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1.
Bioresour Technol ; 300: 122724, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31926792

RESUMO

Lignocellulosic biomass is an inexpensive renewable source that can be used to produce biofuels and bioproducts. The recalcitrance nature of biomass hampers polysaccharide accessibility for enzymes and microbes. Several pretreatment methods have been developed for the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass into value-added products. However, these pretreatment methods also produce a wide range of secondary compounds, which are inhibitory to enzymes and microorganisms. The selection of an effective and efficient pretreatment method discussed in the review and its process optimization can significantly reduce the production of inhibitory compounds and may lead to enhanced production of fermentable sugars and biochemicals. Moreover, evolutionary and genetic engineering approaches are being used for the improvement of microbial tolerance towards inhibitors. Advancements in pretreatment and detoxification technologies may help to increase the productivity of lignocellulose-based biorefinery. In this review, we discuss the recent advancements in lignocellulosic biomass pretreatment technologies and strategies for the removal of inhibitors.


Assuntos
Biocombustíveis , Lignina , Biomassa , Biotecnologia
2.
Bioresour Technol ; 300: 122687, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31926794

RESUMO

Anaerobic fungi (AF, phylum Neocallimastigomycota) are best known for their ability to efficiently break down lignocellulosic biomass. Their unique combination of mechanical and enzymatic attacks on recalcitrant plant structures bears great potential for enhancement of the anaerobic digestion (AD) process. Although scientists in this field have long agreed upon the potential of AF for biotechnology, research is only recently gaining traction. This delay was largely due to difficulties in culture-dependent and culture-independent analysis of those high-maintenance organisms with their still unknown complex growth requirements. In this review, we will summarize current research efforts on bioaugmentation with AF and further point out, how the lack of basic knowledge on AF nutritional needs hampers their implementation on an industrial scale. Through this, we hope to further kindle interest into basic research on AF in order to advance their stable integration into biotechnological processes.


Assuntos
Biocombustíveis , Neocallimastigomycota , Anaerobiose , Biomassa , Biotecnologia , Fungos
3.
Postepy Biochem ; 65(4): 247-262, 2020 Jan 08.
Artigo em Polonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31945279

RESUMO

Nanodiamonds are ultra-fine diamond particles, which due to their nano-scale size, unique physico-chemical properties, and a large ratio of easily chemically modifiable surface to volume, are of interest to biologists, chemists and physicists. This work is a review of the literature on their preparation, properties and perspectives related to the possibility of their use in biomedical sciences. The high biocompatibility of nanodiamonds, confirmed by a number of in vivo and in vitro studies, distinguishes them from other nanoparticles and allows their use as a neutral system for transporting biologically active compounds. Such nanoparticles can be used as carriers of peptides, proteins, nucleic acids, drugs or other synthetic compounds that will cause the intended biological effect in the body, in bioimaging and tissue engineering. Promising results of studies on different biological models suggest practical applications of nanotechnological solutions based on nanodiamonds.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica , Biotecnologia , Nanodiamantes , Nanomedicina , Humanos
4.
Bioresour Technol ; 298: 122346, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31734061

RESUMO

Biological wastes generated from food and fruit processing industries, municipal markets, and water treatment facilities are a major cause of concern for Health Departments and Environmentalists around the world. Conventional means of managing these wastes such as transportation, treatment, and disposal, are proving uneconomical. The need is to develop green and sustainable technologies to circumvent this ever-growing and persistent problem. In this article, the potential of diverse microbes to metabolize complex organic rich biowastes into a variety of bioactive compounds with diverse biotechnological applications have been presented. An integrated strategy has been proposed that can be commercially exploited for the recovery of value-adding products ranging from bioactive compounds, chemical building blocks, energy rich chemicals, biopolymers and materials, which results in a self-sustaining circular bioeconomy with nearly zero waste generation and complete degradation.


Assuntos
Biocombustíveis , Resíduos Industriais , Biotecnologia , Indústria Alimentícia , Frutas
5.
Arch Microbiol ; 202(1): 153-159, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31541265

