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1.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 55(9): 1028-1032, 2021 Sep 06.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34619917

RESUMO

Genetic factors are the main causes in occurrence of birth defects. With deep research in the field of genomics and application of molecular biology technology, the carrier status, fetal genetic variation and postpartum screening are respectively detected from pre-pregnancy, pregnancy and post-natal screening (before onset of disease) under perfect three-level prevention and control system for birth defects. Prospective detection, early diagnosis and intervention can prevent the occurrence of birth defects related to genetic diseases at multiple levels. This article describes and analyzes current clinical application and existing challenge of molecular biology techniques in prevention of birth defects related to genetic diseases.


Assuntos
Biologia Molecular , Cuidado Pré-Natal , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Tecnologia , Prevenção Terciária
2.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1336: 1-15, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34628624

RESUMO

Omics sciences have been facing challenges in different fields, especially in life sciences. One of these challenges involves assessing biology into systems interpretation. With the advance of genomics, molecular biology has been projected into the realm of systems biology. In a different direction, systems approaches are making definitive strides toward scientific understanding and biotechnological applications. Separation techniques provided meaningful progress in the omics era, conducting the classical molecular biology to contemporary systems biology. In this introductory chapter, the relevance of these techniques to the development of different omics sciences, within the systems biology context, will be discussed.


Assuntos
Genômica , Biologia de Sistemas , Biologia Molecular
4.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 225: 112795, 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34544026

RESUMO

This work addresses the testing of two newly produced biomass carriers (micro- and nanofibers) and one commercially available AnoxKaldnes™ K3 carrier in a laboratory post-nitrification reactor. The carriers were prepared under parameters suitable for high-quality biomass adhesion to their surface, and each was characterized by its specific structures. As part of the evaluation of the biofilms using respirometry and molecular genetic methods, the carriers were assessed in terms of their effectiveness and comparability. The rate of biofilm development was dependent on the structure and surface properties of the individual carriers. The results showed that the biofilm most strongly adhered to nanofiber carriers, where nitrating bacteria's slower but more abundant development occurred. Microfiber carriers were more stable, but a diverse internal structure may be unsuitable in a populated carrier's early stages. The AnoxKaldnes™ K3 carriers showed the slowest growth of biofilm, but the monitored nitrifying bacteria were abundant after an extended time. AOB representatives are likely to prefer an environment with a high amount of biomass and a large active area. Conversely, NOB representatives thrive better in a slowly forming biofilm. The methods used to monitor biofilm are challenging to compare directly, but they do complement each other, which aids in verifying the individual test results. Developing new types of biomass carriers with the potential for high-quality adhesion of microorganisms is a prerequisite for the expansion of highly efficient biotechnological processes, especially for wastewater treatment.


Assuntos
Reatores Biológicos , Nitrificação , Bactérias/genética , Biomassa , Biologia Molecular
5.
CBE Life Sci Educ ; 20(4): ar53, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34546102

RESUMO

Concepts of molecular biology and genetics are difficult for many biology undergraduate students to master yet are crucial for deep understanding of how life works. By asking students to draw their ideas, we attempted to uncover the mental models about genes and gene expression held by biology students (n = 23) and experts (n = 18) using semistructured interviews. A large divide was identified between novice and expert conceptions. While experts typically drew box-and-line representations and thought about genes as regions of DNA that were used to encode products, students typically drew whole chromosomes rather than focusing on gene structure and conflated gene expression with simple phenotypic outcomes. Experts universally described gene expression as a set of molecular processes involving transcription and translation, whereas students often associated gene expression with Punnett squares and phenotypic outcomes. Follow-up survey data containing a ranking question confirmed students' alignment of their mental models with the images uncovered during interviews (n = 156 undergraduate biology students) and indicated that Advanced students demonstrate a shift toward expert-like thinking. An analysis of 14 commonly used biology textbooks did not show any relationship between Punnett squares and discussions of gene expression, so it is doubtful students' ideas originate directly from textbook reading assignments. Our findings add to the literature about mechanistic reasoning abilities of learners and provide new insights into how biology students think about genes and gene expression.


