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1.
Can J Vet Res ; 88(2): 33-37, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38595948

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to compare the hematology profiles of Korean indigenous cattle (Hanwoo) raised in a barn (housed) or on pasture (grazing). Our findings showed significant differences in the red blood cell (RBC) profiles of these 2 groups. When compared to cattle raised in a barn, a significant decrease in hematocrit (P = 0.000), hemoglobin (P = 0.000), and red blood cells (RBCs) (P = 0.000) and a significant increase in mean cell volume (P = 0.015) and reticulocytes (P = 0.000) were observed in grazing cattle, which indicate regenerative anemia. Furthermore, indirect bilirubin was significantly higher in grazing cattle, which indicates intravascular hemolysis and neutropenia (P = 0.000), and monocytosis (P = 0.000) was also identified. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study that demonstrates changes in reticulocyte count and indirect bilirubin levels secondary to regenerative intravascular hemolysis in grazing cattle.


L'objectif de cette étude était de comparer les profils hématologiques de bovins coréens indigènes (Hanwoo) gardés dans une étable ou au pâturage. Nos résultats ont montré des différences significatives dans les profils des globules rouges de ces 2 groupes. Lorsque comparé aux bovins gardés dans l'étable, une réduction significative de l'hématocrite (P = 0,000), de l'hémoglobine (P = 0,000), et des globules rouges (P = 0,000) et une augmentation significative du volume cellulaire moyen (P = 0,015) et des réticulocytes (P = 0,000) ont été observées chez les bovins au pâturage, ce qui indique une anémie régénératrice. Également, la bilirubine indirecte était significativement plus élevée chez les bovins au pâturage, indicatif d'une hémolyse intravasculaire, et une neutropénie (P = 0,000) et une monocytose (P = 0,000) furent également identifiées. Au meilleur de nos connaissances, ceci est la première étude qui démontre des changements dans le dénombrement des réticulocytes et les niveaux de bilirubine indirecte secondaires à une hémolyse intravasculaire régénérative chez des bovins au pâturage.(Traduit par Docteur Serge Messier).


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos , Hemólise , Bovinos , Animais , Eritrócitos , Hemoglobinas/análise , Bilirrubina , República da Coreia
2.
World J Gastroenterol ; 30(10): 1420-1430, 2024 Mar 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38596496

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Various animal models have been used to explore the pathogenesis of choledochal cysts (CCs), but with little convincing results. Current surgical techniques can achieve satisfactory outcomes for treatment of CCs. Consequently, recent studies have focused more on clinical issues rather than basic research. Therefore, we need appropriate animal models to further basic research. AIM: To establish an appropriate animal model that may contribute to the investigation of the pathogenesis of CCs. METHODS: Eighty-four specific pathogen-free female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly allocated to a surgical group, sham surgical group, or control group. A rat model of CC was established by partial ligation of the bile duct. The reliability of the model was confirmed by measurements of serum biochemical indices, morphology of common bile ducts of the rats as well as molecular biology experiments in rat and human tissues. RESULTS: Dilation classified as mild (diameter, ≥ 1 mm to < 3 mm), moderate (≥ 3 mm to < 10 mm), and severe (≥ 10 mm) was observed in 17, 17, and 2 rats in the surgical group, respectively, while no dilation was observed in the control and sham surgical groups. Serum levels of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, total bilirubin, direct bilirubin, and total bile acids were significantly elevated in the surgical group as compared to the control group 7 d after surgery, while direct bilirubin, total bilirubin, and gamma-glutamyltransferase were further increased 14 d after surgery. Most of the biochemical indices gradually decreased to normal ranges 28 d after surgery. The protein expression trend of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 in rat model was consistent with the human CC tissues. CONCLUSION: The model of partial ligation of the bile duct of juvenile rats could morphologically simulate the cystic or fusiform CC, which may contribute to investigating the pathogenesis of CC.


Assuntos
Cisto do Colédoco , Humanos , Feminino , Ratos , Animais , Cisto do Colédoco/cirurgia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Modelos Animais , Dilatação Patológica , Bilirrubina , Modelos Animais de Doenças
3.
Andes Pediatr ; 95(1): 34-40, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38587342

RESUMO

Clinical control and monitoring of bilirubin in the neonatal stage are essential to avoid toxicity in the central nervous system. OBJECTIVE: to determine the correlation between transcutaneous bilirubin (TcB) and total serum bilirubin (TSB) levels in newborns ≥ 35 weeks. PATIENTS AND METHOD: observational, cross-sectional, analytical, retrospective study that included 90 neonates of gestational age ≥ 35 weeks with mucocutaneous jaundice who underwent TcB and TSB measurement simultaneously between June 1, 2022, and January 31, 2023. Both variables were compared, determining their correlation. RESULTS: the validity indicators were analyzed, obtaining 100% sensitivity and negative predictive value. The mean of TcB determinations was 14.84 mg/dl ± 2.27 and that of TSB was 13.1 mg/dl ± 2.39. The correlation obtained indicates that both variables are related, which is a direct correlation and, according to the prediction equation, there is an appropriate correlation between them. It was determined that TcB overestimated TSB in 95.56% of the determinations, and underestimated TSB in the rest (4.44%). Simultaneous measurements of TcB and TSB were different in all determinations with a mean difference of 1.72 ± 1.48. CONCLUSIONS: the non-invasive TcB method can be used as an initial screening tool for the neonatal population ≥ 35 weeks, given its adequate sensitivity and negative predictive value.


