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1.
Dis Aquat Organ ; 146: 91-105, 2021 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34617515

RESUMO

The toheroa Paphies ventricosa is a large Aotearoa New Zealand (ANZ) endemic surf clam of cultural importance to many Maori, the Indigenous people of ANZ. Extensive commercial and recreational harvesting in the 20th century dramatically reduced populations, leading to the collapse and closure of the fishery. Despite being protected for >40 yr, toheroa have inexplicably failed to recover. In 2017, intracellular microcolonies (IMCs) of bacteria were detected in 'sick' toheroa in northern ANZ. Numerous mass mortality events (MMEs) have recently been recorded in ANZ shellfish, with many events linked by the presence of IMCs resembling Rickettsia-like organisms (RLOs). While similar IMCs have been implicated in MMEs in surf clams elsewhere, the impact of these IMCs on the health or recovery of toheroa is unknown. A critical first step towards understanding the significance of a pathogen in a host population is pathogen identification and characterisation. To begin this process, we examined 16S rRNA gene sequences of the putative IMCs from 4 toheroa populations that showed 97% homology to Endozoicomonas spp. sequences held in GenBank. Phylogenetic analysis identified closely related Endozoicomonas strains from the North and South Island, ANZ, and in situ hybridization, using 16S rRNA gene probes, confirmed the presence of the sequenced IMC gene in the gill and digestive gland tissues of toheroa. Quantitative PCR revealed site-specific and seasonal abundance patterns of Endozoicomonas spp. in toheroa populations. Although implicated in disease outbreaks elsewhere, the role of Endozoicomonas spp. within the ANZ shellfish mortality landscape remains uncertain.


Assuntos
Bivalves , Rickettsia , Animais , Nova Zelândia , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
2.
Sci Total Environ ; 792: 148215, 2021 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34465034

RESUMO

Tidal flats are biogeomorphic landscapes, shaped by physical forces and interaction with benthic biota. We used a metabolic approach to assess the overarching effect of bioturbators on tidal landscapes. The benthic bivalve common cockle (Cerastoderma edule) was used as model organism. The effect of C. edule on sediment resuspension was approximated as a function of the overall population metabolic rate per unit of area. We combined i) laboratory observations on how C. edule affect sediment resuspension along gradients of bioturbation activity, sediment cohesiveness and hydrodynamic force with ii) spatial data on the natural distribution of intertidal C. edule populations. This allowed us to build an integrated model of the C. edule effect on sediment resuspension along the tidal gradient. Owing to the temperature dependence of metabolic rate, the model also accounted for seasonal variation in bioturbators activity. Laboratory experiments indicated that sediment resuspension is positively related to the metabolic rate of the C. edule population especially in cohesive sediments. Based on this observation, we predicted a clear spatial and seasonal pattern in the relative importance of C. edule contribution to sediment resuspension along a tidal transect. At lower elevations, our model indicates that hydrodynamics overrules biotic effects; at higher elevations, inter-tidal hydrodynamics should be too low to suspend bioturbated sediments. The influence of C. edule on sediment resuspension is expected to be maximal at the intermediate elevation of a mudflat, owing to the combination of moderate hydrodynamic stress and high bioturbator activity. Also, bio-mediated sediment resuspension is predicted to be particularly high in the warm season. Research into metabolic dependency of bio-mediated sediment resuspension may help to place phenomenological observations in the broader framework of metabolic theories in ecology and to formulate general expectations on the coastal ecosystem functioning.


