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1.
Am Nat ; 203(6): 668-680, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38781525

RESUMO

AbstractMaintaining the stability of ecological communities is critical for conservation, yet we lack a clear understanding of what attributes of metacommunity structure control stability. Some theories suggest that greater dispersal promotes metacommunity stability by stabilizing local populations, while others suggest that dispersal synchronizes fluctuations across patches and leads to global instability. These effects of dispersal on stability may be mediated by metacommunity structure: the number of patches, the pattern of connections across patches, and levels of spatiotemporal correlation in the environment. Thus, we need theory to investigate metacommunity dynamics under different spatial structures and ecological scenarios. Here, we use simulations to investigate whether stability is primarily affected by connectivity, including dispersal rate and topology of connectivity network, or by mechanisms related to the number of patches. We find that in competitive metacommunities with environmental stochasticity, network topology has little effect on stability on the metacommunity scale even while it could change spatial diversity patterns. In contrast, the number of connected patches is the dominant factor promoting stability through averaging stochastic fluctuations across more patches, rather than due to more habitat heterogeneity per se. These results broaden our understanding of how metacommunity structure changes metacommunity stability, which is relevant for designing effective conservation strategies.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Modelos Biológicos , Dinâmica Populacional , Biota , Distribuição Animal , Processos Estocásticos , Meio Ambiente , Simulação por Computador
2.
Geobiology ; 22(3): e12597, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38700422

RESUMO

Ediacara-type macrofossils appear as early as ~575 Ma in deep-water facies of the Drook Formation of the Avalon Peninsula, Newfoundland, and the Nadaleen Formation of Yukon and Northwest Territories, Canada. Our ability to assess whether a deep-water origination of the Ediacara biota is a genuine reflection of evolutionary succession, an artifact of an incomplete stratigraphic record, or a bathymetrically controlled biotope is limited by a lack of geochronological constraints and detailed shelf-to-slope transects of Ediacaran continental margins. The Ediacaran Rackla Group of the Wernecke Mountains, NW Canada, represents an ideal shelf-to-slope depositional system to understand the spatiotemporal and environmental context of Ediacara-type organisms' stratigraphic occurrence. New sedimentological and paleontological data presented herein from the Wernecke Mountains establish a stratigraphic framework relating shelfal strata in the Goz/Corn Creek area to lower slope deposits in the Nadaleen River area. We report new discoveries of numerous Aspidella hold-fast discs, indicative of frondose Ediacara organisms, from deep-water slope deposits of the Nadaleen Formation stratigraphically below the Shuram carbon isotope excursion (CIE) in the Nadaleen River area. Such fossils are notably absent in coeval shallow-water strata in the Goz/Corn Creek region despite appropriate facies for potential preservation. The presence of pre-Shuram CIE Ediacara-type fossils occurring only in deep-water facies within a basin that has equivalent well-preserved shallow-water facies provides the first stratigraphic paleobiological support for a deep-water origination of the Ediacara biota. In contrast, new occurrences of Ediacara-type fossils (including juvenile fronds, Beltanelliformis, Aspidella, annulated tubes, and multiple ichnotaxa) are found above the Shuram CIE in both deep- and shallow-water deposits of the Blueflower Formation. Given existing age constraints on the Shuram CIE, it appears that Ediacaran organisms may have originated in the deeper ocean and lived there for up to ~15 million years before migrating into shelfal environments in the terminal Ediacaran. This indicates unique ecophysiological constraints likely shaped the initial habitat preference and later environmental expansion of the Ediacara biota.


