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1.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0302522, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38758940

RESUMO

Paddlefish has high economic and ecological value. In this study, microbial diversity and community structure in intestine, stomach, and mouth of paddlefish were detected using high-throughput sequencing. The results showed that the diversity and richness indices decreased along the digestive tract, and significantly lower proportion of those were observed in intestine. Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria were the dominant phyla. In top 10 phyla, there was no significant difference in mouth and stomach. But compared with intestine, there were significant differences in 8 of the 10 phyla, and Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes increased significantly, while Proteobacteria decreased significantly. There was no dominant genus in mouth and stomach, but Clostridium_sensu_stricto_1 and uncultured_bacterium_o_Bacteroidales was predominant in intestine. In conclusion, the species and abundance of microbiota in the mouth and stomach of paddlefish were mostly the same, but significantly different from those in intestine. Moreover, there was enrichment of the dominant bacteria in intestine.


Assuntos
Peixes , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Animais , Peixes/microbiologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Boca/microbiologia , Estômago/microbiologia , Proteobactérias/isolamento & purificação , Proteobactérias/genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Intestinos/microbiologia , Bacteroidetes/isolamento & purificação , Bacteroidetes/genética , Firmicutes/isolamento & purificação , Firmicutes/genética , Firmicutes/classificação , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Biodiversidade
2.
J Texture Stud ; 55(3): e12837, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38702991

RESUMO

Cigarettes with pronounced astringency can diminish consumers' enjoyment. However, due to the complex composition of cigarettes, quantifying astringency intensity accurately has been challenging. To address this, research was conducted to develop a method for assessing astringency intensity in a simulated oral environment. The astringency intensity of four cigarette brands was determined using the standard sensory evaluation method. The mainstream smoke absorbing solution (MS) was prepared by simulating the cigarette smoking process, and its physicochemical properties (such as total phenol content and pH levels) were analyzed. The lubrication properties of the five solutions were tested using the MFT-5000 wear tester, and factors influencing cigarette astringency were examined. The findings showed that total phenol content and pH of MS were positively and negatively correlated with astringency intensity, respectively. Particularly, the lubrication properties of MS were significantly correlated with astringency intensity, and the correlation coefficient was affected by load and speed during testing. The study concluded that coefficient of friction was a more reliable measure for assessing the extent of astringency in cigarettes than the total phenol content and pH of MS, offering new insights into astringency evaluation and development of high-grade cigarettes.


Assuntos
Paladar , Produtos do Tabaco , Humanos , Produtos do Tabaco/análise , Adulto , Masculino , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Lubrificação , Fumaça/análise , Adstringentes/análise , Boca , Fenóis/análise , Fumar , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
3.
Biomed Khim ; 70(2): 73-82, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38711406

RESUMO

Thiram is a dithiocarbamate derivative, which is used as a fungicide for seed dressing and spraying during the vegetation period of plants, and also as an active vulcanization accelerator in the production of rubber-based rubber products. In this study the content of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the state of the glutathione system have been investigated in the oral fluid and gum tissues of adult male Wistar rats treated with thiram for 28 days during its administration with food at a dose of 1/50 LD50. Thiram induced formation of ROS in the oral cavity; this was accompanied by an imbalance in the ratio of reduced and oxidized forms of glutathione due to a decrease in glutathione and an increase in its oxidized form as compared to the control. Thiram administration caused an increase in the activity of glutathione-dependent enzymes (glutathione peroxidase, glutathione transferase, and glutathione reductase). However, the time-course of enzyme activation in the gum tissues and oral fluid varied in dependence on the time of exposure to thiram. In the oral fluid of thiram-treated rats changes in the antioxidant glutathione system appeared earlier. The standard diet did not allow the glutathione pool to be fully restored to physiological levels after cessation of thiram intake. The use of exogenous antioxidants resviratrol and an Echinacea purpurea extract led to the restoration of redox homeostasis in the oral cavity.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Fungicidas Industriais , Glutationa , Ratos Wistar , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio , Tiram , Animais , Masculino , Ratos , Glutationa/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Fungicidas Industriais/toxicidade , Tiram/toxicidade , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Boca/metabolismo , Boca/efeitos dos fármacos , Glutationa Redutase/metabolismo , Glutationa Transferase/metabolismo , Glutationa Peroxidase/metabolismo
4.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 10394, 2024 05 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38710815