RESUMO

In this study, it was aimed to determine the ability to produce protease enzyme of Thermomonas haemolytica isolated from geothermal Nenehatun hot spring in Turkey and utilization of this enzyme in the detergent industry to remove protein stains. The protease-producing strains were screened from hot springs, and a potential strain was identified as T. haemolytica according to morphological, physiological and biochemical characteristics and sequence of 16S rRNA gene. Maximum protease activity was observed at 55 °C and pH 9.0 at 72 h of incubation. Activity was very stable between 50 and 65 °C and pH 8.0-10.0, respectively. The enzyme activity was significantly inhibited by PMSF and partly inhibited by EDTA, EGTA, SDS, and urea. Some divalent metal ions such as Ca2+, Mg2+, and Mn2+ increased the enzyme activity, while Zn2+ and Cu2+ decreased. Michaelis-Menten constant (Km) and maximum velocity (Vmax) values were calculated by Lineweaver-Burk plot as 125 EU/ml and 1262 mg/ml, respectively. The biochemical characterization of the protease obtained from T. haemolytica was performed and applied on the blood and grass-stained fabrics with detergent to evaluate the stain removal performance of the enzyme. It was observed that the application of detergent with enzyme was more effective than the detergent without enzyme to clean up the stained fabrics. This is the first report of characterization of the protease of T. haemolytica. According to results obtained from this study, this new strain is a promising candidate for industrial applications in production of detergent.


Assuntos
Biotecnologia , Detergentes , Endopeptidases/metabolismo , Xanthomonadaceae/enzimologia , Detergentes/química , Estabilidade Enzimática , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Temperatura Ambiente , Xanthomonadaceae/genética
6.
Bioresour Technol ; 299: 122635, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31882200

RESUMO

The sustainability of a biofuel is severely affected by the technological route of its production. Chemical pretreatment can be considered the traditional method of decomposition of the lignocellulose into its mono and oligomeric units, which can be further bioconverted to ethanol. The evaluation of the recent advances in chemical pretreatments of sugarcane bagasse, especially diluted acids, alkaline, organosolv and ionic liquids, identified the critical points for sustainability. In this context, chemicals recovery and reutilization or their substitution by green solvents, heat and electricity generation through bioenergy, reutilization of water from evaporators, vinasse concentration and the upgrading of lignin were discussed as strategic routes for developing sustainable chemical-based lignocellulose pretreatment. The advances in the technologies that allow greater fractionation of lignocellulosic biomass should be focused on the minimization of the use of natural resources, effluent generation and energy expenditure.


Assuntos
Saccharum , Biomassa , Biotecnologia , Lignina
7.
Nat Biotechnol ; 37(12): 1435-1445, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31792412

RESUMO

Cells compartmentalize their intracellular environment to orchestrate countless simultaneous biochemical processes. Many intracellular tasks rely on membrane-less organelles, multicomponent condensates that assemble by liquid-liquid phase separation. A decade of intensive research has provided a basic understanding of the biomolecular driving forces underlying the form and function of such organelles. Here we review the technologies enabling these developments, along with approaches to designing spatiotemporally actuated organelles based on multivalent low-affinity interactions. With these recent advances, it is now becoming possible both to modulate the properties of native condensates and to engineer entirely new structures, with the potential for widespread biomedical and biotechnological applications.


Assuntos
Biotecnologia , Biologia Celular , Engenharia Celular , Organelas , Animais , Humanos
10.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1203: 285-312, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31811638

RESUMO

RNA-protein interactions are essential to a variety of biological processes. The realization that mammalian genomes are pervasively transcribed brought a tidal wave of tens of thousands of newly identified long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) and raised questions about their purpose in cells. The vast majority of lncRNAs have yet to be studied, and it remains to be determined to how many of these transcripts a function can be ascribed. However, results gleaned from studying a handful of these macromolecules have started to reveal common themes of biological function and mechanism of action involving intricate RNA-protein interactions. Some lncRNAs were shown to regulate the chromatin and transcription of distant and neighboring genes in the nucleus, while others regulate the translation or localization of proteins in the cytoplasm. Some lncRNAs were found to be crucial during development, while mutations and aberrant expression of others have been associated with several types of cancer and a plethora of diseases. Over the last few years, the establishment of new technologies has been key in providing the tools to decode the rules governing lncRNA-protein interactions and functions. This chapter will highlight the general characteristics of lncRNAs, their function, and their mode of action, with a special focus on protein interactions. It will also describe the methods at the disposition of scientists to help them cross this next frontier in our understanding of lncRNA biology.


Assuntos
Neoplasias , RNA Longo não Codificante , Ribonucleoproteínas , Animais , Biotecnologia/tendências , Cromatina , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Genoma , RNA Longo não Codificante/metabolismo , Ribonucleoproteínas/metabolismo
11.
Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao ; 35(11): 2031-2034, 2019 Nov 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31814351

RESUMO

Environmental biotechnology, as an emerging interdisciplinary subject combining modern biotechnology and environmental engineering, has been widely used in environmental pollution control and environmental monitoring. Efficient purification of environmental pollution and the production of useful substances have the potential to fundamentally solve environmental problems. In the present special issue, the principle and application of environmental biotechnology in the field of environmental pollutant degradation such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, antibiotics, and petroleum-based plastics has been summarized. Application of indole, microbial iron carrier and other molecules in bioremediation has been introduced. Hope to give a comprehensive view on basic environmental biotechnology, future research directions and comprehensive governance strategies.


Assuntos
Biotecnologia , Biodegradação Ambiental , /tendências
13.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 36(1): 11, 2019 Dec 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31879822

RESUMO

Because of their protein cross-linking properties, transglutaminases are widely used in several industrial processes, including the food and pharmaceutical industries. Transglutaminases obtained from animal tissues and organs, the first sources of this enzyme, are being replaced by microbial sources, which are cheaper and easier to produce and purify. Since the discovery of microbial transglutaminase (mTGase), the enzyme has been produced for industrial applications by traditional fermentation process using the bacterium Streptomyces mobaraensis. Several studies have been carried out in this field to increase the enzyme industrial productivity. Researches on gene expression encoding transglutaminase biosynthesis were performed in Streptomyces lividans, Escherichia coli, Corynebacterium glutamicum, Yarrowia lipolytica, and Pichia pastoris. In the first part of this review, we presented an overview of the literature on the origins, types, mediated reactions, and general characterizations of these important enzymes, as well as the studies on recombinant microbial transglutaminases. In this second part, we focus on the application versatility of mTGase in three broad areas: food, pharmacological, and biotechnological industries. The use of mTGase is presented for several food groups, showing possibilities of applications and challenges to further improve the quality of the end-products. Some applications in the textile and leather industries are also reviewed, as well as special applications in the PEGylation reaction, in the production of antibody drug conjugates, and in regenerative medicine.


Assuntos
Biotecnologia , Indústria Alimentícia , Têxteis , Transglutaminases , Animais , Corynebacterium glutamicum/genética , Bases de Dados Factuais , Escherichia coli/genética , Fermentação , Alimentos , Tecnologia de Alimentos , Pichia/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes , Streptomyces/enzimologia , Transglutaminases/biossíntese , Transglutaminases/genética , Yarrowia/genética
14.
Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao ; 35(10): 1801-1805, 2019 Oct 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31668029

RESUMO

Industrial biotechnology promises to make a significant contribution in enabling the sustainable development, and need the solid support from its basic discipline. As the basis of industrial biotechnology, industrial biology is to study the basic laws and mechanisms of biological behavior in industrial environment and to solve the key scientific problems for understanding, designing and constructing the organisms adapted to the application of industrial environment. In order to comprehend the status of industrial biology, we published this special issue to review the progress and trends of industrial biology from the three aspects of industrial protein science, cell science and fermentation science, respectively, for laying the foundation for the development of industrial biotechnology.


Assuntos
Biotecnologia , Fermentação , Microbiologia Industrial
15.
Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao ; 35(10): 1806-1818, 2019 Oct 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31668030

RESUMO

Industrial enzymes are the "chip" of modern bio-industries, supporting tens- and hundreds-fold of downstream industries development. Elucidating the relationships between enzyme structures and functions is fundamental for industrial applications. Recently, with the advanced developments of protein crystallization and computational simulation technologies, the structure-function relationships have been extensively studied, making the rational design and de novo design become possible. This paper reviews the progress of structure-function relationships of industrial enzymes and applications, and address future developments.


Assuntos
Biotecnologia , Enzimas/química , Enzimas/metabolismo , Engenharia Metabólica , Engenharia de Proteínas , Biocatálise , Enzimas/genética , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
16.
Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao ; 35(10): 1829-1842, 2019 Oct 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31668032

RESUMO

Industrial enzymes have become the core "chip" for bio-manufacturing technology. Design and development of novel and efficient enzymes is the key to the development of industrial biotechnology. The scientific basis for the innovative design of industrial catalysts is an in-depth analysis of the structure-activity relationship between enzymes and substrates, as well as their regulatory mechanisms. With the development of bioinformatics and computational technology, the catalytic mechanism of the enzyme can be solved by various calculation methods. Subsequently, the specific regions of the structure can be rationally reconstructed to improve the catalytic performance, which will further promote the industrial application of the target enzyme. Computational simulation and rational design based on the analysis of the structure-activity relationship have become the crucial technology for the preparation of high-efficiency industrial enzymes. This review provides a brief introduction and discussion on various calculation methods and design strategies as well as future trends.


