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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 803: 150097, 2022 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34500263

RESUMO

Pollution is a major worldwide problem that is increasing with urban growth, mainly along coastal areas. Pollution is often worse, governance is poorer and managerial strategies to improve environmental quality are less advanced in developing than developed countries. Here, we present an overview of the current scientific knowledge of the impacts of contamination on the biota of coastal ecosystems of Brazil and evaluate the scientific challenges to provide baseline information for local managerial purposes. We compiled data from 323 peer-reviewed published papers from the extensive Brazilian coast. We critically evaluated the produced knowledge (target contaminants, sources, ecosystems, taxa, response variables) and the science behind it (rigour and setting) within its socioenvironmental context (land occupation, use of the coast, sanitation status, contamination history). Research was driven largely by environmental outcomes of industrial development with a focus on the single effects of metals on the biota. The current knowledge derives mainly from laboratory manipulative experiments or from correlative field studies of changes in the biota with varying levels of contamination. Of these, 70% had problems in their experimental design. Environmental impacts have mainly been assessed using standard indicators of populations, mostly in ecotoxicological studies. Benthic assemblages have mostly been studied using structural indicators in field studies. Future assessments of impacts should expand research to more taxonomic groups and ecosystem compartments, adding combined functional and structural responses. Furthermore, further investigations need to consider the interactive effects of contaminants and other environmental stressors. By doing so, researchers would deliver more robust and effective results to solve problems of pollution.


Assuntos
Países em Desenvolvimento , Ecossistema , Biota , Brasil , Poluição Ambiental
2.
Sci Total Environ ; 806(Pt 1): 150263, 2022 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34571218

RESUMO

Microplastics (MPs) are ubiquitous in various environment compartments, including food. Here, we collected research reports of MPs in food published during 2010-2020, and summarized the analytical methods developed and utilized by researchers (e.g., digestion, separation and identification, as well as related QA/QC measures implemented), the occurrence, and the characteristics of MPs in six kinds of food. The potential effects on biota from exposure to MPs were also reviewed. The results showed that most researchers digested food samples using chemical solutions such as HNO3, H2O2, KOH, or NaOH. FT-IR and Raman spectroscopy were the main technique for identifying MPs, and microscopes were used to count MP particles. The abundances MPs were in the ranges of 0-5860, 2.00-1100, 0-698, 4.00-18.7, 0-5.68 × 104 and 900-3000 particles/kg in beverages, condiments, honey, meat, seafood and vegetables, respectively. The "maximum" annual human intake of MPs from these foods is approximately 1.42 × 105-1.54 × 105 particles/capita, equivalent to the consumption of 50 plastic bags (size: 0.04 mm × 250 mm × 400 mm, density: 0.98 g/cm3) each year. Blue-colored and fiber-shaped MP particles were the most commonly observed in food, predominated by PA, PE, PES, PET and PP types. Toxicity studies indicated that MPs, additives of MPs and adsorbents or microorganisms on the surfaces of MPs were all somewhat toxic to cells or biota. Exposure to MPs may induce oxidative stress, inflammation, neurotoxicity, and reproductive toxicity, and change the structure of intestinal microflora in cells or biota. Therefore, we call for more investigation into the residual, excretion and bioavailability of MPs or related absorbents/additives in biota and humans.


Assuntos
Microplásticos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Biota , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Plásticos/toxicidade , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
3.
Chemosphere ; 286(Pt 3): 131899, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34426292

RESUMO

Characterizing the distribution of biota in response to contaminants is a critical element of site risk assessments. In this study we investigated the spatial distributions of biota and soil chemistry data in surface soil from Sunny Corner, a legacy base metal sulfide mine, Australia. Our results showed that copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), arsenic (As) and lead (Pb) in the surface soil exceeded Australian national soil quality guidelines and posed risks to the environment. Environmental (e)DNA metabarcoding of prokaryote and eukaryote composition confirmed the suggestion of environmental risk posed by these elements collectively explaining 72.9 % and 60.5 % of the total variation in the composition of soil prokaryotes and eukaryotes, respectively. Prokaryotic taxa from the phyla Gemmatimonadetes, Verrucomicrobia and Deinococcus-Thermus showed similar spatial patterns to As and Pb, and were positively correlated. Eukaryotic taxa from the phylum Chlorophyta had similar positive correlations with As and Pb in the soil. In contrast, Amoebozoa and Cercozoa, were sensitive to metals and metalloids, having higher relative abundances in soils with lower concentrations of contaminants. Our study shows that metabarcoding is a promising ecological approach for rapid, large scale assessment of contaminated and potentially impacted sites.


