Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 33.379
Filtrar
1.
GM Crops Food ; 12(1): 106-114, 2021 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33079624

RESUMO

Agricultural biotechnology is enhancing agricultural productivity, food security, and livelihoods globally. Some developing countries have established functional biosafety regulatory systems and have commercialized genetically modified (GM) crops. Release of GM crops requires enhanced capacity for regulatory compliance and product stewardship to help ensure sustainable use of biotechnology products. We conducted a survey of 66 stakeholders, mostly from Africa and Asia, in two-week international agricultural biotechnology short courses. Respondents showed knowledge of biotechnology benefits and expressed potential barriers to commercialization. They identified 16 crops in the "pipeline for commercialization." Stakeholders also shared ideas about how to build capacity for product stewardship. Product stewardship is a concept which requires each person in the product life cycle - innovators, scientists, and technology users, to share responsibility. This paper focuses on adoption of product stewardship for post-release management of GM crops which encompasses trait performance, resistance management, integrated pest management (IPM), good agricultural practices, high-quality seeds and planting material, intellectual property management, labeling, identity preservation, consumer acceptance, and effective marketing.


Assuntos
Biotecnologia , Produtos Agrícolas , Agricultura , Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas
2.
GM Crops Food ; 12(1): 18-24, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32787504

RESUMO

Since 1996 till 2018, the global area cultivated with GM crops has increased 113-fold, making biotech crops one of the fastest adopted crop technology in the past decades. In the European Union, only two countries still cultivate one available transgenic crop event on minor hectarage. Moreover, the number of notifications for confined field trials has dramatically dropped in the last decade. All these are happening while the EU legislation on GM crops has come under severe criticism. The percentage of EU citizens concerned about the presence of GMOs in the environment has decreased from 30% (in 2002) to 19% (in 2011), while the level of concern about the use of GM ingredients in food or drinks has decreased from 63% (in 2005) to 27% (in 2019). The steadily increasing acceptance of the EU citizens of GMOs in the environment and food, as it was recorded by Eurobarometers, should additionally ease the way and support a positive change of the legal framework that regulates the GM crops' testing and commercial cultivation in the EU.


Assuntos
Biotecnologia , Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados , União Europeia , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas
3.
Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao ; 36(10): 2216-2225, 2020 Oct 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33169585

RESUMO

The era of bioeconomy has ushered in a new wave of technological and industrial revolution for mankind. The strategic deployment for the bioindustry in China has achieved remarkable results. However, there are still problems such as unbalanced regional development in the process of bioindustry development. In order to comprehensively assess the current situation of the competitiveness of the bioindustry in various regions of China, the assessment indicator system of the overall competitiveness of the bioindustry is constructed from the perspective of the four sub-industries of biomedicine, bioenergy, bioagriculture and bio-based industry. The weight of each assessment indicator is determined by the analytic hierarchy process. According to geographical administrative division and regional economic relations, an empirical analysis of the comprehensive competitiveness score of the bioindustry in seven regions of China is carried out. The assessment results show that the competition of bioindustry in various regions of China presents a gradient distribution in space. In view of this, relevant policy recommendations are put forward from four aspects: (1) implementing the strategy of rural revitalization, (2) implementing the strategy of regional coordinated development, (3) deepening the supply-side structural reform for the bioindustry, and (4) establishing regional unified information collaboration network system.


Assuntos
Biotecnologia , Indústrias , Biotecnologia/economia , Biotecnologia/normas , Biotecnologia/estatística & dados numéricos , China
4.
Rev. bioét. derecho ; (50): 1133-131, nov. 2020.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-191349

RESUMO

Han sucedido tantas cosas, y en tan poco tiempo, que no resulta fácil seleccionar alguna temática sin dejarnos fuera otras igualmente relevantes. Probablemente nos pasaremos los próximos años debatiendo sobre lo acontecido, entre otros motivos, por la escasa información que aun hoy tenemos sobre la apisonadora que ha triturado nuestro estilo de vida. Pues bien, he seleccionado, de entre las innumerables que podríamos estudiar, cuatro narrativas. En concreto, la pandemia como refriega entre neokantianos y utilitaristas; como datificación de rebaño; como ajuste de cuentas epistemológico y como singularidad española. Con este análisis podremos interrelacionar, aunque sea de forma breve, las implicaciones éticas, jurídicas, políticas y científicas de una historia que recién ha comenzado