Assuntos
Biotecnologia , Enzimas/química , Enzimas/metabolismo , Engenharia Metabólica , Engenharia de Proteínas , Biocatálise , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
17.
Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao ; 35(10): 1857-1869, 2019 Oct 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31668034

RESUMO

Enzymes have a wide range of applications and great industrial potential. However, large-scale applications of enzymes are restricted by the harsh industrial environment, such as high temperature, strong acid/alkali, high salt, organic solvents, and high substrate concentration. Adaptive modification (such as rational or semi-rational design, directed evolution and immobilization) is the most common strategy to improve the catalysis of enzymes under industrial conditions. Here, we review the catalysis of enzymes in the industrial environment and various methods adopted for the adaptive modifications in recent years, to provide reference for the adaptive modifications of enzymes.


Assuntos
Biocatálise , Biotecnologia , Enzimas/química , Enzimas/metabolismo , Engenharia de Proteínas , Biocatálise/efeitos dos fármacos , Temperatura Alta , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Solventes/química , Solventes/farmacologia
18.
Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao ; 35(10): 1870-1888, 2019 Oct 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31668035

RESUMO

In vitro multi-enzyme molecular machines that follow the designed multi-enzyme pathways, require the rational optimization and adaptation of several purified or partially purified enzyme components, in order to convert certain substrates into target compounds in vitro in an efficient manner. This type of molecular machine is component-based and modularized, so that its design, assembly, and regulation processes are highly flexible. Recently, the advantages of in vitro multi-enzyme molecular machines on the precise control of reaction process and the enhancement of product yield have suggested their great application potential in biomanufacturing. Studies on in vitro multi-enzyme molecular machines have become an important branch of synthetic biology, and are gaining increasing attentions. This article systematically reviews the enzyme component-/module-based construction strategy of in vitro multi-enzyme molecular machines, as well as the research progress on the improvement of compatibility among enzyme components/modules. The current challenges and future prospects of in vitro multi-enzyme molecular machines are also discussed.


Assuntos
Biotecnologia , Enzimas/química , Enzimas/metabolismo , Complexos Multienzimáticos/química , Complexos Multienzimáticos/metabolismo , Biologia Sintética
19.
Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao ; 35(10): 1942-1954, 2019 Oct 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31668040

RESUMO

The chemical manufacturing industry that uses fossil resources as raw materials, consumes non-renewable resources and also causes damage to the ecological environment, stimulating the development of bio-manufacturing with renewable resources as raw materials. Unlike traditional chemical manufacturing, bio-manufacturing uses cells as a "production workshop", and each process in the "workshop" is catalyzed by enzymes. In addition to mild reaction conditions, the "cell factory" has strong plasticity, and can be used to synthesize various target chemicals according to demand adjustment or reconstitution of metabolic pathways. The design process of the "cell factory" follows the following guidelines: 1) Construct an optimal synthetic route from raw materials to products; 2) Balance the metabolic flux of each reaction in the metabolic pathway, so that the metabolic flux of this pathway is much higher than the primary metabolism of the cells; 3) Precursor supply in the pathway should be sufficient, and adjust multiple precursors supply ratio as needed; 4) enzymatic reactions often involve the participation of various cofactors, smooth metabolic pathways need to balance or regenerate various cofactors; 5) Through genetic modification or process improvement to remove metabolic intermediates and products feedback inhibition to achieve higher yields.


Assuntos
Biotecnologia , Células/metabolismo , Engenharia Metabólica , Redes e Vias Metabólicas , Coenzimas/metabolismo , Redes e Vias Metabólicas/genética
20.
Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao ; 35(10): 1955-1973, 2019 Oct 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31668041

RESUMO

In industrial biotechnology, microbial cell factories utilize renewable resources to produce energy, materials and chemicals. Industrial biotechnology plays an increasingly important role in solving the resource, energy and environmental problems. Systems biology has shed new light on industrial biotechnology, deepening our understanding of industrial microbial cell factories and their bioprocess from "Black-box" to "White-box". Systems-wide profiling of genome, transcriptome, proteome, metabolome, and fluxome has proven valuable to better unveil network operation and regulation on the genome scale. System biology has been successfully applied to create microbial cell factories for numerous products and derive attractive industrial processes, which has constantly expedited the development of industrial biotechnology. This review focused on the recent advance and applications of omics and trans-omics in industrial biotechnology, including genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics, fluxomics and genome scale modeling, and so on. Furthermore, this review also discussed the potential and promise of systems biology in industrial biotechnology.


Assuntos
Biotecnologia , Microbiologia Industrial , Biologia de Sistemas , Genômica , Engenharia Metabólica , Metabolômica
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