Assuntos
DNA Ambiental , Metais Pesados , Poluentes do Solo , Austrália , Biota , Monitoramento Ambiental , Metais Pesados/análise , Medição de Risco , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise
4.
Sci Total Environ ; 805: 150186, 2022 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34818771

RESUMO

The lack of information about plastic pollution in many marine regions hinders firm actions to manage human activities and mitigate their impacts. This study conducted for the first time a quali-quantitative evaluation of floating plastics and their associated biota from coastal and oceanic waters in South Brazil. Plastics were collected using a manta net, and were categorized according to their shape, size, malleability and polymer composition. Multi-marker DNA metabarcoding (16S, and 18S V4 and V9 rRNA regions) was performed to identify prokaryotes and eukaryotes associated to plastics. We found 371 likely plastic particles of several sizes, shapes and polymers, and the average concentration of plastics at the region was 4461 items.km-2 (SD ± 3914). Microplastics (0.5 - 5 mm) were dominant in most sampling stations, with fragments and lines representing the most common shapes. Diverse groups of prokaryotes (20 bacteria phyla) and eukaryotes (41 groups) were associated with plastics. Both the community composition and richness of epiplastic organisms were highly variable between individual plastics but, in general, were not influenced by plastic categories. Organisms with potential pathogenicity (e.g. Vibrio species. and Alexandrium tamarense), as well as potential plastic degraders (e.g. Ralstonia, Pseudomonas, and Alcanivorax species), were found. The information generated here is pivotal to support strategies to prevent the input and mitigate the impacts of plastics and their associated organisms on marine environments.


Assuntos
Plásticos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Biota , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Microplásticos , Oceanos e Mares , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
5.
Sci Total Environ ; 805: 150361, 2022 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34818778

RESUMO

The use of aqueous film forming foams (AFFFs) as fire retardants is an critical point-source for per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) pollution into the aquatic environment. This study investigated PFASs pollution in the surface waters and biota (shellfish and fish) of Galveston Bay, following AFFFs use to extinguish a petrochemical fire (March 17th to 20th, 2019) of oil storage tanks at the International Terminals Company (ITC) in Deer Park (Houston, TX). The levels of up to twelve EPA priority PFASs were measured in surface waters and biota from March-November 2019. PFASs levels in surface waters showed mean total levels in March and April 2019 to be from 4× to ~300× higher than those measured in the following months. PFOS (perfluorooctanesulfonic acid) was the most abundant homolog measured at ≥66% of total PFASs. Maximal PFOS levels exceeded the State of Texas' water regulatory limit of 0.6 µg L-1 in 3% of the samples analyzed in March and April 2019. PFOS was also the most prominent homolog (≥66% of total PFASs) measured in eastern oysters (Crassostrea virginica), red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus), gafftopsail catfish (Bagre marinus), and spotted seatrout (Cynoscion nebulosus). A statistically significant elevation of PFOS body-burdens was measured in oysters and spotted seatrout in April and May 2019, respectively. A Hazard Ratio calculation for seafood safety suggests an advisory of 1-2 meals per week for gafftopsail catfish and red drum, and 2 meals per week for spotted seatrout to be protective for human exposure to PFOS. The levels in oysters indicated no immediate concerns for the dietary exposure of humans. Our results highlight a need for continual monitoring to assess the long-term fate and seafood advisories for PFASs.


