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1.
Chemosphere ; 286(Pt 1): 131623, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34346348

RESUMO

The increasing demand for the development of sustainable strategies to utilize and process agro-industrial residues paves new paths for exploring innovative approaches in this area. Biotechnology based microbial transformations provide efficient, low cost and sustainable approaches for the production of value added products. The use of organic rich residues opens new avenues for the production of enzymes, pigments, biofuels, bioactive compounds, biopolymers etc. with vast industrial and therapeutic applications. Innovative technologies like strain improvement, enzyme immobilization, genome editing, morphological engineering, ultrasound/supercritical fluid/pulse electric field extraction, etc. can be employed. These will be helpful in achieving significant improvement in qualitative and quantitative parameters of the finished products. The global trend for the valorisation of biowaste has boosted the commercialization of these products which has transformed the markets by providing new investment opportunities. The upstream processing of raw materials using microbes poses a limitation in terms of product development and recovery which can be overcome by modifying the bioreactor design, physiological parameters or employing alternate technologies which will be discussed in this review. The other problems related to the processes include product stability, industrial applicability and cost competitiveness which needs to be addressed. This review comprehensively discusses the recent progress, avenues and challenges in the approaches aimed at valorisation of agro-industrial wastes along with possible opportunities in the bioeconomy.


Assuntos
Biocombustíveis , Resíduos Industriais , Reatores Biológicos , Biotecnologia , Indústrias
2.
J Biotechnol ; 342: 128-138, 2021 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34743006

RESUMO

The present study demonstrates biotechnological applications of the lichen Pleurosticta acetabulum, specifically the production of large amounts of hydrogen even after the lichen exposure to extreme conditions such as a) extreme UVB radiation (1.7 mW/cm2 = 1000 J m-2 min-1) over different time periods (4, 20 & 70 h) and b) combined exposure of the lichen to high intensity UVB radiation and extreme low (-196 °C) or extreme high temperatures (+70 °C). The results highlight that the extremophilic and polyextremophilic behavior of lichens both in dehydrated and in regenerated form, under extreme conditions not necessarily recorded on earth, is compatible with their biotechnological uses. The lichen viability was measured using fluorescence induction techniques (OJIP-test), which record changes in the molecular structure and function of the photosynthetic mechanism, while its ability to produce molecular hydrogen was measured through thermal conductivity gas chromatography (GC-TCD) analysis. Hydrogen is a promising fuel for the future. The exciting result of a lichen micro-ecosystem is its ability to expel its moisture and remain in an inactive state, protecting itself from extreme conditions and maintaining its ability to high yield hydrogen production in a closed system, with the sole addition of water and without the need for additional energy. Our results expand the potential use of lichens for future biotechnological applications in extreme Earth environments, but also in environments on other planets, such as Mars, thus paving the way for astrobiotechnological applications.


Assuntos
Líquens , Biotecnologia , Ecossistema , Hidrogênio , Parmeliaceae , Temperatura
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34770089

RESUMO

The development of the biotech industry is in full swing, and consumers have begun to value biotech brands. Since biotech products often focus on the future or special benefits, consumers inevitably bear certain risks when purchasing biotech products, and their trust in the biotech brand will have an important impact on their purchase intention. Previous studies have lacked a targeted understanding of consumer trust in biotech brands and a discussion of cultural viewpoints. This study introduced the concept of personal connections in Chinese relationalism and trust strategies in Chinese society to address this gap. In-depth interviews and focus group discussions were conducted in collaboration with Company X, a listed Taiwanese cord blood company, to extract the key factors influencing consumer trust and purchase intention of biotech brands. After constructing the structure model, the study was validated using a structural equation model through investigation and survey. The findings indicated that consumer trust in biotech brands was constructed by a combination of kinship trust transfer and emergent trust transfer within the consumer relationship network, as well as institutional trust and professional trust outside the relationship network and that a significant positive correlation existed between consumer trust in biotech brands and purchase intention. The acquaintances within the consumer relationship network include not only relatives and friends but also health care workers and netizens that consumers come into contact with. In addition, kinship trust transfer and emergent trust transfer within the consumer relationship network have a greater impact on trust in biotech brands than the institutional trust and professional trust outside the relationship network. The findings of this study deepen the understanding of consumer trust in biotech brands across cultures, and suggest that future marketing communication should be expanded to include key players within the consumer relationship network.