Assuntos
Biologia Molecular , Estudantes , Biologia , DNA , Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Resolução de Problemas
6.
Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi ; 50(7): 728-733, 2021 Jul 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34405605

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the clinicopathological features, immunophenotype, differential diagnosis, molecular genetic changes and prognosis of salivary gland-type clear cell carcinoma (CCC) of the lung. Methods: Eight cases of salivary gland-type CCC of the lung diagnosed at Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center and Shanghai Pulmonary Hospital, China from March 2017 to December 2020 were retrieved and analyzed. The pathological sections of these cases were studied using immunohistochemical staining, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), and RNA-seq fusion gene detection based on next generation sequencing technique. The patients were followed up and the relevant literature was reviewed. Results: The 8 patients included 3 males and 5 females, with age ranging from 43 to 64 years (average, 58 years). All patients underwent radical lobectomy and lymph node dissection, while only one had lymph node metastases. The eight patients were followed up for 6 to 45 months, and were all recurrence-free. Histopathologically, the tumor was mainly composed of eosinophilic and clear cells arranged in trabecular, ribbon and nest patterns. Hyalinization was often observed in the stroma around the nest. Immunohistochemical staining showed that 8/8 cases were positive for EMA and CK7; 5/8 cases were positive for p63 and p40; 4/8 cases were positive for SOX10; and the cases were all negative for S-100, SMA and calponin. EWSR1 gene fusion was detected in all cases by FISH. RNA-seq fusion gene was detected in 6 cases based on next generation sequencing. The EWSR1-ATF1 gene fusion was detected in 5 cases, among which one case also had the ATF1-SPTLC2 gene fusion. All 5 cases with EWSR1-ATF1 gene fusion showed that EWSR1 exon 12/13 fused with ATF1 exon 3. And EWSR1-CREM gene fusion was detected in one case. Conclusions: Salivary gland-type CCC of the lung is an extremely rare primary lung tumor arising from the bronchial mucosa. The diagnosis and differential diagnosis of this tumor depend on classic histomorphology, especially the auxiliary detection of EWSR1 fusion gene. The primary treatment choice of this tumor is complete surgical resection. Lymph node metastases may occur, but the overall prognosis is good.


Assuntos
Carcinoma , Adulto , Biomarcadores Tumorais , China , Feminino , Humanos , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente , Pulmão , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Biologia Molecular , Proteína EWS de Ligação a RNA/genética , Glândulas Salivares
7.
Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi ; 50(7): 734-739, 2021 Jul 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34405606

RESUMO

Objective: To analyze the clinicopathological and molecular features and prognostic implications of adult isocitrate dehydrogenase wild type (IDH-wt) diffuse gliomas. Methods: A total of 87 cases of adult IDH-wt diffuse gliomas from 2016 to 2020 in Xuanwu Hospital of Capital Medical University were retrospectively collected. The clinicopathological characteristics and prognosis were analyzed. Molecular characteristics were also analyzed using Sanger sequencing and next generation sequencing. Results: There were 53 males and 34 females, aged from 19 to 78 years (mean 53 years). Histopathologically, there were 63 (72.4%) glioblastomas, 16 (18.4%) anaplastic astrocytomas, six (6.9%) diffuse astrocytomas, and one (1.1%) each of anaplastic oligodendrocytoma, and anaplastic oligodendroglioma. Common molecular genetic changes in IDH-wt gliomas included TERT promoter mutation which was found in 60 cases (69.0%); MGMT promoter methylation in 43 cases (49.4%); EGFR mutation in 38 cases (43.7%); PTEN mutation in 35 cases (40.2%) and TP53 mutation in 32 cases (36.8%). In addition, PDGFRA mutation was detected in 17 cases (19.5%), CDK4 amplification in 15 cases (17.2%) and MDM2 amplification in 11 cases (12.6%). In IDH-wt diffuse gliomas, there was no significant difference in the overall survival between TERT promoter, EGFR, PTEN, TP53, PDGFRA, CDK4, MDM2 mutations and the wild-type, since these gene mutations could co-occur in any case (P>0.05). Also there was no significant difference in the overall survival between the WHO grade Ⅱ/Ⅲ gliomas and glioblastoma patients with these gene mutations (P>0.05). Conclusions: TERT promoter, EGFR, PTEN, TP53, PDGFRA, CDK4 and MDM2 gene mutations are common molecular genetic changes in adult IDH-wt gliomas, and are associated with poor prognosis. It is suggested that these genes are potentially useful for predicting the prognosis and should be tested in adult IDH-wt gliomas.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas , Glioma , Telomerase , Adulto , Neoplasias Encefálicas/genética , Feminino , Glioma/genética , Humanos , Isocitrato Desidrogenase/genética , Masculino , Biologia Molecular , Mutação , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Telomerase/genética
8.
FEBS J ; 288(15): 4435-4438, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34342148

RESUMO

In this special interview series, we profile members of The FEBS Journal editorial board to highlight their research focus and perspectives on the journal and future directions in their field. Brent Derry is Professor at the Department of Molecular Genetics of University of Toronto and Senior Scientist of the Developmental & Stem Cell Biology Program at The Hospital for Sick Children (Toronto, Canada). He has served as an editorial board member of The FEBS Journal since 2017.


