isotopes, and resin duct metrics to evaluate 1) whether variability in stand structure, tree growth or size, carbon isotope discrimination, or defenses precede mortality, 2) how relationships between these proxies differ for surviving and now-dead trees, and 3) whether generalizable risk factors for tree mortality exist across pinyon pine (Pinus monophylla), ponderosa pine (P. ponderosa), white fir (Abies concolor), and incense cedar (Calocedrus decurrens) affected by the combination of drought and beetle outbreaks. We find that risk factors associated with mortality differ between species, and that few generalizable patterns exist when bark beetle outbreaks occur in concert with a particularly long, hot drought. We see evidence that both long-term differences in physiology and shorter-term beetle-related selection and variability in defenses influence mortality susceptibility for ponderosa pine, whereas beetle dynamics may play a more prominent role in mortality patterns for white fir and pinyon pine. In contrast, incense cedar mortality appears to be attributable to long-term effects of growth suppression. Risk factors that predispose some trees to drought and beetle-related mortality likely reflect species-specific strategies for dealing with these particular disturbance types. The combined influence of beetles and drought necessitates the consideration of multiple, species-specific risk factors to more accurately model forest mortality in the face of similar extreme events more likely under future climates.


Assuntos
Besouros , Pinus , Animais , Surtos de Doenças , Secas , Casca de Planta , Árvores
5.
Sci Total Environ ; 753: 141743, 2021 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32891989

RESUMO

Nickel oxide nanoparticles (NiO-NPs) have extensively used in industrial and consumer products. The present study conducted to gain more knowledge about the safe use of NiO-NPs and also to understand their impact on the environment and biological systems. Herein, we examined the genotoxic and ultra-structural effects of a sublethal dose of NiO-NPs (0.03 mg/g) on the ovarian tissues of the ground beetle, Blaps polycresta. The mean diameter of NiO-NPs was 24.49 ± 3.88 nm, as obtained through transmission electron microscopy (TEM). In terms of DNA damage levels, the frequency of micronucleus (MN) formation was highly significant in the NiO-NPs treated group versus the controls. Besides, NiO-NPs treatment resulted in a significant increase in the tail length of comets. Further, electron microscopy revealed a progressive increase in chromatin condensation of the ovarian nurse and follicular cells, in addition to the accumulation of lysosomes and endo-lysosomes in their cytoplasm. In conclusion, NiO-NPs are capable of gaining access to the ovary of B. polycresta and causing DNA damage and a high degree of cellular toxicity in the ovarian cells. The present study highlights, for the first time, the adverse effects of these NPs to female gonads of insects and raised the concern of its genotoxic potential. It would be of interest to investigate NiO-NPs mediated intracellular ROS generation in future studies.


Assuntos
Besouros , Nanopartículas Metálicas , Nanopartículas , Animais , Dano ao DNA , Feminino , Nanopartículas Metálicas/toxicidade , Níquel/toxicidade
6.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 92(suppl 2): e20190745, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33174912

RESUMO

Differences in species composition between sites (ß diversity) may be the result of spatial species replacement (turnover) or nestedness (subgroups of species from a more diverse site). In fragmented landscapes, the environmental factors that lead to these differences may be spatially structured. Herein, our objective is to determine if the ß diversity of Chrysomelidae (Coleoptera) is due to turnover or nestedness and whether the observed pattern is due to loss of forest cover or spatial processes in forest remnants immersed in a matrix dominated by intense agricultural practice. We used an incidence matrix of 99 species sampled from 16 forest remnants and found that the difference in species composition among the fragments is mostly determined by turnover and that this variation is not explained by forest cover or spatial variables. In regions where high habitat loss has generated landscapes containing small and islated forest fragments, structural features, related both to habitat (area, isolation, shape, etc.) and landscape (land use, landscape heterogeneity, etc.) could predict diversity patterns.