Assuntos
Intenção , Confiança , Biotecnologia , Comportamento do Consumidor , Sangue Fetal , Humanos
4.
Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao ; 37(9): 3383-3396, 2021 Sep 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34622645

RESUMO

Accurately understanding the features and connotations of complex engineering problems is an important prerequisite for setting graduation requirements, constructing curriculum and designing teaching contents. By discussing the characteristics of complex engineering problems in the biological industry, this paper explored the demands for undergraduates in Yangtze river delta region, summarized the typical jobs and their requirements, and expounded the connotation of complex engineering problems contained in various typical tasks. On this basis, a gradual curriculum system was constructed, which included multiple stages of conceiving, formation and application, to cultivate the ability to solve complex engineering problems in the major of bioengineering. The curriculum coordinated the implementation of deep integration of industry and education, research feed back course construction, course team and advanced courses building up, professional associations covered all crews and students, supporting the ability training of solving complex engineering problems.


Assuntos
Currículo , Engenharia , Biotecnologia , Humanos , Indústrias , Resolução de Problemas
5.
Nanoscale ; 13(40): 16834-16846, 2021 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34622910

RESUMO

DNA-based nanotechnology has evolved into an autonomous, highly innovative, and dynamic field of research at the nexus of supramolecular chemistry, nanotechnology, materials science, and biotechnology. DNA-based materials, including origami nanodevices, have started to emerge as an ideal scaffold for use in cellular programming, tissue engineering, and drug delivery applications. We cover herein the applications for DNA as a scaffold for interfacing with, and guiding, the activity of biological systems like cells and tissues. Although DNA is a highly programmable molecular building block, it suffers from a lack of functional capacity for guiding and modulating cells. Coupling DNA to biologically active molecules can bestow bioactivity to these nanodevices. The main goal of such nanodevices is to synthesize systems that can bind to cells and mimic the extracellular environment, and serve as a highly promising toolbox for multiple applications in cellular programming and tissue engineering. DNA-based programmable devices offer a highly promising approach for programming collections of cells, tissue engineering, and regenerative medicine applications.


Assuntos
DNA , Engenharia Tecidual , Biotecnologia , Nanotecnologia , Medicina Regenerativa
6.
Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao ; 37(10): 3405-3410, 2021 Oct 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34708599

RESUMO

The international cooperation project "electricity-driven low energy and chemical input technology for accelerated bioremediation" (abridged as "ELECTRA") is jointly supported by National Nature Science Foundation of China (NSFC) and European Commission (EC). The ELECTRA consortium consists of 5 research institutions and universities from China and 17 European research institutions and universities, as well as high-tech companies of EC countries. ELECTRA focuses on researches of biodegradation of emerging organic compounds (EOCs) and novel environmental biotechnologies of low-energy and low-chemical inputs. The project has been successfully operated for 2 years, and has made important progresses in obtaining EOCs-degrading microbes, developing weak-electricity-accelerated bioremediation, and 3D-printing techniques for microbial consortium. The ELECTRA has promoted collaborations among the Chinese and European scientists. In the future, ELECTRA will overcome the negative impact of the COVID-19 pandemic and fulfill the scientific objectives through strengthening the international collaboration.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Biodegradação Ambiental , Biotecnologia , Eletricidade , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao ; 37(10): 3414-3424, 2021 Oct 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34708601