Assuntos
Bilirrubina , Triagem Neonatal , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Estudos Transversais , Idade Gestacional , Triagem Neonatal/métodos , Estudos Retrospectivos
4.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 24(1): 245, 2024 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38582906

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: To investigate the impact of intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP) with hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection on pregnancy outcomes. METHODS: We selected 512 pregnant women, collected the data including maternal demographics, main adverse pregnancy outcomes and maternal HBV infected markers HBeAg and HBV-DNA loads status, then have a comparative analysis. RESULTS: There were 319 solitary ICP patients without HBV infection (Group I) and 193 ICP patients with HBV infection. Of the latter, there were 118 cases with abnormal liver function(Group II) and 80 cases with normal liver function(Group III). All HBV-infected pregnant women with ICP were divided into hepatitis Be antigen (HBeAg)-positive group (102 cases) and HBeAg-negative group (91 cases), according to the level of the serum HBeAg status; and into high viral load group (92 cases), moderate viral load group (46 cases) and low viral load group (55 cases) according to the maternal HBV-DNA level. Group II had a higher level of serum total bile acids, transaminase, bilirubin as well as a higher percentage of premature delivery, neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) admission and meconium-stained amniotic fluid (MSAF) compared with the other two groups(P < 0.05), but there were no significant differences in the above indicators between the Group I and Group III. Among the HBV-infected patients with ICP, HBeAg-positive group had a higher level of serum transaminase, bilirubin and bile acid as well as earlier gestational weeks of delivery, lower birth weight of new-borns and a higher rate of NICU admission than HBeAg-negative group (P < 0.05). Those with a high viral load (HBV-DNA > 106 IU/ml) had a higher level of transaminase, bilirubin, and bile acid as well as shorter gestational weeks of delivery, lower birth weight of new-borns and a higher rate of NICU admission compared with those with a low or moderate viral load (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: HBV-infected pregnant women with ICP combined with abnormal liver function have more severe liver damage, a higher percentage of preterm birth and NICU admission. HBeAg-positive status and a high HBV-DNA load will increase the severity of conditions in HBV-infected pregnant women with ICP. HBV-infected patients with ICP who have abnormal liver function, HBeAg-positive or a high viral load should be treated more actively.


Assuntos
Colestase Intra-Hepática , Hepatite B , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro , Gravidez , Feminino , Recém-Nascido , Humanos , Vírus da Hepatite B , Estudos Retrospectivos , Antígenos E da Hepatite B , Peso ao Nascer , DNA Viral , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Hepatite B/complicações , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia , Transaminases , Ácidos e Sais Biliares , Bilirrubina
5.
Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing Za Zhi ; 32(3): 214-221, 2024 Mar 20.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38584102

RESUMO

Objective: To explore the drugs and clinical characteristics causing drug-induced liver injury (DILI) in recent years, as well as identify drug-induced liver failure, and chronic DILI risk factors, in order to better manage them timely. Methods: A retrospective investigation and analysis was conducted on 224 cases diagnosed with DILI and followed up for at least six months between January 2018 and December 2020. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to identify risk factors for drug-induced liver failure and chronic DILI. Results: Traditional Chinese medicine (accounting for 62.5%), herbal medicine (accounting for 84.3% of traditional Chinese medicine), and some Chinese patent medicines were the main causes of DILI found in this study. Severe and chronic DILI was associated with cholestatic type. Preexisting gallbladder disease, initial total bilirubin, initial prothrombin time, and initial antinuclear antibody titer were independent risk factors for DILI. Prolonged time interval between alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) falling from the peak to half of the peak (T(0.5ALP) and T(0.5ALT)) was an independent risk factor for chronic DILI [area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) = 0.787, 95%CI: 0.697~0.878, P < 0.001], with cutoff values of 12.5d and 9.5d, respectively. Conclusion: Traditional Chinese medicine is the main contributing cause of DILI. The occurrence risk of severe DILI is related to preexisting gallbladder disease, initial total bilirubin, prothrombin time, and antinuclear antibodies. T(0.5ALP) and T(0.5ALT) can be used as indicators to predict chronic DILI.