Assuntos
Biota , Fósseis , Sedimentos Geológicos , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Sedimentos Geológicos/análise , Isótopos de Carbono/análise , Yukon , Terra Nova e Labrador , Paleontologia , Territórios do Noroeste
3.
Glob Chang Biol ; 30(4): e17283, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38663017

RESUMO

Stratospheric ozone, which has been depleted in recent decades by the release of anthropogenic gases, is critical for shielding the biosphere against ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation. Although the ozone layer is expected to recover before the end of the 21st century, a hole over Antarctica continues to appear each year. Ozone depletion usually peaks between September and October, when fortunately, most Antarctic terrestrial vegetation and soil biota is frozen, dormant and protected under snow cover. Similarly, much marine life is protected by sea ice cover. The ozone hole used to close before the onset of Antarctic summer, meaning that most biota were not exposed to severe springtime UV-B fluxes. However, in recent years, ozone depletion has persisted into December, which marks the beginning of austral summer. Early summertime ozone depletion is concerning: high incident UV-B radiation coincident with snowmelt and emergence of vegetation will mean biota is more exposed. The start of summer is also peak breeding season for many animals, thus extreme UV-B exposure (UV index up to 14) may come at a vulnerable time in their life cycle. Climate change, including changing wind patterns and strength, and particularly declining sea ice, are likely to compound UV-B exposure of Antarctic organisms, through earlier ice and snowmelt, heatwaves and droughts. Antarctic field research conducted decades ago tended to study UV impacts in isolation and more research that considers multiple climate impacts, and the true magnitude and timing of current UV increases is needed.


Assuntos
Biota , Mudança Climática , Camada de Gelo , Perda de Ozônio , Neve , Regiões Antárticas , Animais , Raios Ultravioleta , Estações do Ano , Ozônio Estratosférico/análise
4.
Ecol Lett ; 27(4): e14413, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38584579

RESUMO

Natural systems are built from multiple interconnected units, making their dynamics, functioning and fragility notoriously hard to predict. A fragility scenario of particular relevance concerns so-called regime shifts: abrupt transitions from healthy to degraded ecosystem states. An explanation for these shifts is that they arise as transitions between alternative stable states, a process that is well-understood in few-species models. However, how multistability upscales with system complexity remains a debated question. Here, we identify that four different multistability regimes generically emerge in models of species-rich communities and other archetypical complex biological systems assuming random interactions. Across the studied models, each regime consistently emerges under a specific interaction scheme and leaves a distinct set of fingerprints in terms of the number of observed states, their species richness and their response to perturbations. Our results help clarify the conditions and types of multistability that can be expected to occur in complex ecological communities.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Modelos Biológicos , Biota
5.
PeerJ ; 12: e17230, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38638159

RESUMO

Pectocaris species are intermediate- to large-sized Cambrian bivalved arthropods. Previous studies have documented Pectocaris exclusively from the Cambrian Series 2 Stage 3 Chengjiang biota in Yu'anshan Formation, Chiungchussu Stage in SW China. In this study, we report Pectocaris paraspatiosa sp. nov., and three other previously known Pectocaris from the Xiazhuang section in Kunming, which belongs to the Hongjingshao Formation and is a later phase within Cambrian Stage 3 than the Yu'anshan Formation. The new species can be distinguished from its congeners by the sparsely arranged endopodal endites and the morphologies of the abdomen, telson, and telson processes. We interpret P. paraspatiosa sp. nov. as a filter-feeder and a powerful swimmer adapted to shallow, agitated environments. Comparison among the Pectocaris species reinforces previous views that niche differentiation had been established among the congeneric species based on morphological differentiation. Our study shows the comprehensive occurrences of Pectocaris species outside the Chengjiang biota for the first time. With a review of the shared fossil taxa of Chengjiang and Xiaoshiba biotas, we identify a strong biological connection between the Yu'anshan and Hongjingshao Formations.


