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1.
Molecules ; 29(7)2024 Mar 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38611736

RESUMO

Thuja occidentalis L. essential oil (EOTO) and its compounds, such as terpinyl acetate, bornyl acetate, and ß-thujone, are claimed to be highly effective against some storage pests, sanitary insects, or pests of fruit trees, while data about its use in protecting field crops are very scarce. There is also a lack of information in the literature about the insecticidal value of water extracts from T. occidentalis (WETOs). Both essential oils (EOs) and water extracts (WEs) from various plants have advantages and disadvantages in terms of their use as insecticides. EOs are generally more effective, but their preparation is more complicated and quite expensive. In turn, WEs are simple to prepare and cheap, but they often have limited effectiveness. Moreover, significant differences in responses exist depending on the species of the donor plant, the method of preparing the extract, its concentration, the species of the pest being controlled, the developmental stage, and even the gender of the pest. The goals of the research were to assess the effect of EOTO and WETOs prepared from dry and fresh matter on the mortality, feeding, and body mass changes of important crop pests, i.e., the black bean aphid, pea leaf weevil, and Colorado potato beetle (CPB), respectively, as well as on the mortality and voracity of non-target organism Asian lady beetle young larvae. EOTO showed significant aphicidal activity with LC50 = 0.8267% and 0.2453% after 42 h of the experiment for nymphs and wingless females of black bean aphid, respectively. Adults of CPB were more resistant to EOTO than aphids, with LC50 values for females equal to 1.5327% and 1.3113% after 48 h and after 72 h of the experiment. There was no significant effect of EOTO on CPB foraging. Calculated LC50 values for pea leaf weevil adults were lower than those for CPB (0.9638% and 0.8573% for males after 12 h and 24 h, respectively). In the case of this pest, a clear reduction in foraging was obtained, with higher concentrations of EOTO resulting in more pronounced reductions in foraging behavior. Concentrations of EOTO above 0.5%, which showed efficacy against the aphid, were lethal to 3-day-old larvae of the Asian lady beetle. WETOs, in turn, showed significant potential in inhibiting adult pea leaf weevil feeding, with very low or no effectiveness in reducing A. fabae and CPB, respectively.


Assuntos
Afídeos , Besouros , Inseticidas , Óleos Voláteis , Thuja , Gorgulhos , Humanos , Adulto , Feminino , Masculino , Animais , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Inseticidas/farmacologia
2.
Arch Insect Biochem Physiol ; 115(4): e22108, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38572532

RESUMO

In this study, we employed high-throughput sequencing technology to determine the complete mitochondrial genomes of six ground beetles, encompassing five Harpalinae species and one Carabinae species. The sizes of mitochondrial genomes ranged from 15,334 to 16,972 bp, encompassing 37 genes, including 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, and 2 ribosomal RNA genes. Furthermore, each species was found to possess a putative control region. Combining with 65 published mitochondrial genome sequences of Carabidae as ingroups and four species from Trachypachidae, Gyrinidae and Dytiscidae as outgroups, we conducted phylogenetic analyses utilizing Maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference methods. Moreover, we reconstructed a species tree of Carabidae based on mitochondrial genome data using the coalescent-based species tree method (ASTRAL). The results revealed that the family Carabidae was not a monophyletic group. The subfamily Harpalinae was supported to be a monophyletic group in Maximum likelihood analysis. Although the subfamily Carabinae was found to be nonmonophyletic in the concatenation analyses under both Maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference criteria, it was identified as a monophyletic group in the species tree analysis.