Assuntos
Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas , Doenças da Vesícula Biliar , Falência Hepática , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Prognóstico , Bilirrubina
6.
World J Gastroenterol ; 30(9): 999-1004, 2024 Mar 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38577181

RESUMO

The albumin-bilirubin (ALBI) score, which was proposed to assess the prognosis of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma, has gradually been extended to other liver diseases in recent years, including primary biliary cholangitis, liver cirrhosis, hepatitis, liver transplantation, and liver injury. The ALBI score is often compared with classical scores such as the Child-Pugh and model for end-stage liver disease scores or other noninvasive prediction models. It is widely employed because of its immunity to subjective evaluation indicators and ease of obtaining detection indicators. An increasing number of studies have confirmed that it is highly accurate for assessing the prognosis of patients with chronic liver disease; additionally, it has demonstrated good predictive performance for outcomes beyond survival in patients with liver diseases, such as decompensation events. This article presents a review of the application of ALBI scores in various non-malignant liver diseases.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular , Doença Hepática Terminal , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Humanos , Bilirrubina , Albumina Sérica , Doença Hepática Terminal/diagnóstico , Doença Hepática Terminal/cirurgia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Prognóstico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia
7.
Pediatr Transplant ; 28(3): e14740, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38616325

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pediatric lung transplant patients are at risk for developing invasive fungal infections post-transplant. No consensus exists on optimal antifungal regimens and voriconazole, a common first-line agent, has been shown to cause hepatotoxicity. We describe a single-center experience utilizing a novel antifungal regimen of intravenous micafungin and nebulized amphotericin B immediately post-transplant with conversion to an azole at the time of hospital discharge and compare it to a historical cohort of patients who received voriconazole monotherapy throughout their immediate post-operative course. METHODS: This is a retrospective review of patients in the age 0-18 who received a lung transplant from June 2016-May 2021. Data points collected included: demographic data, transplant date and discharge date, Aspergillus colonization, type of lung transplant, hospitalization and level of care information, induction and antifungal medication regimen; AST, ALT, GGT, bilirubin, and direct bilirubin at various timepoints; and respiratory and blood culture results. The two patient groups were compared by assessment of changes in LFTs and culture results. RESULTS: Forty-two patients were included in the analysis, with 24 patients receiving micafungin and nebulized amphotericin and 18 patients receiving voriconazole. All patients in both groups experienced a post-operative elevation in at least one transaminase or bilirubin. More patients in the micafungin/amphotericin group had resolution of all abnormal LFTs by 1 month post-transplant (p = .036). Additionally, patients in the micafungin/amphotericin group experienced faster normalization of their LFTs compared with the voriconazole group (p < .001). Ten patients in the micafungin/amphotericin group and five patients in the voriconazole group were found to have fungal growth on culture post-transplant, but this difference was not found to be statistically significant (p = .507). CONCLUSIONS: An antifungal regimen of micafungin and nebulized amphotericin B liposomal may be useful at decreasing the duration of elevated liver enzymes in pediatric patients in the immediate post-lung transplant period when compared with voriconazole monotherapy. Larger prospective studies looking at antifungal regimens in pediatric patients post-lung transplant are warranted.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas , Humanos , Criança , Recém-Nascido , Lactente , Pré-Escolar , Adolescente , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Anfotericina B/uso terapêutico , Voriconazol/uso terapêutico , Micafungina/uso terapêutico , Transplantados , Estudos Prospectivos , Bilirrubina , Pulmão
8.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38604682

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the expression of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) and phagocytic function in the peripheral blood of patients with hepatic alveolar echinococcosis (HAE), and to examine their correlations with clinical inflamma tory indicators and liver functions. METHODS: A total of 50 patients with HAE admitted to Department of Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Surgery, The Affiliated Hospital of Qinghai University from August 2022 to June 2023 were enrolled, while 50 age- and gender-matched healthy individuals from the Centre for Healthy Examinations of the hospital during the same period served as controls. The levels of NETs markers neutrophil myeloperoxidase (MPO) and neutrophil elastase (NE) were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Peripheral blood neutrophils were isolated using density gradient centrifugation, stimulated in vitro using phorbol 12-myristate 13 acetate (PMA), and the levels of MPO and citrullination histone H3 (CitH3) released by neutrophils were quantified using flow cytometry. The phagocytic functions of neutrophils were examined using flow cytometry. In addition, the correlations of MPO and NE levels with clinical inflammatory indicators and liver biochemical indicators were examined using Spearman correlation analysis among HAE patients. RESULTS: The peripheral blood plasma MPOï¼»(417.15 ± 76.08) ng/mL vs. (255.70 ± 80.84) ng/mL; t = 10.28, P < 0.05ï¼½, NEï¼»(23.16 ± 6.75) ng/mL vs. (11.92 ± 3.17) ng/mL; t = 10.65, P < 0.05ï¼½and CitH3 levelsï¼»(33.93 ± 18.93) ng/mL vs. (19.52 ± 13.89) ng/mL; t = 4.34, P < 0.05ï¼½were all significantly higher among HAE patients than among healthy controls, and a lower phagocytosis rate of neutrophils was detected among HAE patients than among healthy controlsï¼»(70.85 ± 7.32)% vs. (94.04 ± 3.90)%; t = 20.18, P < 0.05ï¼½, and the ability to produce NETs by neutrophils was higher among HAE patients than among healthy controls following in vitro PMA stimulation. Pearson correlation analysis showed that the phagocytosis rate of neutrophils correlated negatively with platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR), neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), interleukin-6 (IL-6) level and C-reactive protein (CRP) level (rs = -0.515 to -0.392, all P values < 0.05), and the MPO and NE levels positively correlated with inflammatory markers NLR, PLR, CRP and IL-6 (rs = 0.333 to 0.445, all P values < 0.05) and clinical liver biochemical indicators aspartic transaminase, alanine aminotransferase, direct bilirubin and total bilirubin among HAE patients (rs = 0.290 to 0.628, all P values < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Excessive formation of NETs is found among HAE patients, which affects the phagocytic ability of neutrophils and results in elevated levels of inflammatory indicators. NETs markers may be promising novel biomarkers for early diagnosis, monitoring, and severity assessment of liver disease.