So many things have happened, and in such a short time, that it is not easy to select some topic without leaving out other equally relevant ones. We will probably spend the next few years debating what happened, among other things, due to the scant information that we still have today about the steamroller that has crushed our lifestyle. Well, I have selected, from the innumerable ones that remain to be studied, four narratives. Specifically, the pandemic as a fray between neo-Kantians and utilitarians; as herd dating; as an epistemological reckoning and as a Spanish singularity. With this analysis we will be able to interrelate, albeit briefly, the ethical, legal, political and scientific implications of a history that has just begun


Han passat tantes coses, I en tan poc temps, que no resulta fàcil seleccionar alguna temàtica sense deixar-nos fora d'altres igualment rellevants. Probablement ens passarem els propers anys debatent sobre els fets, entre altres motius, per l'escassa informació que encara avui tenim sobre la piconadora que ha triturat el nostre estil de vida. Doncs bé, he seleccionat, d'entre els innombrables que podríem estudiar, quatre narratives. En concret, la pandèmia com la batalla entre neokantians I utilitaristes; com datificació de ramat; com venjança epistemològica I com a singularitat espanyola. Amb aquest anàlisi podrem interrelacionar, encara que sigui de forma breu, les implicacions ètiques, jurídiques, polítiques I científiques d'una història que just acaba de començar


Assuntos
Humanos , Triagem , Biotecnologia , Direitos do Paciente , Tomada de Decisões , Infecções por Coronavirus , Pneumonia Viral , Pandemias
5.
Mol Cell ; 80(2): 193-209, 2020 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33010203

RESUMO

Understanding the genetic design principles that determine protein production remains a major challenge. Although the key principles of gene expression were discovered 50 years ago, additional factors are still being uncovered. Both protein-coding and non-coding sequences harbor elements that collectively influence the efficiency of protein production by modulating transcription, mRNA decay, and translation. The influences of many contributing elements are intertwined, which complicates a full understanding of the individual factors. In natural genes, a functional balance between these factors has been obtained in the course of evolution, whereas for genetic-engineering projects, our incomplete understanding still limits optimal design of synthetic genes. However, notable advances have recently been made, supported by high-throughput analysis of synthetic gene libraries as well as by state-of-the-art biomolecular techniques. We discuss here how these advances further strengthen understanding of the gene expression process and how they can be harnessed to optimize protein production.


Assuntos
Código Genético , Biossíntese de Proteínas/genética , Algoritmos , Animais , Biotecnologia , Humanos , Estabilidade de RNA , Transcrição Genética
6.
Chimia (Aarau) ; 74(10): 765-767, 2020 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33115556

RESUMO

For over 50 years, Switzerland has been one of the leading countries driving innovation in biotechnology and its industrial applications. Today, some 1,000 biotech companies form a tightly knit, cross-functional network ranging from research through to manufacturing. This network comprises R&D companies, contract research organizations, and highly specialized advisors and biotech investors. Together, they form an external innovation pool that complements the in-house R&D capacity of the large multi-national pharma companies. A highly effective startup framework, solid acceleration mechanisms, and innovative investors enable the emergence of a continuous flow of biotech startups that revitalize the industry with new technologies and products supporting drug development and diagnostics.


Assuntos
Biotecnologia , Comércio , Indústria Farmacêutica , Indústrias , Suíça
7.
Ambio ; 49(12): 1860-1877, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33034874

RESUMO

This review article examines how social science literature co-produces various imaginaries of forest-based bioeconomy transformations and pathways for reaching desired ends. Based on an analysis of 59 research articles, we find that despite a growing number of social sciences studies on the forest-based bioeconomy, much of the research tends to replicate a bioeconomy imaginary articulated in EU and national bioeconomy policies and strategies. Accordingly, the research primarily reproduces a weak approach to sustainability, which prioritize economic growth and competitiveness. Expectations are largely directed at national and regional corporate interests and forest industrial renewal, while the state has a supportive rather than restricting role. We discuss the findings against the role of social sciences, and conclude that social science scholars may adopt various strategies if interested in opening up forest-based policy debates and offer alternative imaginaries of sustainable bioeconomy transformations.