Assuntos
Besouros , Agricultura , Animais , Biodiversidade , Ecossistema , Florestas
7.
Oecologia ; 194(4): 771-780, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33159540

RESUMO

Osmoderma eremita is a species of beetle that inhabits hollows in ancient trees, which is a habitat that has decreased significantly during the last century. In southeastern Sweden, we studied the metapopulation dynamics of this beetle over a 25 year period, using capture-mark-recapture. The metapopulation size had been rather stable over time, but in most of the individual trees there had been a positive or negative trend in population development. The probability of colonisation was higher in well-connected trees with characteristics reflecting earlier successional stages, and the probability of extinction higher in trees with larger diameter (i.e. in later successional stages), which is expected from a habitat-tracking metapopulation. The annual tree mortality and fall rates (1.1% and 0.4%, respectively) are lower than the colonisation and extinction rates (5-7%), indicating that some of the metapopulation dynamics are due to the habitat dynamics, but many colonisations and extinctions take place for other reasons, such as stochastic events in small populations. The studied metapopulation occurs in an area with a high density of hollow oaks and where the oak pastures are still managed by grazing. In stands with fewer than ten suitable trees, the long-term extinction risk may be considerable, since only a small proportion of all hollow trees harbours large populations, and the population size in trees may change considerably during a decade.


Assuntos
Besouros , Quercus , Animais , Ecossistema , Dinâmica Populacional , Suécia
8.
Zootaxa ; 4776(1): zootaxa.4776.1.1, 2020 May 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33055598

RESUMO

An annotated checklist of the species and subspecies of rose chafers (Scarabaeidae: Cetoniinae) hitherto known from Angola is given. This list includes species records from recent entomological trips in that country (2014, 2015 and 2017) and from Portuguese museums and private collections. A total of 177 species and 31 subspecies are recorded for Angola, including 32 endemic species/subspecies (15.4%). Some species are represented by only the holotype specimen (some without locality) or the type series. Others were recorded based on a single specimen. Records for four genera, one subgenus, twenty nine species and four subspecies previously unknown from Angola are given. A new synonymy is established: Ruteroides Gomes Alves, 1973 is proposed as a junior synonym of Pseudinca Kraatz, 1880. Consequently, Ruteroides fradei Gomes Alves, 1973 is transferred to Pseudinca. A brief historical review, as well as some considerations on the distribution and conservation status of these beetles in Angola is also presented.


Assuntos
Besouros , Angola , Animais
9.
Zootaxa ; 4777(1): zootaxa.4777.1.1, 2020 May 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33055599

RESUMO

The species-rich genus Eupines King of New Zealand is revised to include 48 species, with 22 known species redescribed. Twenty-two new species are described: Eupines (Byraxis) brevis sp. n., E. (B.) caesta sp. n., E. (B.) carinata sp. n., E. (B.) coalita sp. n., E. (B.) complector sp. n., E. (B.) dugdalei sp. n., E. (B.) gigas sp. n., E. (B.) graceae sp. n., E. (B.) huizhenae sp. n., E. (B.) hoarei sp. n., E. (B.) insolita sp. n., E. (B.) mayae sp. n., E. (B.) minuta sp. n., E. (B.) obtusa sp. n., E. (B.) ovalis sp. n., E. (B.) pannicula sp. n., E. (B.) petila sp. n., E. (B.) protibialis sp. n., E. (B.) whirinaki sp. n., E. (B.) waikaremoana sp. n., Eupines (Eupines) undecim sp. n. and Eupines novem sp. n. The following 11 synonymies are proposed: E. (B.) dispar (Sharp) (= E. (B.) munroi Broun syn. n.), E. (B.) hectori Broun (= E. (B.) diversides Newton syn. n.), E. (B.) impar (Sharp) (= E. (B.) sanguineua Broun syn. n., E. (B.) foveatissima Broun syn. n.), E. (B.) monstrosa (Reitter) (= E. (B.) rudicornis Broun syn. n., E. (B.) costata Broun syn. n.), E. (B.) mundula (Schaufuss) (= E. (B.) forficulida Broun syn. n.), E. (B.) paganus (Broun) (= E. (B.) allocera Broun syn. n., E. (B.) sylvicola Broun syn. n., E. (B.) rhyssarthra Broun syn. n.) and Eupinolus altulus (Broun) (= E. (E.) nasuta Broun syn. n.). New combinations are proposed for four species previously described in Eupines: Eupinolus calcaratus (Broun) new comb., Eupinolus nasutus (Broun) new comb., Gastrobothrus ignotus (Broun) new comb. and Gastrobothrus platynotus (Broun) new comb. A key and distribution maps for all New Zealand members of Eupines are provided.