Assuntos
Biologia Molecular/história , Animais , Caenorhabditis elegans/genética , Canadá , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI
9.
Mol Cell ; 81(16): 3229-3236, 2021 08 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34416134

RESUMO

Here, Elçin Ünal and Gloria Brar tell us how the Br-Ün Lab came to be, the cons, but mostly the pros, of running a joint lab and things to consider, as well as their philosophies in research and mentoring a diverse group of scientists.


Assuntos
Biologia Molecular/história , Ciência/história , Feminino , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Colaboração Intersetorial
10.
Mol Cell ; 81(16): 3237-3240, 2021 08 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34416135

RESUMO

We talk to first and last authors Michael Ranes and Sebastian Guettler about their paper, "Reconstitution of the destruction complex defines roles of AXIN polymers and APC in ß-catenin capture, phosphorylation, and ubiquitylation," how questions at conferences drove the work, the research in the Guettler lab, and Michael's experience as a Black scientist and his hopes for the future.


Assuntos
Proteína Axina/genética , Biologia Molecular/história , Processamento de Proteína Pós-Traducional/genética , Proteína Axina/química , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Masculino , Fosforilação/genética , Ubiquitinação/genética
11.
Mol Cell ; 81(15): 3038-3040, 2021 08 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34358455

RESUMO

We talk to Chisae Nagiri and Wataru Shihoya about their paper, "Cryo-EM structure of the ß3 adrenergic receptor reveals the molecular basis of subtype selectivity," and last author Osamu Nureki tells us about the research in his lab in Tokyo.


Assuntos
Microscopia Crioeletrônica , Receptores Adrenérgicos beta 3 , Humanos , Laboratórios , Biologia Molecular , Receptores Adrenérgicos beta 3/química
12.
Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue Za Zhi ; 38(8): 771-774, 2021 Aug 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34365622

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To review the clinical data of a fetus with false positive result of non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) due to confined placental mosaicism (CPM). METHODS: Amniotic fluid sample was taken from a pregnant women with high risk for chromosome 16 aneuploidy for karyotyping analysis, single nucleotide polymorphism array (SNP array) and interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Genetic testing was also conducted on the fetal and maternal surface of the placenta, root of umbilical cord and fetal skin tissue after induced abortion. RESULTS: Cytogenetic analysis of the amniotic fluid sample yielded a normal karyotype. SNP array revealed mosaicism (20%) of trisomy 16 in the fetus. FISH confirmed the presence of mosaicism (25%) for trisomy 16. After induced labor, all sampled sites of placenta were confirmed to contain trisomy 16 by SNP array, while the analysis of fetal skin tissue yielded a negative result. CONCLUSION: CPM is an important factor for false positive NIPT result. Prenatal identification of CPM and strengthened pregnancy management are important to reduce adverse pregnancy outcomes.


Assuntos
Cromossomos Humanos Par 16 , Mosaicismo , Amniocentese , Cromossomos Humanos Par 16/genética , Análise Citogenética , Feminino , Feto , Humanos , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente , Biologia Molecular , Placenta , Gravidez , Diagnóstico Pré-Natal , Trissomia/genética
13.
ACS Biomater Sci Eng ; 7(9): 4614-4625, 2021 09 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34415142

RESUMO

Similar to how CRISPR has revolutionized the field of molecular biology, machine learning may drastically boost research in the area of materials science. Machine learning is a fast-evolving method that allows for analyzing big data and unveiling correlations that otherwise would remain undiscovered. It may hold invaluable potential to engineer novel functional materials with desired properties, a field, which is currently limited by time-consuming trial and error approaches and our limited understanding of how different material properties depend on each other. Here, we apply machine learning algorithms to classify complex biological materials based on their microtopography. With this approach, the surfaces of different variants of biofilms and plant leaves can not only be distinguished but also correctly classified according to their wettability. Furthermore, an importance ranking provided by one of the algorithms allows us to identify those surface features that are critical for a successful sample classification. Our study exemplifies how machine learning can contribute to the analysis and categorization of complex surfaces, a tool, which can be highly useful for other areas of materials science, such as damage assessment as well as adhesion or friction studies.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Aprendizado de Máquina , Big Data , Biologia Molecular , Propriedades de Superfície
14.
Nat Plants ; 7(8): 998-1009, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34373605