RESUMO

Tobacco use significantly influences the oral microbiome. However, less is known about how different tobacco products specifically impact the oral microbiome over time. To address this knowledge gap, we characterized the oral microbiome of cigarette users, smokeless tobacco users, and non-users over 4 months (four time points). Buccal swab and saliva samples (n = 611) were collected from 85 participants. DNA was extracted from all samples and sequencing was carried out on an Illumina MiSeq, targeting the V3-V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene. Cigarette and smokeless tobacco users had more diverse oral bacterial communities, including a higher relative abundance of Firmicutes and a lower relative abundance of Proteobacteria, when compared to non-users. Non-users had a higher relative abundance of Actinomyces, Granulicatella, Haemophilus, Neisseria, Oribacterium, Prevotella, Pseudomonas, Rothia, and Veillonella in buccal swab samples, compared to tobacco users. While the most abundant bacterial genera were relatively constant over time, some species demonstrated significant shifts in relative abundance between the first and last time points. In addition, some opportunistic pathogens were detected among tobacco users including Neisseria subflava, Bulleidia moorei and Porphyromonas endodontalis. Overall, our results provide a more holistic understanding of the structure of oral bacterial communities in tobacco users compared to non-users.


Assuntos
Disbiose , Microbiota , Boca , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Tabaco sem Fumaça , Humanos , Tabaco sem Fumaça/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Feminino , Disbiose/microbiologia , Adulto , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Boca/microbiologia , Saliva/microbiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Fumantes , Adulto Jovem , Fumar Cigarros/efeitos adversos , Mucosa Bucal/microbiologia
5.
Clin Perinatol ; 51(2): 425-439, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38705650

RESUMO

This review illuminates the complex interplay between various maternal microbiomes and their influence on preterm birth (PTB), a driving and persistent contributor to neonatal morbidity and mortality. Here, we examine the dynamics of oral, gastrointestinal (gut), placental, and vaginal microbiomes, dissecting their roles in the pathogenesis of PTB. Importantly, focusing on the vaginal microbiome and PTB, the review highlights (1) a protective role of Lactobacillus species; (2) an increased risk with select anaerobes; and (3) the influence of social health determinants on the composition of vaginal microbial communities.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Microbiota , Placenta , Nascimento Prematuro , Vagina , Humanos , Feminino , Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro/microbiologia , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Vagina/microbiologia , Recém-Nascido , Placenta/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Lactobacillus , Boca/microbiologia
6.
BMC Microbiol ; 24(1): 170, 2024 May 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38760711

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intra-oral halitosis (IOH) is bad breath produced locally by the mouth in addition to systemic diseases and is one of the main causes of interpersonal communication and psychological disorders in modern society. However, current treatment modalities still only alleviate IOH and do not eradicate it. Therefore, based on the differential performance of oral microecology in IOH patients, we propose a microbiota transplantation treatment aimed at restoring oral microecological balance and analyze its feasibility by oral flora colonization test in Wistar rats. OBJECTIVE: Saliva flora samples were collected from IOH patients and healthy subjects to analyze the feasibility of oral microbiota transplantation (OMT) for the treatment of IOH by the Wistar rat oral flora colonization test. METHODS: Seven patients with IOH who visited the First Affiliated Hospital of Xinjiang Medical University from June 2017 to June 2022 with the main complaint of halitosis and three healthy subjects were randomly selected. A Halimeter portable breath detector was used to record breath values and collect saliva flora samples. Sixteen SPF-grade male Wistar rats were housed in the Animal Experiment Center of Xinjiang Medical University and randomly divided into an experimental group (Group E) and a control group (Group C) for the oral flora colonization test. Species composition and associated metabolic analysis of oral flora during the Wistar rat test using 16SrRNA sequencing technology and PICRUSt metabolic analysis. Also, the changes in the breath values of the rats were recorded during the test. RESULTS: The proportion of Porphyromonas, Fusobacterium, Leptotrichia, and Peptostreptococcus was significantly higher in group E compared to group C after colonization of salivary flora of IOH patients (all P < 0.05), and the abundance with Gemella was zero before colonization, while no colonization was seen in group C after colonization compared to baseline. PICRUSt metabolic analysis also showed significantly enhanced IOH-related metabolic pathways after colonization in group E (all P < 0.05), as well as significantly higher breath values compared to baseline and group C (all P < 0.0001). After colonization by salivary flora from healthy subjects, group E rats showed a decrease in the abundance of associated odor-causing bacteria colonization, a reduction in associated metabolism, and a significant decrease in breath values. In contrast, group C also showed differential changes in flora structure and breath values compared to baseline after salivary flora colonization of IOH patients. CONCLUSIONS: OMT for IOH is a promising green treatment option, but the influence of environmental factors and individual differences still cannot be ignored.