Assuntos
Equinococose Hepática , Armadilhas Extracelulares , Humanos , Armadilhas Extracelulares/metabolismo , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Neutrófilos , Acetato de Tetradecanoilforbol/metabolismo , Bilirrubina/metabolismo
9.
Clin Transplant ; 38(4): e15316, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38607291

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The incidence of graft failure following liver transplantation (LTx) is consistent. While traditional risk scores for LTx have limited accuracy, the potential of machine learning (ML) in this area remains uncertain, despite its promise in other transplant domains. This study aims to determine ML's predictive limitations in LTx by replicating methods used in previous heart transplant research. METHODS: This study utilized the UNOS STAR database, selecting 64,384 adult patients who underwent LTx between 2010 and 2020. Gradient boosting models (XGBoost and LightGBM) were used to predict 14, 30, and 90-day graft failure compared to conventional logistic regression model. Models were evaluated using both shuffled and rolling cross-validation (CV) methodologies. Model performance was assessed using the AUC across validation iterations. RESULTS: In a study comparing predictive models for 14-day, 30-day and 90-day graft survival, LightGBM consistently outperformed other models, achieving the highest AUC of.740,.722, and.700 in shuffled CV methods. However, in rolling CV the accuracy of the model declined across every ML algorithm. The analysis revealed influential factors for graft survival prediction across all models, including total bilirubin, medical condition, recipient age, and donor AST, among others. Several features like donor age and recipient diabetes history were important in two out of three models. CONCLUSIONS: LightGBM enhances short-term graft survival predictions post-LTx. However, due to changing medical practices and selection criteria, continuous model evaluation is essential. Future studies should focus on temporal variations, clinical implications, and ensure model transparency for broader medical utility.


Assuntos
Transplante de Fígado , Adulto , Humanos , Transplante de Fígado/efeitos adversos , Projetos de Pesquisa , Algoritmos , Bilirrubina , Aprendizado de Máquina
10.
Vet Med Sci ; 10(3): e1434, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38567942

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: No tick-borne pathogens (TBPs) causing haemolytic anaemia in cattle have been reported, except Theileria orientalis and complete blood count (CBC) profile is the only haematological parameter to determine the severity of regenerative haemolytic anaemia. OBJECTIVES: To identify the causative agents of TBP-induced haemolytic anaemia and determine haematological parameters that indicate haemolytic anaemia in grazing cattle. METHODS: Eighty-two Korean indigenous cattle (Hanwoo) were divided into two groups: grazing (n = 67) and indoor (n = 15) groups. CBC and serum biochemistry were performed. PCR was conducted using whole blood-extracted DNA to investigate the prevalence of TBPs. RESULTS: TBP-induced haemolytic anaemia was observed in the grazing group. In grazing cattle, co-infection (43.3%, 29/67) was most frequently detected, followed by T. orientalis (37.6%, 25/67) and Anaplasma phagocytophilum infections (1.5%, 1/67). In indoor cattle, only co-infection (20%, 3/15) was identified. Grazing cattle exhibited regenerative haemolytic anaemia with marked monocytosis, mild neutropenia, and thrombocytopenia. According to grazing frequency, the 1st-time grazing group had more severe anaemia than the 2nd-time grazing group. Elevations in indirect bilirubin and L-lactate due to haemolytic anaemia were identified, and correlations with the respective markers were determined in co-infected grazing cattle. CONCLUSIONS: Quantitative evaluation of haematocrit, mean corpuscular volume, and reticulocytes (markers of regenerative haemolytic anaemia in cattle) was performed for the first time. Our results show that, in addition to T. orientalis, A. phagocytophilum is strongly associated with anaemia. The correlation between haemolytic anaemia severity and haematological parameters (indirect bilirubin, reticulocytes, and L-lactate) was confirmed.