RESUMO

With the transformation and revolution of the global plastics recycling system, recycling and upcycling of mixed plastics waste not only reduces the carbon emissions of plastics during its life cycle, but also addresses its potential ecological and environmental hazards. This article summarizes an international cooperation project, "MIXed plastics biodegradation and UPcycling using microbial communities" (MIX-UP) which was funded by the National Natural Science Foundation of China and the European Union (NSFC-EU) in 2019. The consortium of MIX-UP consists of 14 partners from European Union and China. Focusing on the global issue of "plastics pollution", this Sino-European MIX-UP project took the mixed waste of petroleum-based plastics (PP, PE, PUR, PET and PS) and bio-based plastics (PLA and PHA) as starting materials for biotechnological conversion into value-added, sustainable biomaterials. MIX-UP has three subprojects: 1) identification of plastics biodegradation pathway and design & engineering of key degrading elements, 2) construction and functional regulation of microbial consortia/enzyme cocktails with high-efficiency for degradation of plastics mixtures, 3) strategy of design and utilization of plastics degradation products for production of high value materials. Through NSFC-EU complementary and cross-disciplinary cooperation, MIX-UP proposes the engineering of a new-to-nature biological route for upcycling, a low carbon and sustainable bio-treatment that is different from the traditional physico-chemical treatment, which will empower the recycling industry to a new dimension. The implementation of the project will not only help to promote innovation and development in the field of biotechnology in China, but also contribute to the achievement of China's carbon neutral goal.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Plásticos , Biodegradação Ambiental , Biotecnologia , Carbono , União Europeia
8.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 194: 113666, 2021 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34600338

RESUMO

Intelligent microfluidics is an emerging cross-discipline research area formed by combining microfluidics with machine learning. It uses the advantages of microfluidics, such as high throughput and controllability, and the powerful data processing capabilities of machine learning, resulting in improved systems in biotechnology and chemistry. Compared to traditional microfluidics using manual analysis methods, intelligent microfluidics needs less human intervention, and results in a more user-friendly experience with faster processing. There is a paucity of literature reviewing this burgeoning and highly promising cross-discipline. Therefore, we herein comprehensively and systematically summarize several aspects of microfluidic applications enabled by machine learning. We list the types of microfluidics used in intelligent microfluidic applications over the last five years, as well as the machine learning algorithms and the hardware used for training. We also present the most recent advances in key technologies, developments, challenges, and the emerging opportunities created by intelligent microfluidics.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais , Microfluídica , Biotecnologia , Humanos , Inteligência , Aprendizado de Máquina
9.
Planta ; 254(6): 111, 2021 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34718882

RESUMO

MAIN CONCLUSION: Precursor feeding, elicitation and culture medium parameters are traditional in vitro strategies to enhance bioactive compounds of medicinal, aromatic, and ornamental plants (MAOPs). Machine learning can help researchers find the best combination of these strategies to increase the secondary metabolites content of MAOPs. Many requirements for human life, from food, pharmaceuticals and cosmetics to clothes, fuel and building materials depend on plant-derived natural products. Essential oils, methanolic and ethanolic extracts of in vitro undifferentiated callus and organogenic cultures of medicinal, aromatic, and ornamental plants (MAOPs) contain bioactive compounds that have several applications for various industries, including food and pharmaceutical. In vitro culture systems provide opportunities to manipulate the metabolomic profile of MAOPs. Precursors feeding, elicitation and culture media optimization are the traditional strategies to enhance in vitro accumulation of favorable bioactive compounds. The stimulation of plant defense mechanisms through biotic and abiotic elicitors is a simple way to increase the production of secondary metabolites in different in vitro culture systems. Different elicitors have been applied to stimulate defense machinery and change the metabolomic profile of MAOPs in in vitro cultures. Plant growth regulators (PGRs), stress hormones, chitosan, microbial extracts and physical stresses are the most applied elicitors in this regard. Many other chemical tolerance-enhancer additives, such as melatonin and proline, have been applied along with stress response-inducing elicitors. The use of stress-inducing materials such as PEG and NaCl activates stress tolerance elicitors with the potential of increasing secondary metabolites content of MAOPs. The present study reviewed the state-of-the-art traditional in vitro strategies to manipulate bioactive compounds of MAOPs. The objective is to provide insights to researchers involved in in vitro production of plant-derived natural compounds. The present review provided a wide range of traditional strategies to increase the accumulation of valuable bioactive compounds of MAOPs in different in vitro systems. Traditional strategies are faster, simpler, and cost-effective than other biotechnology-based breeding methods such as genetic transformation, genome editing, metabolic pathways engineering, and synthetic biology. The integrate application of precursors and elicitors along with culture media optimization and the interpretation of their interactions through machine learning algorithms could provide an excellent opportunity for large-scale in vitro production of pharmaceutical bioactive compounds.