Assuntos
Artrópodes , Bivalves , Animais , Artrópodes/anatomia & histologia , Fósseis , China , Biota
6.
BMC Biol ; 22(1): 96, 2024 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38679748

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The early Cambrian arthropod clade Megacheira, also referred to as great appendage arthropods, comprised a group of diminutive and elongated predators during the early Palaeozoic era, around 518 million years ago. In addition to those identified in the mid-Cambrian Burgess Shale biota, numerous species are documented in the renowned 518-million-year-old Chengjiang biota of South China. Notably, one species, Tanglangia longicaudata, has remained inadequately understood due to limited available material and technological constraints. In this study, we, for the first time, examined eight fossil specimens (six individuals) utilizing state-of-the-art µCT and computer-based 3D rendering techniques to unveil the hitherto hidden ventral and appendicular morphology of this species. RESULTS: We have identified a set of slender endopodites gradually narrowing distally, along with a leaf-shaped exopodite adorned with fringed setae along its margins, and a small putative exite attached to the basipodite. Our techniques have further revealed the presence of four pairs of biramous appendages in the head, aligning with the recently reported six-segmented head in other early euarthropods. Additionally, we have discerned two peduncle elements for the great appendage. These findings underscore that, despite the morphological diversity observed in early euarthropods, there exists similarity in appendicular morphology across various groups. In addition, we critically examine the existing literature on this taxon, disentangling previous mislabelings, mentions, descriptions, and, most importantly, illustrations. CONCLUSIONS: The µCT-based investigation of fossil material of Tanglangia longicaudata, a distinctive early Cambrian euarthropod from the renowned Chengjiang biota, enhances our comprehensive understanding of the evolutionary morphology of the Megacheira. Its overall morphological features, including large cup-shaped eyes, raptorial great appendages, and a remarkably elongated telson, suggest its potential ecological role as a crepuscular predator and adept swimmer in turbid waters.


Assuntos
Artrópodes , Fósseis , Animais , Fósseis/anatomia & histologia , Artrópodes/anatomia & histologia , China , Evolução Biológica , Biota , Microtomografia por Raio-X
7.
Sci Total Environ ; 928: 172218, 2024 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38580109

RESUMO

In natural habitats, especially in arid and semi-arid areas that are fragile ecosystems, vegetation degradation is one of the most important factors affecting the variability of soil health. Studying physicochemical and biological parameters that serve as indicators of soil health offers important information on the potential risk of land degradation and the progression of changes in soil performance and health during recovery periods. This study specifically examines the impact of vegetation degradation on soil health indicators and the duration needed to improve the physical, chemical, and biological parameters in a semi-arid mountainous area site types with the dominance of Quercus macranthera Fisch & C.A. Mey and Carpinus orientalis Miller in northern Iran. In different years (2003, 2013, and 2023), litter and soil samples (at depths of 0-10, 10-20, and 20-30 cm) were collected in different types of degraded sites. Additionally, in 2023, a non-degraded site was chosen as a control and similar samples were collected. A total of 48 litter (12 samples for each of the study site types) and 144 soil (4 study site types × 3 depths × 12 samples) samples were collected. In order to investigate the spatial changes of soil basal respiration (or CO2 emission), which is involved in global warming, from each site type, 50 soil samples were taken along two 250-meter transects. The findings showed that litter P and Mg contents in the non-degraded site were 1.6 times higher than in degraded site types (2003). Following vegetation degradation, soil fertility indicators decreased by 2-4 times. The biota population was lower by about 80 % under the degraded site types (2003) than in the non-degraded site, and the density of fungi and bacteria in the degraded site types was almost half that of the non-degraded site types. Geostatistics showed the high variance (linear model) of CO2 emissions in areas without degradation. In addition, vegetation degradation significantly reduced soil carbon and nitrogen mineralization. Although soil health indicators under the degraded vegetation have improved over time (30 years), results showed that even thirty years is not enough for the full recovery of a degraded ecosystem, and more time is needed for the degraded area to reach the same conditions as the non-degraded site. Considering the time required for natural restoration in degraded site types, it is necessary to prioritize the conservation of vegetation and improve the ecosystem restoration process with adequate interventions.