Assuntos
Anemia Hemolítica , Doenças dos Bovinos , Coinfecção , Theileriose , Carrapatos , Bovinos , Animais , Theileriose/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Coinfecção/veterinária , Anemia Hemolítica/etiologia , Anemia Hemolítica/veterinária , Bilirrubina , Lactatos
11.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 5952, 2024 03 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38467676

RESUMO

Neonatal Jaundice is a common occurrence in neonates. High excess bilirubin would lead to hyperbilirubinemia, leading to irreversible adverse damage such as kernicterus. Therefore, it is necessary and important to monitor neonates' bilirubin levels in real-time for immediate intervention. However, current screening protocols have their inherent limitations, necessitating more convenient measurements. In this proof-of-concept study, we evaluated the feasibility of using machine learning for the screening of hyperbilirubinemia in neonates from smartphone-acquired photographs. Different machine learning models were compared and evaluated to gain a better understanding of feature selection and model performance in bilirubin determination. An in vitro study was conducted with a bilirubin-containing tissue phantom to identify potential biological and environmental confounding factors. The findings of this study present a systematic characterization of the confounding effect of various factors through separate parametric tests. These tests uncover potential techniques in image pre-processing, highlighting important biological features (light scattering property and skin thickness) and external features (ISO, lighting conditions and white balance), which together contribute to robust model approaches for accurately determining bilirubin concentrations. By obtaining an accuracy of 0.848 in classification and 0.812 in regression, these findings indicate strong potential in aiding in the design of clinical studies using patient-derived images.


Assuntos
Hiperbilirrubinemia Neonatal , Icterícia Neonatal , Kernicterus , Recém-Nascido , Humanos , Bilirrubina , Algoritmos , Smartphone , Hiperbilirrubinemia Neonatal/diagnóstico
12.
J Cell Mol Med ; 28(7): e18173, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38494841

RESUMO

Osteoarthritis (OA) is a chronic degenerative joint disease that affects worldwide. Oxidative stress plays a critical role in the chronic inflammation and OA progression. Scavenging overproduced reactive oxygen species (ROS) could be rational strategy for OA treatment. Bilirubin (BR) is a potent endogenous antioxidant that can scavenge various ROS and also exhibit anti-inflammatory effects. However, whether BR could exert protection on chondrocytes for OA treatment has not yet been elucidated. Here, chondrocytes were exposed to hydrogen peroxide with or without BR treatment. The cell viability was assessed, and the intracellular ROS, inflammation cytokines were monitored to indicate the state of chondrocytes. In addition, BR was also tested on LPS-treated Raw264.7 cells to test the anti-inflammation property. An in vitro bimimic OA microenvironment was constructed by LPS-treated Raw264.7 and chondrocytes, and BR also exert certain protection for chondrocytes by activating Nrf2/HO-1 pathway and suppressing NF-κB signalling. An ACLT-induced OA model was constructed to test the in vivo therapeutic efficacy of BR. Compared to the clinical used HA, BR significantly reduced cartilage degeneration and delayed OA progression. Overall, our data shows that BR has a protective effect on chondrocytes and can delay OA progression caused by oxidative stress.


Assuntos
NF-kappa B , Osteoartrite , Humanos , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Bilirrubina/farmacologia , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Osteoartrite/tratamento farmacológico , Osteoartrite/metabolismo , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Condrócitos/metabolismo , Interleucina-1beta/farmacologia
13.
Hepatol Commun ; 8(4)2024 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38497934

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The precision of clinical criteria and the utility of liver biopsy for diagnosis or prognosis remain unclear in patients with alcohol-associated hepatitis (AH). We systematically reviewed the literature to answer these questions. METHODS: Four databases were searched for studies describing the precision of clinical criteria (National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, European Association for Study of Liver, or classical) and the role of histology in AH. The precision(positive predictive value) of criteria was pooled through random-effects meta-analysis, and its variation was investigated through subgroups and meta-regression of study-level factors with their percent contribution to variation (R2). The risk of bias among studies was evaluated through the QUADAS2 tool (PROSPERO-ID-CRD4203457250). RESULTS: Of 4320 studies, 18 in the systematic review and 15 (10/5: low/high risk of bias, N=1639) were included in the meta-analysis. The pooled precision of clinical criteria was 80.2% (95% CI: 69.7-89.7, I2:93%, p < 0.01), higher in studies with severe AH (mean-Model for End-Stage Liver Disease > 20) versus moderate AH (mean-Model for End-Stage Liver Disease < 20): 92% versus 67.1%, p < 0.01, and in studies with serum bilirubin cutoff 5 versus 3 mg/dL (88.5% vs.78.8%, p = 0.01). The factors contributing to variation in precision were Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (R2:72.7%), upper gastrointestinal bleed (R2:56.3%), aspartate aminotransferase:aspartate aminotransferase ratio (R2:100%), clinical criteria (R2:40.9%), bilirubin (R2:22.5%), and Mallory body on histology (R2:19.1%).The net inter-pathologist agreement for histologic findings of AH was variable (0.33-0.97), best among 2 studies describing AH through simple and uniform criteria, including steatosis, ballooning, and neutrophilic inflammation. Few studies reported the utility of histology in estimating steroid responsiveness (N = 1) and patient prognosis (N = 4); however, very broad septa, pericellular fibrosis, and cholestasis were associated with mortality. Bilirubinostasis was associated with infection in 1 study. CONCLUSIONS: Clinical criteria are reasonably precise for diagnosing severe AH, while there is an unmet need for better criteria for diagnosing moderate AH. Histologic diagnosis of AH should be simple and uniform.