Assuntos
Estudos de Viabilidade , Halitose , Microbiota , Boca , Ratos Wistar , Saliva , Animais , Halitose/microbiologia , Halitose/terapia , Masculino , Ratos , Humanos , Saliva/microbiologia , Boca/microbiologia , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Bactérias/genética , Adulto , Feminino , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
7.
Rev Med Virol ; 34(3): e2543, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38782605

RESUMO

COVID-19 as a pan-epidemic is waning but there it is imperative to understand virus interaction with oral tissues and oral inflammatory diseases. We review periodontal disease (PD), a common inflammatory oral disease, as a driver of COVID-19 and oral post-acute-sequelae conditions (PASC). Oral PASC identifies with PD, loss of teeth, dysgeusia, xerostomia, sialolitis-sialolith, and mucositis. We contend that PD-associated oral microbial dysbiosis involving higher burden of periodontopathic bacteria provide an optimal microenvironment for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. These pathogens interact with oral epithelial cells activate molecular or biochemical pathways that promote viral adherence, entry, and persistence in the oral cavity. A repertoire of diverse molecules identifies this relationship including lipids, carbohydrates and enzymes. The S protein of SARS-CoV-2 binds to the ACE2 receptor and is activated by protease activity of host furin or TRMPSS2 that cleave S protein subunits to promote viral entry. However, PD pathogens provide additional enzymatic assistance mimicking furin and augment SARS-CoV-2 adherence by inducing viral entry receptors ACE2/TRMPSS, which are poorly expressed on oral epithelial cells. We discuss the mechanisms involving periodontopathogens and host factors that facilitate SARS-CoV-2 infection and immune resistance resulting in incomplete clearance and risk for 'long-haul' oral health issues characterising PASC. Finally, we suggest potential diagnostic markers and treatment avenues to mitigate oral PASC.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Doenças Periodontais , SARS-CoV-2 , Humanos , COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/virologia , Doenças Periodontais/virologia , Doenças Periodontais/microbiologia , Disbiose/microbiologia , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/metabolismo , Internalização do Vírus , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/metabolismo , Boca/virologia , Boca/microbiologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/imunologia , Síndrome de COVID-19 Pós-Aguda
8.
Microb Genom ; 10(5)2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38739117

RESUMO

The interaction between a host and its microbiome is an area of intense study. For the human host, it is known that the various body-site-associated microbiomes impact heavily on health and disease states. For instance, the oral microbiome is a source of various pathogens and potential antibiotic resistance gene pools. The effect of historical changes to the human host and environment to the associated microbiome, however, has been less well explored. In this review, we characterize several historical and prehistoric events which are considered to have impacted the oral environment and therefore the bacterial communities residing within it. The link between evolutionary changes to the oral microbiota and the significant societal and behavioural changes occurring during the pre-Neolithic, Agricultural Revolution, Industrial Revolution and Antibiotic Era is outlined. While previous studies suggest the functional profile of these communities may have shifted over the centuries, there is currently a gap in knowledge that needs to be filled. Biomolecular archaeological evidence of innate antimicrobial resistance within the oral microbiome shows an increase in the abundance of antimicrobial resistance genes since the advent and widespread use of antibiotics in the modern era. Nevertheless, a lack of research into the prevalence and evolution of antimicrobial resistance within the oral microbiome throughout history hinders our ability to combat antimicrobial resistance in the modern era.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Microbiota , Boca , Humanos , Boca/microbiologia , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , História Antiga , Dieta , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos/genética , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , História Medieval , História do Século XVII , História do Século XVIII , História do Século XVI
9.
Front Immunol ; 15: 1407439, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38779669