Assuntos
Recuperação e Remediação Ambiental , Florestas , Solo , Solo/química , Clima , Meio Ambiente , Irã (Geográfico) , Quercus , Betulaceae , Tempo , Biota , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais
8.
Sci Total Environ ; 928: 172504, 2024 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38636865

RESUMO

Marine litter and more specifically plastic marine litter is nowadays considered a global issue with unprecedented impact and consequences to the entire marine ecosystem and biota. The current situation that has been created worldwide due to the abundance of plastic litter in the Earth's Seas has been characterized as alarming, necessitating the immediate action for an overall reduction of plastic waste, better collection and recycling schemes and beach-shoreline clean-ups. In this article we attempt to delve into the details of the magnitude of the impact that plastic litter have caused to marine biota via a meta-research analysis, by compiling, combining, analysing and presenting data from various relative works, using primarily scientific and, secondarily, grey literature. Apart from the threats that plastic marine litter pose to the marine ecosystem, they present potential threats to humans, as well, via food chain. Aside from understating the risks and uncertainties contained in the hereby collected and presenting information, this study can provide an evidence base for decision and policy makers into implementing the appropriate action plans for reducing and, in time, mitigating this immense problem.


Assuntos
Organismos Aquáticos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Plásticos , Biota , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Animais , Ecossistema
9.
Chemosphere ; 355: 141810, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38554872

RESUMO

Climate change, including global warming, leads to rising temperatures in aquatic ecosystems, which is one of the numerous repercussions it brings. Furthermore, water warming can indirectly impact aquatic organisms by modifying the toxicity levels of pollutants. Nevertheless, numerous studies have explored the potential impacts of chemical stress on aquatic biota, but little is known about how such chemicals and toxins interact with climate change factors, especially elevated temperatures. As such, this review paper focuses on exploring the potential effects of thermochemical stress on a wide sector of aquatic organisms, including aquatic vertebrates and invertebrates, in various aquatic ecosystems (freshwater and marine systems). Herein, the objective of this study is to explore the most up-to-date the impact of water warming (without chemical stress) and thermochemical stress on various biochemical and physiological processes in aquatic fauna and how this greatly affects biodiversity and sustainability. Therefore, there is a growing need to understand and evaluate this synergistic mechanism and its potential hazardous impacts. However, we need further investigations and scientific reports to address this serious environmental issue in order to confront anthropogenic pollutants regarding climate change and chemical pollution risks in the near future and subsequently find sustainable solutions for them.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Poluentes Ambientais , Animais , Mudança Climática , Biota , Organismos Aquáticos , Água/farmacologia , Poluentes Ambientais/farmacologia
10.
New Phytol ; 242(3): 1018-1028, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38436203

RESUMO

Biodiversity world-wide has been under increasing anthropogenic pressure in the past century. The long-term response of biotic communities has been tackled primarily by focusing on species richness, community composition and functionality. Equally important are shifts between entire communities and habitat types, which remain an unexplored level of biodiversity change. We have resurveyed > 2000 vegetation plots in temperate forests in central Europe to capture changes over an average of five decades. The plots were assigned to eight broad forest habitat types using an algorithmic classification system. We analysed transitions between the habitat types and interpreted the trend in terms of changes in environmental conditions. We identified a directional shift along the combined gradients of canopy openness and soil nutrients. Nutrient-poor open-canopy forest habitats have declined strongly in favour of fertile closed-canopy habitats. However, the shift was not uniform across the whole gradients. We conclude that the shifts in habitat types represent a century-long successional trend with significant consequences for forest biodiversity. Open forest habitats should be urgently targeted for plant diversity restoration through the implementation of active management. The approach presented here can be applied to other habitat types and at different spatio-temporal scales.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Florestas , Biodiversidade , Plantas , Biota
11.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 5261, 2024 03 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38438419

RESUMO

Drivers and dynamics of initial human migrations across individual islands and archipelagos are poorly understood, hampering assessments of subsequent modification of island biodiversity. We developed and tested a new statistical-simulation approach for reconstructing the pattern and pace of human migration across islands at high spatiotemporal resolutions. Using Polynesian colonisation of New Zealand as an example, we show that process-explicit models, informed by archaeological records and spatiotemporal reconstructions of past climates and environments, can provide new and important insights into the patterns and mechanisms of arrival and establishment of people on islands. We find that colonisation of New Zealand required there to have been a single founding population of approximately 500 people, arriving between 1233 and 1257 AD, settling multiple areas, and expanding rapidly over both North and South Islands. These verified spatiotemporal reconstructions of colonisation dynamics provide new opportunities to explore more extensively the potential ecological impacts of human colonisation on New Zealand's native biota and ecosystems.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Ecossistema , Humanos , Biota , Arqueologia , Atividades Humanas
12.
J Environ Manage ; 357: 120773, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38555845