Assuntos
Doença Hepática Terminal , Hepatite Alcoólica , Humanos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Hepatite Alcoólica/diagnóstico , Aspartato Aminotransferases , Bilirrubina
14.
ACS Appl Bio Mater ; 7(3): 1381-1399, 2024 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38437181

RESUMO

Bilirubin oxidases (BODs) [EC 1.3.3.5 - bilirubin: oxygen oxido-reductase] are enzymes that belong to the multicopper oxidase family and can oxidize bilirubin, diphenols, and aryl amines and reduce the oxygen by direct four-electron transfer from the electrode with almost no electrochemical overpotential. Therefore, BOD is a promising bioelectrocatalyst for (self-powered) biosensors and/or enzymatic fuel cells. The advantages of electrochemically active BOD enzymes include selective biosensing, biocatalysis for efficient energy conversion, and electrosynthesis. Owing to the rise in publications and patents, as well as the expanding interest in BODs for a range of physiological conditions, this Review analyzes scientific literature reports on BOD enzymes and current hypotheses on their bioelectrocatalysis. This Review evaluates the specific research outcomes of the BOD in enzyme (protein) engineering, immobilization strategies, and challenges along with their bioelectrochemical properties, limitations, and applications in the fields of (i) biosensors, (ii) self-powered biosensors, and (iii) biofuel cells for powering bioelectronics.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais , Enzimas Imobilizadas , Enzimas Imobilizadas/química , Oxirredutases , Oxigênio , Bilirrubina
15.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 6135, 2024 03 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38480873

RESUMO

Malaria and schistosomiasis are infectious diseases that cause coagulation disorders, biochemical abnormalities, and thrombocytopenia. Malaria and Schistosoma mansoni co-infection cause exacerbations of health consequences and co-morbidities.This study aimed to compare the effect of malaria and Schistosoma mansoni co-infection and malaria infection on selected biochemical and coagulation profiles, and platelet count. An institutional-based comparative cross-sectional study was conducted from March 30 to August 10, 2022. A total of 70 individuals were enrolled in the study using a convenient sampling technique. Wet mount and Kato Katz techniques were conducted to detect Schistosoma mansoni in a stool sample. Blood films were prepared for the detection of plasmodium. The data was coded and entered into EpiData version 3.1 before being analyzed with SPSS version 25. An independent t test was used during data analysis. A P-value of less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. The mean [SD] of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, creatinine, total bilirubin, and direct bilirubin in the co-infected was higher than in malaria infected participants. However, the mean of total protein and glucose in co-infected was lower than in the malaria infected participants. The mean of prothrombin time, international normalization ratio, and activated partial thromboplastin time in co-infected was significantly higher, while the platelet count was lower compared to malaria infected participants. Biochemical and coagulation profiles, and platelet count status in co-infection were changed compared to malaria infected participants. Therefore, biochemical and coagulation profiles and platelet count tests should be used to monitor and manage co-infection related complications and to reduce co-infection associated morbidity and mortality.


Assuntos
Coinfecção , Malária , Esquistossomose mansoni , Animais , Humanos , Schistosoma mansoni , Etiópia , Contagem de Plaquetas , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Coinfecção/complicações , Estudos Transversais , Prevalência , Esquistossomose mansoni/complicações , Esquistossomose mansoni/epidemiologia , Esquistossomose mansoni/diagnóstico , Malária/complicações , Malária/epidemiologia , Bilirrubina , Fezes
16.
Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing Za Zhi ; 32(2): 113-118, 2024 Feb 20.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38514259

RESUMO

Objective: To analyze the clinical features of postpartum hepatitis flares in pregnant women with hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. Methods: A retrospective study was conducted. Patients who met the enrollment criteria were included. Liver function and HBV virology tests were collected from pregnant women with chronic HBV infection at delivery, 6, 24, 36, and 48 weeks after delivery through the hospital information and test system. Additionally, antiviral therapy types and drug withdrawal times were collected. Statistical analysis was performed on all the resulting data. Results: A total of 533 pregnant women who met the inclusion criteria were included, with all patients aged (29.5±3.7) years old. A total of 408 cases received antiviral drugs during pregnancy to interrupt mother-to-child transmission. There was no significant difference in the levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT, z = -1.981, P = 0.048), aspartate aminotransferase (AST, z = -3.956, P < 0.001), HBV load (z = -15.292, P < 0.001), and HBeAg (z = -4.77, P < 0.001) at delivery in patients who received medication and those who did not. All patients ALT, AST, total bilirubin, direct bilirubin, and albumin showed an upward trend within six weeks after delivery. A total of 231 cases developed hepatitis within 48 weeks after delivery. Among them, 173 cases first showed ALT abnormalities within six weeks postpartum. Conclusion: Hepatitis flare incidence peaked six weeks after delivery or six weeks after drug withdrawal in pregnant women with chronic HBV infection.