Assuntos
Bivalves , Cardiidae , Animais , Ecossistema , Sedimentos Geológicos , Hidrodinâmica
3.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 93(4): e20191221, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34495199

RESUMO

The invasion record for the estuarine bivalve Mytilopsis leucophaeata in Brazil is in Rio de Janeiro city, including the Rodrigo de Freitas Lagoon, where high densities of this invader were registered. This work aimed to (1) assess the composition and structure of the benthic macrofauna associated with this invader in Rodrigo de Freitas Lagoon, (2) analyze the spatiotemporal variation of richness, density and diversity of the associated benthic community, and (3) correlate changes on the density of the associated benthic species with some water quality variables and the density of M. leucophaeata. Clusters of M. leucophaeata were collected monthly (two years) in four sites. Nine taxa associated with M. leucophaeata were found; Heleobia sp. (Gastropoda) and Melita mangrovi (Amphipoda) showed the highest densities. The structure of the benthic macrofauna slightly differed among sampling sites, but not between dry and wet seasons. The water quality parameters, specific patterns of each taxon and high densities of M. leucophaeata contribute to variations in density of the associated species. Oscillations in the densities of M. leucophaeata and the native bivalve Brachidontes darwinianus suggest some agonistic relationship between them, such as a competition for space.


Assuntos
Anfípodes , Bivalves , Animais , Brasil , Estações do Ano , Qualidade da Água
4.
Dis Aquat Organ ; 146: 23-28, 2021 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34498607

RESUMO

The cockle Cerastoderma edule, a socioeconomically important bivalve of the northeast Atlantic, is host to several trematodes, including Himasthla elongata. In the life cycle of this trematode, cercariae (free-living stages) emerge from the first intermediate host, a snail, to infect cockles as second intermediate hosts. During their lifespan (less than 2 d), cercariae must ensure successful host-to-host transmission via the surrounding water and therefore are exposed to and impacted by different environmental conditions, including abiotic factors. Given that the light:dark cycle is one of the major drivers of behaviour in aquatic habitats, we aimed to determine the influence of light on cercariae and host behaviour based on 3 hypotheses. First, by having a benthic second intermediate host, these cercariae will display a photonegative orientation; second, and conversely, host behaviour will not be influenced by light; and third, cercariae infection success will be light-dependent. Results showed that cercariae display a photopositive orientation (first hypothesis rejected), displaying movements towards light. Host activity (evaluated by oxygen consumption) was similar among conditions, i.e. dark vs. light (second hypothesis accepted), but hosts acquired more parasites when experimentally infected in the dark (third hypothesis accepted). This light-dependent infection of the host is explained by a change of cercarial behaviour when exposed to light, decreasing their infection success. This study highlights that trematode responses to external conditions may be linked to successful life cycle completion rather than being altered by the host habitat. Light influence on cercarial behaviour resulted in increased infection success that may affect trematode population dynamics and their distributional range.


Assuntos
Bivalves , Cardiidae , Trematódeos , Infecções por Trematódeos , Animais , Cercárias , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Caramujos , Infecções por Trematódeos/veterinária
5.
Chemosphere ; 282: 130897, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34470145

RESUMO

Mussel shell (MS) and biochar (BC) are commonly used for the remediation of metal contaminated soil. However, less research has been focused to examine the efficacy of their combinations to reduce metal toxicity in crop plants. This study was therefore conducted to investigate the effects of BC, MS and their activated concoctions on the soil properties, enzyme activities and nickel (Ni) immobilization in aged Ni contaminated soil. Moreover, the growth, photosynthetic pigments and anti-oxidative machnery of Brassica napus plants has also been investigated in order to determine amendments efficiency in reducing soil Ni toxicity for plants. The results showed that the application of Ni adversely affected soil health and trigged stress responses by inducing oxidative stress in B. napus. However, the incorporation of amendments reduced the bioavailability of Ni, and the concoctions of BC and MS showed promising results in the immobilization of Ni. Among various combinations of BC and MS, treatment with BC + MS (3:1) significantly reduced Ni uptake, decreased reactive oxygen species (ROS) and enhanced antioxidant defense of B. napus plants. Results showed that amendment's combinations stimulated the transcriptional levels of ROS scavenging enzymes and suppressed the expression level of Ni transporters. The morphological and physical characterization techniques (i.e. SEM, BET, EDS, FTIR and X-ray diffraction analyses) showed that amendment's combinations had relatively higher Ni adsorption capacity, indicating that BC and MS concoctions are efficient immobilizing agents for minimizing Ni availability, preventing oxidative toxicity and promoting growth and biomass production in rapeseed plants under metal stress conditions.