Assuntos
Raízes de Plantas , Plantas Medicinais , Biotecnologia , Melhoramento Vegetal , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas
10.
Front Public Health ; 9: 541191, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34660499

RESUMO

For-profit biotechnological and pharmaceutical companies have played an essential role in the research and development (R&D) of innovative medical products and drugs for many decades and embody a trillion-dollar industry. The past decades have been marked by an increase in growth of social non-profit biotechnology companies and organizations led by entrepreneurs committed to solve (global) health issues. In this review, we define the concept of social bioentrepreneurship and consider the potential impact of such ventures on global health. We analyse the current status of non-profit biotechnology and clarify the strategy, motivation, funding, and marketing techniques of these enterprises. We find that these non-profit ventures mainly focus on neglected and rare diseases by using different but also similar funding, marketing, and business strategy approaches to for-profit biotechnology enterprises. We also identify good leadership, multidisciplinary teams, and public awareness as key components to achieve long-term survival and higher success rates. Challenges faced by bioentrepreneurs include the lack of a clearly defined regulatory environment or governmental incentives to support their endeavors. Overall, with this qualitative data review and market analysis we draw a promising picture of social non-profit bioentrepreneurship and underscore its current and future impact on global health issues.


Assuntos
Saúde Global , Organizações sem Fins Lucrativos , Biotecnologia , Comércio
11.
Molecules ; 26(20)2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34684821

RESUMO

Currently, there is a growing demand for flavorings, especially of natural origin. It is worth paying attention to the biotechnological processes of flavor production, characterized by simplicity, high efficiency and relatively low cost. In this study, we analyzed the ability of the Galac tomyces geotrichum mold to transform by-products of the dairy industry: sour whey and buttermilk to complex flavour mixtures with pleasant, honey-rose aroma. Furthermore, the aroma complexity of the fermentation product has been carefully identified applying a sensomic approach involving the use of gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O), gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and stable isotope dilution assay (SIDA) to identify and quantify aroma compounds. Based on the calculation of odor activity value (OAV), 13 key aroma compounds were present in both tested variants. The highest OAVs were found for phenylacetaldehyde (honey-like) in the buttermilk variant (912) and 2-phenylethanol (rose-like) in the sour whey variant (524). High values of this indicator were also recorded for phenylacetaldehyde (319) and 3-methyl-1-butanol with a fruity aroma (149) in the sour whey culture. The other compounds identified are 3-methylbutanal (malty), 2,3-butanedione (cheesy), isovaleric acid (cheesy), 3-(methylthio)-propanal (boiled potato), butanoic acid (vinegar), (E)-2-nonenal (fatty), ethyl furaneol (burnt sugar), dimethyl trisulfide (cabbage), and acetic acid (vinegar).