Assuntos
Besouros , Animais , Nova Zelândia
10.
Zootaxa ; 4772(3): zootaxa.4772.3.4, 2020 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33055603

RESUMO

A synopsis of the flat-faced longhorned beetle genus Pseudocriopsis Melzer, 1931 is presented. Pseudocriopsis abare sp. nov. is described from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Pseudocriopsis arthuri Audureau, 2017 is transferred to Leptostylus LeConte, 1852, as Leptostylus arthuri comb. nov.


Assuntos
Besouros , Animais
11.
Zootaxa ; 4772(3): zootaxa.4772.3.7, 2020 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33055606

RESUMO

Twenty species of Macrodactylus Dejean (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Melolonthinae: Macrodactylini) from the Central American nucleus are described and illustrated, including two new species from Guatemala: Macrodactylus eniocanoi new species and Macrodactylus escuintlaensis new species. Macrodactylus hondurensis Arce-Pérez Morón is recorded for the first time from El Salvador. Diagnoses for 18 species previously recorded in the Central American nucleus are provided. A key to all known species of Macrodactylus of Central American nucleus and distributional maps are included.


Assuntos
Besouros , Animais , Estados Unidos
12.
Zootaxa ; 4769(1): zootaxa.4769.1.1, 2020 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33055631

RESUMO

The genus Morphostenophanes Pic, 1925 is redefined and revised. Seventeen new species and three new subspecies are described, including M. aenescens yelang Zhou, new subspecies, M. bannaensis Zhou, new species, M. brevigaster Zhou, new species, M. chongli Zhou, new species, M. crassus Zhou, new species, M. furvus Zhou, new species, M. furvus weishanus Zhou, new subspecies, M. gaoligongensis Zhou, new species, M. iridescens Zhou, new species, M. lincangensis Zhou, new species, M. linglong Zhou, new species, M. metallicus Zhou, new species, M. minor, Zhou, new species, M. planus Zhou, new species, M. purpurascens Zhou, new species, M. sinicus Zhou, new species, and M. yunnanus Zhou, new species from Yunnan, China; M. chongli glaber Zhou, new subspecies from Yunnan, China and North Vietnam; M. curvitibialis Zhou, new species from Guangxi, China, and M. luoxiaoshanus Zhou, new species from Hunan, Hubei and Jiangxi, China. M. birmanicus (Kaszab, 1980) is recorded from China (Yunnan) for the first time. M. papillatus Kaszab, 1941 is firstly recorded from Yunnan and Sichuan, China. Two poorly known species, M. aenescens Pic, 1925 and M. vietnamicus Kaszab, 1980 are redescribed. Male of M. atavus (Kaszab, 1960) is described in detail. Misidentifications of M. aenescens Pic. 1925 and M. atavus (Kaszab, 1960) in previous works are corrected. Six species groups are proposed. A species catalog, identification key and distributional maps for the genus are given.


Assuntos
Besouros , Distribuição Animal , Animais , China , Masculino
13.
Zootaxa ; 4816(2): zootaxa.4816.2.3, 2020 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33055703

RESUMO

Anoplistes kaszabi sp. nov. is described from Mongolia. Distinguishing characters from closely related Anoplistes mongolicus Ganglbauer, 1889 are presented and their ecological dissimilarity is discussed. High-quality stacked photographs of the habitus of the specimens are presented for both species and their geographical distributions are mapped. The new species differs from A. mongolicus mainly by the more elongate pronotum with different sculpture, the more evenly and densely pubescent elytra, the slender body of smaller size in both sexes, as well as by the different shape of female antennomeres. Additionally, they are most likely associated with two different host plants. Moreover, Anoplistes amoenus Reitter, 1898 (stat. res.) is herein restored to specific rank due to its clear distinctness compared to the discussed taxa.