RESUMO

Background: Increasing evidence indicates the microbial ecology of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is intricately associated with the disease's status and severity, and distinct microbial ecological variations exist between COPD and healthy control (HC). This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to summarize microbial diversity indices and taxa relative abundance of oral, airway, and intestine microbiota of different stages of COPD and HC to make comparisons. Methods: A comprehensive systematic literature search was conducted in PubMed, Embase, the Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library databases to identify relevant English articles on the oral, airway, and intestine microbiota in COPD published between 2003 and 8 May 2023. Information on microbial diversity indices and taxa relative abundance of oral, airway, and intestine microbiota was collected for comparison between different stages of COPD and HC. Results: A total of 20 studies were included in this review, involving a total of 337 HC participants, 511 COPD patients, and 154 AECOPD patients. We observed that no significant differences in alpha diversity between the participant groups, but beta diversity was significantly different in half of the included studies. Compared to HC, Prevotella, Streptococcus, Actinomyces, and Veillonella of oral microbiota in SCOPD were reduced at the genus level. Most studies supported that Haemophilus, Lactobacillus, and Pseudomonas were increased, but Veillonella, Prevotella, Actinomyces, Porphyromonas, and Atopobium were decreased at the genus level in the airway microbiota of SCOPD. However, the abundance of Haemophilus, Lactobacillus and Pseudomonas genera exhibited an increase, whereas Actinomyces and Porphyromonas showed a decrease in the airway microbiota of AECOPD compared to HC. And Lachnospira of intestine microbiota in SCOPD was reduced at the genus level. Conclusion: The majority of published research findings supported that COPD exhibited decreased alpha diversity compared to HC. However, our meta-analysis does not confirm it. In order to further investigate the characteristics and mechanisms of microbiome in the oral-airway- intestine axis of COPD patients, larger-scale and more rigorous studies are needed. Systematic review registration: PROSPERO (https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero/), identifier CRD42023418726.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/microbiologia , Humanos , Boca/microbiologia , Microbiota , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética
10.
J Med Primatol ; 53(3): e12703, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38778449

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although critical to the overall condition of animals under human care, there is still limited information about oral health in neotropical primates. METHODS: We analyzed the main oral conditions and microbiota using mass spectrometry from 13 capuchin monkeys (Sapajus apella) under human care. The findings were registered on odontograms following the Triadan system. RESULTS: The most prevalent conditions were dental fractures (n = 9), mainly enamel fractures, and periodontal disease (n = 8), mainly grade 1 calculi. When exanimating teeth, alterations were identified in 90 out of the 416 evaluated pieces, being periodontal disease the most common (n = 60), followed by enamel fracture (n = 15) and missing teeth (n = 10). In the oral microbiota analyses, Staphylococcus and Streptococcus species were the most prevalent, although no obvious association was observed between isolated organisms and oral conditions. CONCLUSIONS: These findings hold the potential to prevent oral disorders, including fractures and periodontal diseases, contribute to molecular identification of oral microbiota, and to improve the well-being of primates under human care.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Doenças dos Macacos , Boca , Sapajus apella , Animais , Boca/microbiologia , Doenças dos Macacos/microbiologia , Masculino , Feminino , Doenças da Boca/veterinária , Doenças da Boca/microbiologia
11.
Cell Rep Methods ; 4(5): 100775, 2024 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38744286

RESUMO

To address the limitation of overlooking crucial ecological interactions due to relying on single time point samples, we developed a computational approach that analyzes individual samples based on the interspecific microbial relationships. We verify, using both numerical simulations as well as real and shuffled microbial profiles from the human oral cavity, that the method can classify single samples based on their interspecific interactions. By analyzing the gut microbiome of people with autistic spectrum disorder, we found that our interaction-based method can improve the classification of individual subjects based on a single microbial sample. These results demonstrate that the underlying ecological interactions can be practically utilized to facilitate microbiome-based diagnosis and precision medicine.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Humanos , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/microbiologia , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/diagnóstico , Boca/microbiologia , Microbiota , Interações Microbianas , Simulação por Computador
12.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 10882, 2024 05 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38740792

