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1.
Cell Commun Signal ; 20(1): 14, 2022 01 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35090497

RESUMO

Programmed cell death 1 ligand 1 (PD-L1) is the ligand for programmed death protein-1 (PD-1), is associated with immunosuppression. Signaling via PD-1/PD-L1 will transmits negative regulatory signals to T cells, inducing T-cell inhibition, reducing CD8+ T-cell proliferation, or promoting T-cell apoptosis, which effectively reduces the immune response and leads to large-scale tumor growth. Accordingly, many antibody preparations targeting PD-1 or PD-L1 have been designed to block the binding of these two proteins and restore T-cell proliferation and cytotoxicity of T cells. However, these drugs are ineffective in clinical practice. Recently, numerous of studies have shown that, in addition to the surface of tumor cells, PD-L1 is also found on the surface of extracellular vesicles secreted by these cells. Extracellular vesicle PD-L1 can also interact with PD-1 on the surface of T cells, leading to immunosuppression, and has been proposed as a potential mechanism underlying PD-1/PD-L1-targeted drug resistance. Therefore, it is important to explore the production, regulation and tumor immunosuppression of PD-L1 on the surface of tumor cells and extracellular vesicles, as well as the potential clinical application of extracellular vesicle PD-L1 as tumor biomarkers and therapeutic targets. Video Abstract.


Assuntos
Vesículas Extracelulares , Neoplasias , Antígeno B7-H1/metabolismo , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos , Vesículas Extracelulares/metabolismo , Humanos , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Microambiente Tumoral
2.
Biomed Res Int ; 2022: 3758731, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35496042

RESUMO

Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) has a high incidence and low survival rate, necessitating the identification of novel specific biomarkers. Centromere-associated proteins (CENPs) have been reported to be biomarkers for many cancers, but their roles in ESCC have seldom been investigated. Here, the potential clinical roles of CENPs in ESCC patients were demonstrated by a systematic bioinformatics analysis. Most CENP-encoding genes were differentially expressed between tumor and normal tissues. CENPA, CENPE, CENPF, CENPI, CENPM, CENPN, CENPQ, and CENPR were upregulated universally in the three datasets. Survival analysis demonstrated that high expression of CENPE and CENPQ was positively correlated with the outcomes of ESCC patients. The CENPE-based forecast model was more accurate than the tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) staging-based model, which was classified as stage I/II vs. III/IV. More importantly, the forecast model based on the commonly upregulated CENPs exhibited a much higher area under the curve (AUC) value (0.855) than the currently known TTL, ZNF750, AC016205.1, and BOLA3 biomarkers. The nomogram model integrating the CENPs, TNM stage, and sex was highly accurate in the prognosis of ESCC patients (AUC = 0.906). Besides, gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) demonstrated that CENPE expression is significantly correlated with cell cycle, G2/M checkpoint, mitotic spindle, p53, etc. Finally, in validation experiments, we also found that CENPE and CENPQ were significantly overexpressed in esophageal cancer cells. Taken together, these results clearly suggest that CENPs are clinically promising diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers for ESCC patients.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Esofágicas , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas do Esôfago , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Centrômero , Neoplasias Esofágicas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Esofágicas/genética , Neoplasias Esofágicas/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas do Esôfago/diagnóstico , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas do Esôfago/genética , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas do Esôfago/metabolismo , Humanos , Proteínas Mitocondriais/metabolismo , Prognóstico , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/genética , Regulação para Cima/genética
3.
Comput Biol Med ; 146: 105688, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35680454