Assuntos
Besouros , Genoma Mitocondrial , Animais , Filogenia , Besouros/genética , Teorema de Bayes
3.
Radiol Cardiothorac Imaging ; 6(2): e230073, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38573127

RESUMO

Purpose This special report outlines a retrospective observational study of CT fractional flow reserve (CT-FFR) analysis using dual-source coronary CT angiography (CTA) scans performed without heart rate control and its impact on clinical outcomes. Materials and Methods All patients who underwent clinically indicated coronary CTA between August 2020 and August 2021 were included in this retrospective observational study. Scans were performed in the late systolic to early diastolic period without heart rate control and analyzed at the interpreting physician's discretion. Demographics, coronary CTA features, and rates of invasive coronary angiography (ICA), percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), myocardial infarction, and all-cause death at 3 months were assessed by chart review. Results During the study period, 3098 patients underwent coronary CTA, of whom 113 with coronary bypass grafting were excluded. Of the remaining 2985 patients, 292 (9.7%) were referred for CT-FFR analysis. Two studies (0.7%) were rejected from CT-FFR analysis, and six (2.1%) analyses did not evaluate the lesion of concern. A total of 160 patients (56.3%) had CT-FFR greater than 0.80. Among patients with significant stenosis at coronary CTA, patients who underwent CT-FFR analysis presented with lower rates of ICA (74.5% vs 25.5%, P = .04) and PCI (78.9% vs 21.1%, P = .05). Conclusion CT-FFR was implemented in patients not requiring heart rate control by using dual-source coronary CTA acquisition and showed the potential to decrease rates of ICA and PCI without compromising safety in patients with significant stenosis and an average heart rate of 65 beats per minute. Keywords: Angiography, CT, CT-Angiography, Fractional Flow Reserve, Cardiac, Heart, Arteriosclerosis Supplemental material is available for this article. © RSNA, 2024.


Assuntos
Besouros , Reserva Fracionada de Fluxo Miocárdico , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Humanos , Animais , Constrição Patológica , Centros Médicos Acadêmicos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
4.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0298865, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38568873

RESUMO

Haiku are short poems, each composed of about 10 words, that typically describe moments in nature. People have written haiku since at least the 17th century, and the medium continues to be popular with poets, amateurs, educators, and students. Collectively, these poems represent an opportunity to understand which aspects of nature-e.g., which taxa and biological traits-resonate with humans and whether there are temporal trends in their representation or the emotions associated with these moments. We tested this potential using a mix of linguistic and biological methods, in analyses of nearly 4,000 haiku that reference arthropods. We documented the taxa and the life history traits represented in these poems and how they changed over time. We also analyzed the poems for emotion and tone. Our results reveal a mix of predictable trends and compelling surprises, each of which stand to potentially inform engagement strategies. At least 99 families of arthropods, in 28 orders, are represented in these haiku. The eight most commonly referenced taxa, from highest to lowest number of references, include: Lepidoptera, Hymenoptera, Diptera, Coleoptera, Araneae, Orthoptera, Hemiptera, and Odonata. Several common, conspicuous orders were never referenced, including Trichoptera, Plecoptera, and Megaloptera. The most commonly referenced traits relate to ecology (especially habitat, phenology, time of day), behavior (especially sound production), phenotype (especially color), and locomotion (especially flight). The least common traits in haiku relate to arthropod reproduction and physiology. Our analyses revealed few obvious temporal trends in the representations of taxa, biological traits, or emotion and tone. The broader implications of these results and possible future directions are discussed.


Assuntos
Artrópodes , Besouros , Ortópteros , Aranhas , Animais , Humanos , Insetos
5.
Cryo Letters ; 45(2): 106-113, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38557989

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cold hardiness of insects from extremely cold regions is based on a principle of natural cryoprotection, which is associated with physiological mechanisms provided by cryoprotectants. OBJECTIVE: Since arctic cold-hardy insects are producers of highly effective cryoprotectants, in this study, the hemolymph of Aporia crataegi L. and Upis ceramboides L. from an extremely cold area (Yakutia) was tested as a secondary component of cryoprotective agents (CPA) for cryopreservation (-80 degree C) of human peripheral blood lymphocytes and skin fibroblasts. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Lymphocytes and skin fibroblasts were treated with various combinations of DMSO and hemolymph extract and step-wise cooled to -80 degree C. Post-cryopreservation cell viability was assessed by vital staining and morphological appearance. RESULTS: Viability was higher when cells were frozen with a mixture containing DMSO and Upis ceramboides hemolymph compared to the cells frozen in DMSO, while cells frozen with DMSO and Aporia crataegi hemolymph did not survive. The fact that hemolymph of not every cold-resistant insect can be used as a secondary agent along with DMSO indicates that only a unique combination of hemolymph components and its compatibility with cells might result in a positive effect. CONCLUSION: Although the use of insect hemolymph as a complementary agent in applied cryopreservation is a problem in terms of practical application, such studies could initiate new trends in the search for the most successful hemolymph-like cryoprotectant systems. https://doi.org/10.54680/fr24210110712.