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial efficacy of an air gas soft jet CAP for its potential use in removing oral biofilms, given that plasma-based technologies have emerged as promising methods in periodontology. Two types of biofilms were developed, one by Streptococcus mutans UA 159 bacterial strain and the other by a complex mixture of saliva microorganisms isolated from a patient with periodontitis. This latter biofilm was characterized via Next Generation Sequencing to determine the main bacterial phyla. The CAP source was applied at a distance of 6 mm for different time points. A statistically significant reduction of both CFU count and XTT was already detected after 60 s of CAP treatment. CLSM analysis supported CAP effectiveness in killing the microorganisms inside the biofilm and in reducing the thickness of the biofilm matrix. Cytotoxicity tests demonstrated the possible use of CAP without important side effects towards human gingival fibroblasts cell line. The current study showed that CAP treatment was able to significantly reduce preformed biofilms developed by both S. mutans and microorganisms isolated by a saliva sample. Further studies should be conducted on biofilms developed by additional saliva donors to support the potential of this innovative strategy to counteract oral pathogens responsible for periodontal diseases.


Assuntos
Biofilmes , Gases em Plasma , Saliva , Streptococcus mutans , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Biofilmes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Humanos , Gases em Plasma/farmacologia , Streptococcus mutans/efeitos dos fármacos , Streptococcus mutans/fisiologia , Saliva/microbiologia , Fibroblastos/microbiologia , Fibroblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Periodontite/microbiologia , Periodontite/terapia , Linhagem Celular , Boca/microbiologia
13.
Langenbecks Arch Surg ; 409(1): 158, 2024 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38748236

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This paper reports on the first experience after implementation of a transoral endoscopic thyroidectomy via vestibular approach (TOETVA) as an alternative to (partial) thyroidectomy or isthmusectomy in a single center. Feasibility, implementation and specific complications are addressed. METHODS: All patients who underwent a TOETVA procedure in our center between November 2019 and March 2023 were included. The surgical technique was performed as described by Anuwong et al. All procedures were performed by two dedicated head- and neck surgeons. RESULTS: A total of 20 patients were included. All patients underwent TOETVA surgery as planned and no conversions were needed. Observed complications were post-operative wound infections (POWI) (2/20; 10%), clinically significant seroma (1/20, 5%) and unilateral hemiparesis of the larynx (3/20; 15%). Permanent mental nerve damage was seen in 3/20 patients (15%), and 4 other patients (20%) experienced transient neuropraxia. CONCLUSIONS: TOETVA is a feasible alternative to (partial) thyroidectomy or isthmusectomy in selected patients. Special care should be taken when placing the trocars in the oral vestibulum to prevent mental nerve damage. Experience and training are essential for implementing the TOETVA procedure. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This study was registered to ClinicalTrials.gov. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT05396703.


Assuntos
Estudos de Viabilidade , Cirurgia Endoscópica por Orifício Natural , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Tireoidectomia , Humanos , Tireoidectomia/efeitos adversos , Tireoidectomia/métodos , Feminino , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cirurgia Endoscópica por Orifício Natural/efeitos adversos , Cirurgia Endoscópica por Orifício Natural/métodos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Retrospectivos , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/cirurgia , Boca/cirurgia , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
BMC Bioinformatics ; 25(1): 189, 2024 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38745271

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The selection of primer pairs in sequencing-based research can greatly influence the results, highlighting the need for a tool capable of analysing their performance in-silico prior to the sequencing process. We therefore propose PrimerEvalPy, a Python-based package designed to test the performance of any primer or primer pair against any sequencing database. The package calculates a coverage metric and returns the amplicon sequences found, along with information such as their average start and end positions. It also allows the analysis of coverage for different taxonomic levels. RESULTS: As a case study, PrimerEvalPy was used to test the most commonly used primers in the literature against two oral 16S rRNA gene databases containing bacteria and archaea. The results showed that the most commonly used primer pairs in the oral cavity did not match those with the highest coverage. The best performing primer pairs were found for the detection of oral bacteria and archaea. CONCLUSIONS: This demonstrates the importance of a coverage analysis tool such as PrimerEvalPy to find the best primer pairs for specific niches. The software is available under the MIT licence at https://gitlab.citius.usc.es/lara.vazquez/PrimerEvalPy .