Assuntos
Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos , Cervos , Fluorcarbonetos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos/análise , Animais , Baías , Biota , Fluorcarbonetos/análise , Humanos , Alimentos Marinhos , Frutos do Mar , Água , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
6.
Sci Total Environ ; 805: 150253, 2022 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34818787

RESUMO

Siverskyi Donets is the fourth longest river in Ukraine and its ecosystem is heavily affected by numerous agricultural and industrial activities. An impact of the on-going armed military conflicts in the Eastern Ukraine to the overall pollution by the chemicals has been studied. Considering the uncontrolled activities in the catchment due to the conflict, there is a high demand to assess the contamination status of the Siverskyi Donets basin. In this study, the occurrence of the EU Water Framework Directive priority substances, selected physicochemical parameters and wide-range emerging contaminants were investigated in surface water, groundwater, biota and river sediments samples from 13 sampling sites in the river basin. The study included metals, inorganic, non-polar and polar organic contaminants. The wide-scope target screening of 2316 substances and suspect screening of 2219 substances revealed occurrence of 83 compounds in the studied samples. A few industrial chemicals such as plasticizers bisphenol A and DEHP, as well as flame retardant brominated diphenylethers were found to be potentially hazardous to the ecosystem, exceeding the established legacy environmental quality standards (EQS) or the provisional no-effect concentration (PNEC) values. River sediment samples contained traces of long-term banned chemicals such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and degradation products of DDT (p,p'-DDD and p,p'-DDE). A simplified risk assessment based on comparison of measured concentration of the detected compounds against their (eco)toxicity threshold values from the NORMAN Ecotoxicology Database has been performed to aid their prioritization in future monitoring and, eventually, establishing the list of Siverskyi Donets River Basin Specific Pollutants. A comparison with the recent similar studies in the Dniester and Dnieper river basins in Ukraine has shown that the overall pollution by chemicals in the Siverskyi Donets basin is significantly lower.


Assuntos
Água Subterrânea , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Biota , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental , Sedimentos Geológicos , Rios , Água , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
7.
Am Nat ; 198(6): 694-705, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34762574

RESUMO

AbstractPredicting how ecological communities will respond to environmental change is challenging but highly relevant in this era of global change. Ecologists commonly use current spatial relationships between species and environmental conditions to make predictions about the future. This assumes that species will track conditions by shifting their distributions. However, theory and experimental evidence suggest that species interactions prevent communities from predictably tracking temporal changes in environmental conditions on the basis of current spatial relationships between species and environmental gradients. We tested this hypothesis by assessing the dynamics of protist species in replicated two-patch microcosm landscapes that experienced different regimes of spatial and temporal environmental heterogeneity (light vs. dark). Populations were kept in monocultures or polycultures to assess the effect of species interactions. In monocultures, abundances were predictable on the basis of current environmental conditions, regardless of whether the populations had experienced temporal environmental change. But in polycultures, abundances also depended on the history of the environmental conditions experienced. This suggests that because of species interactions, communities should respond differently to spatial versus temporal environmental changes. Thus, species interactions likely reduce the accuracy of predictions about future communities that are based on current spatial relationships between species and the environment.


Assuntos
Biota , Ecossistema
8.
Zootaxa ; 4996(1): 83-125, 2021 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34810544

RESUMO

Floating artificial structures provide sites for fouling communities and favourable habitat for the establishment of non-indigenous species. Two species of Tanaididae dominated crustacean biota in a one year time-series sampling of macroalgae on the floating dock at the West Beach boat ramp, Adelaide, South Australia. This paper provides identifications for these two species and discusses inter- and intra-species variability considering the available body of morphological and molecular information. We have given one species a new species designation, Tanais adelaidensis n. sp. The other has a 655 nucleotide CO1 sequence matching that of Hexapleomera sasuke Tanabe Kakui, 2019 collected in Japan, also matching a shorter CO1 sequence for a described Zeuxo Templeton, 1840 species from the Eastern Mediterranean. This work underlines the utility and need for detailed morphological and molecular data to resolve the taxonomy and biogeography of fouling and holdfast community tanaids, particularly those that have the demonstrated potential for a history of transport between geographically distant sites.