Assuntos
Besouros , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Mongólia
14.
Zootaxa ; 4813(1): zootaxa.4813.1.1, 2020 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33055726

RESUMO

The genus Scolytodes Ferrari is a highly diverse group of Neotropical bark beetles. Recent collecting by hand and canopy fogging in Ecuador produced many new records. Overlap in species composition between samples from the canopy and the ground was very low, and canopy fogging revealed the highest proportion of undescribed species. Altogether we report records for 55 species of Scolytodes from Ecuador, including 40 species new to science: Scolytodes pseudoatratus Jordal and Smith, sp. nov., Scolytodes latipes Jordal and Smith, sp. nov., Scolytodes sloanae Jordal and Smith, sp. nov., Scolytodes samamae Jordal and Smith, sp. nov., Scolytodes otongae Jordal and Smith, sp. nov., Scolytodes chaplini Jordal and Smith, sp. nov., Scolytodes projectus Jordal and Smith, sp. nov., Scolytodes lubricus Jordal and Smith, sp. nov., Scolytodes inordinatus Jordal and Smith, sp. nov., Scolytodes cancellatus Jordal and Smith, sp. nov., Scolytodes jubatus Jordal and Smith, sp. nov., Scolytodes abbreviatus Jordal and Smith, sp. nov., Scolytodes stramineus Jordal and Smith, sp. nov., Scolytodes teres Jordal and Smith, sp. nov., Scolytodes animus Jordal and Smith, sp. nov., Scolytodes pseudoanimus Jordal and Smith, sp. nov., Scolytodes bombycinus Jordal and Smith, sp. nov., Scolytodes bisetosus Jordal and Smith, sp. nov., Scolytodes horridus Jordal and Smith, sp. nov., Scolytodes virgatus Jordal and Smith, sp. nov., Scolytodes criniger Jordal and Smith, sp. nov., Scolytodes pseudocrassus Jordal and Smith, sp. nov., Scolytodes semicrassus Jordal and Smith, sp. nov., Scolytodes pseudolepidus Jordal and Smith, sp. nov., Scolytodes semilepidus Jordal and Smith, sp. nov., Scolytodes fortis Jordal and Smith, sp. nov., Scolytodes peniculus Jordal and Smith, sp. nov., Scolytodes tristis Jordal and Smith, sp. nov., Scolytodes chrysifrons Jordal and Smith, sp. nov., Scolytodes amictus Jordal and Smith, sp. nov., Scolytodes cnesinoides Jordal and Smith, sp. nov., Scolytodes maestus Jordal and Smith, sp. nov., Scolytodes vietus Jordal and Smith, sp. nov., Scolytodes echinus Jordal and Smith, sp. nov., Scolytodes rufifrons Jordal and Smith, sp. nov., Scolytodes arcuatus Jordal and Smith, sp. nov., Scolytodes validus Jordal and Smith, sp. nov., Scolytodes sparsus Jordal and Smith, sp. nov., Scolytodes lapillus Jordal and Smith, sp. nov., Scolytodes coronatus Jordal and Smith, sp. nov. We also provide the first description of the female and a new country record for Scolytodes grandis (Schedl, 1962) (=Scolytodes glaberrimus Wood, 1972 syn. nov.) and a redescription and new country record for Scolytodes pilifrons (Schedl, 1962). The total number of valid species is now 287. Additional new country records were established for Scolytodes acuminatus Wood, 1969, Scolytodes comosus Jordal and Kirkendall, 2019, Scolytodes costabilis Wood, 1974, Scolytodes glabrescens Wood, 1972, Scolytodes impressus Wood, 1969, Scolytodes nitidus (Eggers, 1928), Scolytodes striatus (Eggers, 1934), Scolytodes tucumani Wood, 2007, and from another Hexacolini genus, Pycnarthrum fulgidum Wood, 1977. The first molecular phylogeny for Scolytodes is provided and used primarily to guide the inference of species validity. Molecular data from COI, 28S and EF-1α revealed substantial genetic divergence between morphologically very similar but diagnosable species.