Assuntos
Borboletas , Besouros , Animais , Humanos , Criopreservação , Dimetil Sulfóxido/farmacologia , Hemolinfa/fisiologia , Crioprotetores/farmacologia , Sobrevivência Celular
6.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 200: 105829, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38582575

RESUMO

Cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus, is the primary pest of stored cowpea seeds. The management of this infestation currently relies on insecticides, resulting in environmental pollution and selection of insecticide-resistant pests. Consequently, research efforts are being devoted to identify natural insecticides as sustainable and environment friendly alternatives for the control of C. maculatus. In this study, we explore the toxic effects of the nonhost seeds Parkia multijuga, Copaifera langsdorffii, Ormosia arborea, Amburana cearensis, Lonchocarpus guilleminianus, Sapindus saponaria, and Myroxylon peruiferum, on the cowpea weevil C. maculatus. Notably, all nonhost seeds led to reductions between 60 and 100% in oviposition by C. maculatus females. Additionally, the larvae were unable to penetrate the nonhost seeds. Artificial seeds containing 0.05% to 10% of cotyledon flour were toxic to C. maculatus larvae. Approximately 40% of larvae that consumed seeds containing 0.05% of O. arborea failed to develop, in contrast to control larvae. Proteomic analysis of A. cearensis and O. arborea seeds identify revealed a total of 371 proteins. From those, 237 are present in both seeds, 91 were exclusive to O. arborea seeds, and 43 were specific to A. cearensis seeds. Some of these proteins are related to defense, such as proteins containing the cupin domain and 11S seed storage protein. The in silico docking of cupin domain-containing proteins and 11S storage protein with N-acetylglucosamine (NAG)4 showed negative values of affinity energy, indicating spontaneous binding. These results showed that nonhost seeds have natural insecticide compounds with potential to control C. maculatus infestation.


Assuntos
Besouros , Inseticidas , Vigna , Gorgulhos , Animais , Feminino , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Proteômica , Larva , Sementes/química
7.
J Morphol ; 285(4): e21693, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38602442

RESUMO

In insect taxa with homogeneous external morphology, genital structures often emerge as essential traits for interspecific differentiation. In the tribe Ptomaphagini (Coleoptera, Leiodidae, Cholevinae), precise identification often depends on analyzing the male genital morphology, even at the genus level. Here, we present a new character for diagnosing the genera Paulipalpina Gnaspini & Peck, 1996 and Parapaulipalpina Gnaspini, 1996. This feature, which we dub 'paralobe', is a projection arising from the internal surface of the right lobe of the aedeagal apex. Based on its absence in other beetles, including other Ptomaphagini, we recognize it as a putative synapomorphy for those genera. The recognition of this previously overlooked structure adds important information for understanding the sequence of changes that occurred in the male genitalia among the genera of Ptomaphagini.


Assuntos
Besouros , Masculino , Animais , Fenótipo
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38602465

RESUMO

With the widespread use of antibiotics, the incidence of antibiotic resistance in microorganisms has increased. Monochamus alternatus is a trunk borer of pine trees. This study aimed to investigate the in vitro antimicrobial and biological characteristics of Enterococcus casseliflavus TN-47 (PP411196), isolated from the gastrointestinal tract of M. alternatus in Jilin Province, PR China. Among 13 isolates obtained from the insects, five were preliminarily screened for antimicrobial activity. E. casseliflavus TN-47, which exhibited the strongest antimicrobial activity, was identified. E. casseliflavus TN-47 possessed antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus USA300 and Salmonella enterica serovar Pullorum ATCC 19945. Furthermore, E. casseliflavus TN-47 was sensitive to tetracyclines, penicillins (ampicillin, carbenicillin, and piperacillin), quinolones and nitrofuran antibiotics, and resistant to certain beta-lactam antibiotics (oxacillin, cefradine and cephalexin), macrolide antibiotics, sulfonamides and aminoglycosides. E. casseliflavus TN-47 could tolerate low pH and pepsin-rich conditions in the stomach and grow in the presence of bile acids. E. casseliflavus TN-47 retained its strong auto-aggregating ability and hydrophobicity. This strain did not exhibit any haemolytic activity. These results indicate that E. casseliflavus TN-47 has potential as a probiotic. This study provides a theoretical foundation for the future applications of E. casseliflavus TN-47 and its secondary metabolites in animal nutrition and feed.


