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1.
Food Chem ; 403: 134307, 2023 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36358092

RESUMO

We employed an untargeted volatile profiling approach in combination with spit off-odorant measurement procedure to investigate the fate of aroma compounds in mouth by determining how oral processing and intrinsic biological variables influence the overall volatile composition. A red wine before and after oral processing (expectorated wine), and control samples (expectorated water) were analyzed using GC-TOF-MS to determine as many volatile compounds as possible. We identified compounds in expectorated wines that originated in mouth from either an endogenous or exogenous source, while confirming that compounds might have metabolized by the action of salivary enzymes. Our data also show the changes in volatiles via hydrolysis from the corresponding molecules and may provide evidence of de novo formation of volatiles via transesterification reaction in mouth. While investigating the impact of intrinsic biological variables, we found age and gender specific differences in wine volatile composition due to oral processing and identified the key volatiles.


Assuntos
Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis , Vinho , Vinho/análise , Odorantes/análise , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Boca/química
2.
Gastrointest Endosc Clin N Am ; 33(1): 127-142, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36375877

RESUMO

The peroral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) procedure, as described over 10 years ago, is a submucosal endoscopy procedure that allows access to the muscle layers throughout the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. With this access, and ability to cut the muscle fibers, POEM can be performed not only for motility disorders but for structural pathology as well, such as Zenker diverticulum. Regardless of the location, there are 4 steps to the procedure: mucosotomy, submucosal tunneling, myotomy, and mucostomy closure. This review outlines these key components as well as variations in techniques for POEM throughout the GI tract.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos do Sistema Digestório , Acalasia Esofágica , Miotomia , Cirurgia Endoscópica por Orifício Natural , Humanos , Cirurgia Endoscópica por Orifício Natural/métodos , Canal Anal/cirurgia , Miotomia/métodos , Boca/cirurgia
3.
Gastrointest Endosc Clin N Am ; 33(1): 99-125, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36375890

RESUMO

Third space endoscopy or submucosal endoscopy using a mucosal flap valve allows secure access to the submucosal and deeper layers of the gastrointestinal tract without the risk of a full-thickness perforation. This allows the performance of submucosal tunneling and myotomy for spastic segments of the gastrointestinal tract. Per oral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) has been described for the treatment of achalasia cardia and other spastic esophageal disorders and is widely implemented. Endoscopic pyloromyotomy (G-POEM) has been performed for the treatment of refractory gastroparesis. Z-POEM for Zenker's diverticulum, D-POEM for epiphrenic diverticulum, and per-rectal endoscopic myotomy for treatment of Hirschsprung's disease are described..


Assuntos
Acalasia Esofágica , Miotomia , Cirurgia Endoscópica por Orifício Natural , Humanos , Canal Anal , Espasticidade Muscular , Acalasia Esofágica/cirurgia , Boca/cirurgia , Resultado do Tratamento
4.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2588: 61-73, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36418682

RESUMO

Culture-independent nucleic acid technologies have been extensively applied to the analysis of oral bacterial communities associated with healthy and diseased conditions. These methods have confirmed and substantially expanded the findings from culture studies to reveal the oral microbial inhabitants and candidate pathogens associated with the major oral diseases. Over 1000 bacterial distinct species-level taxa have been identified in the oral cavity and studies using next-generation DNA sequencing approaches indicate that the breadth of bacterial diversity is even much larger. Nucleic acid technologies have also been helpful in profiling bacterial communities and identifying disease-related patterns. This chapter provides an overview of the diversity and taxonomy of oral bacteria associated with health and disease.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Ácidos Nucleicos , Microbiota/genética , Boca , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Nível de Saúde
5.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2588: 187-199, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36418689

RESUMO

It is well-recognized that oral biofilms that occur in health and disease have a polymicrobial composition, though these are poorly reflected in the literature, with many studies focussing on simple mono-species biofilm model systems. The utility of polymicrobial biofilm model systems is that they more accurately reflect the oral cavity and allow researchers to ask relevant questions in basic science studies, pharmaceutical screening, and investigating inflammatory interactions. Here we describe the detailed methodology of how to sequentially construct and maintain polymicrobial biofilm models pertinent to caries, periodontal disease, and denture stomatitis.


Assuntos
Biofilmes , Microbiota , Bactérias , Boca/microbiologia , Modelos Biológicos
7.
NPJ Biofilms Microbiomes ; 8(1): 91, 2022 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36400799

RESUMO

Growing evidence suggests altered oral and gut microbiota in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), but little is known about the alterations and roles of phages, especially within the oral microbiota in ASD subjects. We enrolled ASD (n = 26) and neurotypical subjects (n = 26) with their oral hygiene controlled, and the metagenomes of both oral and fecal samples (n = 104) are shotgun-sequenced and compared. We observe extensive and diverse oral phageome comparable to that of the gut, and clear signals of mouth-to-gut phage strain transfer within individuals. However, the overall phageomes of the two sites are widely different and show even less similarity in the oral communities between ASD and control subjects. The ASD oral phageome exhibits significantly reduced abundance and alpha diversity, but the Streptococcal phages there are atypically enriched, often dominating the community. The over-representation of Streptococcal phages is accompanied by enriched oral Streptococcal virulence factors and Streptococcus bacteria, all exhibiting a positive correlation with the severity of ASD clinical manifestations. These changes are not observed in the parallel sampling of the gut flora, suggesting a previously unknown oral-specific association between the excessive Streptococcal phage enrichment and ASD pathogenesis. The findings provide new evidence for the independent microbiome-mouth-brain connection, deepen our understanding of how the growth dynamics of bacteriophages and oral microbiota contribute to ASD, and point to novel effective therapeutics.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Bacteriófagos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Fagos de Streptococcus , Humanos , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/complicações , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/microbiologia , Boca/microbiologia , Bacteriófagos/genética
8.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 6969, 2022 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36379946

RESUMO

A crucial step in the evolution of Euarthropoda (chelicerates, myriapods, pancrustaceans) was the transition between fossil groups that possessed frontal appendages innervated by the first segment of the brain (protocerebrum), and living groups with a protocerebral labrum and paired appendages innervated by the second brain segment (deutocerebrum). Appendage homologies between the groups are controversial. Here we describe two specimens of opabiniid-like euarthropods, each bearing an anterior proboscis (a fused protocerebral appendage), from the Middle Ordovician Castle Bank Biota, Wales, UK. Phylogenetic analyses support a paraphyletic grade of stem-group euarthropods with fused protocerebral appendages and a posterior-facing mouth, as in the iconic Cambrian panarthropod Opabinia. These results suggest that the labrum may have reduced from an already-fused proboscis, rather than a pair of arthropodized appendages. If some shared features between the Castle Bank specimens and radiodonts are considered convergent rather than homologous, phylogenetic analyses retrieve them as opabiniids, substantially extending the geographic and temporal range of Opabiniidae.


Assuntos
Artrópodes , Evolução Biológica , Animais , Filogenia , Fósseis , Artrópodes/genética , Cabeça , Boca/anatomia & histologia
9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(21)2022 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36362445

RESUMO

Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is transmitted primarily through the oral-oral route and fecal-oral route. The oral cavity had therefore been hypothesized as an extragastric reservoir of H. pylori, owing to the presence of H. pylori DNA and particular antigens in distinct niches of the oral cavity. This bacterium in the oral cavity may contribute to the progression of periodontitis and is associated with a variety of oral diseases, gastric eradication failure, and reinfection. However, the conditions in the oral cavity do not appear to be ideal for H. pylori survival, and little is known about its biological function in the oral cavity. It is critical to clarify the survival strategies of H. pylori to better comprehend the role and function of this bacterium in the oral cavity. In this review, we attempt to analyze the evidence indicating the existence of living oral H. pylori, as well as potential survival strategies, including the formation of a favorable microenvironment, the interaction between H. pylori and oral microorganisms, and the transition to a non-growing state. Further research on oral H. pylori is necessary to develop improved therapies for the prevention and treatment of H. pylori infection.


Assuntos
Infecções por Helicobacter , Helicobacter pylori , Periodontite , Humanos , Helicobacter pylori/genética , Infecções por Helicobacter/microbiologia , Boca/microbiologia , Estômago/microbiologia , Periodontite/microbiologia
10.
J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad ; 34(3): 540-547, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36377172

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dental composites are aesthetic direct restorative material. However, the effect of mouthwashes on the durability of the material is controversial. This study evaluated and compared the influence of mouthwash composition on the surface hardness of nanofilled (Z350XT) and microhybrid (P60) resin composites. METHODS: Comparative in-vitro study was conducted over 6 months at Multan Medical & Dental College. Sixty-four disc-shape specimens of each {nanofilled (Z350XT) and microhybrid (P60)} resin composite were prepared and stored in distilled water at 37°C for 24 hours. The baseline microhardness reading (To) was recorded by Vickers micro-hardness tester. Samples were then randomly divided into four groups (n=16) and stored in Listerine Cool Mint, Colgate Plax, Clinica and distilled water (control). The hardness test was repeated after 12 hours and 24 hours of storage. RESULTS: Nanocomposite (Z350XT) had statistically (p<0.01) higher surface hardness. A significant reduction (p≤0.05) in microhardness was observed after immersion of samples in mouthwashes. The reduction in surface hardness was dependent on the immersion time and composition of mouthwashes. Listerine Cool Mint (alcohol-based mouthwash) had greatest degradation effect. CONCLUSIONS: Mouth rinses negatively impacted the surface microhardness of the tested resin-based materials. Alcohol-based mouthwashes had greater potential for reducing microhardness. Microhybrid composite appears to be a more suitable material for restoring teeth in patients accustomed to using regular mouthwashes.


Assuntos
Antissépticos Bucais , Nanocompostos , Humanos , Resinas Compostas , Teste de Materiais , Boca , Propriedades de Superfície , Água
11.
J Insur Med ; 49(3): 147-171, 2022 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36378890

RESUMO

This article summarizes the results of a retrospective population-based cohort study using the statistical database of SEER*Stat 8.3.54 (produced 3/5/2018 for diagnosis years 1973-2014) to assess, determine, compare, and summarize the occurrence, long-term survival, and mortality indices of 218,066 patients with oral cavity and pharynx cancers by age, sex, race, stage, grade, and disease duration.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Faríngeas , Faringe , Humanos , Estudos de Coortes , Programa de SEER , Estudos Retrospectivos , Neoplasias Faríngeas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Faríngeas/epidemiologia , Boca
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36430132

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to determine the optimum dimensions of a radiographic plate to allow correct visualization of dental tissues and correct fit in the oral cavity of children with deciduous dentition. A quasi-experimental clinical study was carried out in children of both sexes aged between 3 and 5 years. The study variables were the complete visualization of the dental structures, the surveillance of ischemia on soft tissues, stimulation of the gag reflex, and acceptance of the radiographic plate by the pediatric patient through a validated visual analogue scale that measures anxiety. The data obtained were subjected to a descriptive and comparative statistical analysis carried out for both study phases. A total of 80 children participated in the study. The optimal dimensions obtained for the radiographic plate were 19.5 mm in height and 27.3 mm in width. Visualization of the dental tissues during both phases was not statistically significant (p = 0.412). However, there were statistically significant differences regarding the presence of ischemia, gag reflex, and child rejection (p < 0.001). A smaller radiographic plate allows correct visualization of the coronal dental tissues without causing rejection, ischemia, or gag reflex in patients in the deciduous dentition.


Assuntos
Boca , Dente Decíduo , Masculino , Feminino , Humanos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Transtornos de Ansiedade , Família
13.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 101(46): e30517, 2022 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36401454

RESUMO

Frequently, periodontal health and it's associated oral biofilm has not been addressed in those patients who have systemic health issues, especially those who are not responding to medical treatment via their physician. Oral biofilm may be present in the periodontal sulcus in the absence of clinical disease of periodontal disease (bleeding on probing, gingival inflammation) and periodontal reaction is dependent on the patient's immune response to the associated bacterial and their byproducts. Increasing evidence has been emerging the past decade connecting oral biofilm with systemic conditions, either initiating them or complicating those medical conditions. The patient's health needs to be thought of as a whole-body system with connections that may originate in the oral cavity and have distant affects throughout the body. To maximize total health, a coordination in healthcare needs to be a symbiosis between the physician and dentist to eliminate the oral biofilm and aid in prevention of systemic disease or minimize those effects to improve the patient's overall health and quality of life. Various areas of systemic health have been associated with the bacteria and their byproducts in the oral biofilm. Those include cardiovascular disease, chronic kidney disease, diabetes, pulmonary disease, prostate cancer, colon cancer, pancreatic cancer, pre-term pregnancy, erectile dysfunction Alzheimer's disease and Rheumatoid arthritis. This article will discuss oral biofilm, its affects systemically and review the medical conditions associated with the oral systemic connection with an extensive review of the literature.