Assuntos
Biotecnologia , Florestas , Desenvolvimento Econômico , Indústrias , Políticas
8.
Ambio ; 49(12): 1878-1896, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33044700

RESUMO

The bioeconomy is currently being globally promoted as a sustainability avenue involving several societal actors. While the bioeconomy is broadly about the substitution of fossil resources with bio-based ones, three main (competing or complementary) bioeconomy visions are emerging in scientific literature: resource, biotechnology, and agroecology. The implementation of one or more of these visions into strategies implies changes to land use and thus ecosystem services delivery, with notable trade-offs. This review aims to explore the interdisciplinary space at the interface of these two concepts. We reviewed scientific publications explicitly referring to bioeconomy and ecosystem services in their title, abstract, or keywords, with 45 documents identified as relevant. The literature appeared to be emerging and fragmented but eight themes were discernible (in order of decreasing occurrence frequency in the literature): a. technical and economic feasibility of biomass extraction and use; b. potential and challenges of the bioeconomy; c. frameworks and tools; d. sustainability of bio-based processes, products, and services; e. environmental sustainability of the bioeconomy; f. governance of the bioeconomy; g. biosecurity; h. bioremediation. Approximately half of the documents aligned to a resource vision of the bioeconomy, with emphasis on biomass production. Agroecology and biotechnology visions were less frequently found, but multiple visions generally tended to occur in each document. The discussion highlights gaps in the current research on the topic and argues for communication between the ecosystem services and bioeconomy communities to forward both research areas in the context of sustainability science.


Assuntos
Biotecnologia , Ecossistema , Biomassa
9.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5058, 2020 10 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33028819

RESUMO

While synthetic biology has revolutionized our approaches to medicine, agriculture, and energy, the design of completely novel biological circuit components beyond naturally-derived templates remains challenging due to poorly understood design rules. Toehold switches, which are programmable nucleic acid sensors, face an analogous design bottleneck; our limited understanding of how sequence impacts functionality often necessitates expensive, time-consuming screens to identify effective switches. Here, we introduce Sequence-based Toehold Optimization and Redesign Model (STORM) and Nucleic-Acid Speech (NuSpeak), two orthogonal and synergistic deep learning architectures to characterize and optimize toeholds. Applying techniques from computer vision and natural language processing, we 'un-box' our models using convolutional filters, attention maps, and in silico mutagenesis. Through transfer-learning, we redesign sub-optimal toehold sensors, even with sparse training data, experimentally validating their improved performance. This work provides sequence-to-function deep learning frameworks for toehold selection and design, augmenting our ability to construct potent biological circuit components and precision diagnostics.


Assuntos
Biotecnologia/métodos , Aprendizado Profundo , Engenharia Genética/métodos , Riboswitch/genética , Biologia Sintética/métodos , Sequência de Bases/genética , Simulação por Computador , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Genoma Humano/genética , Genoma Viral/genética , Humanos , Modelos Genéticos , Mutagênese , Processamento de Linguagem Natural , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
10.
Wiad Lek ; 73(8): 1747-1751, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33055345

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim: To identify the spheres in which it is forbidden to patent the results of medical researches and as a consequence there is no legal protection of biotechnological inventions. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Materials and methods: The research material is a modern European regulatory framework that establishes the basic principles for patentability of biotechnological inventions. The methods of information retrieval, analysis, systematization, and generalization were used in this article. CONCLUSION: Conclusions: The Court of Justice has categorically stated that inventions that use human embryonic cells cannot be used for industrial or commercial purposes and therefore cannot be patented. In connection with this prohibition, the Court of Justice provided a unified definition of "embryo" and determined that it could be considered a dividing human egg, but only if it had a real ability to develop into a human. That is, the determining factor is not the beginning of the process of cell proliferation, but their real ability to become human. These decisions have become crucial for the development of research and the use of their results in therapeutic activities in the EU.