Assuntos
Besouros , Enterococcus , Ácidos Graxos , Animais , Filogenia , Análise de Sequência de DNA , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , Ácidos Graxos/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Oxacilina
9.
Acta Vet Hung ; 72(1): 24-32, 2024 Apr 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38578702

RESUMO

Feeding costs of farmed insects may be reduced by applying alternative nitrogen sources such as urea that can partly substitute true proteins. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of different nitrogen sources on body weight (BW) and survival rate (SR) of the Jamaican field cricket (JFC, Gryllus assimilis), the house cricket (HC, Acheta domesticus), yellow mealworm larvae (YM, Tenebrio molitor) and superworm larvae (SW, Zophobas morio). Crickets were either housed individually or in groups, and larvae were group-housed. Six isonitrogenous feeds composed of 3.52% nitrogen were designed for all four insect species using four independent replicates with micellar casein: urea proportions of 100-0%, 75-25%, 50-50%, 25-75%, 0-100% and 100% extracted soybean meal. All selected insect species were able to utilise urea. However, urea as the only nitrogen source resulted in low final BW. In the HC, the JFC, and the YM on nitrogen basis urea can replace 25% of micellar casein without having any negative effects on BW and SR in comparison to the 100% micellar casein group. In the SW, a 25% urea level did not have a significant effect on final BW, but SR decreased significantly.


Assuntos
Besouros , Gryllidae , Tenebrio , Animais , Caseínas/metabolismo , Insetos , Larva/metabolismo , Tenebrio/metabolismo , Peso Corporal , Nitrogênio , Suplementos Nutricionais
10.
New Phytol ; 242(3): 1000-1017, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38433329

RESUMO

Drought affects the complex interactions between Norway spruce, the bark beetle Ips typographus and associated microorganisms. We investigated the interplay of tree water status, defense and carbohydrate reserves with the incidence of bark beetle attack and infection of associated fungi in mature spruce trees. We installed roofs to induce a 2-yr moderate drought in a managed spruce stand to examine a maximum of 10 roof and 10 control trees for resin flow (RF), predawn twig water potentials, terpene, phenolic and carbohydrate bark concentrations, and bark beetle borings in field bioassays before and after inoculation with Endoconidiophora polonica and Grosmannia penicillata. Drought-stressed trees showed more attacks and significantly longer fungal lesions than controls, but maintained terpene resin defenses at predrought levels. Reduced RF and lower mono- and diterpene, but not phenolic concentrations were linked with increased host selection. Bark beetle attack and fungi stimulated chemical defenses, yet G. penicillata reduced phenolic and carbohydrate contents. Chemical defenses did not decrease under mild, prolonged drought in our simulated small-scale biotic infestations. However, during natural mass attacks, reductions in carbon fixation under drought, in combination with fungal consumption of carbohydrates, may deplete tree defenses and facilitate colonization by I. typographus.