RESUMO

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the most common malignancy of digestive system with significant mortality rate. CRC patients with comparable clinical symptoms or at similar stages of the disease have different outcomes. This underlying clinical result is almost inevitably due to genetic heterogeneity. Therefore, the current study aimed to highlight gene signatures during CRC and unveil their potential mechanisms through bioinformatic analysis. The gene expression profiles (GSE28000, GSE33113, GSE44861, and GSE37182) were downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus database, and the differential expressed genes (DEGs) were identified in normal tissues and tumor tissue samples of CRC patients. In total, 8931 DEGs were identified in CRC, including 411 up-regulated genes and 166 down-regulated genes. Further, a protein-protein interaction network was constructed and the highly related genes were clustered using the Molecular Complex Detection algorithm (MCODE) to retrieve the core interaction in different genes' crosstalk. The screened hub genes were subjected to functional enrichment analysis. GO analysis results showed that up-regulated DEGs were significantly enriched in biological processes (BP), including cell division, cell cycle, and cell proliferation; the down-regulated DEGs were significantly enriched in BP, including cellular homeostasis, detoxification, defense response, intracellular signaling cascade. Additionally, KEGG pathway analysis displayed the up-regulated DEGs were enriched in the cell cycle, TNF signaling, chemokine signaling pathway, while the down-regulated DEGs were enriched in NF-kB signaling, mineral reabsorption. Furthermore, the overall survival and expression levels of hub genes were detected by the UALCAN database and were further validated using Human Protein Atlas database. Taken together the identified DEGs (MT2A, CCNB1, DLGAP5, CCNA2, CXCL2, and RACGAP1) enhance our understanding of the molecular pathways that underpin CRC pathogenesis and could be exploited as molecular targets and diagnostic biomarkers for CRC therapy.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais , Biologia Computacional , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/metabolismo , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Ontologia Genética , Humanos , Mapas de Interação de Proteínas/genética , Transcriptoma
4.
Crit Rev Eukaryot Gene Expr ; 32(4): 57-72, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35695666

RESUMO

Centromere protein family member genes (CENPx genes) have been reported to be exceptionally expressed in various cancers. However, the systematic analysis of their roles in lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) is still lacking. The aim of this study is to comprehensively analyze the expression and survival value of CENPx genes in LUAD and to perform immune analysis and related mechanistic investigations. We confirmed that CENPA, CENPF, CENPI, CENPK, CENPM, CENPN, CENPU and CENPW were highly expressed in LUAD, and their high expression were associated with poor prognosis (P < 0.05). Methylation results showed that methylation of one CpG site on promotor of CENPF, one of CENPU and two CENPMs were relevant to overall survival in LUAD. The gene alteration analysis demonstrated that the altered group of CENPF were correlated with poor overall survival. Microsatellite instability analysis concluded that the expression of CENPF and microsatellite instability scores were correlated positively with statistical significance. In addition, the expression changes of these eight genes were significantly associated with immune cell infiltration and the expression of immunoinhibitors, immunostimulators, and major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules. Functional enrichment analysis indicated that directly related genes were mainly involved in MRNA splicing, via spliceosome, Poly(A) RNA binding and Spliceosome. Moreover, we established a risk model based on LASSO regression. The expression changes of these eight genes in the Gene Expression Omnibus were also highly expressed in LUAD-compared with normal tissues, which confirmed the analysis in the Gene Expression Profiling Interactive Analysis (GEPIA) database. To sum up, we aimed to provide new biomarkers.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/genética , Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/patologia , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Centrômero/metabolismo , Centrômero/patologia , Proteínas Cromossômicas não Histona/genética , Proteínas Cromossômicas não Histona/metabolismo , Família , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Instabilidade de Microssatélites
5.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 14(11): 4739-4754, 2022 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35675033

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Immune microenvironment and microRNAs serve as common predictors for diagnosis and prognosis of tumors. METHODS: Expression of 122 genes and 126 microRNAs in thymoma was obtained from TCGA database. The proportion of tumor-infiltrating cells was calculated, and IMRS was constructed. TREM2hi score was calculated before functional enrichment analysis on gene sets. RESULTS: IMRS3, TREM2hi score, and CD8+ T lymphocyte abundance were significantly different among WHO classifications. WHO classification, Masaoka staging, and miR-130b-5p, miR-1307-3p, miR-425-5p, CD8, CD68, and CCL18 expression were prognostic factors for relapse-free survival and overall survival. IMRS3 upregulation polarized macrophages into M2, which rejected CD8+ T and other effector lymphocytes to promote thymoma malignant progression. CONCLUSIONS: BRRS may present a novel immune-related microRNA signature for TET prognosis.


Assuntos
MicroRNAs , Timoma , Neoplasias do Timo , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , MicroRNAs/genética , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/genética , Prognóstico , Timoma/genética , Neoplasias do Timo/genética , Microambiente Tumoral/genética
6.
J Transl Med ; 20(1): 247, 2022 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35642038