Assuntos
Hepatite A , Hepatite B Crônica , Hepatite B , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Adulto , Vírus da Hepatite B/genética , Gestantes , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/tratamento farmacológico , Antígenos E da Hepatite B , DNA Viral , Transmissão Vertical de Doenças Infecciosas , Exacerbação dos Sintomas , Período Pós-Parto , Hepatite B/tratamento farmacológico , Bilirrubina
17.
Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi ; 62(4): 290-301, 2024 Apr 01.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38432670

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the surgical treatment effect and prognostic factors of hilar cholangiocarcinoma. Methods: This is an ambispective cohort study. From August 2005 to December 2022,data of 510 patients who diagnosed with hilar cholangiocarcinoma and underwent surgical resection at the Hepatobiliary Center of the First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University were retrospectively collected. In the cohort,there were 324 males and 186 females,with an age of (M (IQR)) 63(13)years (range:25 to 85 years). The liver function at admission was Child-Pugh A (343 cases,67.3%) and Child-Pugh B (167 cases,32.7%). Three hundred and seventy-two(72.9%) patients had jaundice symptoms and the median total bilirubin was 126.3(197.6) µmol/L(range: 5.4 to 722.8 µmol/L) at admission. Two hundred and fourty-seven cases (48.4%) were treated with percutaneous transhepatic cholangial drainage or endoscopic nasobiliary drainage before operation. The median bilirubin level in the drainage group decreased from 186.4 µmol/L to 85.5 µmol/L before operation. Multivariate Logistic regression was used to identify the influencing factors for R0 resection,and Cox regression was used to construct multivariate prediction models for overall survival(OS) and disease-free survival(DFS). Results: Among 510 patients who underwent surgical resection,Bismuth-Corlett type Ⅲ-Ⅳ patients accounted for 71.8%,among which 86.1% (315/366) underwent hemi-hepatectomy,while 81.9% (118/144) underwent extrahepatic biliary duct resection alone in Bismuch-Corlett type Ⅰ-Ⅱ patients. The median OS time was 22.8 months, and the OS rates at 1-,3-,5-and 10-year were 72.2%,35.6%,24.8% and 11.0%,respectively. The median DFS time was 15.2 months,and the DFS rates was 66.0%,32.4%,20.9% and 11.0%,respectively. The R0 resection rate was 64.5% (329/510), and the OS rates of patients with R0 resection at 1-,3-,5-and 10-year were 82.5%, 48.6%, 34.4%, 15.2%,respectively. The morbidity of Clavien-Dindo grade Ⅲ-Ⅴ complications was 26.1%(133/510) and the 30-day mortality was 4.3% (22/510). Multivariate Logistic regression indicated that Bismuth-Corlett type Ⅰ-Ⅲ (P=0.009), hemi-hepatectomy and extended resection (P=0.001),T1 and T2 patients without vascular invasion (T2 vs. T1:OR=1.43 (0.61-3.35),P=0.413;T3 vs. T1:OR=2.57 (1.03-6.41), P=0.010;T4 vs. T1, OR=3.77 (1.37-10.38), P<0.01) were more likely to obtain R0 resection. Preoperative bilirubin,Child-Pugh grade,tumor size,surgical margin,T stage,N stage,nerve infiltration and Edmondson grade were independent prognostic factors for OS and DFS of hilar cholangiocarcinoma patients without distant metastasis. Conclusions: Radical surgical resection is necessary to prolong the long-term survival of hilar cholangiocarcinoma patients. Hemi-hepatectomy and extended resection,regional lymph node dissection and combined vascular resection if necessary,can improve R0 resection rate.


Assuntos
Neoplasias dos Ductos Biliares , Colangiocarcinoma , Tumor de Klatskin , Masculino , Feminino , Humanos , Tumor de Klatskin/cirurgia , Tumor de Klatskin/patologia , Colangiocarcinoma/cirurgia , Colangiocarcinoma/patologia , Ductos Biliares Intra-Hepáticos/patologia , Estudos de Coortes , Resultado do Tratamento , Estudos Retrospectivos , Bismuto , Prognóstico , Hepatectomia , Neoplasias dos Ductos Biliares/cirurgia , Neoplasias dos Ductos Biliares/patologia , Bilirrubina
18.
Ital J Pediatr ; 50(1): 37, 2024 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38433210