Assuntos
Besouros , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Equador , Feminino , Filogenia , Especificidade da Espécie
15.
Zootaxa ; 4814(1): zootaxa.4814.1.1, 2020 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33055727

RESUMO

The present paper describes 16 new species and one new genus from French Guiana and numerous taxonomic changes are proposed prior to the publication of a comprehensive guide to the Phasmatodea of French Guiana. The following 16 new species are described and illustrated: Phanocles procerus n. sp., Phanocloidea lobulatipes n. sp., Cladomorphus guianensis n. sp., Hirtuleius gracilis n. sp., Parastratocles rosanti n. sp., Parastratocles fuscomarginatus n. sp., Paraprisopus apterus n. sp., Paraprisopus multicolorus n. sp., Agrostia longicerca n. sp., Isagoras similis n. sp., Paragrostia brulei n. sp., Prexaspes globosicaput n. sp., Prexaspes guianensis n. sp., Dinelytron cahureli n. sp., Prisopus clarus n. sp. and Prisopus conocephalus n. sp.. The new genus Paragrostia n. gen. is established for the newly described Paragrostia brulei n. sp. and Paragrostia flavimaculata (Heleodoro, Mendes Rafael, 2017) n. comb. the latter of which is here transferred from Agrostia Redtenbacher, 1906.                Fifty-six new combinations are proposed with species transferred to other genera: Bacteria pallidenotata Redtenbacher, 1908, is transferred to Phanocloidea Zompro, 2001 (n. comb.); Bacteria maroniensis Chopard, 1911 is transferred to Phanocles Stål, 1875 (n. comb.); Cladomorphus gibbosus (Chopard, 1911) is transferred to Hirtuleius Stål, 1875 (n. comb.); Stratocles soror Redtenbacher, 1906, Parastratocles lugubris (Redtenbacher, 1906) and Parastratocles cryptochloris (Rehn, 1904) are transferred to Brizoides Redtenbacher, 1906 (n. comb.); Stratocles xanthomela (Olivier, 1792), Stratocles forcipatus Bolívar, 1896 and Stratocles tessulatus (Olivier, 1792) are transferred to Parastratocles (n. comb.); Olcyphides cinereus (Olivier, 1792), Perliodes affinis Redtenbacher, 1906, Perliodes nigrogranulosus Redtenbacher, 1906, Perliodes sexmaculatus Redtenbacher, 1906, Isagoras rugicollis (Gray, 1835), Isagoras sauropterus Rehn, 1947, Brizoides viridipes (Rehn, 1905) and Brizoides graminea Redtenbacher, 1906 are transferred to Agrostia Redtenbacher, 1906 (n. comb.); Agrostia flavimaculata Heleodoro, Mendes Rafael, 2017 is transferred to Paragrostia n. gen. (n. comb.); Isagoras affinis Chopard, 1911, Isagoras chocoensis Hebard, 1921, Isagoras metricus Rehn, 1947 and Isagoras schraderi Rehn, 1947 are transferred to Tenerella Redtenbacher, 1906 (n. comb.); Xerosoma glyptomerion Rehn, 1904 is transferred to Isagoras Stål, 1875 (n. comb.); Isagoras venosus (Burmeister, 1838), Paraphasma paulense Rehn, 1918 and Paraphasma quadratum (Bates, 1865) are transferred to Prexaspes Stål, 1875 (n. comb.); Prexaspes (Prexaspes) cneius (Westwood, 1859) is transferred to Tenerella Redtenbacher, 1906 (n. comb.); Prexaspes lateralis (Fabricius, 1775) is transferred to Paraphasma Redtenbacher, 1906 (n. comb.); Isagoras santara (Westwood, 1859) and Prexaspes olivaceus Chopard, 1911 are transferred to Periphloea Redtenbacher, 1906 (n. comb.); Dinelytron agrion Westwood, 1859 is transferred to Paraprisopus Redtenbacher, 1906 (n. comb.); Anarchodes atrophicus (Pallas, 1772) is transferred to Ignacia Rehn, 1904 (n. comb.); Planudes asperus Bellanger Conle, 2013, Planudes brunni Redtenbacher, 1906, Planudes cortex Hebard, 1919, Planudes crenulipes Rehn, 1904, Planudes funestus Redtenbacher, 1906, Planudes melzeri Piza, 1937, Planudes molorchus (Westwood, 1859), Planudes paxillus (Westwood, 1859), Planudes perillus Stål, 1875, Planudes pygmaeus (Redtenbacher, 1906) and Planudes taeniatus Piza, 1944 are transferred to Isagoras Stål, 1875 (n. comb.); Prisopoides atrobrunneus Heleodoro Rafael, 2020, Prisopoides brunnescens Heleodoro Rafael, 2020, Prisopoides caatingaensis Heleodoro Rafael, 2020 