RESUMO

Extraction of coastline from optical remote sensing images is of paramount importance for coastal zone management, erosion monitoring, and intelligent ocean construction. However, nearshore marine environment complexity presents a challenge when capturing small-scale and detailed information regarding coastlines. Furthermore, the presence of numerous tidal flats, suspended sediments, and coastal biological communities exacerbates the reduction in segmentation accuracy, which is particularly noticeable in medium-high-resolution remote sensing image segmentation tasks. Most previous related studies, based primarily on convolutional neural networks (CNNs) or traditional feature extraction methods, faced challenges in detailed pixel-level refinement and lacked comprehensive understanding of the studied images. Therefore, we proposed a new U-shaped deep learning model (STIRUnet) that combines the excellent global modeling ability of SwinTransformer with an improved CNN using an inverted residual module. The proposed method has the capability of global supervised feature learning and layer-by-layer feature extraction, and we conducted sea-land segmentation experiments using GF-HNCD and BSD remote sensing image datasets to validate the performance of the proposed model. The results indicate the following: 1) suspended sediments and coastal biological communities are major contributors to coastline blurring, and 2) the recovery of minute features (e.g., narrow watercourses and microscale artificial structures) effectively enhances edge details and leads to more realistic segmentation outcomes. The findings of this study are highly important in relation of accurate extraction of sea-land information in complex marine environments, and they offer novel insights regarding mixed-pixel identification.


Assuntos
Biota , Redes Neurais de Computação , Telemetria , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador
13.
Zootaxa ; 5415(4): 501-528, 2024 Feb 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38480186

RESUMO

Being areas of biotic overlap located between biogeographic regions, transition zones function as natural laboratories. The present study explores the phylogenetic history of the dung beetle subfamily Scarabaeinae, in order to present an evolutionary scenario that allows inference of the biogeographic history of the Mexican Transition Zone (MTZ) and integration of the distributional patterns of its biota. The species sampling included 94 New World taxa (93 species of Scarabaeinae and one species of Aphodiinae). The phylogenetic relationships of the main clades recovered in our study were supported with PP values 0.95. Based on the BAYAREALIKE model to reconstruct the ancestral distributional patterns of Scarabaeinae, we inferred a complex scenario with 19 dispersal events, 15 vicariance events, and three extinctions. We suggest that the Ancient Neotropical and Tropical Paleoamerican patterns represent the most likely ancestral distributional patterns for the Scarabaeinae of the MTZ, which probably settle there during the Eocene-Oligocene. The rest of the Scarabaeinae distributional patterns were assembled in subsequent periods. The results suggest that the MTZ had two separate formation stages: a Paleo-MTZ (Eocene-Miocene) and a current MTZ (Pliocene-Anthropocene). We conclude that the evolutionary history as well as the dispersal-vicariance scenario for the Scarabaeinae of the MTZ fits the out of the tropics model.


Assuntos
Besouros , Animais , Filogenia , Besouros/genética , Evolução Biológica , México , Biota
14.
J Hazard Mater ; 469: 134035, 2024 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38490147