Assuntos
Leitelho/análise , Leitelho/microbiologia , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Geotrichum/metabolismo , Odorantes/análise , Soro do Leite/química , Soro do Leite/microbiologia , Acetaldeído/análogos & derivados , Acetaldeído/análise , Biotecnologia , Biotransformação , Fermentação , Aromatizantes/metabolismo , Tecnologia de Alimentos , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Humanos , Olfatometria , Álcool Feniletílico/análise , Paladar , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise
12.
Cells ; 10(10)2021 09 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34685505

RESUMO

The objective of this review is to describe the evolution of lung tissue-derived diploid progenitor cell applications, ranging from historical biotechnological substrate functions for vaccine production and testing to current investigations around potential therapeutic use in respiratory tract regenerative medicine. Such cell types (e.g., MRC-5 or WI-38 sources) were extensively studied since the 1960s and have been continuously used over five decades as safe and sustainable industrial vaccine substrates. Recent research and development efforts around diploid progenitor lung cells (e.g., FE002-Lu or Walvax-2 sources) consist in qualification for potential use as optimal and renewed vaccine production substrates and, alternatively, for potential therapeutic applications in respiratory tract regenerative medicine. Potentially effective, safe, and sustainable cell therapy approaches for the management of inflammatory lung diseases or affections and related symptoms (e.g., COVID-19 patients and burn patient severe inhalation syndrome) using local homologous allogeneic cell-based or cell-derived product administrations are considered. Overall, lung tissue-derived progenitor cells isolated and produced under good manufacturing practices (GMP) may be used with high versatility. They can either act as key industrial platforms optimally conforming to specific pharmacopoeial requirements or as active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) for potentially effective promotion of lung tissue repair or regeneration.


Assuntos
Biotecnologia/métodos , Diploide , Pulmão/citologia , Medicina Regenerativa/métodos , Infecções Respiratórias/terapia , Animais , Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Linhagem Celular , Terapia Baseada em Transplante de Células e Tecidos , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Pulmão/fisiologia , Regeneração , Medicina Regenerativa/história , SARS-CoV-2 , Transplante de Células-Tronco , Células-Tronco/citologia , Transplante Homólogo
13.
Molecules ; 26(20)2021 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34684789

RESUMO

The use of additives has generated significant attention due to their extensive application in the microbially induced calcium carbonate precipitation (MICP) process. This study aims to discuss the effects of Na-montmorillonite (Na-MMT) on CaCO3 crystallization and sandy soil consolidation through the MICP process. Compared with the traditional MICP method, a larger amount of CaCO3 precipitate was obtained. Moreover, the reaction of Ca2+ ions was accelerated, and bacteria were absorbed by a small amount of Na-MMT. Meanwhile, an increase in the total cementing solution (TCS) was not conducive to the previous reaction. This problem was solved by conducting the reaction with Na-MMT. The polymorphs and morphologies of the CaCO3 precipitates were tested by using X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. Further, when Na-MMT was used, the morphology of CaCO3 changed from an individual precipitate to agglomerations of the precipitate. Compared to the experiments without Na-MMT in the MICP process, the addition of Na-MMT significantly reduced the hydraulic conductivity (HC) of sandy soil consolidated.


Assuntos
Bentonita/metabolismo , Carbonato de Cálcio/metabolismo , Sporosarcina/metabolismo , Bentonita/química , Biotecnologia , Carbonato de Cálcio/isolamento & purificação , Precipitação Química , Cristalização , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Areia/química , Solo/química , Sporosarcina/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Difração de Raios X
14.
Molecules ; 26(20)2021 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34684788

RESUMO

It is known that Senna obtusifolia has been used in medicine since ancient times due to the content of many valuable compounds with a pro-health effect. One of them is betulinic acid, which is a pentacyclic triterpene with antimalarial, antiviral, anti-inflammatory and anticancer properties. In this work, a continuation of our previous research, an attempt was made to increase the level of betulinic acid accumulation by the cultivation of transgenic hairy roots that overexpress the squalene synthase gene in a 10 L sprinkle bioreactor with methyl jasmonate elicitation. We present that the applied strategy allowed us to increase the content of betulinic acid in hairy root cultures to the level of 48 mg/g dry weight. The obtained plant extracts showed a stronger cytotoxic effect on the U87MG glioblastoma cell line than the roots grown without elicitors. Additionally, the induction of apoptosis, reduction of mitochondrial membrane potential, chromosomal DNA fragmentation and activation of caspase cascades are demonstrated. Moreover, the tested extract showed inhibition of topoisomerase I activity.