Assuntos
Biotecnologia , Invenções , Humanos
12.
Urol Clin North Am ; 47(4): 511-521, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33008500

RESUMO

The age of immuno-oncology has ushered in a rush within the biopharmaceutical industry. This intense focus has been characterized as a frenzy or overhyped, but represents a substantial investment in new products that hope to harness the immune system against cancer. Such agents include next-generation checkpoint antagonists, immune costimulatory agonists, and a diverse array of novel mechanisms of action and therapeutic modalities targeting immune cell types and the interplay of the host and tumor at the immune synapse. This article surveys the clinical development and investment activity with Immuno-Oncology, specifically prostate, kidney, and bladder cancers.


Assuntos
Produtos Biológicos/uso terapêutico , Biotecnologia/tendências , Imunoterapia/métodos , Microambiente Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias Urogenitais/imunologia , Neoplasias Urogenitais/terapia , Biotecnologia/métodos , Feminino , Previsões , Humanos , Masculino , Resultado do Tratamento , Microambiente Tumoral/imunologia , Neoplasias Urogenitais/mortalidade , Neoplasias Urogenitais/patologia
13.
Ambio ; 49(12): 1912-1924, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32915444

RESUMO

There is a need for societal transformation towards bioeconomy, which promotes the replacement of non-renewable natural resources with renewable ones. Slovakia has considerable potential for bioeconomy development, yet this potential remains untapped. This article evaluates the public perception regarding the individual properties of renewable and non-renewable materials and their relation to the potential for bioeconomy development in Slovakia. It is found that Slovak consumers prefer natural renewable materials, regardless of other influencing factors, and realise the need for transformation towards a more sustainable economy.


Assuntos
Biotecnologia , Eslováquia
14.
J Environ Manage ; 276: 111240, 2020 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32866754

RESUMO

With an estimated worldwide production of 190 billion kg per year, and due to its high organic load, cheese whey represents a huge opportunity for bioenergy and biochemicals production. Several physical, chemical and biological processes have been proposed to valorise cheese whey by producing biofuels (methane, hydrogen, and ethanol), electric energy, and/or chemical commodities (carboxylic acids, proteins, and biopolymers). A biorefinery concept, in which several value-added products are obtained from cheese whey through a cascade of biotechnological processes, is an opportunity for increasing the product spectrum of dairy industries while allowing for sustainable management of the residual streams and reducing disposal costs for the final residues. This review critically analyses the different treatment options available for energy and materials recovery from cheese whey, their combinations and perspectives for implementation. Thus, instead of focusing on a specific valorisation platform, in the present review the most relevant aspects of each strategy are analysed to support the integration of different routes, in order to identify the most appropriate treatment train.


Assuntos
Queijo , Soro do Leite , Biocombustíveis , Biotecnologia , Metano
15.
Rev. Hosp. Ital. B. Aires (2004) ; 40(3): 105-116, sept. 2020. ilus, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1129064

RESUMO

Este trabajo tiene como objetivo revisar las contribuciones de la biotecnología, en relación con el tratamiento, diagnóstico y la monitorización de la enfermedad renal crónica (ERC) y sus comorbilidades más frecuentes, especialmente la anemia. En relación con los tratamientos, enfocamos el desarrollo de productos biofarmacéuticos como los agentes estimulantes de la eritropoyesis (ESA), que fueron los primeros biofármacos utilizados para el tratamiento de la anemia asociada a la ERC; analizamos sus características y utilización actual después de varios años de experiencia clínica, así como también otras alternativas en desarrollo. Revisamos distintos tipos de bioterapias, la utilización de las células estromales mesenquimales de médula ósea (MSC) y tratamientos alternativos con modificaciones dietarias, que se basan en la asociación entre la microbiota intestinal de los pacientes renales crónicos y sus condiciones fisiopatológicas. Finalmente, en relación con el diagnóstico y monitorización, nos referimos al estudio y validación de biomarcadores diagnósticos, predictivos y terapéuticos que han permitido optimizar los resultados clínicos en este tipo de pacientes. (AU)