and Prisopoides villosipes (Redtenbacher, 1906) are transferred to Prisopus Peletier de Saint Fargeau Serville, 1828 (n. comb.); Melophasma antillarum (Caudell, 1914), Melophasma brachypterum Conle, Hennemann Gutiérrez, 2011, Melophasma colombianum Conle, Hennemann Gutiérrez, 2011 and Melophasma vermiculare Redtenbacher, 1906 are transferred to Paraprisopus Redtenbacher, 1906 (n. comb.); Prexaspes (Elasia) ambiguus (Stoll, 1813), Prexaspes (Elasia) brevipennis (Burmeister, 1838), Prexaspes (Elasia) pholcus (Westwood, 1859), Prexaspes (Elasia) viridipes Redtenbacher, 1906 and Prexaspes (Elasia) vittata (Piza, 1985) are transferred to Prexaspes Stål, 1875 (n. comb.).                Twenty-six new synonymies are established: Perliodes Redtenbacher, 1906 and Chlorophasma Redtenbacher, 1906 are synonymised with Agrostia Redtenbacher, 1906 (n. syn.); Chlorophasma Redtenbacher, 1906 is synonymised with Agrostia Redtenbacher, 1906 (n. syn.); Elasia Redtenbacher, 1906 is synonymised with Prexaspes Stål, 1875 (n. syn.); Prisopoides Heleodoro Rafael, 2020 is synonymised with Prisopus Peletier de Saint Fargeau Serville, 1828 (n. syn.); Melophasma Redtenbacher, 1906 is synonymised with Paraprisopus Redtenbacher, 1906 (n. syn.); Bacteria crassipes Chopard, 1911 is synonymised with Bacteria pallidenotata Redtenbacher, 1908 (n. syn.); Perliodes grisescens Redtenbacher, 1906 and Metriophasma (Metriophasma) pallidum (Chopard, 1911) are synonymised with Agrostia cinerea (Olivier, 1792) (n. syn.); Perliodes nigrogranulosus Redtenbacher, 1906 and Metriophasma (Metriophasma) ocellatum (Piza, 1937) are synonymised with Isagoras rugicollis (Gray, 1835) (n. syn.); Isagoras chopardi Hebard, 1933 is synonymised with Tenerella cneius (Westwood, 1859) (n. syn.); Isagoras proximus Redtenbacher, 1906 is synonymised with Isagoras glyptomerion (Rehn, 1904) (n. syn.); Chlorophasma hyalina Redtenbacher, 1906 is synonymised with Agrostia graminea (Redtenbacher, 1906) (n. syn.); Isagoras nitidus Redtenbacher, 1906 is synonymised with Anisa flavomaculatus (Gray, 1835) (n. syn.); Prexaspes acuticornis (Gray, 1835) is synonymised with Prexaspes servillei (Gray, 1835) (n. syn.); Prexaspes nigromaculatus Chopard, 1911 is synonymised with Periphloea santara (Westwood, 1859) (n. syn.); Prexaspes (Elasia) janus Kirby, 1904 is synonymised with Paraphasma maculatum (Gray, 1835) (n. syn.); Prexaspes dictys (Westwood, 1859) is synonymised with Prexaspes brevipennis (Burmeister, 1838) (n. syn.); Parastratocles aeruginosus Redtenbacher, 1906: 107 is synonymised with Parastratocles forcipatus Bolívar, 1896 (n. syn.); Parastratocles carbonarius (Redtenbacher, 1906: 106) is synonymised with Parastratocles lugubris (Redtenbacher, 1906) (n. syn.); Prisopus spinicollis Burmeister, 1838, Prisopus spiniceps Burmeister, 1838 and Prisopus cornutus Gray, 1835 are synonymised with Prisopus ohrtmanni (Lichtenstein, 1802) (n. syn.); the genus Planudes Stål, 1875 is synonymised with Isagoras Stål, 1875 (n. syn.); Pseudophasma annulipes (Redtenbacher, 1906) is synonymised with Pseudophasma blanchardi (Westwood, 1859) (n. syn.); Ignacia appendiculatum (Kirby, 1904) is synonymised with Anarchodes atrophicus (Pallas, 1772) (n. syn.).                Isagoras obscurum Guérin-Méneville, 1838 is shown to have been erroneously synonymised with Isagoras rugicollis (Gray, 1835) and is here re-established as a valid species (rev. stat.). Pseudophasma castaneum (Bates, 1865) is re-established as a valid species here (rev. stat.).                Paraprisopus Redtenbacher, 1906 and the entire tribe Paraprisopodini are transferred to Pseudophasmatidae: Pseudophasmatinae (n. comb.).                Lectotypes are designated for Perliodes grisescens Redtenbacher, 1906, Isagoras plagiatus Redtenbacher, 1906.Neotypes are designated for Agrostia cinerea (Olivier, 1792), Prexaspes ambiguus (Stoll, 1813), Prisopus horridus (Gray, 1835) and Prisopus sacratus (Olivier, 1792).