Assuntos
Crustáceos , Ecossistema , Animais , Biota , Austrália do Sul
9.
Glob Chang Biol ; 27(23): 6139-6155, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34523189

RESUMO

Abyssal plains cover more than half of Earth's surface, and the main food source in these ecosystems is phytodetritus, mainly originating from primary producers in the euphotic zone of the ocean. Global climate change is influencing phytoplankton abundance, productivity, and distribution. Increasing importance of picoplankton over diatom as primary producers in surface oceans (especially projected for higher latitudes) is projected and hence altering the quantity of organic carbon supplied to the abyssal seafloor as phytodetritus, consequences of which remain largely unknown. Here, we investigated the in situ responses of abyssal biota from viruses to megafauna to different types of phytoplankton input (diatoms or cyanobacteria which were labeled with stable isotopes) at equatorial (oligotrophic) and temperate (eutrophic) benthic sites in the Pacific Ocean (1°N at 4277 m water depth and 39°N at 5260 m water depth, respectively). Our results show that meiofauna and macrofauna generally preferred diatoms as a food source and played a relatively larger role in the consumption of phytodetritus at higher latitudes (39°N). Contrarily, prokaryotes and viruses showed similar or even stronger responses to cyanobacterial than to diatom supply. Moreover, the response of prokaryotes and viruses was very rapid (within 1-2 days) at both 1°N and 39°N, with quickest responses reported in the case of cyanobacterial supply at higher latitudes. Overall, our results suggest that benthic deep-sea eukaryotes will be negatively affected by the predicted decrease in diatoms in surface oceans, especially at higher latitudes, where benthic prokaryotes and viruses will otherwise likely increase their quantitative role and organic carbon cycling rates. In turn, such changes can contribute to decrease carbon transfer from phytodetritus to higher trophic levels, with strong potential to affect oceanic food webs, their biodiversity and consequently carbon sequestration capacity at the global scale.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Cianobactérias , Biota , Ecossistema , Oceanos e Mares
10.
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci ; 376(1837): 20210063, 2021 11 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34538135

RESUMO

Networks of species interactions underpin numerous ecosystem processes, but comprehensively sampling these interactions is difficult. Interactions intrinsically vary across space and time, and given the number of species that compose ecological communities, it can be tough to distinguish between a true negative (where two species never interact) from a false negative (where two species have not been observed interacting even though they actually do). Assessing the likelihood of interactions between species is an imperative for several fields of ecology. This means that to predict interactions between species-and to describe the structure, variation, and change of the ecological networks they form-we need to rely on modelling tools. Here, we provide a proof-of-concept, where we show how a simple neural network model makes accurate predictions about species interactions given limited data. We then assess the challenges and opportunities associated with improving interaction predictions, and provide a conceptual roadmap forward towards predictive models of ecological networks that is explicitly spatial and temporal. We conclude with a brief primer on the relevant methods and tools needed to start building these models, which we hope will guide this research programme forward. This article is part of the theme issue 'Infectious disease macroecology: parasite diversity and dynamics across the globe'.


Assuntos
Biota , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Modelos Biológicos , Redes Neurais de Computação , Análise Espaço-Temporal
11.
New Phytol ; 232(4): 1535-1539, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34482557

RESUMO

Plant-soil systems are key for understanding the effects of factors of global change. Recent work has highlighted the general importance of considering the simultaneous incidence of some factors or stressors. To help mechanistically dissect the possible interactions of such factors, we here propose three broad groups of mechanisms that may generally lead to nonadditivity of responses within a plant-soil system: direct factor interactions (that is one factor directly changing another), within-plant information processing and crosstalk, and effects of factors on groups of soil biota interacting with plants. Interactions are also possible within and across these groups. Factor interactions are very likely to be present in experiments, especially when dealing with an increasing number of factors. Identifying the nature of such interactions will be essential for understanding and predicting global change impacts on plants and soil.


Assuntos
Plantas , Solo , Biota , Microbiologia do Solo
12.
Mol Ecol Resour ; 21(8): 2782-2800, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34569715

RESUMO

Biodiversity accumulates hierarchically by means of ecological and evolutionary processes and feedbacks. Within ecological communities drift, dispersal, speciation, and selection operate simultaneously to shape patterns of biodiversity. Reconciling the relative importance of these is hindered by current models and inference methods, which tend to focus on a subset of processes and their resulting predictions. Here we introduce massive ecoevolutionary synthesis simulations (MESS), a unified mechanistic model of community assembly, rooted in classic island biogeography theory, which makes temporally explicit joint predictions across three biodiversity data axes: (i) species richness and abundances, (ii) population genetic diversities, and (iii) trait variation in a phylogenetic context. Using simulations we demonstrate that each data axis captures information at different timescales, and that integrating these axes enables discriminating among previously unidentifiable community assembly models. MESS is unique in generating predictions of community-scale genetic diversity, and in characterizing joint patterns of genetic diversity, abundance, and trait values. MESS unlocks the full potential for investigation of biodiversity processes using multidimensional community data including a genetic component, such as might be produced by contemporary eDNA or metabarcoding studies. We combine MESS with supervised machine learning to fit the parameters of the model to real data and infer processes underlying how biodiversity accumulates, using communities of tropical trees, arthropods, and gastropods as case studies that span a range of data availability scenarios, and spatial and taxonomic scales.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Modelos Biológicos , Biota , Variação Genética , Filogenia
13.
J Insect Sci ; 21(5)2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34553221