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: mTOR pathway is known to promote cancer malignancy and influence cancer immunity but is unknown for its role in immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) therapy. METHODS: Using Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center dataset (MSKCC), we extracted mTOR pathway gene mutations for stepwise Cox regression in 1661 cancer patients received ICI. We associated the mutation of the gene signature resulted from the stepwise Cox regression with the 1661 patients' survival. Other 553 ICI-treated patients were collected from 6 cohorts for validation. We also performed this survival association in patients without ICI treatment from MSKCC as discovery (n = 2244) and The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) as validation (n = 763). Pathway enrichment analysis were performed using transcriptome profiles from TCGA and IMvigor210 trial to investigate the potential mechanism. RESULTS: We identified 8 genes involved in mTOR pathway, including FGFR2, PIK3C3, FGFR4, FGFR1, FGF3, AKT1, mTOR, and RPTOR, resulted from stepwise Cox regression in discovery (n = 1661). In both discovery (n = 1661) and validation (n = 553), the mutation of the 8-gene signature was associated with better survival of the patients treated with ICI, which was independent of tumor mutation burden (TMB) and mainly attributed to the missense mutations. This survival association was not observed in patients without ICI therapy. Intriguingly, the mutation of the 8-gene signature was associated with increased TMB and PD1/PD-L1 expression. Immunologically, pathways involved in anti-tumor immune response were enriched in presence of this mutational signature in mTOR pathway, leading to increased infiltration of immune effector cells (e.g., CD8 + T cells, NK cells, and M1 macrophages), but decreased infiltration of immune inhibitory M2 macrophages. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggested that mTOR pathway gene mutations were predictive of better survival upon ICI treatment in multiple cancers, likely by its association with enhanced anti-tumor immunity. Larger studies are warranted to validate our findings.


Assuntos
Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico , Neoplasias , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Humanos , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/farmacologia , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/uso terapêutico , Mutação/genética , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/genética , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/genética
7.
Breast Cancer Res ; 24(1): 38, 2022 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35659359

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The effect of extracellular microenvironment (hypoxia and pH) has been regarded as a key hallmark in cancer progression. The study aims to investigate the effects of carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX), a key hypoxia-inducible marker, in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) in correlation with clinicopathological parameters and predicting survival outcomes. METHODS: A total of 323 TNBC cases diagnosed at the Department of Anatomical Pathology, Singapore General Hospital from 2003 to 2013 were used. Immunohistochemical staining (IHC) was performed using CAIX antibody and digital mRNA quantification was performed using NanoString assays. CAIX membranous expression was correlated with clinicopathological parameters using Chi-squared test or Fisher's exact tests. Disease-free survival (DFS) and overall-survival (OS) were estimated using Kaplan-Meier analysis and compared between groups with the log-rank test. RESULTS: Forty percent of TNBCs were observed to express CAIX protein and demonstrated significant association with larger tumour size (P = 0.002), higher histological grade (P < 0.001), and significantly worse disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) (after adjustment: HR = 2.99, 95% CI = 1.78-5.02, P < 0.001 and HR = 2.56, 95% CI = 1.41-4.65, P = 0.002, respectively). Gene ontology enrichment analysis revealed six significantly enriched cellular functions (secretion, cellular component disassembly, regulation of protein complex assembly, glycolytic process, cellular macromolecular complex assembly, positive regulation of cellular component biogenesis) associated with genes differentially expressed (CAIX, SETX, WAS, HK2, DDIT4, TUBA4α, ARL1). Three genes (WAS, SETX and DDIT4) were related to DNA repair, indicating that DNA stability may be influenced by hypoxia in TNBC. CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate that CAIX appears to be a significant hypoxia-inducible molecular marker and increased CAIX protein levels are independently associated with poor survival in TNBC. Identification of CAIX-linked seven gene-signature and its relationship with enriched cellular functions further support the implication and influence of hypoxia-mediated CAIX expression in TNBC tumour microenvironment.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Anidrases Carbônicas , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas , Antígenos de Neoplasias/genética , Antígenos de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Anidrase Carbônica IX/genética , Anidrase Carbônica IX/metabolismo , Anidrases Carbônicas/genética , Anidrases Carbônicas/metabolismo , DNA Helicases , Feminino , Humanos , Hipóxia/genética , Enzimas Multifuncionais , Prognóstico , RNA Helicases , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/genética , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/patologia , Microambiente Tumoral/genética
8.
Front Immunol ; 13: 881453, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35663965