Assuntos
Acetatos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/metabolismo , Ciclopentanos/farmacologia , Oxilipinas/farmacologia , Triterpenos Pentacíclicos/metabolismo , Senna (Planta)/efeitos dos fármacos , Senna (Planta)/metabolismo , Células A549 , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/biossíntese , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Reatores Biológicos , Biotecnologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Dano ao DNA , Fragmentação do DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial/efeitos dos fármacos , Triterpenos Pentacíclicos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/farmacologia , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Plantas Medicinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Plantas Medicinais/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plantas Medicinais/metabolismo , Senna (Planta)/crescimento & desenvolvimento
16.
Planta ; 254(5): 91, 2021 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34617240

RESUMO

MAIN CONCLUSION: This work reviews recent advances in the pathways and key enzymes of steroidal saponins biosynthesis and sets the foundation for the biotechnological production of these useful compounds through transformation of microorganisms. Steroidal saponins, due to their specific chemical structures and active effects, have long been important natural products and that are irreplaceable in hormone production and other pharmaceutical industries. This article comprehensively reviewed the previous and current research progress and summarized the biosynthesis pathways and key biosynthetic enzymes of steroidal saponins that have been discovered in plants and microoganisms. On the basis of the general biosynthetic pathway in plants, it was found that the starting components, intermediates and catalysing enzymes were diverse between plants and microorganisms; however, the functions of their related enzymes tended to be similar. The biosynthesis pathways of steroidal saponins in microorganisms and marine organisms have not been revealed as clearly as those in plants and need further investigation. The elucidation of biosynthetic pathways and key enzymes is essential for understanding the synthetic mechanisms of these compounds and provides researchers with important information to further develop and implement the massive production of steroidal saponins by biotechnological approaches and methodologies.


Assuntos
Saponinas , Biotecnologia
17.
Lab Chip ; 21(19): 3793-3803, 2021 09 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34581379

RESUMO

Single-cell analysis has become one of the main cornerstones of biotechnology, inspiring the advent of various microfluidic compartments for cell cultivation such as microwells, microtrappers, microcapillaries, and droplets. A fundamental assumption for using such microfluidic compartments is that unintended stress or harm to cells derived from the microenvironments is insignificant, which is a crucial condition for carrying out unbiased single-cell studies. Despite the significance of this assumption, simple viability or growth tests have overwhelmingly been the assay of choice for evaluating culture conditions while empirical studies on the sub-lethal effect on cellular functions have been insufficient in many cases. In this work, we assessed the effect of culturing cells in droplets on the cellular function using yeast morphology as an indicator. Quantitative morphological analysis using CalMorph, an image-analysis program, demonstrated that cells cultured in flasks, large droplets, and small droplets significantly differed morphologically. From these differences, we identified that the cell cycle was delayed in droplets during the G1 phase and during the process of bud growth likely due to the checkpoint mechanism and impaired mitochondrial function, respectively. Furthermore, comparing small and large droplets, cells cultured in large droplets were morphologically more similar to those cultured in a flask, highlighting the advantage of increasing the droplet size. These results highlight a potential source of bias in cell analysis using droplets and reinforce the significance of assessing culture conditions of microfluidic cultivation methods for specific study cases.