RESUMO

Hollows of veteran trees (i.e., rot holes) provide habitat for many rare and threatened saproxylic invertebrates. Rot holes are highly heterogeneous, particularly in terms of substrate and microclimate conditions. There is, however, a dearth of information regarding the differences in biological communities inhabiting rot holes with different environmental conditions. Invertebrates were sampled from European beech (Fagus sylvatica) rot holes in Windsor, Savernake, and Epping Forests (United Kingdom). For each rot hole, physical and environmental conditions were measured, including tree diameter, rot hole dimensions, rot hole height, substrate density, water content, and water potential. These parameters were used to assess the influence of environmental conditions and habitat characteristics on invertebrate communities. Rot hole invertebrate communities were extremely diverse, containing both woodland generalist and saproxylic specialist taxa. Large variation in community structure was observed between rot holes and across woodlands; all sites supported threatened and endangered taxa. Environmental conditions in rot holes were highly variable within and between woodland sites, and communities were predominantly structured by these environmental conditions. In particular, turnover between invertebrate communities was linked to high ß-diversity. The linked heterogeneity of environmental conditions and invertebrate communities in rot holes suggests that management of deadwood habitats in woodlands should strive to generate environmental heterogeneity to promote invertebrate diversity. Additional research is required to define how management and conservation activities can further promote enhanced biodiversity across rot holes.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Florestas , Invertebrados , Animais , Biota , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Ecossistema , Fagus , Árvores
14.
J Biosci Bioeng ; 132(6): 606-612, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34563462

RESUMO

The transition of the bacterial biota of Kishu saba-narezushi (mackerel-narezushi) in the Hidaka region of Wakayama prefecture, Japan, was analyzed using amplicon sequencing based on the V3-V4 variable region of the 16S rRNA gene. In the non-fermented sample (0 day), the major genus with the highest abundance ratio was Staphylococcus. In the early stage (fermentation for 2 days), however, the genus Lactococcus became a dominant species, and in the later stage (fermentation for 5 days), the abundance ratio of the genus Lactobacillus increased significantly. Lactococcus lactis strains isolated from the narezushi samples had the ability to suppress the growth of not only Staphylococcus genera but also Lactobacillus. Moreover, the isolates produced a bacteriocin, which was identified as nisin Z. On the basis of these results, it is concluded that L. lactis plays an important role in preparing the fermentation conditions of Kishu saba-narezushi in the early stage by suppressing unwanted microorganisms using lactic acid and nisin Z.


Assuntos
Lactococcus lactis , Nisina , Perciformes , Animais , Bactérias/metabolismo , Biota , Fermentação , Lactococcus lactis/genética , Lactococcus lactis/metabolismo , Nisina/metabolismo , Perciformes/metabolismo , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
15.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 93(3): e20191208, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34406284

RESUMO

The Peripampasic Arc is a set of low mountains / hills that connects the Andes, as it scatters to the East forming mountainous areas of lower heights in north-eastern Argentina, with the Atlantic coastal range of the Serra do Mar in Brazil. Numerous studies proved its important biogeographic connection for plant and animal phylogenies, but no information of this pattern is known to lichens. The aim of this work is to establish if the dispersion route of the lichenbiota follows the previously known Peripampasic Arc. For this reason, a comparative study of each area regarding its similarities was analyzed, with emphasis on the biota of the Buenos Aires' Sierras. We quantified the similarity and ß diversity of 104 saxicolous lichens species. There was a strong similarity between the Sierra de la Ventana and Tandil biota, which in turn is linked to the biotas of Uruguay, the Pampean Sierras and the northwest of Argentina. The lack of subgroups in the Peripampasic Arc implies the arc acts as a functional unit of dispersion, which is the most likely cause for the present lichens' distribution.