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Home phototherapy (HPT) remains a contentious alternative to inpatient phototherapy (IPT) for neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. To guide evidence-based clinical decision-making, we conducted a meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials (RCTs) and cohort studies and assessed the comparative risks and benefits of HPT and IPT. METHODS: PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure Database, Wanfang Database, Chinese Science and Technique Journals Database, ClinicalTrials.gov, and International Clinical Trial Registry Platform trial were searched from inception until June 2, 2023. We included RCTs and cohort studies and adhered to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis guidelines. Study quality was assessed with the Cochrane Collaboration Risk of Bias tool and the Newcastle-Ottawa scale. The outcome measures were phototherapy duration, daily bilirubin level reduction, exchange transfusion, hospital readmission, parental stress scale, and complications. We used fixed- or random-effects meta-analysis models, assessed heterogeneity (I2), conducted subgroup analyses, evaluated publication bias, and graded evidence quality. RESULTS: Nine studies (998 patients) were included (four RCTs, five cohort studies). HPT was associated with longer phototherapy duration (SMD = 0.55, 95% CI: 0.06-1.04, P = 0.03). Cohort study subgroup analysis yielded consistent results (SMD = 0.90; 95% CI: 0.69 to 1.11, P < 0.001, I2 = 39%); the RCTs were not significantly different (SMD = -0.04; 95% CI: -0.15 to 0.08, P = 0.54, I2 = 0%). Hospital readmission was higher with HPT (RR = 4.61; 95% CI: 1.43-14.86, P = 0.01). Daily bilirubin reduction (WMD = -0.12, 95% CI: -0.68 to 0.44, P = 0.68) or complications were not significantly different (RR = 2.29; 95% CI: 0.31-16.60, P = 0.41). The evidence quality was very low. HPT was associated with lower parental stress (SMD = -0.44, 95% CI: -0.71 to -0.16, P = 0.002). None of three included studies reported exchange transfusion. CONCLUSIONS: The current evidence does not strongly support HPT efficacy for neonatal hyperbilirubinemia, as high-quality data on long-term outcomes are scarce. Future research should prioritize well-designed, large-scale, high-quality RCTs to comprehensively assess HPT risks and benefits.


Assuntos
Hiperbilirrubinemia Neonatal , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Bilirrubina , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Hiperbilirrubinemia Neonatal/terapia
19.
Clin Chem ; 70(4): 597-628, 2024 04 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38427953

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Approximately 30 million people worldwide consume new psychoactive substances (NPS), creating a serious public health issue due to their toxicity and potency. Drug-induced liver injury is the leading cause of liver disease, responsible for 4% of global deaths each year. CONTENT: A systematic literature search revealed 64 case reports, in vitro and in vivo studies on NPS hepatotoxicity. Maximum elevated concentrations of aspartate aminotransferase (136 to 15 632 U/L), alanine transaminase (121.5 to 9162 U/L), total bilirubin (0.7 to 702 mg/dL; 0.04 to 39.03 mmol/L), direct (0.2-15.1 mg/dL; 0.01-0.84 mmol/L) and indirect (5.3 mg/dL; 0.29 mmol/L) bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase (79-260 U/L), and gamma-glutamyltransferase (260 U/L) were observed as biochemical markers of liver damage, with acute and fulminant liver failure the major toxic effects described in the NPS case reports. In vitro laboratory studies and subsequent in vivo NPS exposure studies on rats and mice provide data on potential mechanisms of toxicity. Oxidative stress, plasma membrane stability, and cellular energy changes led to apoptosis and cell death. Experimental studies of human liver microsome incubation with synthetic NPS, with and without specific cytochrome P450 inhibitors, highlighted specific enzyme inhibitions and potential drug-drug interactions leading to hepatotoxicity. SUMMARY: Mild to severe hepatotoxic effects following synthetic NPS exposure were described in case reports. In diagnosing the etiology of liver damage, synthetic NPS exposure should be considered as part of the differential diagnosis. Identification of NPS toxicity is important for educating patients on the dangers of NPS consumption and to suggest promising treatments for observed hepatotoxicity.


Assuntos
Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas , Hepatopatias , Humanos , Ratos , Camundongos , Animais , Fígado/metabolismo , Hepatopatias/diagnóstico , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/diagnóstico , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/etiologia , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/metabolismo , Fosfatase Alcalina , Alanina Transaminase , Bilirrubina
20.
Pediatrics ; 153(4)2024 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38482582

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Guidelines for the management of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia have helped to reduce rates of significant hyperbilirubinemia. However, recent evidence suggesting overtreatment and potential harms of phototherapy have informed the American Academy of Pediatrics clinical practice guideline revision and the accompanying increase in phototherapy thresholds. These changes are predicted to safely reduce overuse; however, to date, the exact effect of these guidelines has not been established. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study of newborns born at ≥35 weeks' gestation across a network of 8 hospitals between January 2022 and June 2023. Outcomes included rates of phototherapy and total serum bilirubin (TSB) measurements before and after guideline publication, as well as clinical outcomes, including length of stay, readmissions, and duration of phototherapy. RESULTS: In our cohort of >22 000 newborns, we observed a 47% decrease in phototherapy utilization, from 3.9% to 2.1% (P < .001). TSB measurements were reduced by 23%, from 712 to 551 measurements per 1000 newborns (P < .001), without an increase in outpatient TSB measurements. We did not observe an increase in readmissions receiving phototherapy, and length of stay increased by only 1 hour (P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: Our study reveals that the publication of the updated American Academy of Pediatrics 2022 hyperbilirubinemia guidelines has likely yielded a significant reduction in phototherapy use and serum bilirubin measurement. Dedicated quality improvement initiatives may help determine which implementation strategies are most effective. Further population-level studies are needed to confirm safety with ongoing guideline uptake.


Assuntos
Hiperbilirrubinemia Neonatal , Icterícia Neonatal , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Criança , Estudos Retrospectivos , Bilirrubina , Hiperbilirrubinemia Neonatal/terapia , Hiperbilirrubinemia , Fototerapia
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