RESUMO

For decades, the dynamic nature of chlorophyll a fluorescence (ChlaF) has provided insight into the biophysics and ecophysiology of the light reactions of photosynthesis from the subcellular to leaf scales. Recent advances in remote sensing methods enable detection of ChlaF induced by sunlight across a range of larger scales, from using instruments mounted on towers above plant canopies to Earth-orbiting satellites. This signal is referred to as solar-induced fluorescence (SIF) and its application promises to overcome spatial constraints on studies of photosynthesis, opening new research directions and opportunities in ecology, ecophysiology, biogeochemistry, agriculture and forestry. However, to unleash the full potential of SIF, intensive cross-disciplinary work is required to harmonize these new advances with the rich history of biophysical and ecophysiological studies of ChlaF, fostering the development of next-generation plant physiological and Earth-system models. Here, we introduce the scale-dependent link between SIF and photosynthesis, with an emphasis on seven remaining scientific challenges, and present a roadmap to facilitate future collaborative research towards new applications of SIF.


Assuntos
Clorofila A/fisiologia , Ciências da Terra , Fluorescência , Biologia Molecular , Fotossíntese/fisiologia , Folhas de Planta/fisiologia , Tecnologia de Sensoriamento Remoto/métodos
15.
CBE Life Sci Educ ; 20(3): ar50, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34460294

RESUMO

In response to calls for curricular materials that integrate molecular genetics and evolution and adhere to the K-12 Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS), the Genetic Science Learning Center (GSLC) at the University of Utah has developed and tested the "Evolution: DNA and the Unity of Life" curricular unit for high school biology. The free, 8-week unit illuminates the underlying role of molecular genetics in evolution while providing scaffolded opportunities to engage in making arguments from evidence and analyzing and interpreting data.  We used a randomized controlled trial design to compare student learning when using the new unit with a condition in which teachers used their typical (NGSS-friendly) units with no molecular genetics. Results from nationwide testing with 38 teachers (19 per condition) and their 2269 students revealed that students who used the GSLC curriculum had significantly greater pre/post gain scores in their understanding of evolution than students in the comparison condition; the effect size was moderate. Further, teacher implementation data suggest that students in the treatment condition had more opportunities to engage in argumentation from evidence and have in-class discussions than students in the comparison classes. We consider study implications for the secondary and postsecondary science education community.


Assuntos
Instituições Acadêmicas , Estudantes , Currículo , Humanos , Biologia Molecular
16.
World Neurosurg ; 151: 386-391, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34243672

RESUMO

Although outcomes for many brain tumors, especially glioblastomas, remain poor, there have been significant advances in clinical and scientific understanding of neuro-oncologic disease. Tumor molecular profiling has become a critical component of clinical practice, allowing more accurate pathologic diagnosis and enhanced clarity of the pathogenesis of both primary and metastatic brain tumors. The development of cerebral organoids carries exciting potential to provide representative models of tumor growth and potential drug efficacy, while new radiology techniques continue to improve clinical decision making. New adaptive trial platforms have been developed to rapidly test therapies and biomarkers with good scientific rationale. Lastly, growth and development of neuro-oncology clinical care teams aim to further improve patients' outcomes and symptoms, especially at the end of life.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas , Oncologia/tendências , Biologia Molecular/tendências , Neurologia/tendências , Animais , Humanos , Oncologia/métodos , Biologia Molecular/métodos , Neurologia/métodos
17.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2288: 25-48, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34270003

RESUMO

Doubled haploid (DH) technology produces strictly homozygous fertile plant thanks to doubling the chromosomes of a haploid embryo/seedling. Haploid embryos are derived from either male or female germ line cells and hold only half the number of chromosomes found in somatic plant tissues, albeit in a recombinant form due to meiotic genetic shuffling. DH production allows to rapidly fix these recombinant haploid genomes in the form of perfectly homozygous plants (inbred lines), which are produced in two rather than six or more generations. Thus, DH breeding enables fast evaluation of phenotypic traits on homogenous progeny. While for most crops haploid embryos are produced by costly and often genotype-dependent in vitro methods, for maize, two unique in planta systems are available to induce haploid embryos directly in the seed. Two "haploid inducer lines", identified from spontaneous maize mutants, are able to induce embryos of paternal or maternal origin. Although effortless crosses with lines of interest are sufficient to trigger haploid embryos, substantial improvements were necessary to bring DH technology to large scale production. They include the development of modern haploid inducer lines with high induction rates (8-12%), and methods to sort kernels with haploid embryos from the normal ones. Chromosome doubling represents also a crucial step in the DH process. Recent identification of genomic loci involved in spontaneous doubling opens up perspectives for a fully in planta DH pipeline in maize. Although discovered more than 60 years ago, maize haploid inducer lines still make headlines thanks to novel applications and findings. Indeed, maternal haploid induction was elegantly diverted to deliver genome editing machinery in germplasm recalcitrant to transformation techniques. The recent discovery of two molecular players controlling haploid induction allowed to revisit the mechanistic basis of maize maternal haploid induction and to successfully translate haploid induction ability to other crops.