RESUMO

The trophodynamic of organophosphate esters (OPEs) has not been known well despite their widespread occurrence in the aquatic environments. In this study, ten species of crustacean, seven species of mollusk, and 22 species of fish were collected in the Laizhou Bay (LZB) to examine the occurrence, bioaccumulation, and trophic transfer, and health risk of eight traditional OPEs and three emerging oligomeric OPEs. The results showed that total concentration of OPEs was 2.04 to 28.6 ng g-1 ww in the muscle of crustacean, mollusk, and fish and 2.62 to 60.6 ng g-1 ww in the fish gill. Chlorinated OPEs averagely contributed to over 85% of total OPEs while oligomeric OPEs averagely accounted for approximate 4%. The average log apparent bioaccumulation factor (ABAF) ranged from - 0.4 L kg-1 ww for triethyl phosphate to 2.4 L kg-1 ww for resorcinol-bis (diphenyl) phosphate. Apparent trophic magnification factors (ATMF) of individual OPE were generally less than 1, demonstrating the biodilution effect of the OPEs in the organism web of LZB. Additionally, the log ABAF and ATMF of OPEs were significantly positively correlated to their log Kow but negatively correlated to their biotransformation rate constant (BRC). Therefore, the OPEs with high Kow and low BRC tend to more accumulate in the marine organisms. The health risks associated with OPEs through the consumption of the seafood from the bay were low, even at high exposure scenario.


Assuntos
Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Baías , Bioacumulação , Biota , China , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Peixes/metabolismo , Organofosfatos/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
15.
Sci Total Environ ; 926: 171786, 2024 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38508248

RESUMO

Despite the important role that biocrust communities play in maintaining ecosystem structure and functioning in deglaciated barren soil, few studies have been conducted on the dynamics of biotic communities and the impact of physicochemical characteristics in shaping the different successional stages. In this study an integrated approach encompassing physicochemical parameters and molecular taxonomy was used for identifying the indicator taxa and the presence of intra- and inter-kingdom interactions in five different crust/biocrust successional stages: i) physical crust, ii) cyanobacteria-dominated biocrust, iii) cyanobacteria/moss-dominated biocrust, iv) moss-dominated biocrust and v) bryophyte carpet. The phylum Gemmatimonadota was the bacterial indicator taxon in the early stage, promoting both inter- and intra-kingdom interactions, while Cyanobacteria and Nematoda phyla played a pivotal role in formation and dynamics of cyanobacteria-dominated biocrusts. A multitrophic community, characterized by a shift from oligotrophic to copiotrophic bacteria and the presence of saproxylic arthropod and herbivore insects was found in the cyanobacteria/moss-dominated biocrust, while a more complex biota, characterized by an increased fungal abundance (classes Sordariomycetes, Leotiomycetes, and Dothideomycetes, phylum Ascomycota), associated with highly trophic consumer invertebrates (phyla Arthropoda, Rotifera, Tardigrada), was observed in moss-dominated biocrusts. The class Bdelloidea and the family Hypsibiidae (phyla Rotifera and Tardigrada, respectively) were metazoan indicator taxon in bryophyte carpet, suggesting their potential role in shaping structure and function of this late successional stage. Nitrogen and phosphorus were the main physicochemical limiting factors driving the shift among different crust/biocrust successional stages. Identification and characterization of indicator taxa, biological intra- and inter-kingdom interactions and abiotic factors driving the shift among different crust/biocrust successional stages provide a detailed picture on crust/biocrust dynamics, revealing a strong interconnection among micro- and macrobiota systems. These findings enhance our understanding of biocrust ecosystems in High Arctic, providing valuable insights for their conservation and management in response to environmental shifts due to climate change.


Assuntos
Briófitas , Cianobactérias , Animais , Ecossistema , Solo/química , Biota , Microbiologia do Solo
16.
Sci Total Environ ; 926: 171935, 2024 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38527547