The aim of this work is to review the contributions of biotechnology, in relation to the treatment, diagnosis and monitoring of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and its most frequent comorbidities, especially anemia. Regarding the treatment, we focus on the development of biopharmaceutical products such as erythropoiesis stimulating agents (ESA), which were the first biopharmaceuticals used to treat anemia associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD). We analyzed their characteristics and their current use after several years of clinical experience, as well as other alternatives in development. We also review different types of biotherapies, the use of bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) and alternative treatments with dietary modifications, which are based on the association between the intestinal microbiota of chronic kidney patients and their pathophysiological conditions. Finally, in relation to diagnosis and monitoring, we refer to the study and validation of diagnostic, predictive and therapeutic biomarkers that have made clinical results possible to be optimized in this type of patient. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Terapia Biológica/tendências , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/terapia , Qualidade de Vida , Biotecnologia , Biomarcadores , Eritropoetina/deficiência , Probióticos/uso terapêutico , Transplante de Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/tendências , Eritropoese/efeitos dos fármacos , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/dietoterapia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/reabilitação , Prebióticos/classificação , Inibidores de Glicosídeo Hidrolases/uso terapêutico , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Hematínicos/administração & dosagem , Hematínicos/farmacologia , Hematínicos/farmacocinética , Anemia/diagnóstico , Anemia/etiologia , Anemia/tratamento farmacológico
17.
Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao ; 36(8): 1528-1535, 2020 Aug 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32924351

RESUMO

The advent of the bioeconomy era is triggers a new wave of technology and industrial revolution. Bioeconomy has become the commanding heights that major developed countries and emerging economies try to seize. This paper analyzes the spatiotemporal characteristics of global bioindustry development from four perspectives: biomedical industry, genetically modified crop planting industry, bioenergy industry, and bio-based chemical industry. Then it summarizes the main characteristics of the development of the global bioindustry, and further put forward policy recommendations for the bottleneck problems in the development of China's bioindustry, which can guide the future development of China's bioeconomy.


Assuntos
Biotecnologia , Indústrias , Políticas , Biotecnologia/legislação & jurisprudência , Biotecnologia/estatística & dados numéricos , Biotecnologia/tendências , China , Produtos Agrícolas , Indústrias/economia
18.
Nat Biotechnol ; 38(10): 1164-1167, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32948856

RESUMO

We measured severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) RNA concentrations in primary sewage sludge in the New Haven, Connecticut, USA, metropolitan area during the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak in Spring 2020. SARS-CoV-2 RNA was detected throughout the more than 10-week study and, when adjusted for time lags, tracked the rise and fall of cases seen in SARS-CoV-2 clinical test results and local COVID-19 hospital admissions. Relative to these indicators, SARS-CoV-2 RNA concentrations in sludge were 0-2 d ahead of SARS-CoV-2 positive test results by date of specimen collection, 0-2 d ahead of the percentage of positive tests by date of specimen collection, 1-4 d ahead of local hospital admissions and 6-8 d ahead of SARS-CoV-2 positive test results by reporting date. Our data show the utility of viral RNA monitoring in municipal wastewater for SARS-CoV-2 infection surveillance at a population-wide level. In communities facing a delay between specimen collection and the reporting of test results, immediate wastewater results can provide considerable advance notice of infection dynamics.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , RNA Viral/análise , Águas Residuárias/virologia , Vigilância Epidemiológica Baseada em Águas Residuárias , Betacoronavirus/genética , Biotecnologia , Connecticut/epidemiologia , Humanos , Prevalência , RNA Viral/genética , Esgotos/virologia , Fatores de Tempo
20.
Plant Biotechnol J ; 18(11): 2147-2154, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32799416

RESUMO

Growing up in a densely wooded tropical forest enhanced my curiosity in plants and reading biography of Marie Curie profoundly influenced pursuit of my research career. Early in my career, I developed in vitro functional chloroplasts, capable of expressing foreign genes and this laid the foundation for the chloroplast genetic engineering field. Four decades of research has advanced chloroplast bioreactors for production of industrial enzymes or biopharmaceuticals by small or large companies. Because I experienced firsthand horrors of expensive vaccines or medicines, I devoted most of my career to develop affordable therapeutics. During this long journey, I suffered institutional racial discrimination but was rescued by several guardian angels. This biography gives readers a glimpse of tribulations and triumphs of my journey and recognizes important contributions made by my mentees.


Assuntos
Biotecnologia/história , Escolha da Profissão , Cloroplastos/genética , Racismo , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus , Engenharia Genética , Vetores Genéticos , Genoma de Cloroplastos , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA