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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e249641, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339363

RESUMO

Abstract Estuaries receive daily inputs of chemical elements which can impact the quality of water and sediment, as well as the health of biota. In addition to the sediment, bivalve mollusks have been used in the chemical monitoring of these systems. This study investigated the presence and contents of As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn in superficial sediment and in bivalves (Crassostrea gasar, C. rhizophorae and Mytella guyanensis) from estuaries in the south / extreme south of Bahia State, northeast Brazil. The samples were evaluated with inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES, Varian 710). Except for Cd, all other elements were found in the samples, being that Co was exclusive in the sediment. The estuaries equivalent to sampling stations #1 - Valença, #2 - Taperoá, #3 - Ilhéus and #4 - Belmonte showed levels of metals compatibles with those established by the Brazilian legislation, however, the #5 - Santa Cruz Cabrália, in addition to the presence of As, presented a high level of Pb and Cu in C. gasar, which was attributed to the impacts of nautical activities in that locality.


Resumo Estuários recebem entradas diárias de elementos químicos, que podem impactar a qualidade de água e do sedimento, assim como a saúde da biota. Além do sedimento, moluscos bivalves têm sido utilizados no monitoramento químico desses sistemas. Neste estudo investigou-se a presença e os teores de As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb e Zn no sedimento superficial e em bivalves (Crassostrea gasar, C. rhizophorae e Mytella guyanensis) de estuários do sul / extremo sul do estado da Bahia, Nordeste do Brasil. As amostras foram avaliadas por espectrometria de emissão óptica de plasma indutivamente acoplado (ICP-OES, Varian 710). Exceto Cd, todos os demais elementos foram encontrados nas amostras, sendo que Co foi exclusivo no sedimento. Os estuários equivalentes às estações amostrais #1 - Valença, #2 - Taperoá, #3 - Ilhéus e #4 - Belmonte mostraram níveis de metais compatíveis com os estabelecidos pela legislação brasileira, porém, a #5 - Santa Cruz Cabrália, além da presença de As, apresentou alto nível de Pb e de Cu em C. gasar, o que foi atribuído aos impactos por atividades náuticas nesse local.


Assuntos
Animais , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Bivalves , Metais Pesados/análise , Brasil , Monitoramento Ambiental , Estuários , Sedimentos Geológicos
2.
Food Microbiol ; 109: 104140, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36309442

RESUMO

Human noroviruses (HuNoVs) have been found as the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis outbreaks in all age groups and are significantly correlated with the consumption of shellfish. In this study, the contamination of HuNoVs in shellfish was estimated through a systematic review and meta-analysis. Studies on the contamination of HuNoVs in shellfish were searched from PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, and Cochrane Library from January 2000 to August 2021. A total of 75 studies were included, and the pooled HuNoVs prevalence in shellfish was 29% (95% CI: 23-35) worldwide. As revealed by the results of the subgroup meta-analysis, the prevalence of dominant genogroup was variable, and 4% (95% CI: 3-6), 13% (95% CI: 10-17), with 7% (95% CI: 4-11) of the samples, respectively, contaminated by GI alone, GII alone, and GI&GII. The HuNoVs prevalence of shellfish in Europe, America, and Asia was 33% (95% CI: 24-43), 24% (95% CI: 7-47), and 27% (95% CI: 18-35), respectively, while only 10% (95% CI: 5-17) in Africa. Furthermore, the prevalence of HuNoVs in shellfish was the highest in spring (35%, 95% CI: 23-49) and winter (35%, 95% CI: 22-50), and the lowest in summer (11%, 95% CI: 5-18). Oysters, clams, and mussels had comparable HuNoVs prevalence of 28% (95% CI: 20-37), 27% (95% CI: 16-39) and 24% (95% CI: 17-32), respectively. The prevalence of HuNoVs in shellfish from harvest areas and markets was 30% (95% CI: 23-38) and 30% (95% CI: 19-41), respectively. The results of this study suggest a substantial burden of HuNoVs in shellfish worldwide, with GII.4 (92.86%) and GII.2 (46.43%) as the predominant genotypes. This study provides information regarding the contamination of HuNoVs in shellfish worldwide, which will contribute to the development of appropriate control measures to prevent shellfish-related HuNoVs gastroenteritis.


Assuntos
Bivalves , Infecções por Caliciviridae , Gastroenterite , Norovirus , Ostreidae , Animais , Humanos , Norovirus/genética , Frutos do Mar , Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Genótipo , Infecções por Caliciviridae/epidemiologia
3.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 384: 109957, 2023 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36265220

RESUMO

Oysters and mussels are important vectors for norovirus (NoV). An efficient pretreatment method for NoV detection in oysters based on ISO 15216-2:2019 was established in our previous work, but its effectiveness for other types of shellfish remains unknown. Therefore, this study systematically compared the differences between the standard and modified ISO methods in detecting NoV for oysters and mussels. Using the standard ISO method, the recovery rates of NoV in oysters (2.10 ± 0.80 %) and mussels (2.39 ± 0.56 %) were comparable (p > 0.05, unpaired t-test). In contrast, the virus recovery rates in oysters (19.83 ± 3.64 %) and mussels (46.96 ± 3.55 %) were both significantly improved by the modified method. Also, a significant difference was found between the virus recovery rates in two shellfish (p < 0.05, unpaired t-test), resulting in a 2.09-fold difference in their virus concentrations. Additionally, the limits of detection at 95 % probability of the modified ISO method for oysters and mussels could both reach 3.33 × 103 copies/g of digestive glands. Finally, the modified ISO method has been successfully applied in commercial oysters (14/27, 51.85 %) and mussels (15/23, 65.22 %), and the results indicated a significant difference in NoV recovery rates between two shellfish (p < 0.05, one-way analysis of variance). In summary, the modified ISO method showed higher virus recovery rates than the standard ISO method, which would be used as an essential tool for NoV detection in oysters and mussels.


Assuntos
Bivalves , Norovirus , Ostreidae , Animais , Frutos do Mar
4.
Food Chem ; 403: 134314, 2023 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36179632

RESUMO

Tropomyosin (TM) is a major shellfish allergen and a minor fish allergen. Different digestion profiles affect potential allergen anaphylaxis of protein. In this study, released peptides of fish-TM, shrimp-TM, and clam-TM by in vitro digestion of simulated gastric fluid (SGF), simulated intestinal fluid (SIF), and gastrointestinal (GI) were analyzed using sequential windowed acquisition of all theoretical fragment ion mass spectra (SWATH-MS) based proteomics. Results showed that digestion products of shrimp-TM yielded a lot of peptides matched T/B cell epitopes while core regions matched epitopes were distributed along the entire chain. Pepsin or trypsin-based digestion products of shrimp-TM presented many more peptides matched T/B cell epitopes compared with those of fish-TM and clam-TM. Besides, a differentiating peptide of VEKDKALSNAEGEVAAL (72-88) overlapped T/B cell epitopes could be used as a candidate peptide marker to identify tropomyosin allergen. These findings would supply new insight into the different allergenicity of tropomyosin.


Assuntos
Bivalves , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar , Penaeidae , Perciformes , Animais , Tropomiosina/metabolismo , Mapeamento de Epitopos , Epitopos de Linfócito B/metabolismo , Imunoglobulina E/metabolismo , Proteômica , Penaeidae/metabolismo , Alérgenos/metabolismo , Bivalves/genética , Bivalves/metabolismo , Perciformes/metabolismo , Peptídeos/metabolismo , Digestão
5.
Zool Res ; 44(1): 106-125, 2023 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36419378

RESUMO

Endosymbiosis with Gammaproteobacteria is fundamental for the success of bathymodioline mussels in deep-sea chemosynthesis-based ecosystems. However, the recent discovery of Campylobacteria on the gill surfaces of these mussels suggests that these host-bacterial relationships may be more complex than previously thought. Using the cold-seep mussel ( Gigantidas haimaensis) as a model, we explored this host-bacterial system by assembling the host transcriptome and genomes of its epibiotic Campylobacteria and endosymbiotic Gammaproteobacteria and quantifying their gene and protein expression levels. We found that the epibiont applies a sulfur oxidizing (SOX) multienzyme complex with the acquisition of soxB from Gammaproteobacteria for energy production and switched from a reductive tricarboxylic acid (rTCA) cycle to a Calvin-Benson-Bassham (CBB) cycle for carbon assimilation. The host provides metabolic intermediates, inorganic carbon, and thiosulfate to satisfy the materials and energy requirements of the epibiont, but whether the epibiont benefits the host is unclear. The endosymbiont adopts methane oxidation and the ribulose monophosphate pathway (RuMP) for energy production, providing the major source of energy for itself and the host. The host obtains most of its nutrients, such as lysine, glutamine, valine, isoleucine, leucine, histidine, and folate, from the endosymbiont. In addition, host pattern recognition receptors, including toll-like receptors, peptidoglycan recognition proteins, and C-type lectins, may participate in bacterial infection, maintenance, and population regulation. Overall, this study provides insights into the complex host-bacterial relationships that have enabled mussels and bacteria to thrive in deep-sea chemosynthetic ecosystems.


Assuntos
Bivalves , Ecossistema , Animais , Bivalves/genética , Bactérias/genética , Simbiose , Carbono/metabolismo
6.
Sci Total Environ ; 856(Pt 1): 159095, 2023 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36181815

RESUMO

The seas and oceans of the planet provide a wide range of essential resources. However, marine ecosystems are undergoing severe degradation due to the unsustainable exploitation and consumption patterns of the linear economy. On the other hand, many economic activities linked to the sea generate a large amount of waste, leading to negative impacts, such as the cost of treating or disposing of this waste. A case in point is bivalve mollusc production: a purification process is needed to avoid the risk of diseases through faecal contamination. The present work proposes an innovative procedure to convert this waste, calcium carbonate as calcite and aragonite allotropic types, into by-products. These by-products can be used to manufacture green artificial reefs, partially replacing concrete aggregates with a sustainable alternative to the geological sources of CaCO3. By installing these reefs, marine ecosystems could be created in a sustainable way and an innovative approach based on the circular economy could be taken towards protecting them. To this end, different concrete mixtures with bivalve shells are proposed. Although this study had been carried out for Galicia (NW Spain), the methodology followed could also be valid for other regions. A physicochemical characterisation of the waste from purifying the bivalves, including oysters, mussels, clams and scallops, was performed. Statistical and multi-criteria analyses were done in order to select the best dosage. Both have provided justification for using a mixture of shells with a predominance of calcite (oyster, scallop) instead of shells with a predominance of aragonite. The multi-criteria analysis served to identify the two best alternatives with dosages in which the medium aggregates were substituted with shells mainly from oysters, with a predominance of calcite. Finally, the statistical analysis played a role in estimating the compressive strength and water absorption of each mixture from the design parameter values.


Assuntos
Bivalves , Ecossistema , Animais , Oceanos e Mares , Carbonato de Cálcio/análise , Geologia
7.
Sci Total Environ ; 857(Pt 2): 159430, 2023 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36244479

RESUMO

The temperature has always been a key environmental factor in Manila clam (Ruditapes philippinarum) culture. In this study, the Manila clam was treated to different temperature pre-heat (28 °C, 30 °C) and gained heat tolerance after recover of 12 h, and a survival rate (14.7 %-49.1 %) advantage after high temperature challenge (30 and 32 °C). To further investigate the physiological and metabolism changes in Manila clam that had experienced a heat stress, non-targeted metabolomics (LC-MS/MS) was used to analyze the metabolic responses of gills in three group Manila clams during the heat challenge. Metabolic profiles revealed that high temperature caused changes in fatty acid composition, energy metabolism, antioxidant metabolites, hydroxyl compounds, and amino acids in heat-hardened clams compared to non-hardened clams. We found a number of significantly enriched pathways, including cAMP signaling pathway, serotonergic synapse, and biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids in heat-hardened Manila clam compared with non-hardened and untreated Manila clam. After a brief high temperature treatment, the physiological maintenance ability of Manila clam was improved. Combined with metabolomics analysis, heat hardening treatment may improve the energy metabolism and antioxidant ability of Manila clam. These results provide new insights into the cellular and metabolic responses of Manila clams following high temperature stress.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Bivalves , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida , Temperatura , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Bivalves/metabolismo
8.
J Mech Behav Biomed Mater ; 137: 105550, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36356422

RESUMO

Various hydroxyapatite (HA) powders synthesized at different temperatures are deposited on titanium alloy by using an atmospheric plasma spray process. These different HA powders were synthesized from Indian clam seashells through the hydrothermal technique at varying temperatures from 700 to 1000 °C for a 2 h time duration in our previous study. The synthesized HA powders are spray-dried to obtain agglomerated powders suitable for spraying during the coating application. Crystallite size, Ca/P ratio, and crystallinity of agglomerated HA powders and their respective coatings are estimated by standard methods. The microstructure and phases of the feedstock and coating materials are investigated by using a field-emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) and X-ray diffractometer (XRD), respectively. Further, the HA coatings are characterized in terms of surface roughness, microhardness, porosity, adhesion strength, and wear resistance through the stylus profilometer, Vickers micro-hardness tester, image analysis technique, scratch tester, and ball-on-disc tribometer, respectively. The average surface roughness (Ra) and porosity of the coating are decreased with an increase in the synthesis temperature. The minimum Ra and porosity obtained for the 1000 °C coating sample suggest a high degree of melting of such powder particles. However, the highest adhesion strength noticed in the case of the 900 °C coating sample is due to the high compatibility of such coating material with Ti-alloy substrate in terms of thermal properties. The 900 °C coating sample has also shown the highest microhardness and wear-resistance properties due to its maximum crystallinity among all the HA coatings.


Assuntos
Ligas , Bivalves , Animais , Ligas/química , Durapatita/química , Titânio/química , Pós , Exoesqueleto , Materiais Revestidos Biocompatíveis/química , Teste de Materiais , Propriedades de Superfície
9.
Sci Total Environ ; 857(Pt 3): 159352, 2023 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36257412

RESUMO

In coastal areas, microplastics (MPs) can deposit in sediment, allowing it to be ingested by benthic organisms, like mussels, thus creating a possible transfer to humans. The aim of this study is to evaluate MPs pollution in sediment as a function of shoreline elevation in two urbanized beaches and to evaluate the abundance/frequency of MPs in 4 different species of bivalves commonly used in the human diet, such as the oyster Crassostrea brasiliana, the mussels Mytella strigata and Perna perna and the clam Tivela mactroides, and identify the polymers via µ-FTIR technique. A total of 3337 MPs were found in this study, of which 1488 were found in the sediment at the five sites analyzed, and 1849 in the bivalve tissues at the two sampling sites. MPs contamination was observed in all sediment samples and species of the pool and in each of the 10 specimens of the four species. Thus, the frequency of contamination by MPs reached 100 % for the analyzed samples. The number of filaments is higher than fragments in sediment samples and in each bivalve species. Regarding types and colors, the blue were greater than fragment-type in sediments and samples. In an effort to classify the polymers via µ-FTIR, our study was able to identify polypropylene, polyethylene and polyethylene terephthalate, besides a great number of cellulose fibers.


Assuntos
Bivalves , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Humanos , Microplásticos , Plásticos , Sedimentos Geológicos , Brasil , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
10.
Environ Res ; 216(Pt 2): 114560, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36270530

RESUMO

The marine environment has numerous impacts related to anthropogenic activities including pollution. Abundances of microplastics (MPs) and other pollutants are continuously increasing in the marine environment, resulting in a complex mixture of contaminants affecting biota. In order to understand the consequences, a review of studies analyzing combined effects of MPs and other types of pollutants in bivalves has been conducted as species in this group have been considered as sentinel and bioindicators. Regarding studies reviewed, histological analyses give evidence that MPs can be located in the haemolymph, gills and gonads, as well as in digestive glands in the intestinal lumen, epithelium and tubules, demonstrating that the entire body of bivalves is affected by MPs. Moreover, DNA strand breaks represent the most relevant form of damage caused by the enhanced production of reactive oxygen species in response to MPs exposure. The role of MPs as vectors of pollutants and the ability of polymers to adsorb different compounds have also been considered in this review highlighting a high variability of results. In this sense, toxic impacts associated to MPs exposure were found to significantly increase with the co-presence of antibiotics or petroleum hydrocarbons amongst other pollutants. In addition, bioaccumulation processes of pollutants (PAHs, metals and others) have been affected by the co-presence with MPs. Histological, genetic and physiological alterations are the most reported damages, and the degree of harm seems to be correlated with the concentration and size of MP and with the type of pollutant.


Assuntos
Bivalves , Poluentes Ambientais , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Microplásticos , Plásticos/toxicidade , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
11.
Sci Total Environ ; 857(Pt 3): 159675, 2023 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36280051

RESUMO

The sustainability of estuarine ecosystem functions depends on the stabilization of microbial ecological processes. However, due to the unique and variable habitat characteristics of estuarine areas, in-depth studies on ecological processes such as the spatial distribution and assembly patterns of microbial community structure are lacking. As methods to elucidate this structure, we used 16S rDNA, 18S rDNA and ITS sequencing technologies to study the composition, diversity, spatial pattern and aggregation mechanism of the bacterial, protist and fungal communities in the tidal zones of the Pearl River Estuary (PRETZ). The abundance of bacterial communities was much higher than that of protists and fungi, and the spatial pattern was obvious in PRETZ. The application of neutral and null models revealed the assembly process of three microbial communities dominated by stochastic processes. Among the stochastic processes, undominated processes (64.03 %, 62.45 %, and 59.29 %) were the most critical processes in the assembly of bacterial, fungal and protist communities. Meanwhile, environmental variables, geographic locations, and biological factors were associated with the composition and assembly of bacterial, protist, and fungal communities. Among the environmental variables, dissolved oxygen and salinity were the main predictors that jointly affected the differences in the community structure of the three microorganisms, and geographic location was the second predictor affecting the community structure of the three microorganisms and had a more pronounced effect on the diversity and network structure of the bacterial and fungal communities. However, biological factors exerted a weaker effect on the microbial community structure than spatial factors and only affected bacteria and protists; the invasive species Mytilopsis sallei only affected the process of protist community assembly. In addition, environmental variables affected the relative importance of stochastic processes. In summary, the formation of microbial communities in the PRETZ was affected by random processes, environmental variables, geographic location, and invasive species.


Assuntos
Bivalves , Microbiota , Animais , Estuários , Rios , Bactérias , Bivalves/genética , Eucariotos , Espécies Introduzidas , DNA Ribossômico , Fatores Biológicos
12.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0278070, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36417463

RESUMO

Detritivores are essential to nutrient cycling, but are often neglected in trophic networks, due to difficulties with determining their diet. DNA analysis of gut contents shows promise of trophic link discrimination, but many unknown factors limit its usefulness. For example, DNA can be rapidly broken down, especially by digestion processes, and DNA provides only a snapshot of the gut contents at a specific time. Few studies have been performed on the length of time that prey DNA can be detected in consumer guts, and none so far using benthic detritivores. Eutrophication, along with climate change, is altering the phytoplankton communities in aquatic ecosystems, on which benthic detritivores in aphotic soft sediments depend. Nutrient-poor cyanobacteria blooms are increasing in frequency, duration, and magnitude in many water bodies, while nutrient-rich diatom spring blooms are shrinking in duration and magnitude, creating potential changes in diet of benthic detritivores. We performed an experiment to identify the taxonomy and quantify the abundance of phytoplankton DNA fragments on bivalve gut contents, and how long these fragments can be detected after consumption in the Baltic Sea clam Macoma balthica. Two common species of phytoplankton (the cyanobacteria Nodularia spumigena or the diatom Skeletonema marinoi) were fed to M. balthica from two regions (from the northern and southern Stockholm archipelago). After removing the food source, M. balthica gut contents were sampled every 24 hours for seven days to determine the number of 23S rRNA phytoplankton DNA copies and when the phytoplankton DNA could no longer be detected by quantitative PCR. We found no differences in diatom 18S rRNA gene fragments of the clams by region, but the southern clams showed significantly more cyanobacteria 16S rRNA gene fragments in their guts than the northern clams. Interestingly, the cyanobacteria and diatom DNA fragments were still detectable by qPCR in the guts of M. balthica one week after removal from its food source. However, DNA metabarcoding of the 23S rRNA phytoplankton gene found in the clam guts showed that added food (i.e. N. spumigena and S. marinoi) did not make up a majority of the detected diet. Our results suggest that these detritivorous clams therefore do not react as quickly as previously thought to fresh organic matter inputs, with other phytoplankton than large diatoms and cyanobacteria constituting the majority of their diet. This experiment demonstrates the viability of using molecular methods to determine feeding of detritivores, but further studies investigating how prey DNA signals can change over time in benthic detritivores will be needed before this method can be widely applicable to both models of ecological functions and conservation policy.


Assuntos
Bivalves , Cianobactérias , Diatomáceas , Animais , Diatomáceas/genética , Ecossistema , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , RNA Ribossômico 23S , Cianobactérias/genética , Bivalves/genética , Dieta , Fitoplâncton/genética , DNA
13.
Genes (Basel) ; 13(11)2022 11 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36360278

RESUMO

(1) Introduction: Lucina pectinata is a clam found in sulfide-rich mud environments that has three hemoglobins believed to be responsible for the transport of hydrogen sulfide (HbILp) and oxygen (HbIILp and HbIIILp) to chemoautotrophic endosymbionts. The physiological roles and evolution of these globins in sulfide-rich environments are not well understood. (2) Methods: We performed bioinformatic and phylogenetic analyses with 32 homologous mollusk globin sequences. Phylogenetics suggests a first gene duplication resulting in sulfide binding and oxygen binding genes. A more recent gene duplication gave rise to the two oxygen-binding hemoglobins. Multidimensional scaling analysis of the sequence space shows evolutionary drift of HbIILp and HbIIILp, while HbILp was closer to the Calyptogena hemoglobins. Further corroboration is seen by conservation in the coding region of hemoglobins from L. pectinata compared to those from Calyptogena. (3) Conclusions: Presence of glutamine in position E7 in organisms living in sulfide-rich environments can be considered an adaptation to prevent loss of protein function. In HbILp a substitution of phenylalanine in position B10 is accountable for its unique reactivity towards H2S. It appears that HbILp has been changing over time, apparently not subject to functional constraints of binding oxygen, and acquired a unique function for a specialized environment.


Assuntos
Bivalves , Biologia Computacional , Animais , Filogenia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Hemoglobinas/genética , Hemoglobinas/metabolismo , Bivalves/genética , Bivalves/metabolismo , Evolução Molecular , Sulfetos , Oxigênio/metabolismo
14.
Proc Biol Sci ; 289(1986): 20221478, 2022 11 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36350208

RESUMO

Shipworms (Bivalvia, Teredinidae) are the principal consumers of wood in marine environments. Like most wood-eating organisms, they digest wood with the aid of cellulolytic enzymes supplied by symbiotic bacteria. However, in shipworms the symbiotic bacteria are not found in the digestive system. Instead, they are located intracellularly in the gland of Deshayes, a specialized tissue found within the gills. It has been independently demonstrated that symbiont-encoded cellulolytic enzymes are present in the digestive systems and gills of two shipworm species, Bankia setacea and Lyrodus pedicellatus, confirming that these enzymes are transported from the gills to the lumen of the gut. However, the mechanism of enzyme transport from gill to gut remains incompletely understood. Recently, a mechanism was proposed by which enzymes are transported within bacterial cells that are expelled from the gill and transported to the mouth by ciliary action of the branchial or food grooves. Here we use in situ immunohistochemical methods to provide evidence for a different mechanism in the shipworm B. setacea, in which cellulolytic enzymes are transported via the ducts of Deshayes, enigmatic structures first described 174 years ago, but whose function have remained unexplained.


Assuntos
Bivalves , Celulases , Animais , Brânquias , Filogenia , Simbiose , Bivalves/microbiologia , Bactérias
15.
Aquat Toxicol ; 253: 106346, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36327686

RESUMO

Humans have exhaustively combusted fossil fuels, and released pollutants into the environment, at continuously faster rates resulting in global average temperature increase and seawater pH decrease. Climate change is forecasted to exacerbate the effects of pollutants such as the emergent rare earth elements. Therefore, the objective of this study was to assess the combined effects of rising temperature (Δ = + 4 °C) and decreasing pH (Δ = - 0.4 pH units) on the bioaccumulation and elimination of gadolinium (Gd) in the bioindicator bivalve species Spisula solida (Surf clam). We exposed surf clams to 10 µg L-1 of GdCl3 for seven days, under warming, acidification, and their combination, followed by a depuration phase lasting for another 7 days and investigated the Gd bioaccumulation and oxidative stress-related responses after 1, 3 and 7 days of exposure and the elimination phase. Gadolinium accumulated after just one day with values reaching the highest after 7 days. Gadolinium was not eliminated after 7 days, and elimination is further hampered under climate change scenarios. Warming and acidification, and their interaction did not significantly impact Gd concentration. However, there was a significant interaction on clam's biochemical response. The augmented total antioxidant capacity and lipid peroxidation values show that the significant impacts of Gd on the oxidative stress response are enhanced under warming while the increased superoxide dismutase and catalase values demonstrate the combined impact of Gd, warming & acidification. Ultimately, lipid damage was greater in clams exposed to warming & Gd, which emphasizes the enhanced toxic effects of Gd in a changing ocean.


Assuntos
Bivalves , Spisula , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Humanos , Animais , Gadolínio/toxicidade , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Água do Mar , Mudança Climática , Oceanos e Mares
16.
Bull Environ Contam Toxicol ; 109(6): 1135-1141, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36331576

RESUMO

Biological and fishery features of Panopea sp. clams have been studied in northwest Mexico because of their importance for human consumption. However, the content of pollutants in their tissues, along with their implications have not been addressed yet. The concentrations of cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), mercury (Hg), and zinc (Zn) in soft tissues of Panopea generosa and P. globosa clams were examined in this region by atomic absorption spectroscopy. The metal concentrations (µg/g wet weight) ranged from 6.5 to 14.2, 0.97-8.09, 0.60-1.18, and 0.01-0.07, for Zn, Cu, Cd, and Hg, respectively. This study proposes that metal presence is related to weathering, upwelling, and drainage from adjacent agricultural lands to the coast. According to the Official Mexican Standard (NOM-242-SSA1-2009) and the World Health Organization (WHO, 2022), the metal content in siphon tissue indicates safe levels for human consumption.


Assuntos
Bivalves , Mercúrio , Oligoelementos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Humanos , Cádmio/análise , México , Mercúrio/análise , Metais , Zinco/análise , Cobre/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
17.
Braz J Biol ; 84: e263386, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36350949

RESUMO

Any solid, unprotected, and undefended surface in the aquatic environment will be fouled. Fouling, on the other hand, can affect a wide range of species that can tolerate some epibiosis. Several others, on the other hand, aggressively keep the epibionts off their body surface (antifouling). Antifouling defenses are built into marine plants like seaweed and seagrass. They do have a distinctive surface structure with tightly packed needle-like peaks and antifouling coverings, which may hinder settling bacteria's ability to cling. Chemical antifouling resistance is most probably a biological reaction to epibiosis' ecological drawbacks, especially for organisms capable of performing photosynthesis. The goal of this study was to see how effective natural compounds derived from littoral seaweeds were in preventing fouling. The brown mussel, an important fouling organism, was evaluated in laboratory bioassays against fifty-one populations' crude organic extracts including fort-two macroalgae species. Antifouling activity, exhibited a distinct phylogenetic pattern, with red macroalgae having the largest share of active species, subsequently brown macroalgae. Antifouling action in green seaweeds has never been significant. Seven species showed some level of induced antifouling defense. Our findings appear to back up previous findings about secondary metabolite synthesis in seaweeds, indicating that in the hunt for novel antifoulants, researchers should concentrate their efforts on tropical red macroalgae.


Assuntos
Bivalves , Alga Marinha , Animais , Alga Marinha/química , Filogenia , Verduras
18.
Dis Aquat Organ ; 152: 47-60, 2022 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36394140

RESUMO

In 2019 to 2021, the golden mussel Limnoperna fortunei and several freshwater fishes were sampled from 22 sites of the Tone River system including Lake Kasumigaura, Honshu, Japan, to examine the invasion of bucephalid trematodes. The parasite species identification was performed by morphological observation and DNA barcoding based on the sequences of nuclear 28S rDNA and mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1). A total of 1719 mussels were collected from 10 sites, and trematode-infected mussels were detected from 8 sites with prevalences between 0.3 and 42.9%. The sporocysts and cercariae were identified as Prosorhynchoides ozakii, a newly introduced species in the river system. A total of 700 fish individuals belonging to 24 species were collected from 15 sites. Two species of catfishes (Silurus asotus and Ictalurus punctatus) harbored mature or immature adults of Pr. ozakii in the intestine with prevalences between 8.3 and 20% including both host species. The metacercariae of Pr. ozakii were found from the fins and epidermis of 13 fish species from 10 sites (prevalence 4.8-100%). Fishes were heavily infected with metacercariae in fins, which were surrounded by the infiltration of hemocytes and rodlet cells. A population genetic analysis of Pr. ozakii did not show an obvious bottleneck, suggesting the possibility that the parasite was intentionally and repeatedly introduced into the river system.


Assuntos
Bivalves , Peixes-Gato , Parasitos , Trematódeos , Animais , Rios , Lagos , Japão/epidemiologia , Metacercárias , Bivalves/parasitologia
19.
Toxins (Basel) ; 14(11)2022 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36356012

RESUMO

Gymnodinium catenatum has been the main species responsible for paralytic shellfish poisoning events along the Portuguese coast (Iberian Peninsula), causing bans on bivalve harvesting that result in huge economic losses. This work presents the characterization of two novel isolates of G. catenatum regarding their growth and toxin profiles. Laboratory growth experiments revealed that, although low growth rates were obtained during cultivation, the cell yields were high compared to those reported in the literature. Evaluation of the toxin profiles, by HPLC-FLD, essentially confirmed the typical composition of toxins of this regional population (Iberian Peninsula), namely, the absence or low representation of the toxins dcNEO, GTX1,4 and NEO and a higher ratio of the toxins C1,2, GTX6 and GTX5. However, the percentage of the identified toxins varied among the strains of this study (under the same isolation, growth, and analysis conditions), and also differed from that of other strains described in the literature. Interestingly, we found a comparatively high abundance of dcSTX in both strains, relative to the other toxins, and an unquantifiable amount of C3,4 toxins. In addition to the geographic relationship between toxin profiles, chemical conversions among toxins may explain some differences encountered in the toxin profiles of G. catenatum strains.


Assuntos
Bivalves , Dinoflagelados , Intoxicação por Frutos do Mar , Animais , Toxinas Marinhas/análise , Intoxicação por Frutos do Mar/etiologia , Bivalves/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão
20.
Cell Physiol Biochem ; 56(6): 629-643, 2022 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36426388

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Occurring in marine invertebrates infectious haemic neoplasia (bivalves transmissible neoplasia, BTN) arises from genome instabilities leading to multilevel malfunctions and unregulated cell division of presumably haemocyte precursors. As its biochemical characterisation remains unknown, we here present the first data describing selected aspects of the physiology and biochemistry of the disease a in model clam Macoma balthica. We chose free amino acids (FAA) composition, mitochondrial respiration and enzymatic activity, oxidative stress enzymes activities and corticosteroids profile as markers of this contagious cancer. METHODS: Selected markers were measured in neoplastic and healthy clams and two tissue types, haemolymph and solid tissue. FAA composition was assessed in the haemolymph samples using high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC/MS). Mitochondrial respiration analysis was performed on haemocytes using oxygen electrodes integrated system Seahorse XFp. Mitochondrial enzymes activities were measured using spectrophotometry (cytochrome oxidase, COX) and commercial kit (succinate dehydrogenase, SDH). Total Antioxidant Capacity (TAC), Acetylocholinesterase (AChE), Protein Carbonyl Content (CBO) and Malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were measured in the solid tissue using analytical kits, and glutathione (GSH) was measured spectrophotometrically. Corticosteroids profile, measured in the solid tissue, was obtained with Liquid Chromatography-Electrospray Ionization-Mass Spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS) technique. RESULTS: In both clam groups nine FAAs were detected with Asp, Glu, Pro, Ser constituting over 90% of total FAA content. Significantly higher Gln level was detected in BTN positive clams. In neoplastic clams, an impairment of mitochondrial metabolism was observed as a decrease in mitochondrial oxygen consumption and lower cytochrome c oxidase activity. In the neoplastic clams significantly higher concentration of low molecular weight antioxidants was found. Finally, we report high level of corticosterone and lower levels of dehydrocorticosterone, cortisol and cortisone in healthy clams and elevated cortisol level in BTN individuals. CONCLUSION: Neoplastic clams are characterized by altered mitochondrial metabolism, with a potential key role of glutamine (Gln) in cancer cells energy production. Despite low aerobic respiration, BTN cells have efficient antioxidative response to elevated concentration of ROS. Elevated cortisol level in BTN-positive clams may indicate an important role of this corticosteroid in cancer biochemistry. Thus, we here provide the first results of selected physiological and biochemical aspects of BTN, making an important step in studying cancer epidemiology in wildlife.


Assuntos
Bivalves , Neoplasias , Humanos , Animais , Hidrocortisona , Carbonilação Proteica , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Glutamina , Glutationa , Aminoácidos
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