RESUMO

Urban streams are affected by a complex combination of stressors, which modify physical habitat structure, flow regime, water quality, biological community composition, and ecosystem processes and services, thereby altering ecosystem structure and functioning. Rehabilitation projects have been undertaken in several countries to rehabilitate urban streams. However, stream rehabilitation is still rarely reported for neotropical regions. In addition, most studies focus on structural aspects, such as water quality, sediment control, and flood events, without considering ecosystem function indicators. Here, we evaluated the structure and functioning of three 15-y old rehabilitated urban stream sites in comparison with three stream sites in the best available ecological condition (reference), three sites with moderate habitat alteration, and three severely degraded sites. Compared to degraded streams, rehabilitated streams had higher habitat diversity, sensitive macroinvertebrate taxa richness, and biotic index scores, and lower biochemical oxygen demand, primary production, sediment deposition, and siltation. However, rehabilitated streams had higher primary production than moderate and reference streams, and lower canopy cover, habitat diversity, sensitive macroinvertebrate taxa richness, and biotic index scores than reference streams. These results indicate that rehabilitated streams have better structural and functional condition than degraded streams, but do not strongly differ from moderately altered streams, nor have they reached reference stream condition. Nonetheless, we conclude that rehabilitation is effective in removing streams from a degraded state by improving ecosystem structure and functioning. Furthermore, the combined use of functional and structural indicators facilitated an integrative assessment of stream ecological condition and distinguished stream conditions beyond those based on water quality indicators.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Invertebrados , Animais , Qualidade da Água , Biota , Monitoramento Ambiental
17.
Environ Toxicol Chem ; 43(5): 1047-1061, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38450757

RESUMO

Anthropogenically modified microparticles including microplastics are present in municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents; however, it is unclear whether biotic exposures are elevated downstream of these outfalls. In the fall of 2019, the present study examined whether microparticle levels in resident fish, environmental samples, and caged organisms were elevated near the Waterloo and Kitchener WWTP outfalls along the Grand River, Ontario, Canada. Wild rainbow darters (Etheostoma caeruleum) were collected from a total of 10 sites upstream and downstream of both WWTPs, along with surface water and sediment samples to assess spatial patterns over an approximately 70-km river stretch. Amphipods (Hyalella azteca), fluted-shell mussels (Lasmigona costata), and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were also caged upstream and downstream of one WWTP for 14 or 28 days. Whole amphipods, fish digestive tracts, and mussel tissues (hemolymph, digestive glands, gills) were digested with potassium hydroxide, whereas environmental samples were processed using filtration and density separation. Visual identification, measurement, and chemical confirmation (subset only) of microparticles were completed. Elevated abiotic microparticles were found at several upstream reference sites as well as at one or both wastewater-impacted sites. Microparticles in amphipods, all mussel tissues, and wild fish did not show patterns indicative of increased exposures downstream of effluent discharges. In contrast, elevated microparticle counts were found in trout caged directly downstream of the outfall. Across all samples, cellulose fibers (mainly blue and clear colors) were the most common. Overall, results suggest little influence of WWTP effluents on microparticles in biota but rather a ubiquitous presence across most sites that indicates the importance of other point and nonpoint sources to this system. Environ Toxicol Chem 2024;43:1047-1061. © 2024 His Majesty the King in Right of Canada and The Authors. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry published by Wiley Periodicals LLC on behalf of SETAC. Reproduced with the permission of the Minister of Environment and Climate Change Canada.


Assuntos
Bivalves , Monitoramento Ambiental , Sedimentos Geológicos , Águas Residuárias , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Águas Residuárias/química , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Anfípodes , Microplásticos/análise , Biota , Ontário , Oncorhynchus mykiss , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos , Rios/química
18.
Biol Lett ; 20(3): 20240042, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38531414

RESUMO

Scalidophoran worms represent common infaunal components of early and middle Cambrian Burgess Shale-type fossil biotas. Early scalidophorans resemble extant priapulids based on overall morphology, but the genus Selkirkia represents the earliest record of tube dwelling for the group. Despite its ubiquitous presence in exceptional marine deposits, whether the exclusively Cambrian occurrence of Selkirkia reflects its entire evolutionary history or is affected by taphonomic biases remains unresolved. Here, we demonstrate the post-Cambrian survival of Selkirkia based on new material from the Lower Ordovician Fezouata Shale biota of Morocco. The discovery of Selkirkia in the Fezouata Shale extends the biostratigraphic range of the genus by 25 million years and its palaeobiogeographic occurrence to the high latitudes of Gondwana, strengthens the evolutionary links between Cambrian and Ordovician Burgess Shale-type biotas and increases scalidophoran diversity for the Fezouata Shale biota otherwise consisting exclusively of the palaeoscolecid Palaeoscolex? tenensis. The tube of Selkirkia underwent negligible external change for over 40 million years, indicating a high degree of morphological stasis during the Early Palaeozoic. A tubicolous mode of life is rare among extant priapulids and expressed only in Maccabeus, which forms a delicate tube from agglutinated plant debris, unlike the macroscopic secreted cuticular tube of Selkirkia.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Fósseis , Biota
19.
Ecology ; 105(4): e4271, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38444180