Assuntos
Saúde Bucal , Qualidade de Vida , Humanos , Masculino , Biofilmes , Boca/microbiologia , Imunoterapia , Bactérias
14.
BMC Pediatr ; 22(1): 626, 2022 11 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36324103

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Deficiencies in oral motor function and feeding skills are common in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Oral motor therapy is a useful method to improve oral motor function and feeding skills. Oral motor facilitation technique (OMFT) is a newly designed comprehensive oral motor therapy, including postural control, sensory adaptation, breathing control, sensorimotor facilitation, and direct feeding. METHODS: This study was performed to identify the effect of OMFT on oral motor function and feeding skills in children with CP. A total of 21 children with CP (3-10 years, GMFCS III-V) participated in 16 weeks (16 sessions) of OMFT. The effects on oral motor function and feeding skills were assessed using the Oral Motor Assessment Scale (OMAS) before the treatment, 8 and 16 weeks after OMFT. Data were analyzed using the Friedman test and post-hoc analysis. RESULTS: Significant improvement was found in oral motor function and feeding skills including mouth closure, lip closure on the utensil, lip closure during deglutition, control of the food during swallowing, mastication, straw suction, and control of liquid during deglutition after OMFT. Mouth closure was the most effective and mastication was the least effective item. Sixteen weeks is more effective than 8 weeks of OMFT. CONCLUSION: OMFT could be an effective and useful oral motor therapy protocol to improve oral motor function and feeding skills in children with CP.


Assuntos
Paralisia Cerebral , Criança , Humanos , Paralisia Cerebral/terapia , Mastigação , Boca , Alimentos , Destreza Motora
15.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 20465, 2022 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36443470

RESUMO

Pairing (or blocking) is a design technique that is widely used in comparative microbiome studies to efficiently control for the effects of potential confounders (e.g., genetic, environmental, or behavioral factors). Some typical paired (block) designs for human microbiome studies are repeated measures designs that profile each subject's microbiome twice (or more than twice) (1) for pre and post treatments to see the effects of a treatment on microbiome, or (2) for different organs of the body (e.g., gut, mouth, skin) to see the disparity in microbiome between (or across) body sites. Researchers have developed a sheer number of web-based tools for user-friendly microbiome data processing and analytics, though there is no web-based tool currently available for such paired microbiome studies. In this paper, we thus introduce an integrative web-based tool, named MiPair, for design-based comparative analysis with paired microbiome data. MiPair is a user-friendly web cloud service that is built with step-by-step data processing and analytic procedures for comparative analysis between (or across) groups or between baseline and other groups. MiPair employs parametric and non-parametric tests for complete or incomplete block designs to perform comparative analyses with respect to microbial ecology (alpha- and beta-diversity) and taxonomy (e.g., phylum, class, order, family, genus, species). We demonstrate its usage through an example clinical trial on the effects of antibiotics on gut microbiome. MiPair is an open-source software that can be run on our web server ( http://mipair.micloud.kr ) or on user's computer ( https://github.com/yj7599/mipairgit ).


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Microbiota , Humanos , Computação em Nuvem , Boca , Pele
16.
Laryngorhinootologie ; 101(11): 929-931, 2022 11.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36328057

Assuntos
Cistos , Boca , Humanos , Orofaringe
17.
Clin Lab ; 68(10)2022 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36250842

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In recent years, more and more attention has been paid to the use of saliva in laboratory diagnostics aimed at monitoring both human health and diseases. Providing fundamental overview takes the reader through composition, functions, protective effects and significant role as biomarker. Therefore, the purpose of the research was a current review on the topic of saliva composition in relation to applied secretory stimuli used in clinical laboratory. METHODS: The paper presents human factors, systems, and neurotransmitters on which saliva production depends. Chapters included a description of the collection methods of unstimulated and stimulated saliva according to the condition of the oral cavity and the usefulness of the analysis of the human saliva as a diagnostic material. RESULTS: Salivary usefulness expanded to monitoring medications, determination of the number of intoxicants, tobacco, exposure to infectious diseases as viral, bacterial and fungal contaminations. Nevertheless, it is recommended for saliva samples to be collected after dental consultation or by trained medical personnel to exclude any risk of local inflammation in oral cavity. CONCLUSIONS: It may seem that salivary diagnostics is necessary and worthy of updating. This last feature undoubt-edly opens up new possibilities in the research for predictive and diagnostic factors in many human conditions. Salivary diagnostics may contribute to a better understanding of the general health status, and thus to more effec-tive treatment methods and improved prognosis.


Assuntos
Boca , Saliva , Biomarcadores/análise , Humanos , Boca/química , Saliva/química
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36293861

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study aimed to characterize hand-to-face contact (HFC) in children and analyze the factors that affect HFC behaviors of preschoolers in childcare facilities in Korea. METHODS: Thirty preschoolers aged between 13 and 84 months were enrolled with parents' voluntary participation. Videotaping (10 children/childcare center/2 h) and video reading was performed from 23 November 2018 to 7 January 2019. RESULTS: A total of 2719 cases of HFC were observed in 30 participants within 2 h. The average contact with the facial mucosa (frequency/person/2 h) was 55.6 ± 42.2, of which the mouth (25.4 ± 23.9), the nose (20.4 ± 24.5), and the eye (9.8 ± 11.7) were the most frequent contacts, in that order. The average contact duration (sec/person/2 h) with the facial mucosa was 232.6 ± 169.7, of which the mouth (145.2 ± 150), the nose (57.6 ± 62.2), and the eyes (29.7 ± 42.3) were the longest in that order. The density distribution of the frequency and duration of mucosal contact was wider in boys than in girls. The mucosal and non-mucosal contact frequencies were significantly higher in boys (p = 0.027 and p = 0.030, respectively). CONCLUSION: Children's HFC frequency and duration were highest for the mouth, nose, and eyes. Boys tended to have a higher contact frequency than girls for both mucous and non-mucous HFC.


Assuntos
Cuidado da Criança , Creches , Masculino , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Pré-Escolar , Mãos , Boca , Face
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36293874

RESUMO

(1) Background: Word-of-mouth (WOM) can influence patients' choice of doctors in online medical services (OMSs). Previous studies have explored the relationship between internal WOM in online healthcare communities (OHCs) and patients' choice of doctors. There is a lack of research on external WOM and position ranking in OMSs. (2) Methods: We develop an empirical model based on the data of 4435 doctors from a leading online healthcare community in China. We discuss the influence of internal and external WOM on patients' choice of doctors in OMSs, exploring the interaction between internal and external WOM and the moderation of doctor position ranking. (3) Results: Both internal and external WOM had a positive impact on patients' choice of doctors; there was a significant positive interaction between internal and third-party generated WOM, but the interaction between internal and relative-generated WOM, and the interaction between internal and doctor-generated WOM were both nonsignificant. The position ranking of doctors significantly enhanced the impact of internal WOM, whereas it weakened the impact of doctor recommendations on patients' choice of doctors. (4) The results emphasize the importance of the research on external WOM in OMSs, and suggest that the moderation of internal WOM may be related to the credibility and accessibility of external WOM, and the impact of doctor position ranking can be explained by information search costs.


Assuntos
Médicos , Humanos , China , Boca
20.
Curr Oncol ; 29(10): 7189-7197, 2022 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36290843

RESUMO

Disease Overview: Lymphomas, both Hodgkin's and non-Hodgkin's lymphomas, are one of the most common cancers in the head and neck area. The extra-nodal variant of lymphoma is rare, but it is the most common non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (ENHL). Furthermore, it is difficult to diagnose due to its non-specific clinical and radiological features, which can mimic other benign or malignant clinical manifestations. The study: This retrospective study involved 72 patients affected by head and neck ENHL in the period between 2003 and 2017. All patients underwent a diagnostic-therapeutic procedure according to the guidelines, and a 5-year follow-up. Based on the location of the swelling at the time of diagnosis, patients were divided into two groups: oral and non-oral ENHLs. Statistical analysis was performed using Kaplan-Meier analysis with the log-rank test. In addition, Fisher's exact test was applied to the two groups to evaluate and compare variances (the acceptable significance level was set at p < 0.05). Conclusion: ENHL with oral localization is much more aggressive than ENHL with non-oral localization, with a death rate of 40% (versus 4.76 for the non-oral one). In fact, between the two groups, there is a statistically significant difference in mortality, with a p-value of 0.0001 and 0.0002, respectively.


Assuntos
Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço , Linfoma Folicular , Linfoma não Hodgkin , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/diagnóstico , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/terapia , Linfoma não Hodgkin/terapia , Linfoma não Hodgkin/tratamento farmacológico , Boca/patologia
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