Assuntos
Besouros , Heterópteros , Animais , Guiana Francesa , Neópteros
16.
Zootaxa ; 4815(1): zootaxa.4815.1.1, 2020 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33055728

RESUMO

The genus Bioramix Bates, 1879 from China is revised, 54 valid species are recognized in this study, including 23 new ones: B. (Cardiobioramix) barkamica sp. nov., B. (C.) gibbosa sp. nov., B. (C.) longicornis sp. nov., B. (C.) prolongata sp. nov., B. (C.) tenuitarsus sp. nov., B. (Leipopleura) baxoica sp. nov., B. (L.) cupreoviridis sp. nov., B. (L.) exsertigenae sp. nov., B. (L.) homoplasta sp. nov., B. (L.) impressithorax sp. nov., B. (L.) latitarsis sp. nov., B. (L.) laxipenis sp. nov., B. (L.) lhozhagensis sp. nov., B. (L.) longipilis sp. nov., B. (L.) miranda sp. nov., B. (L.) nigra sp. nov., B. (L.) rectiangulata sp. nov., B. (L.) riwoqeica sp. nov., B. (L.) rugelytra sp. nov., B. (L.) seidlitzi sp. nov., B. (L.) subcarinata sp. nov., B. (L.) tiani sp. nov., B. (L.) yushuana sp. nov. The following new synonymy is proposed based on the examination of type and additional specimens: B. (C.) globipunctata Bai Ren, 2016 = B. (C.) liupanshana Bai Ren, 2016, syn. n.; B. (C.) szetschuana (Kaszab, 1940) = Platynoscelis (C.) kulzeri Kaszab, 1960, syn. n.; B. (L.) integra (Reitter, 1887) = Platyscelis (Platyscelis) obovatus Ren, 1999, syn. n.; B. (L.) politicollis (Kaszab, 1940) = B. (L.) baqenensis Li Egorov, 2016, syn. n.; B. (L.) rubripes (Reitter, 1889) = Myatis brevipilosum Meng Ren, 2005, syn. n., formerly synonymized with B. (L.) micans Reitter, 1889; B. (L.) rufipalpis (Reitter, 1887) = Platynoscelis (Trichoplatyscelis) darbukensis Kaszab, 1940, syn. n. The subgenus Planoplatyscelis Kaszab, 1940 and B. (P.) pamirensis Bates, 1879 are recorded from China for the first time. Lectotypes are designated for Helops subaenea Reitter, 1889 and Botiras punctatellus Fairmaire, 1891. The biology of adult, larvae and pupa is briefly introduced. Furthermore, new distribution records, images of adults, male aedeagus and habitat, and a key to Chinese species are presented.


Assuntos
Besouros , Animais , China , Larva , Masculino , Pupa
17.
Zootaxa ; 4779(4): zootaxa.4779.4.7, 2020 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33055771

RESUMO

The genus Anisoderomorpha Arrow, 1925 (Coleoptera: Erotylidae: Languriinae) is redescribed and two new species of Anisoderomorpha are described: A. tamdaoensis sp. nov. from Vietnam and A. malayana sp. nov. from Malaysia. The adults of A. tamdaoensis sp. nov. were found to be sexually dimorphic in external morphology, particularly in the shape of the head and mandibles: females have a large asymmetrical head and mandibles, whereas males have a symmetrical head with slightly asymmetrical mandibles. All three members of Anisoderomorpha and its related taxon, Celolanguria curvipes Arrow, 1925, are illustrated and the host plant of Anisoderomorpha is predicted based on the morphological similarity of the specified mouthparts to those of other genera.


Assuntos
Besouros , Animais , Feminino , Cabeça , Masculino , Plantas
18.
Zootaxa ; 4779(3): zootaxa.4779.3.4, 2020 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33055778

RESUMO

Two new species are described from Ecuador: Anisopodus flavomarginatus, and Leptocometes brevicornis. Hyperplatys argus (Bates, 1872) is transferred to its original genus: Anisopodus White, 1855. Comments regarding the type locality of Hylettus eremita (Erichson, 1847) and variation of pronotal and elytral pubescence pattern in the species are provided. The species is reported from Colombia for the first time. The type locality, number of specimens in the original description, and institution depositary of the syntypes of Astynomus sallei Candèze (1861 (= H. eremita) are discussed.


Assuntos
Besouros , Animais
19.
Zootaxa ; 4779(3): zootaxa.4779.3.5, 2020 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33055779

RESUMO

The genus Protamaurops J. Müller, 1944 and three species: P. macedonicus J. Müller, 1934, P. macrophthalmus J. Müller, 1944 and P. winneguthi Székessy, 1943 are reviewed and redescribed. One new species from Bulgaria, Protamaurops bulgaricus sp. n. is described. Protamaurops montenegrinus (Székessy, 1943) is transferred to the genus Paramaurops Jeannel, 1948 and Protamaurops macrophtalmus beieri (J. Müller, 1944) is synonymized to the nominal species Protamaurops macrophtalmus macrophtalmus (J. Müller, 1944).


Assuntos
Besouros , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Península Balcânica , Bulgária
20.
Zootaxa ; 4778(3): zootaxa.4778.3.4, 2020 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33055811

RESUMO

Three new species are described: A. cooteri sp. n. (from China), A. curva sp. n. (from China), A. bertrami sp. n. (from Lebanon). A dichotomous key is provided to distinguish the new species from their most similar known species, namely: A. apfelbecki Schilsky, A. emarginata Schilsky, A. graeca Schilsky, A. koenigi Schilsky, A. marseuli Csiki, A. mongolica Ermisch, A. nigripes Brisout de Barneville.


Assuntos
Besouros , Distribuição Animal , Animais
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