Assuntos
Melhoramento Vegetal/métodos , Zea mays/genética , Cromossomos de Plantas/genética , Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cruzamentos Genéticos , Diploide , Edição de Genes , Genoma de Planta , Haploidia , Homozigoto , Vigor Híbrido , Modelos Genéticos , Biologia Molecular/métodos , Fenótipo , Sementes/genética , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Zea mays/crescimento & desenvolvimento
18.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2288: 3-23, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34270002

RESUMO

High frequency of albino plant formation in isolated microspore or anther cultures is a great problem limiting the possibility of their exploitation on a wider scale. It is highly inconvenient as androgenesis-based doubled haploid (DH) technology provides the simplest and shortest way to total homozygosity, highly valued by plant geneticists, biotechnologists and especially, plant breeders, and this phenomenon constitutes a serious limitation of these otherwise powerful tools. The genotype-dependent tendency toward albino plant formation is typical for many monocotyledonous plants, including cereals like wheat, barley, rice, triticale, oat and rye - the most important from the economical point of view. Despite many efforts, the precise mechanism underlying chlorophyll deficiency has not yet been elucidated. In this chapter, we review the data concerning molecular and physiological control over proper/disturbed chloroplast biogenesis, old hypotheses explaining the mechanism of chlorophyll deficiency, and recent studies which shed new light on this phenomenon.


Assuntos
Grão Comestível/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Grão Comestível/fisiologia , Pigmentação , Melhoramento Vegetal/métodos , Clorofila/deficiência , Clorofila/genética , Diploide , Grão Comestível/genética , Haploidia , Homozigoto , Modelos Biológicos , Biologia Molecular/métodos , Pigmentação/genética , Pigmentos Biológicos/deficiência , Pigmentos Biológicos/genética , Pólen/genética , Pólen/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Pólen/fisiologia , Regeneração/genética , Regeneração/fisiologia
19.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2288: 91-102, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34270006

RESUMO

We describe the production of doubled haploids through anther culture in caraway. Induction conditions for the cultivation of donor plants, anther collection, composition of culture media, and physical induction conditions for embryogenesis have been described. As a result, responsive lines with numerous haploid embryo production were obtained, which after colchicine treatment became fertile. From a practical point of view, two doubled haploid populations are tested under field conditions.


Assuntos
Carum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Carum/genética , Melhoramento Vegetal/métodos , Carum/fisiologia , Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Meios de Cultura/química , Diploide , Esterases/análise , Flores/genética , Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Haploidia , Homozigoto , Isoenzimas/análise , Biologia Molecular/métodos , Pólen/genética , Pólen/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Técnicas de Cultura de Tecidos
20.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2288: 49-72, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34270004

RESUMO

Molecular markers are employed for doubled haploid (DH) technology by researchers and applied plant breeders in many crops. In the 1990s, isozymes and RFLPs were commonly used marker technologies to characterize DHs and were later replaced by PCR- based markers (e.g., RAPDs, AFLPs, ISSRs, SSRs) and today by SNPs. Markers are used for multiple purposes in DH production, that is, for the study of genes underlying haploid induction and confirming homozygous plants of gametophytic origin. Furthermore, they are tools for investigating segregation in DH populations and for mapping simple and complex traits using DHs. The deployment of DHs and markers for developing trait-linked markers are demonstrated with examples from rapeseed, wheat, and barley. Marker development for resistance to viruses derived from genetic resources and their use in, for example, pyramiding of resistance genes, are given as an example for the combination of DH-technology and marker development in research. Today, marker systems amenable to automation are frequently used in applied plant breeding. Practical examples are given from Lantmännen (LM) ( https://Lantmannen.com ) using large-scale genotyping for variety development based on SSRs and SNPs.


Assuntos
Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Melhoramento Vegetal/métodos , Brassica napus/genética , Produtos Agrícolas/virologia , DNA de Plantas/genética , Diploide , Resistência à Doença/genética , Genes de Plantas , Marcadores Genéticos , Haploidia , Homozigoto , Hordeum/genética , Isoenzimas/genética , Biologia Molecular/métodos , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Doenças das Plantas/virologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Polimorfismo de Fragmento de Restrição , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Triticum/genética
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