RESUMO

Cyclin-dependent kinase regulatory subunit 2 (CKS2) is a potential prognostic marker and is overexpressed in various cancers. This study analyzed sequencing and clinical data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and Gene Expression Omnibus, with external validation using the Chinese Glioma Genome Atlas (CGGA) data. CKS2 expression in the normal brain and tumor tissue was compared. cBioPortal and MethSurv were utilized to scrutinize the prognostic value of CKS2 methylation. Gene set enrichment examination and single-sample gene set enrichment analysis were employed to explore the potential biological functions of CKS2. Cell viability, colony formation, and transwell assays were conducted to evaluate the influence of CKS2 on glioma cell proliferation and invasion. Compared with normal brain tissue, the expression of CKS2 was upregulated in glioma samples (p < 0.001). Multivariate data analysis from TCGA and CGGA indicated that increased expression of CKS2 was an independent risk factor for the prognosis of overall survival in glioma patients. CKS2 methylation was negatively associated with CKS2 expression. Patients with CKS2 hypomethylation had worse overall survival compared with patients with CKS2 methylation, as suggested by the analysis of both TCGA and CGGA datasets. The expression level of CKS2 is closely related to tumor immunity, including the correlation of tumor immune cell infiltration, immune score, and co-expression of multiple immune-related genes. In addition, CKS2 is associated with several immune checkpoints and responses to the chemotherapy drug cisplatin. CKS2 knockdown impeded the expansion and aggression of glioma cell lines. The changes in CKS2 expression may provide a novel prognostic biomarker that can be used to improve patient overall survival rates.


Assuntos
Quinases relacionadas a CDC2 e CDC28 , Glioma , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Quinases relacionadas a CDC2 e CDC28/genética , Quinases relacionadas a CDC2 e CDC28/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/metabolismo , Proliferação de Células/genética , Metilação de DNA , Glioma/patologia , Humanos , Prognóstico
9.
J Immunol Res ; 2022: 1336509, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35664357

RESUMO

Background: The CXC chemokines belong to a unique family of chemotactic cytokines that influence the initiation, progression, and clinical outcome of many tumor types. Herein, we investigated the association of the CXC-chemokine ligand 3 (CXCL3) with tumor progression and an unfavorable prognosis for colorectal cancer (CRC). Methods: The quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to explore the expression of CXCL3 in CRC tissue, adjacent tissue, and plasma. The usefulness of plasma levels of CXCL3 for the diagnosis of CRC was evaluated by receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. Pearson's correlation analysis assessed relationships among plasma CXCL3, cancer tissue CXCL3, and plasma carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA). Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to assess the survival of CRC patients with high and low expression levels of CXCL3. Survival differences were compared by log-rank test. Results: Initial analysis of the GSE156720 dataset identified CXCL3 as the most enriched CXCL gene in CRC patients. Higher CXCL3 levels were detected in CRC tissue than in adjacent tissue (P < 0.001). Compared to healthy controls, CRC patient plasma CXCL3 levels were higher (P < 0.001). The area under the curve was 0.81 with a sensitivity of 0.71 and specificity of 0.82, distinguishing CRC from other tumor types. Plasma CXCL3 was positively related to CXCL3 in cancer tissue (r = 0.78, P < 0.01), and also to plasma CEA (r = 0.50, P < 0.01). Plasma CXCL3 was also related to tumor size (P = 0.034), staging (P < 0.001), tumor stage (P = 0.003), differentiation (P = 0.001), and lymph node metastasis (P = 0.007), but not to sex (P = 0.853), age (P = 0.691), tumor site (P = 1.347), or distant metastasis (P = 1.218). Conclusions: CXCL3 levels were increased in CRC patients, with plasma CXCL3 levels associated with tumor progression and an unfavorable CRC prognosis. The results of this study suggest that plasma CXCL3 may be a novel diagnostic and prognostic biomarker for CRC.


Assuntos
Antígeno Carcinoembrionário , Neoplasias Colorretais , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Quimiocinas CXC/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Prognóstico
10.
BMC Cancer ; 22(1): 620, 2022 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35672673

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cholangiocarcinoma (CHOL) is a malignant tumor that originates in the extrahepatic bile duct and can extend from the hilar region to the lower end of the common bile duct. The prognosis of CHOL patients is particularly poor; therefore, in this study, we screened mRNAs correlated with N6-methyladenosine (m6A) to construct a risk model for prognosis in CHOL. METHODS: The TCGA-CHOL dataset was applied to obtain and analyze the coexpression of 1281 m6A-related mRNAs, from which 14 were selected for further analysis through univariate proportional hazards (cox) regression analysis. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor interacting protein (AIP), CCAAT/enhancer binding protein beta (CEBPB), syndecan1 (SDC1), vacuolar protein sorting 25 homolog (VPS25) and syntaxin binding protein 2 (STXBP2) were then screened out through the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) and multivariate Cox regression analysis to develop a precise m6A-related mRNA prognosis risk model (MRMRPM) with an area under curve (AUC) of 0.908 and 0.923 after 1 and 2 years, respectively. We divided the samples into high-risk and low-risk groups using the m6A-related mRNA prognosis risk model. RESULTS: Kaplan-Meier analysis indicated poor overall survival (OS) for the high-risk group. Two Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) datasets (GSE89748 and GSE107943) were used to validate the risk model. The results of drug sensitivity and immune cell infiltration analysis showed that the risk model could serve as a prognosis index of potential immunotherapeutic characteristics and drug sensitivity. Furthermore, the proportion of resting dendritic cells and regulatory T cells was positively associated with an increased expression of four m6A-related mRNAs - AIP, CEBPB, SDC1, and VPS25 - in the high-risk CHOL group. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that this model can be a prognostic indicator for CHOL patients.