Assuntos
Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Análise de Célula Única , Biotecnologia , Técnicas de Cultura de Células , Microfluídica
18.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 105(20): 7577-7592, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34536101

RESUMO

The yeast Yarrowia lipolytica has been industrially adopted for docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid production under good manufacturing practices over 2 decades. In recent years, it has claimed attention for novel biotechnological applications, such as a functional feed additive for animals. Studies have demonstrated that this yeast is safe and has probiotic and nutritional properties for mammals, birds, fish, crustaceans, and molluscs. Animals fed Y. lipolytica enhanced productive and immune parameters, as well as modulated microbiome, fatty acid composition, and biochemical profiles. Additionally, some Y. lipolytica-derived compounds have improved productive performance, immune status, and disease resistance in animals. Therefore, the aim of this review is to identify and discuss research advances on the potential use of this yeast for animals of economic interest. Challenges, opportunities, and trends were identified and envisioned in the near future for this industrially produced yeast. KEY POINTS: • Yarrowia lipolytica has probiotic and nutritional effects in animals. • Lipase2, EPA, and ß-glucan from Y. lipolytica have health benefits for animals. • Y. lipolytica is envisioned in terrestrial and aquatic animal production systems.


Assuntos
Yarrowia , Animais , Biotecnologia , Ácidos Graxos
19.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 105(19): 7123-7139, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34508283

RESUMO

Many biotechnological applications deal with nitrification, one of the main steps of the global nitrogen cycle. The biological oxidation of ammonia to nitrite and further to nitrate is critical to avoid environmental damage and its functioning has to be retained even under adverse conditions. Bacteria performing the second reaction, oxidation of nitrite to nitrate, are fastidious microorganisms that are highly sensitive against disturbances. One important finding with relevance for nitrogen removal systems was the discovery of the mainly cold-adapted Cand. Nitrotoga, whose activity seems to be essential for the recovery of nitrite oxidation in wastewater treatment plants at low temperatures, e.g., during cold seasons. Several new strains of this genus have been recently described and ecophysiologically characterized including genome analyses. With increasing diversity, also mesophilic Cand. Nitrotoga representatives have been detected in activated sludge. This review summarizes the natural distribution and driving forces defining niche separation in artificial nitrification systems. Further critical aspects for the competition with Nitrospira and Nitrobacter are discussed. Knowledge about the physiological capacities and limits of Cand. Nitrotoga can help to define physico-chemical parameters for example in reactor systems that need to be run at low temperatures. KEY POINTS: • Characterization of the psychrotolerant nitrite oxidizer Cand. Nitrotoga • Comparison of the physiological features of Cand. Nitrotoga with those of other NOB • Identification of beneficial environmental/operational parameters for proliferation.


Assuntos
Nitritos , Nitrogênio , Biotecnologia , Desnitrificação
20.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 105(19): 7225-7239, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34536106

RESUMO

Marine dissolved organic matter (DOM) comprises a vast and unexplored molecular space. Most of it resided in the oceans for thousands of years. It is among the most diverse molecular mixtures known, consisting of millions of individual compounds. More than 1 Eg of this material exists on the planet. As such, it comprises a formidable source of natural products promising significant potential for new biotechnological purposes. Great emphasis has been placed on understanding the role of DOM in biogeochemical cycles and climate attenuation, its lifespan, interaction with microorganisms, as well as its molecular composition. Yet, probing DOM bioactivities is in its infancy, largely because it is technically challenging due to the chemical complexity of the material. It is of considerable interest to develop technologies capable to better discern DOM bioactivities. Modern screening technologies are opening new avenues allowing accelerated identification of bioactivities for small molecules from natural products. These methods diminish a priori the need for laborious chemical fractionation. We examine here the application of untargeted metabolomics and multiplexed high-throughput molecular-phenotypic screening techniques that are providing first insights on previously undetectable DOM bioactivities. KEY POINTS: • Marine DOM is a vast, unexplored biotechnological resource. • Untargeted bioscreening approaches are emerging for natural product screening. • Perspectives for developing bioscreening platforms for marine DOM are discussed.


Assuntos
Biotecnologia , Metabolômica
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