Assuntos
Bivalves , Brassica napus , Poluentes do Solo , Animais , Carvão Vegetal , Níquel/análise , Níquel/toxicidade , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade
6.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e249641, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34550292

RESUMO

Estuaries receive daily inputs of chemical elements which can impact the quality of water and sediment, as well as the health of biota. In addition to the sediment, bivalve mollusks have been used in the chemical monitoring of these systems. This study investigated the presence and contents of As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn in superficial sediment and in bivalves (Crassostrea gasar, C. rhizophorae and Mytella guyanensis) from estuaries in the south / extreme south of Bahia State, northeast Brazil. The samples were evaluated with inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES, Varian 710). Except for Cd, all other elements were found in the samples, being that Co was exclusive in the sediment. The estuaries equivalent to sampling stations #1 - Valença, #2 - Taperoá, #3 - Ilhéus and #4 - Belmonte showed levels of metals compatibles with those established by the Brazilian legislation, however, the #5 - Santa Cruz Cabrália, in addition to the presence of As, presented a high level of Pb and Cu in C. gasar, which was attributed to the impacts of nautical activities in that locality.


Assuntos
Bivalves , Metais Pesados , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Brasil , Monitoramento Ambiental , Estuários , Sedimentos Geológicos , Metais Pesados/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
7.
Arch Environ Contam Toxicol ; 81(3): 449-459, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34508277

RESUMO

Mussels have been identified as sentinel organisms (around the world) that indicate microplastic (MP) pollution. Since they are filter feeders, they easily uptake MPs. Mussels sold in commercial markets have been identified as an ideal way to directly quantify human exposure to MPs through seafood consumption. There are no studies reported on MP contamination of market-sold species in Thailand. This study investigates the level of MP contamination in market-sold green mussels, which is a popular seafood in Thailand. A total of 90 green mussels (Perna viridis) collected from three markets were analyzed for the number, polymer types, and morphology of the MPs. Fourier-Transform Infrared Micro-Spectroscopy (micro-FTIR) analysis was used for polymer identification. Nile Red (NR) tagging was used for the enumeration of MPs. MPs were widely discovered in green mussels from all three markets with 100% detection frequency. The average abundance of MPs in green mussels was quantified as 7.32 ± 8.33 items/mussel and 1.53 ± 2.04 items/g (wet weight). Ethylene/propylene copolymer followed by low-density polyethylene (PE-LD), polypropylene (PP), and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) were found. Fragments (75.4%) were the most common morphotype, followed by fibers (24.6%). Results indicate that the consumption of green mussels as a food can be one of the exposure pathways for the Thai population. Moreover, smaller size MPs were predominant, which are reported to cause higher impacts.


Assuntos
Bivalves , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Microplásticos , Plásticos , Alimentos Marinhos/análise , Tailândia , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
8.
Mar Environ Res ; 171: 105481, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34555617

RESUMO

Marine communities are dynamic and spatially heterogeneous. Earthquakes and tsunamis modulate the structure of marine communities at short and long-term scales. The objective of this review was to evaluate how such disturbances impact the morphodynamics of coastal areas and the dynamics and structure of marine benthic communities from soft and hard bottoms from intertidal, subtidal and deep-sea habitats. The results reveal that earthquakes and tsunamis caused mortality of algae and bivalves by dissection after coastal uplift. Changes on the vertical distribution of nematodes and coral fragmentation were also recorded. Recovery of the marine communities to pre-disturbance state occurred by migration and recolonization of impacted habitats. The meiofaunal organisms recovered quickly, while some communities recovered after three years. Information pre-disturbance is often lacking or covers a short temporal extent. It is important to establish long-term monitoring programs in areas where the likelihood of impact of disturbance of such magnitude is high to understand how marine communities are shaped at geological scales.


Assuntos
Antozoários , Bivalves , Terremotos , Animais , Ecossistema , Tsunamis
9.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 28(40): 55846-55868, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34480308

RESUMO

Besides human health risks, phycotoxins may cause physiological injuries on molluscan shellfish and, consequently, damages to marine ecosystems and global fisheries production. In this way, this review aimed to present an overview of HABs impacts on marine shellfish by evaluating the effects of cultivated molluscs exposure to microalgae and cyanobacteria that form blooms and/or synthesize toxins. More specifically, it was assessed the main molluscan shellfish responses to harmful algae, trophic transfer and dynamics of phycotoxins, and the risks for human health. Of the 2420 results obtained from literature search, 150 scientific publications were selected after thorough inspections for subject adherence. In total, 70 molluscan species and 37 taxa of harmful algae were assessed from retrieved scientific publications. A significant positive correlation was found between the marine production of molluscs and the number of available studies by molluscan category. Molluscan responses to HABs and phycotoxins were categorized and discussed in three sub-sections: effects on grazing and behavior, metabolic and physiological reactions, and fitness consequences. The main histopathological injuries and toxin concentrations in molluscan tissues were also compiled and discussed. Bivalves often accumulate more toxins than gastropods and cephalopods, occasionally exceeding recommended levels for safe consumption, representing a risk for human health. Harmful algae impact on molluscan shellfish are complex to trace and predict; however, considering the perspective of increase in the occurrence and intensity of HABs, the intensification of efforts to expand the knowledge about HABs impacts on marine molluscs is crucial to mitigate the damages on economy and human health.


Assuntos
Bivalves , Proliferação Nociva de Algas , Animais , Ecossistema , Humanos , Alimentos Marinhos , Frutos do Mar
10.
Water Res ; 204: 117620, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34492364

RESUMO

Cyanobacteria are a potential threat to aquatic ecosystems and human health because of their ability to produce cyanotoxins, such as microcystins (MCs). MCs are regularly monitored in fresh waters, but rarely in estuarine and marine waters despite the possibility of their downstream export. Over a period of two years, we monthly analyzed intracellular (in phytoplankton) and extracellular (dissolved in water) MCs at five stations along a river continuum from a freshwater reservoir with ongoing cyanobacterial blooms to the coast of Brittany, France. MCs were quantified using two integrative samplers placed at each site: solid phase adsorption toxin tracking (SPATT) samplers for collecting extracellular MCs and caged mussels (Anodonta anatina and Mytilus edulis) filter-feeding on MC-producing cyanobacteria. The MC transfer was demonstrated each year during five months at estuarine sites and sporadically at the marine outlet. SPATT samplers integrated extracellular MCs, notably at low environmental concentrations (0.2 µg/L) and with the same variant profile as in water. The mussel A. anatina highlighted the presence of MCs including at intracellular concentrations below 1 µg/L. M. edulis more efficiently revealed the MC transfer at estuarine sites than water samplings. Bivalves showed the same MC variant profile as phytoplankton samples, but with differential accumulation capacities between the variants and the two species. Using SPATT or bivalves can give a more accurate assessment of the contamination level of a freshwater-marine continuum, in which the MC transfer can be episodic. MC content in M. edulis represents a potent threat to human health if considering updated French guideline values, and particularly the total (free and protein-bound) MC content, highlighting the necessity to include cyanotoxins in the monitoring of seafood originating from estuarine areas.


Assuntos
Bivalves , Microcistinas , Animais , Ecossistema , Água Doce , Humanos , Água
11.
Biomater Sci ; 9(20): 6653-6672, 2021 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34550125

RESUMO

Over the decades, researchers have strived to synthesize and modify nature-inspired biomaterials, with the primary aim to address the challenges of designing functional biomaterials for regenerative medicine and tissue engineering. Among these challenges, biocompatibility and cellular interactions have been extensively investigated. Some of the most desirable characteristics for biomaterials in these applications are the loading of bioactive molecules, strong adhesion to moist areas, improvement of cellular adhesion, and self-healing properties. Mussel-inspired biomaterials have received growing interest mainly due to the changes in mechanical and biological functions of the scaffold due to catechol modification. Here, we summarize the chemical and biological principles and the latest advancements in production, as well as the use of mussel-inspired biomaterials. Our main focus is the polydopamine coating, the conjugation of catechol with other polymers, and the biomedical applications that polydopamine moieties are used for, such as matrices for drug delivery, tissue regeneration, and hemostatic control. We also present a critical conclusion and an inspired view on the prospects for the development and application of mussel-inspired materials.


Assuntos
Bivalves , Animais , Materiais Biocompatíveis , Adesão Celular , Medicina Regenerativa , Engenharia Tecidual
12.
Environ Pollut ; 287: 117645, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34426373

RESUMO

Chronic toxicity of copper (Cu) at sublethal levels is associated with ionoregulatory disturbance and oxidative stress. These factors were considered in a toxicokinetic-toxicodynamic model in the present study. The ionoregulatory disturbance was evaluated by the activity of the Na+/K+-ATPase enzyme (NKA), while oxidative stress was presented by lipid peroxidation (LPO) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activity. NKA activity was related to the binding of Cu2+ and Na + to NKA. LPO and GST activity were linked with the simulated concentration of unbound Cu. The model was calibrated using previously reported data and empirical data generated when zebra mussels were exposed to Cu. The model clearly demonstrated that Cu might inhibit NKA activity by reducing the number of functional pump sites and the limited Cu-bound NKA turnover rate. An ordinary differential equation was used to describe the relationship between the simulated concentration of unbound Cu and LPO/GST activity. Although this method could not explain the fluctuations in these biomarkers during the experiment, the measurements were within the confidence interval of estimations. Model simulation consistently shows non-significant differences in LPO and GST activity at two exposure levels, similar to the empirical observation.


Assuntos
Bivalves , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Cobre/análise , Cobre/toxicidade , Homeostase , Peroxidação de Lipídeos , Estresse Oxidativo , Toxicocinética , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
13.
Biol Bull ; 241(1): 4-15, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34436967

RESUMO

AbstractAnthropogenic climate change is considered to be one of the greatest threats facing marine biodiversity. The vast majority of experimental work investigating the effects of climate change stressors on marine organisms has focused on calcifying organisms, such as corals and molluscs, where cross-generational phenotypic changes can be easily quantified. Bivalves in particular have been the subject of numerous climate change studies, in part because of their economic value in the aquaculture industry and their important roles as ecosystem engineers. However, there has been little to no work investigating the effects of these stressors on the symbionts associated with these bivalves, specifically, their shell-boring polychaete parasites. This is important to understand because climate change may shift the synergistic relationship between parasite and host based on the individual responses of each. If such a shift favors proliferation of the polychaete, it may very well facilitate extinction of host bivalve populations. In this review I will (i) provide an overview of research completed thus far on the effects of climate change stressors on shell-boring polychaetes, (ii) discuss the technical challenges of studying these parasites in the laboratory, and (iii) propose a standardized framework for carrying out future in vitro and in vivo climate change experiments on shell-boring polychaetes.


Assuntos
Anelídeos , Bivalves , Poliquetos , Animais , Mudança Climática , Ecossistema
14.
Prog Mol Subcell Biol ; 60: 57-83, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34386872

RESUMO

Noncoding DNA sequences repeated in tandem or satellite DNAs make an integral part of every eukaryotic genome. Development and application of new methodological approaches through time enabled gradual improvement in understanding of structural and functional roles of these sequences, early misconsidered as "junk DNA". Advancing approaches started adding novel insights into details of their existence on the genomic scale, traditionally hard to access due to difficulties in analyzing long arrays of nearly identical tandem repeats of a satellite DNA. In turn, broadened views opened space for the development of new concepts on satellite DNA biology, highlighting also specificities coming from different groups of organisms. Observed diversities in different aspects and in organizational forms of these sequences proclaimed a need for a versatile pool of model organisms. Peculiarities of satellite DNAs populating genomes of bivalve mollusks, an important group of marine and fresh-water organisms, add to the diversity of organizational principles and associated roles in which tandemly repeated sequences contribute to the genomes.


Assuntos
Bivalves , DNA Satélite , Animais , Bivalves/genética , DNA Satélite/genética , Evolução Molecular , Genômica , Sequências de Repetição em Tandem
15.
Toxicon ; 201: 37-45, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34416253

RESUMO

A total of 1338 samples were analyzed by ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) to study the toxin profiles of lipophilic marine toxins in bivalve mollusks collected from the southeast coast of China from 2017 to 2020. The most abundant toxin was HomoYTX, followed progressively by YTX and PTX2. Low proportions of OA, DTX-1, and DTX-2 were found. No AZA1, AZA2, and AZA3 were quantified above limit of quantitation (LOQ). The highest concentrations of HomoYTX, YTX, PTX2, OA, DTX-1, and DTX-2 were 429, 98.0, 40.3, 33.0, 22.6, and 26.5 µg/kg, respectively. Mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis, Perna viridis), scallop (Chlamys farreri) and clam (Atrina pectinate) accumulated higher toxin levels than clams (Sinonovaculla Constricta, Ruditapes philippinarum), oyster (Crassostrea gigas) and scallop (Arca granosa). Homo YTX and PTX2 levels reached the maximum in July and June, respectively, and the OA-group peaked in August. The results provide a reliable basis for monitoring marine toxins and protecting the health of aquatic consumers.


Assuntos
Bivalves , Oxocinas , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida , Toxinas Marinhas/análise , Frutos do Mar/análise , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
16.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 171: 112781, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34340146

RESUMO

To understand the current community structure and diversity of macrobenthos in Jiaozhou Bay, a survey was conducted at eight sampling stations in April, July, and October 2018, as well as January 2019. Eighty-two macrobenthos species were collected, including 30 of Annelida, 21 of Mollusca, 20 of Crustacea, 8 of Echinodermata, and 3 classified as "Others". Ruditapes philippinarum was a common dominant species in summer, autumn, and winter. The annual average abundance and biomass were 280 ind./m2 and 446.45 g/m2, respectively. Shannon-Wiener diversity varied from 0.09 to 2.45 with an average value of 1.14. Margalef richness was 0.17-2.32 with an average value of 0.89. Pielou evenness was 0.14-1.00 with an average value of 0.71. The seasonal variation patterns of all tested indices were largely the same, with the highest in spring, next highest in winter, and lower in summer and autumn. The diversity at different survey stations varies greatly.


Assuntos
Baías , Bivalves , Animais , China , Crustáceos , Ecossistema , Estações do Ano
17.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 171: 112784, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34358791

RESUMO

Macrofauna are useful indicators of benthic ecological quality status, which were studied in summer and autumn of 2020 in the southern Yellow Sea, China. A total of 134 species were identified, and polychaetes represented the most dominant group. The dominant species across both seasons were Ophiura sarsii vadicola, Trigonothracia jinxingae, Heteromastus filiforms, Ninoё palmata, Thyasira tokunagai, Sigambra hanaokai, Ehlersileanira incisa hwanghaiensis, and Portlandia japonica. The average values of macrofaunal abundance and biomass were 386.68 ind./m2 and 28.21 g/m2, respectively. Species diversity during the autumn was slightly higher than that in the summer. Seasonal variations in functional diversity were also observed. BIOENV results indicated that water depth, bottom water temperature, and sediment phaeophorbide content was the optimal combination of parameters to explain macrofaunal assemblage variation. Bioassessment results, based on H', AMBI, and M-AMBI, showed that most sites in the southern Yellow Sea could be classed as moderate or good status.


Assuntos
Bivalves , Poliquetos , Animais , Biomassa , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental
18.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 222: 112528, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34311427

RESUMO

Ammonia nitrogen has been one of the key pollution indicators along the Chinese coastline for quite a few years. Our previous studies have proved that ammonia nitrogen is harmful for Ruditapes philippinarum clam in several aspects. Environmental concentrations of ammonia nitrogen were found to significantly decrease ATP contents and disturb ATP metabolism, in addition to reducing the potential across the mitochondrial membrane in clam gill tissues. Accordingly, mitochondrion is considered as one of the target organelles of ammonia nitrogen toxicity in clams. However, there is a lack of direct evidence to prove it. In order to reveal detail information of ammonia nitrogen toxicity on clam mitochondria and screen the related biomarker to indicate ammonia nitrogen pollution, mitochondrial parameters in gill tissues including swelling, mtDNA copy number and marker enzyme (succinic dehydrogenase, SDH) activity were measured after the clams were exposed to 0.1 mg/L and 0.5 mg/L ammonia nitrogen for 3 days and 21 days, respectively. Moreover, adverse effects of ammonia nitrogen exposure on clam mitochondrial ultra-structures, mitochondrial swelling and division were also discriminated under transmission electron microscope (TEM). Final results showed that ammonia nitrogen exposure to both concentrations significantly induced mitochondrial swelling, reduced the number of mitochondria and messed their normal structure, decreased the number of mtDNA copies and down-regulated SDH activity, all in a concentration and duration dependent manner. So, the present study helps us to better understand the structural damage of ammonia nitrogen on mitochondria in clam gill cells and provides fundamental data for ammonia nitrogen control in aquaculture.


Assuntos
Bivalves , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Amônia/metabolismo , Amônia/toxicidade , Animais , Brânquias/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
19.
Shokuhin Eiseigaku Zasshi ; 62(3): 85-93, 2021.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34219101

RESUMO

The mouse bioassay (MBA) for paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) in bivalves has been used as an official method in Japan. It is necessary to develop an alternative method to animal experiments in PSTs assay because 3Rs (Replacement, Reduction, and Refinement) of animal experiments are required from the animal welfare point of view. Various methods such as HPLC-FL, receptor binding assay, LC-MS/MS and ELISA have been established to detect PSTs without performing animal experiments. The present study was undertaken to develop a screening method using oligonucleotide lateral flow immunoassay (OLFIA) for detecting PSTs in bivalves. The screening level was defined as positive at 2 MU/g of MBA that is the half regulation limit of PSTs monitoring in Japan. All 20 positive (equal to or more than 2 MU/g) samples judged from MBA showed a positive reaction in the OLFIA. No positive samples resulted in a false negative reaction. The OLFIA exhibited high accuracy at 2 MU/g of screening criteria. The authors demonstrated here that the OLFIA can be useful for rapid detection of PSTs in bivalves.


Assuntos
Bivalves , Intoxicação por Frutos do Mar , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida , Imunoensaio , Japão , Toxinas Marinhas/análise , Camundongos , Oligonucleotídeos , Saxitoxina/análise , Frutos do Mar/análise , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
20.
Talanta ; 233: 122503, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34215119

RESUMO

Brevetoxins (BTX) are pharmacologically active, lipid soluble cyclic polyether neurotoxins that are known to cause a wide range of neurological symptoms in humans.Harvesting and consumption of infected molluscs provide an entry point for BTXs into, the food chain, causing long-term health effects on accumulation for individuals, commonly in people with a compromised immune system and existing allergies. This study is an acoustic assay that has been constructed using a 9 MHz AT-cut quartz crystal resonator modified by attaching a specific single-stranded DNA aptamer. The DNA oligo modifies its conformation to attach itself to the binding site of the incoming BTX molecule resulting in a change in frequency on the QCR. A small Δf value was observed for lower concentrations of BTX indicating a small change in mass deposited on the crystal surface, while the opposite was true for higher concentrations. Cross-species behavior was evaluated using samples of similar origin, molecular weight and a combination of two toxins. The LOD of the fabricated QCR is 220 nM which is lower than the maximum recommended residue limit in food samples. Fresh mussel samples were spiked with known concentrations of BTX to evaluate its sensitivity in a food matrix. No interaction with other compounds was observed. Overall, this sensor finds potential application in the food sector (fishing units) where mussels are tested and graded for allergens and toxins before reaching the customer.


Assuntos
Bivalves , Oxocinas , Animais , Bioensaio , Humanos , Toxinas Marinhas , Alimentos Marinhos , Frutos do Mar/análise
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