Assuntos
Neoplasias dos Ductos Biliares , Colangiocarcinoma , Neoplasias dos Ductos Biliares/genética , Ductos Biliares Intra-Hepáticos , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Colangiocarcinoma/genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Prognóstico , RNA Mensageiro/genética
11.
Dis Markers ; 2022: 5286820, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35707714

RESUMO

Background: CYP26A1 has been reported in multiple cancers. However, the role of CYP26A1 in pancreatic cancer (PC) has not been explored. Method: The public data used for this study was obtained from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO), and Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia (CCLE) cell lines. CCK8, colony formation, and EdU assay were used to assess the proliferation ability of cancer cells. Transwell and wound healing assays were used to evaluate the invasion and migration ability of cancer cells. qRT-PCR and western blot assays were used to analyze the RNA and protein level of genes. Survival package was used for prognosis analysis. Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA) was used to identify biological pathway differences between two groups. ssGSEA analysis was used to quantify the immune microenvironment in PC tissue. GDSC and TIDE analyses were used for sensitivity analysis of chemotherapy and immunotherapy. Results: Our results showed that CYP26A1 was overexpressed in PC tissue and cell lines. Meanwhile, metastatic PC cell lines tend to have a higher CYP26A1 level compared with the primary PC cell lines based on CCLE data. Moreover, CYP26A1 was associated with worse clinical features. Also, we found that CYP26A1 had a satisfactory efficiency in predicting overall survival, disease-specific survival, and progression-free interval of PC patients, independent of other clinical features. In vitro experiments indicated that CYP26A1 could significantly facilitate the proliferation, invasion, and migration ability of PC cells. GSEA showed that the pathways of angiogenesis, E2F target, MYC target, mTORC signaling, G2M checkpoint, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition were activated in high CYP26A1 patients. Immune infiltration analysis showed that CYP26A1 was positively correlated with macrophages, Th1 cells, and Treg cells, but negatively correlated with Th17 cells. TIDE analysis showed that non_responder patients had a higher CYP26A1 level compared with predicted responder patients of immunotherapy. Drug sensitivity analysis and assay showed that CYP26A1 could increase the chemotherapy sensitivity of gemcitabine. Conclusions: In summary, CYP26A1 promotes PC progression and is a novel biomarker of PC, with potential for clinical application.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais , Neoplasias Pancreáticas , Ácido Retinoico 4 Hidroxilase , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/genética , Humanos , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Prognóstico , Ácido Retinoico 4 Hidroxilase/genética , Microambiente Tumoral
12.
BMC Cancer ; 22(1): 681, 2022 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35729596

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The C-X-C chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) has been suggested to play an important role in several types of cancers and is related to biological behaviors connected with tumor progression. However, the clinical significance and application of CXCR4 in lung cancer remain disputable. Thus, we conducted a meta-analysis to investigate the impact of CXCR4 expression on survival and clinicopathological features in lung cancer. METHODS: Comprehensive literature searches were conducted in PubMed, Embase and Web of Science for relevant studies. We pooled hazard ratios (HRs)/odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) by STATA 12.0 to evaluate the potential value of CXCR4 expression. RESULTS: Twenty-seven relevant articles involving 2932 patients with lung cancer were included in our meta-analysis. The results revealed that CXCR4 expression was apparently associated with poor overall survival (OS) (HR 1.61, 95% CI 1.42-1.82) and disease-free survival (HR 3.39, 95% CI 2.38-4.83). Furthermore, a significant correlation with poor OS was obvious in non-small cell lung cancer patients (HR 1.59, 95% CI 1.40-1.81) and in patients showing CXCR4 expression in the cytoplasm (HR 2.10, 95% CI 1.55-2.84) and the membrane (HR 1.74, 95% CI 1.24-2.45). CXCR4 expression was significantly associated with men (OR 1.32, 95% CI 1.08-1.61), advanced tumor stages (T3-T4) (OR 2.34, 95% CI 1.28-4.28), advanced nodal stages (N > 0) (OR 2.34, 95% CI 1.90-2.90), distant metastasis (OR 3.65, 95% CI 1.53-8.69), advanced TNM stages (TNM stages III, IV) (OR 3.10, 95% CI 1.95-4.93) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) expression (OR 2.44, 95% CI 1.44-4.12) but was not associated with age, smoking history, histopathology, differentiation, lymphatic vessel invasion or local recurrence. CONCLUSION: High expression of CXCR4 is related to tumor progression and might be an adverse prognostic factor for lung cancer.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Prognóstico , Receptores CXCR4/genética , Receptores CXCR4/metabolismo
13.
Cancer Imaging ; 22(1): 31, 2022 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35729608

RESUMO

The goals of precision oncology are to provide targeted drug therapy based on each individual's specific tumor biology, and to enable the prediction and early assessment of treatment response to allow treatment modification when necessary. Thus, precision oncology aims to maximize treatment success while minimizing the side effects of inadequate or suboptimal therapies. Molecular imaging, through noninvasive assessment of clinically relevant tumor biomarkers across the entire disease burden, has the potential to revolutionize clinical oncology, including breast oncology. In this article, we review breast cancer positron emission tomography (PET) imaging biomarkers for providing early response assessment and predicting treatment outcomes. For 2-18fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG), a marker of cellular glucose metabolism that is well established for staging multiple types of malignancies including breast cancer, we highlight novel applications for early response assessment. We then review current and future applications of novel PET biomarkers for imaging the steroid receptors, including the estrogen and progesterone receptors, the HER2 receptor, cellular proliferation, and amino acid metabolism.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Fluordesoxiglucose F18/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Imagem Molecular/métodos , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons/métodos , Medicina de Precisão , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos/uso terapêutico
14.
BMC Cancer ; 22(1): 685, 2022 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35729618

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Glutathione-S transferases (GSTs) comprise a series of critical enzymes involved in detoxification of endogenous or xenobiotic compounds. Among several GSTs, Glutathione S-transferases mu (GSTM) has been implicated in a number of cancer types. However, the prognostic value and potential functions of the GSTM family genes have not been investigated in lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD). METHODS: We examined the expression of GSTM5 in LUAD and identified associations among GSTM5 expression, clinicopathological features, survival data from the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). The correlation between GSTM5 DNA methylation and its expression was analyzed using the MEXPRESS tool and UCSC Xena browser. The methylation status of GSTM5 in the promoter region in lung cancer cells was measured by methylation-specific PCR (MSP). After 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine treatment of lung cancer cells, expression of GSTM5, cell proliferation and migration were assessed by RT-PCR, CCK-8 and transwell assays, respectively. RESULTS: The results showed that GSTM5 was abnormally down-regulated in LUAD patients' tissues, and patients with low GSTM5 expression level had significantly shorter OS. Cox regression analyses revealed that GSTM5 was associated with overall survival (OS) of LUAD patients, which expression was an independent prognostic indicator in terms of OS (hazard ratio: 0.848; 95% CI: 0.762-0.945; P = 0.003). In addition, we found the promoter region of GSTM5 was hypermethylated in the tumor tissue compared with adjacent normal tissues, and the average methylation level of GSTM5 were moderately correlated with its expression. Moreover, methylation-specific PCR also showed that the GSTM5 gene promoter was hypermethylated in lung cancer cells, and treatment with 5-Aza-CdR can restore the gene expression and inhibit cell proliferation and migration. Finally, Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA) revealed that low GSTM5 expression was significantly related to DNA repair pathways. CONCLUSION: Our data demonstrate that low GSTM5 expression and its high DNA methylation status may act as a novel putative molecular target gene for LUAD.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/patologia , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , DNA/metabolismo , Metilação de DNA , Decitabina , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Glutationa/metabolismo , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Prognóstico , Transferases/genética , Transferases/metabolismo
15.
Bioengineered ; 13(6): 14118-14124, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35730467

RESUMO

Circular RNAs (circRNAs) play an essential role in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC); however, the precise role of circRNAs in the diagnosis and prognosis of HCC remains unclear. The circRNA circ_0000437 was identified in the microarray dataset GSE166678 and was detected in HCC and paired adjacent tissue and serum samples in both the HCC and control groups by reverse transcription quantitative PCR. The association between circ_0000437 expression and clinicopathological characteristics was investigated. Furthermore, the diagnostic and prognostic values of circ_0000437 were determined using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) and Kaplan-Meier curves. Circ_0000437 expression was markedly upregulated in the tumor group compared with the control group and was correlated with tumor node metastasis (TNM) classification, differentiation degree, tumor size, and Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) stage (P< 0.05) in both the tumor tissues and serum. Furthermore, poor overall survival (OS) was correlated with high circ_0000437 expression, and the area under the ROC curve (AUC) of circ_0000437 for the diagnosis of HCC was 0.9281 in the serum. Our findings suggest that circ_0000437 may be used as a novel biomarker for the diagnosis and prognosis of patients with HCC.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/diagnóstico , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/genética , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Prognóstico , RNA/genética , RNA/metabolismo , RNA Circular/genética
16.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 10567, 2022 Jun 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35732855

RESUMO

Netrin-4 (NTN4), a member of neurite guidance factor family, can promote neurite growth and elongation. This study aims to investigate if NTN4 correlates with prognosis and immune infiltration in breast cancer. The prognostic landscape of NTN4 and its relationship with immune infiltration in breast cancer were deciphered with public databases and immunohistochemistry (IHC) in tissue samples. The expression profiling and prognostic value of NTN4 were explored using UALCAN, TIMER, Kaplan-Meier Plotter and Prognoscan databases. Based on TIMER, relationships of NTN4 expression with tumor immune invasion and immune cell surface markers were evaluated. Transcription and survival analyses of NTN4 in breast cancer were investigated with cBioPortal database. The STRING database was explored to identify molecular functions and signaling pathways downstream of NTN4. NTN4 expression was significantly lower in invasive breast carcinoma compared with adjacent non-malignant tissues. Promoter methylation of NTN4 exhibited different patterns in breast cancer. Low expression of NTN4 was associated with poorer survival. NTN4 was significantly positively related to infiltration of CD8+ T cells, macrophages and neutrophils, whereas significantly negatively related to B cells and tumor purity. Association patterns varied with different subtypes. Various associations between NTN4 levels and immune cell surface markers were revealed. Different subtypes of breast cancer carried different genetic alterations. Mechanistically, NTN4 was involved in mediating multiple biological processes including morphogenesis and migration.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Netrinas/genética , Prognóstico , Análise de Sobrevida
17.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 17: 2679-2705, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35733418

RESUMO

Oral cancer is one of the most common cancers in the world, with more than 300,000 cases diagnosed each year, of which oral squamous cell carcinoma accounts for more than 90%, with a 5-year survival rate of only 40-60%, and poor prognosis. Exploring new strategies for the early diagnosis and treatment of oral cancer is key to improving the survival rate. Exosomes are nanoscale lipid bilayer membrane vesicles that are secreted by almost all cell types. During the development of oral cancer, exosomes can transport their contents (DNA, RNA, proteins, etc) to target cells and promote or inhibit the proliferation, invasion, and metastasis of oral cancer cells by influencing the host immune response, drug-resistant metastasis, and tumour angiogenesis. Therefore, exosomes have great potential and advantages as biomarkers for oral cancer diagnosis, and as drug delivery vehicles or targets for oral cancer therapy. In this review, we first describe the biogenesis, biological functions, and isolation methods of exosomes, followed by their relationship with oral cancer. Here, we focused on the potential of exosomes as oral cancer biomarkers, drug carriers, and therapeutic targets. Finally, we provide an insightful discussion of the opportunities and challenges of exosome application in oral cancer diagnosis and treatment, intending to offer new ideas for the clinical management of oral cancer.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Escamosas , Exossomos , Neoplasias Bucais , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/metabolismo , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/métodos , Exossomos/metabolismo , Humanos , Neoplasias Bucais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Bucais/terapia
18.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 13: 884777, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35733776

RESUMO

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a global health challenge with an increasing incidence worldwide. Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) function critically in HCC initiation and development. However, the prognostic significance of CAF-related gene signatures in HCC remains unknown. Therefore, the specific functions of CAF-related genes in HCC were investigated to help develop potential therapeutic strategies. In this study, CAF-related genes were screened from three CAF-related gene sets. HCC data from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database was applied to verify the screened CAF-related genes. Cluster analysis was used to identify clusters based on the expression pattern of CAF-related genes and two identified clusters were found to have a significant difference in overall survival (OS) and progression free intervals (PFI). The prognosis of HCC patients was predicted using the prognostic risk score model developed based on HCC data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) databases. High-risk group patients had a worse OS than those in low-risk group in TCGA. These results were validated in International Cancer Genome Consortium (ICGC) database. Moreover, combining the clinicopathological characteristics related to prognosis with the model, a nomogram was built for a more accurate prediction of OS of HCC patients. In addition, analyses of immune infiltration characteristics of tumor microenvironment (TME), chemosensitivity, and immunotherapy response were conducted to further evaluate the prognostic value of CAF-related genes. Patients with low-risk scores were found to have higher chemosensitivity to cisplatin, doxorubicin, and sorafenib. Individuals with high-risk scores were found with a higher expression of most immune checkpoints which indicated patients with high-risk scores may benefit more from treatment with immune checkpoint inhibitors. Furthermore, a correlation between immune infiltration characteristics of TME and patients with different risk levels was found. These findings provide a possibility for the further development of personalized treatments in HCC.


Assuntos
Fibroblastos Associados a Câncer , Carcinoma Hepatocelular , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Fibroblastos Associados a Câncer/metabolismo , Fibroblastos Associados a Câncer/patologia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/genética , Prognóstico , Microambiente Tumoral/genética
19.
Front Immunol ; 13: 874056, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35734169

RESUMO

The tumour microenvironment (TME) of clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) comprises multiple cell types, which promote tumour progression and modulate drug resistance and immune cell infiltrations via ligand-receptor (LR) interactions. However, the interactions, expression patterns, and clinical relevance of LR in the TME in ccRCC are insufficiently characterised. This study characterises the complex composition of the TME in ccRCC by analysing the single-cell sequencing (scRNA-seq) data of patients with ccRCC from the Gene expression omnibus database. On analysing the scRNA-seq data combined with the cancer genome atlas kidney renal clear cell carcinoma (TCGA-KIRC) dataset, 46 LR-pairs were identified that were significantly correlated and had prognostic values. Furthermore, a new molecular subtyping model was proposed based on these 46 LR-pairs. Molecular subtyping was performed in two ccRCC cohorts, revealing significant differences in prognosis between the subtypes of the two ccRCC cohorts. Different molecular subtypes exhibited different clinicopathological features, mutational, pathway, and immune signatures. Finally, the LR.score model that was constructed using ten essential LR-pairs that were identified based on LASSO Cox regression analysis revealed that the model could accurately predict the prognosis of patients with ccRCC. In addition, the differential expression of ten LR-pairs in tumour and normal cell lines was identified. Further functional experiments showed that CX3CL1 can exert anti-tumorigenic role in ccRCC cell line. Altogether, the effects of immunotherapy were connected to LR.scores, indicating that potential medications targeting these LR-pairs could contribute to the clinical benefit of immunotherapy. Therefore, this study identifies LR-pairs that could be effective biomarkers and predictors for molecular subtyping and immunotherapy effects in ccRCC. Targeting LR-pairs provides a new direction for immunotherapy regimens and prognostic evaluations in ccRCC.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Renais , Neoplasias Renais , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Células Renais/patologia , Proteínas de Transporte , Humanos , Neoplasias Renais/patologia , Ligantes , Prognóstico , Microambiente Tumoral/genética
20.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 9455, 2022 Jun 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35676303

RESUMO

We present a stochastic network model of metastasis spread for de novo metastatic breast cancer, composed of tumor to metastasis (primary seeding) and metastasis to metastasis spread (secondary seeding), parameterized using the SEER (Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results) database. The model provides a quantification of tumor cell dissemination rates between the tumor and metastasis sites. These rates were used to estimate the probability of developing a metastasis for untreated patients. The model was validated using tenfold cross-validation. We also investigated the effect of HER2 (Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2) status, estrogen receptor (ER) status and progesterone receptor (PR) status on the probability of metastatic spread. We found that dissemination rate through secondary seeding is up to 300 times higher than through primary seeding. Hormone receptor positivity promotes seeding to the bone and reduces seeding to the lungs and primary seeding to the liver, while HER2 expression increases dissemination to the bone, lungs and primary seeding to the liver. Secondary seeding from the lungs to the liver seems to be hormone receptor-independent, while that from the lungs to the brain appears HER2-independent.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Feminino , Hormônios , Humanos , Metástase Neoplásica , Receptor ErbB-2/metabolismo , Receptores de Estrogênio/metabolismo , Receptores de Progesterona/metabolismo
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