Assuntos
Besouros , Picea , Gorgulhos , Animais , Secas , Picea/microbiologia , Casca de Planta/química , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Terpenos , Fenóis , Noruega , Água/análise , Carboidratos/análise
11.
J Insect Sci ; 24(2)2024 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38491952

RESUMO

Modified atmosphere is effective in controlling Tribolium castaneum Herbst, but it has adaptations. Comprehending the potential mechanism of resistance to T. castaneum in a modified atmosphere will help advance related management methods. This study conducted a comparative transcriptomic and metabolomic analysis to understand the physiological mechanism of T. castaneum in adapting to CO2 stress. Results showed that there were a large number of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in T. castaneum treated with different concentrations of CO2. Gene ontology (GO) analysis revealed significant enrichment of DEGs mainly in binding, catalytic activity, cell, membrane, membrane part, protein-containing complex, biological regulation, and cellular and metabolic process. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes analysis showed that different treatments had different effects on the metabolic pathways of T. castaneum. DEGs induced by 25% CO2 were involved in arginine and proline metabolism, and 50% air + 50% CO2 treatment affected most kinds of metabolic pathways, mainly the signal transduction pathway, including PI3K-Akt signaling pathway, AMPK signaling pathway, neurotrophin signaling pathway, insulin signaling pathway, and thyroid hormone signaling. Ribosome and DNA replication were enriched under high CO2 stress (75% and 95%). The metabolomics revealed that different concentrations of CO2 treatments might inhibit the growth of T. castaneum through acidosis, or they may adapt to anoxic conditions through histamine and N-acetylhistamine. Multiple analyses have shown significant changes in histamine and N-acetylhistamine levels, as well as their associated genes, with increasing CO2 concentration. In conclusion, this study comprehensively revealed the molecular mechanism of T. castaneum responding to CO2 stress and provided the basis for an effectively modified atmosphere in the T. castaneum.


Assuntos
Besouros , Histamina/análogos & derivados , Tribolium , Animais , Besouros/genética , Tribolium/genética , Histamina/farmacologia , Dióxido de Carbono/farmacologia , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/genética , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/farmacologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica
12.
HIV Res Clin Pract ; 25(1): 2330751, 2024 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38501973

RESUMO

HIV community peer navigators and treatment officers are important sources of information and guidance for people living with HIV. We conducted an anonymous online survey with members of the treatment outreach network of the Australian National Association of People Living with HIV. The survey explored understandings and acceptance of HIV cure research and was disseminated before and following an interactive workshop on HIV cure. We demonstrated an improvement in understandings of HIV cure science and increased willingness to participate in interventional clinical trials after the workshop. Concerns around interrupting HIV treatment and detrimental impacts on health were identified as barriers to participation. Altruism was a motivator to enrol in HIV cure trials, along with endorsement from a trusted member of community.


Assuntos
Besouros , Infecções por HIV , Humanos , Animais , Austrália , Altruísmo , Grupo Associado , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico
13.
PLoS Genet ; 20(3): e1011165, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38442113

RESUMO

Phenotypic plasticity is thought to be an important driver of diversification and adaptation to environmental variation, yet the genomic mechanisms mediating plastic trait development and evolution remain poorly understood. The Scarabaeinae, or true dung beetles, are a species-rich clade of insects recognized for their highly diversified nutrition-responsive development including that of cephalic horns-evolutionarily novel, secondary sexual weapons that exhibit remarkable intra- and interspecific variation. Here, we investigate the evolutionary basis for horns as well as other key dung beetle traits via comparative genomic and developmental assays. We begin by presenting chromosome-level genome assemblies of three dung beetle species in the tribe Onthophagini (> 2500 extant species) including Onthophagus taurus, O. sagittarius, and Digitonthophagus gazella. Comparing these assemblies to those of seven other species across the order Coleoptera identifies evolutionary changes in coding sequence associated with metabolic regulation of plasticity and metamorphosis. We then contrast chromatin accessibility in developing head horn tissues of high- and low-nutrition O. taurus males and females and identify distinct cis-regulatory architectures underlying nutrition- compared to sex-responsive development, including a large proportion of recently evolved regulatory elements sensitive to horn morph determination. Binding motifs of known and new candidate transcription factors are enriched in these nutrition-responsive open chromatin regions. Our work highlights the importance of chromatin state regulation in mediating the development and evolution of plastic traits, demonstrates gene networks are highly evolvable transducers of environmental and genetic signals, and provides new reference-quality genomes for three species that will bolster future developmental, ecological, and evolutionary studies of this insect group.


Assuntos
Besouros , Animais , Masculino , Feminino , Besouros/genética , Fenótipo , Evolução Molecular , Cromatina , Evolução Biológica
14.
PLoS One ; 19(3): e0298330, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38530852

RESUMO

The bright colors of Alpine leaf beetles (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae) are thought to act as aposematic signals against predation. Within the European Alps, at least six species display a basal color of either blue or green, likely configuring a classic case of müllerian mimicry. In this context, intra-population color polymorphism is paradoxical as the existence of numerous color morphs might hamper the establishment of a search image in visual predators. Assortative mating may be one of the main factors contributing to the maintenance of polymorphic populations. Due to the marked iridescence of these leaf beetles, the perceived color may change as the viewing or illumination angle changes. The present study, conducted over three years, involved intensive sampling of a population of Oreina gloriosa from the Italian Alps and applied colorimetry and a decision tree method to identify the color morphs in an objective manner. The tertiary sex ratio of the population was biased in favor of males, suggesting that viviparous females hide to give birth. Seven color morphs were identified, and their frequencies varied significantly over the course of the study. Three different analyses of mating (JMating, QInfomating, and Montecarlo simulations) recognized a general trend for random mating which coexists with some instances of positive and negative assortative mating. This could help explain the pre-eminence of one morph (which would be favored because of positive selection due to positive assortative mating) in parallel with the persistence of six other morphs (maintained due to negative assortative mating).


Assuntos
Besouros , Animais , Masculino , Feminino , Polimorfismo Genético , Reprodução , Comportamento Predatório , Cor
15.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 14: 1362961, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38465234

RESUMO

Pine wood nematode disease is currently the most deadly forest disease in China, and the Monochamus alternatus is its primary vector. Controlling the M. alternatus is crucial for managing pine wood nematode disease. This study, based on the selected HasA (pGHKW4) secretory expression vector, used electroporation to combine the genetically modified high-toxicity toxin Cry3Aa-T with the entomopathogenic bacterium Yersinia entomophaga isolated from the gut of the M. alternatus. The SDS-PAGE and Western blotting techniques were employed to confirm the toxin protein's secretion capability. The engineered bacteria's genetic stability and effectiveness in controlling M. alternatus were assessed for their insecticidal activity. The results of the SDS-PAGE and Western blotting analyses indicate that the HasA system effectively expresses toxin protein secretion, demonstrates certain genetic stability, and exhibits high insecticidal activity against M. alternatus. This study constructed a highly toxic entomopathogenic engineered bacterial strain against M. alternatus larvae, which holds significant implications for controlling M. alternatus, laying the foundation for subsequent research and application of this strain.


Assuntos
Besouros , Inseticidas , Animais , Besouros/genética , Larva , Bactérias , Transporte Biológico
16.
PLoS One ; 19(3): e0299483, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38457466

RESUMO

In Nebraska USA, many populations of western corn rootworm (WCR), Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, now exhibit some level of resistance to all corn rootworm-active Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner (Bt) proteins expressed in commercial hybrids. Therefore, a study was conducted in northeast Nebraska from 2020-2022 to reevaluate current corn rootworm management options in continuous maize (consecutive planting for ≥2 years). Results from on-farm experiments to evaluate a standard soil-applied insecticide (Aztec® 4.67G) in combination with non-rootworm Bt or rootworm-active Bt pyramided maize (Cry3Bb1 + Gpp34Ab1/Tpp35Ab1) are reported within the context of WCR Bt resistance levels present. Corrected survival from Bt pyramid single-plant bioassays (<0.3, 0.3-0.49, >0.5) was used to place populations into 3 resistance categories. Variables evaluated included root injury, adult emergence, proportion lodged maize, and grain yield. Key results: A composite analysis of all populations across resistance levels indicated that addition of soil insecticide to Bt pyramid significantly reduced adult emergence and lodging but did not significantly increase root protection or yield. Within and among resistance category analyses of root injury revealed that the Bt pyramid remained highly efficacious at any non-rootworm Bt root injury level when resistance was absent or low. When corrected survival was >0.3, mean Bt pyramid root injury tracked more closely in a positive linear fashion with mean non-rootworm Bt root injury (rootworm density x level of resistance interaction). Similar trends were obtained for adult emergence but not yield. Mean Bt pyramid root injury rating was <0.75 in most populations with Bt resistance, which contributed to no significant yield differences among categories. Results are discussed within the context of IPM:IRM tradeoffs and the need to reduce WCR densities in this system to decrease the impact of the density x resistance interaction to bridge use of current pyramids with new technologies introduced over the next decade.


Assuntos
Bacillus thuringiensis , Besouros , Inseticidas , Animais , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Inseticidas/metabolismo , Besouros/genética , Zea mays/genética , Zea mays/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/metabolismo , Resistência a Inseticidas , Endotoxinas/metabolismo , Bacillus thuringiensis/genética , Controle Biológico de Vetores , Solo , Larva/metabolismo
17.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 199: 105797, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38458690

RESUMO

Antennae and legs (primarily the tarsal segments) of insects are the foremost sensory organs that contact a diverse range of toxic chemicals including insecticides. Binding proteins expressed in the two tissues are potential molecular candidates serving as the binding and sequestering of insecticides, like chemosensory proteins (CSPs). Insect CSPs endowed with multiple roles have been suggested to participate in insecticide resistance, focusing mainly on moths, aphids and mosquitos. Yet, the molecular underpinnings underlying the interactions of cerambycid CSPs and insecticides remain unexplored. Here, we present binding properties of three antenna- and tarsus-enriched RhorCSPs (RhorCSP1, CSP2 and CSP3) in Rhaphuma horsfieldi to eight insecticide classes totaling 15 chemicals. From the transcriptome of this beetle, totally 16 CSP-coding genes were found, with seven full-length sequences. In phylogeny, these RhorCSPs were distributed dispersedly in different clades. Expression profiles revealed the abundant expression of RhorCSP1, CSP2 and CSP3 in antennae and tarsi, thus as representatives for studying the protein-insecticide interactions. Binding assays showed that the three RhorCSPs were tuned differentially to insecticides but exhibited the highest affinities with hexaflumuron, chlorpyrifos and rotenone (dissociation constants <13 µM). In particular, RhorCSP3 could interact strongly with 10 of tested insecticides, of which four residues (Tyr25, Phe42, Val65 and Phe68) contributed significantly to the binding of six, four, three and four ligands, respectively. Of these, the binding of four mutated RhorCSP3s to a botanical insecticide rotenone was significantly weakened compared to the wildtype protein. Furthermore, we also evidenced that RhorCSP3 was a broadly-tuned carrier protein in response to a wide variety of plant odorants outside insecticides. Altogether, our findings shed light on different binding mechanisms and odorant-tuning profiles of three RhorCSPs in R. horsfieldi and identify key residues of the RhorCSP3-insecticide interactions.


Assuntos
Besouros , Inseticidas , Animais , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Inseticidas/metabolismo , Tornozelo , Rotenona , Besouros/genética , Besouros/metabolismo , Insetos/genética , Transcriptoma , Filogenia , Proteínas de Insetos/metabolismo , Antenas de Artrópodes/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica
18.
PeerJ ; 12: e16627, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38500531

RESUMO

Background: Dung beetles provide many important ecosystem services, including dung decomposition, pathogen control, soil aeration, and secondary seed dispersal. Yet, the biology of most dung beetles remains unknown. Natural diets are poorly studied, partly because previous research has focused on choice or attraction experiments using few, easily accessible dung types from zoo animals, farm animals, or humans. This way, many links within natural food webs have certainly been missed. In this work, we aimed to establish a protocol to analyze the natural diets of dung beetles using DNA gut barcoding. Methods: First, the feasibility of gut-content DNA extraction and amplification of 12s rDNA from six different mammal dung types was tested in the laboratory. We then applied the method to beetles caught in pitfall traps in Ecuador and Germany by using 12s rDNA primers. For a subset of the dung beetles caught in the Ecuador sampling, we also used 16s rDNA primers to see if these would improve the number of species we could identify. We predicted the likelihood of amplifying DNA using gut fullness, DNA concentration, PCR primer, collection method, and beetle species as predictor variables in a dominance analysis. Based on the gut barcodes, we generated a dung beetle-mammal network for both field sites (Ecuador and Germany) and analyzed the levels of network specificity. Results: We successfully amplified mammal DNA from dung beetle gut contents for 128 specimens, which included such prominent species as Panthera onca (jaguar) and Puma concolor (puma). The overall success rate of DNA amplification was 53%. The best predictors for amplification success were gut fullness and DNA concentration, suggesting the success rate can be increased by focusing on beetles with a full gut. The mammal dung-dung beetle networks differed from purely random network models and showed a moderate degree of network specialization (H2': Ecuador = 0.49; Germany = 0.41). Conclusion: We here present a reliable method of extracting and amplifying gut-content DNA from dung beetles. Identifying mammal dung via DNA reference libraries, we created mammal dung-dung beetle trophic networks. This has benefits over previous methods because we inventoried the natural mammal dung resources of dung beetles instead of using artificial mammal baits. Our results revealed higher levels of specialization than expected and more rodent DNA than expected in Germany, suggesting that the presented method provides more detailed insights into mammal dung-dung beetle networks. In addition, the method could have applications for mammal monitoring in many ecosystems.


Assuntos
Besouros , Ecossistema , Animais , Besouros/genética , DNA Ribossômico , Fezes , Mamíferos
19.
Genome Biol Evol ; 16(3)2024 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38513111

RESUMO

Spermatogenesis is critical to sexual reproduction yet evolves rapidly in many organisms. High-throughput single-cell transcriptomics promises unparalleled insight into this important process but understanding can be impeded in nonmodel systems by a lack of known genes that can reliably demarcate biologically meaningful cell populations. Tribolium castaneum, the red flour beetle, lacks known markers for spermatogenesis found in insect species like Drosophila melanogaster. Using single-cell sequencing data collected from adult beetle testes, we implement a strategy for elucidating biologically meaningful cell populations by using transient expression stage identification markers, weighted principal component clustering, and SNP-based haploid/diploid phasing. We identify populations that correspond to observable points in sperm differentiation and find species specific markers for each stage. Our results indicate that molecular pathways underlying spermatogenesis in Coleoptera are substantially diverged from those in Diptera. We also show that most genes on the X chromosome experience meiotic sex chromosome inactivation. Temporal expression of Drosophila MSL complex homologs coupled with spatial analysis of potential chromatin entry sites further suggests that the dosage compensation machinery may mediate escape from meiotic sex chromosome inactivation and postmeiotic reactivation of the X chromosome.


Assuntos
Besouros , Tribolium , Animais , Masculino , Tribolium/genética , Drosophila melanogaster/genética , Análise da Expressão Gênica de Célula Única , Sêmen , Cromossomos Sexuais , Espermatogênese/genética , Drosophila/genética , Besouros/genética
20.
NPJ Biofilms Microbiomes ; 10(1): 34, 2024 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38555351

RESUMO

Coconut rhinoceros beetle (CRB, Oryctes rhinoceros) is an invasive palm pest whose larvae eat wood, yet lack the necessary digestive enzymes. This study confirmed endogenous CRB cellulase is inactive, suggesting microbial fermentation. The inner lining of the CRB hindgut has tree-like structures covered with a conspicuous biofilm. To identify possible symbionts, 16 S rRNA amplicon sequencing was used on individuals from across Taiwan. Several taxa of Clostridia, an anaerobic class including many cellulolytic bacteria, were highly abundant in most individuals from all locations. Whole metagenome sequencing further confirmed many lignocellulose degrading enzymes are derived from these taxa. Analyses of eggs, larvae, adults, and soil found these cellulolytic microbes are not transmitted vertically or transstadially. The core microbiomes of the larval CRB are likely acquired and enriched from the environment with each molt, and enable efficient digestion of wood.


Assuntos
Besouros , Simbiose , Animais , Besouros/genética , Besouros/microbiologia , Larva/genética , Larva/microbiologia , Parede Celular
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