RESUMO

Lichens are significant components of the biological soil crust communities in gypsum ecosystems and are involved in several processes related to ecosystem functioning, such as water and nutrient cycles or protection against soil erosion. Although numerous studies centered on lichen taxonomy and ecology have been performed in these habitats, global information about lichen species from gypsum substrates or their distributional ranges at a global scale is lacking. Thus, we compiled a global data set of recorded lichen species growing on gypsum. This review is based on systematic searches in two bibliographic databases (Web of Science and the more specialized database Mattick's Literature Index) using various keywords related to the substrate or ecology (i.e., gypsum, gypsiferous, semiarid, saxicolous, terricolous). In addition, we revised lichen literature from countries with gypsum soils using Mattick's, Hamburg University's Worldwide checklist, and different national lichen checklists. Ultimately the review includes a total of 321 studies. This data set included 6114 specimen records belonging to 336 recorded lichen species from 26 countries throughout the world. The results showed large differences in the number of species recorded among countries, reflecting differences in the sampling effort. We provide a table with the number of studies and species in relation to gypsum surface in order to account for the bias produced by sampling effort. The number of studies carried out per country was not related to the gypsum surface but probably to other factors, such as accessibility to field sampling, economic or political factors, or the presence of a wider community of lichenologists. Thus, Spain and Germany hosted the highest number of recorded species (160 and 114 species, respectively). Outside the European continent, only a few countries had a large number of species: Morocco (46), United States (42), and Iran (37). Remarkably, countries from the southern hemisphere (i.e., Australia, Chile, Namibia, and South Africa) showed a low number of studies from gypsum lands, supporting the stated biases observed in sampling efforts among countries. Considering the most studied countries, the results show that Teloschistaceae was the most represented family in gypsum ecosystems followed by Verrucariaceae and Cladoniaceae. Regarding particular species, Psora decipiens and Squamarina lentigera were some of the most widespread and abundant species in these habitats. This data set constitutes a basic and first step toward a much more comprehensive database, to be periodically updated in future releases, which also serves to identify countries or territories where future studies should be accomplished. There are no copyright restrictions on the data; please cite this data paper if the data are used in publications and teaching events.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Líquens , Humanos , Sulfato de Cálcio , Solo , Biota
20.
Environ Int ; 185: 108534, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38458115

RESUMO

Natural purification of pollutants is highly recognized as regulating ecosystem services; however, the purification capacity of tidal flats remains largely unknown and/or unquantified. A 60-day mesocosm transplant experiment was conducted in situ to assess the purification capacity of natural tidal flats. We adopted the advanced sediment quality triad approach, monitoring 10 endpoints, including chemical reduction, toxicity changes, and community recoveries. The results indicated that contaminated sediments rapidly recovered over time, particularly > 50% within a day, then slowly recovered up to âˆ¼ 70% in a given period (60 days). A significant early reduction of parent pollutants was evidenced across all treatments, primarily due to active bacterial decomposition. Notably, the presence of benthic fauna and vegetated halophytes in the treatments significantly enhanced the purification of pollutants in both efficacy and efficiency. A forecast linear modeling further suggested additive effects of biota on the natural purification of tidal flats, reducing a full recovery time from 500 to 300 days. Overall, the triad approach with machine learning practices successfully demonstrated quantitative insight into the integrated assessment of natural purification.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Metais Pesados , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Ecossistema , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Biota , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
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