Assuntos
Líquens , Mariposas , Animais , Argentina , Biota , Filogenia , Plantas
16.
Environ Sci Technol ; 55(21): 14378-14388, 2021 11 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34347463

RESUMO

In the western USA, one legacy of historic mining is drainage of acidic, metal-rich water generated by exposure to oxygen of sulfide minerals in mine workings, referred to as acid mine drainage (AMD). Streams receiving AMD and natural acid rock drainage (ARD) have a low pH, high dissolved metal concentrations, and extensive streambed oxide deposits. Recently, enhanced ARD generation in the Snake River watershed in the Rocky Mountains has been shown to be associated with warmer summer air temperatures, which has been attributed to expanding weathering fronts that promote oxidation due to earlier drying of shallow soils. In mountain watersheds where complex orogeny disseminated minerals throughout the landscape, weathering processes may also mobilize rare earth elements (REEs). We report that in the Snake River REEs are currently distributed in streams at concentrations ranging from 1 to 100 µg/L. Further, analysis of archived sample indicates that REE increases over time are also associated with increased summer air temperatures. In downstream reaches where the Snake River discharges into a water supply reservoir, colloidal and particulate metal oxides are abundant and sorptive processes may influence REE speciation. We also show that REEs accumulate in benthic invertebrates at concentrations comparable to toxic metals associated with ARD.


Assuntos
Metais Terras Raras , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Biota , Mudança Climática , Colorado , Monitoramento Ambiental , Metais Terras Raras/análise , Minerais , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Qualidade da Água
17.
Environ Pollut ; 289: 117933, 2021 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34426206

RESUMO

Marine animals, plants or bacteria are a source of bioactive naturally-occurring halogenated compounds (NHCs) such as bromophenols (BPs), bromoanisoles (BAs) and hydroxylated or methoxylated analogues of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (HO-PBDEs, MeO-PBDEs) and bromobiphenyls (HO-BBs, MeO-BBs). This study applied a comprehensive screening approach using liquid chromatography high-resolution mass spectrometry and combining target, suspect and non-target screening with the aim to identify new hydroxylated NHCs which might be missed by commonly applied gas chromatographic methods. 24 alga samples, 4 sea sponge samples and 7 samples of other invertebrates were screened. Target screening was based on 19 available reference standards of BPs, (di)OH-BDEs and diOH-BBs and yielded seven unequivocally identified compounds. 6-OH-BDE47 was the most frequently detected compound with a detection frequency of 31%. Suspect screening yielded two additional compounds identified in alga samples as well as 17 and 8 compounds identified in sea sponge samples of Lamellodysidea sp. and Callyspongia sp., respectively. The suspect screening results presented here confirmed the findings of previous studies conducted on sea sponge samples of Lamellodysidea sp. and Callyspongia sp. Additionally, in Lamellodysidea sp. and Callyspongia sp. 13 and 4 newly identified NHCs are reported including heptabrominated diOH-BDE, monochlorinated pentabrominated diOH-BDE, hexabrominated OH-MeO-BDE and others. Non-target screening allowed the identification of 31 and 20 polyhalogenated compounds in Lamellodysidea sp. and Callyspongia sp. samples, respectively. Based on the obtained fragmentation spectra, polybrominated dihydroxylated diphenoxybenzenes (diOH-PBDPBs), such as hepta-, octa- and nonabrominated diOH-BDPBs, could be identified in both species. To our knowledge, this study is the first report on the environmental presence of OH-PBDPBs.


Assuntos
Biota , Éteres Difenil Halogenados , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida , Monitoramento Ambiental , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/análise , Espectrometria de Massas
18.
Environ Pollut ; 289: 117818, 2021 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34333265

RESUMO

Knowledge about how the COVID-19 pandemic can affect aquatic wildlife is still extremely limited, and no effect of SARS-CoV-2 or its structural constituents on invertebrate models has been reported so far. Thus, we investigated the presence of the 2019-new coronavirus in different urban wastewater samples and, later, evaluated the behavioral and biochemical effects of the exposure of Culex quinquefasciatus larvae to two SARS-CoV-2 spike protein peptides (PSPD-2002 and PSPD-2003) synthesized in our laboratory. Initially, our results show the contamination of wastewater by the new coronavirus, via RT-qPCR on the viral N1 gene. On the other hand, our study shows that short-term exposure (48 h) to a low concentration (40 µg/L) of the synthesized peptides induced changes in the locomotor and the olfactory-driven behavior of the C. quinquefascitus larvae, which were associated with increased production of ROS and AChE activity (cholinesterase effect). To our knowledge, this is the first study that reports the indirect effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on the larval phase of a freshwater invertebrate species. The results raise concerns at the ecological level where the observed biological effects may lead to drastic consequences.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Culicidae , Animais , Biota , Humanos , Larva , Pandemias , Peptídeos , SARS-CoV-2 , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus
19.
J Environ Radioact ; 237: 106713, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34388521

RESUMO

The present article introduces data on natural radioactivity (40K, 230,232Th, 234,238U) in the Antarctic marine and terrestrial environment. Various biota samples were analysed due to internal exposure to 40K, 230,232Th, 234,238U. Activity concentration of 40K was the highest in both marine and terrestrial samples. Mean values of 40K activity concentration are 1340 Bq/kg and 370 Bq/kg for the marine and terrestrial samples respectively. 234U/238U ratios analysis revealed that sea waters and sea spray are the main source of the uranium in the terrestrial samples. Average 230,232Th, 234,238U activity concentrations in the Antarctic biota do not exceed 6 Bq/kg. Weighted internal dose rates are relatively low; they range from approximately 0.1 to 0.6 µGy/h. Statistically significant differences in radionuclide accumulation were discovered between the mosses and lichens. It may point to various mechanisms of the nutrient absorption from the environment by these organisms.


Assuntos
Exposição à Radiação , Monitoramento de Radiação , Poluentes Radioativos do Solo , Urânio , Regiões Antárticas , Biota , Radioisótopos de Potássio/análise , Radioisótopos/análise , Poluentes Radioativos do Solo/análise , Tório/análise , Urânio/análise
20.
J Environ Radioact ; 237: 106723, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34438257

RESUMO

MOX-fuel production and spent nuclear fuel reprocessing started recently at the Mining-and-Chemical Combine (MCC, Zheleznogorsk, Russia) have caused an increase in controlled releases of plutonium to the Yenisei River. In this study, we analyzed time-dependent trends of plutonium (239,240Pu and 238Pu) in biota and bottom sediments of the Yenisei during 2008-2019, to estimate comparatively the potential of abundant representatives of biota as bio-monitors of contamination of the Yenisei by plutonium. Gamma-emitting radionuclides (40 K; 60Co; 137Cs; 152Eu; 241Am) were measured in environmental samples of the Yenisei as well. Samples of bottom sediments, water moss (Fontinalis antipyretica), shining pondweed (Potamogeton lucens), caddisfly larvae with casings (Apatania crymophila), and amphipods (Eulimnogammarus viridis and Palaseopsis cancelloides) were collected downstream and upstream of the radioactive discharge site. Environmental samples of the Yenisei collected downstream of the radioactive discharge site differed considerably in activity concentrations of plutonium but were similar in time-dependent trends of plutonium, reflecting the trends of annual discharges of plutonium. In 2018, the year of a sharp increase in controlled discharge of plutonium, the concentration of 239,240Pu in water moss (26 Bq kg-1 d.w.) was higher than in sediments (14 Bq kg-1 d.w.). In other years, the highest activity concentration of 2391,240Pu was observed in bottom sediments. In view of the higher magnitude of increase in plutonium concentration, water moss and shining pondweed can be considered as more sensitive indicators of increased fresh releases of plutonium than bottom sediments. Taking into account the food-related mechanism of plutonium uptake by amphipods, this representative of biota can be regarded as a sensitive monitor of bioavailable plutonium in the Yenisei.


Assuntos
Plutônio , Monitoramento de Radiação , Poluentes Radioativos da Água , Animais , Biota , Sedimentos Geológicos , Insetos , Plutônio/análise , Federação Russa , Sibéria , Poluentes Radioativos da Água/análise
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