Assuntos
Archaea , Bactérias , Primers do DNA , Microbiota , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Software , Microbiota/genética , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/classificação , Archaea/genética , Primers do DNA/metabolismo , Primers do DNA/genética , Humanos , Boca/microbiologia , Simulação por Computador
15.
Acta Otorhinolaryngol Ital ; 44(Suppl. 1): S3-S11, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38745511

RESUMO

Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of transoral laser exoscopic surgery (TOLES) in a unicentric series of patients affected by benign and malignant glottic and supraglottic lesions, and compare outcomes with those of transoral laser microsurgery (TOLMS). Methods: To demonstrate the non-inferiority of TOLES in terms of operative time, margin status and complication rates, we compared outcomes of 93 patients treated by TOLES between July 2021 and July 2023 with those of a match-paired group of 107 historical patients treated by TOLMS. To perform a multiparametric ergonomic evaluation of TOLES vs TOLMS, we used observational methods for biomechanical overload risk assessment and wearable technologies comparing 15 procedures with TOLES vs a paired match of 13 surgeries performed with TOLMS by the same surgeon. Results: No significant differences were found in terms of surgical duration, positive margins, or complications between TOLES and TOLMS. Ergonomics assessment by inertial measurement units and electromyographic surface electrodes demonstrated a reduced biomechanical overload with TOLES compared to TOLMS. Conclusions: The many advantages of TOLES, such as its superior didactic value, better digital control of light even through small-bored laryngoscopes, improved binocular vision, and increase in surgical performance by 3 or 4-hand techniques, are difficult to be quantified. In contrast, its non-inferiority in terms of oncological results and better ergonomics compared to TOLMS are demonstrated herein.


Assuntos
Terapia a Laser , Microcirurgia , Humanos , Microcirurgia/métodos , Microcirurgia/instrumentação , Terapia a Laser/métodos , Terapia a Laser/instrumentação , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Boca , Neoplasias Laríngeas/cirurgia , Resultado do Tratamento , Cirurgia Endoscópica por Orifício Natural/métodos , Cirurgia Endoscópica por Orifício Natural/instrumentação , Ergonomia , Adulto , Laringe/cirurgia
16.
Acta Otorhinolaryngol Ital ; 44(Suppl. 1): S20-S27, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38745513

RESUMO

Objective: Supraglottic squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) represents a major surgical challenge in organ-preserving treatment. Type I open partial horizontal laryngectomy (OPHL I) is considered the most popular. To date, minimally-invasive approaches such as laser microsurgery and transoral robotic surgery (TORS) have gained increasing relevance. The aim of this narrative review is to obtain a descriptive comparison of functional and oncological outcomes from studies on patients with supraglottic SCC treated with OPHL I and TORS, respectively. Material and methods: A computerised search was performed using the Pubmed database for articles published from 2000 to 2023. A comparative analysis on functional and oncological outcomes of patients treated by TORS and OPHL I was performed. Results: The present narrative review shows a superiority of TORS compared to open surgery for supraglottic SCC in terms of functional outcomes, while maintaining comparable oncological outcomes. Conclusions: Although recently introduced in the treatment of laryngeal pathology, TORS has been shown to be a reliable technique not only for functional but also for oncological outcomes, ensuring good overall survival, disease-free survival, and disease control rates comparable to OPHL I.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Laríngeas , Laringectomia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Robóticos , Humanos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Robóticos/métodos , Neoplasias Laríngeas/cirurgia , Laringectomia/métodos , Resultado do Tratamento , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/cirurgia , Boca
17.
Acta Otorhinolaryngol Ital ; 44(Suppl. 1): S42-S57, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38745516

RESUMO

The oral cavity is a primary site for malignant neoplasms of the head and neck region. Surgery, with or without adjuvant therapy, offers the highest probability of cure by focusing on radical tumour removal and organ function restoration. Reconstructive options are represented by local and free flaps, while small defects can be managed without reconstruction. For medium-sized defects without bone involvement, local flaps can be a good alternative to free flaps in selected patients. The purposes of this article are to analyse the main minimally-invasive reconstructive techniques in oral cancer surgery through a systematic review of the literature and develop a reconstructive algorithm based on the site and size of the defect. We defined minimally-invasive reconstruction as any reconstructive option not involving flap dissection from the neck or other distant areas from the oral cavity. Options considered include: local myo-mucosal or mucosal flaps (based on the facial or buccal arteries, and palatal flap), Bichat's fat pad flap, and nasolabial flap. Use of biological or synthetic materials is also described. In selected patients with small to moderate-sized defects, the possibility of reconstruction with local flaps can be a viable option.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Minimamente Invasivos , Boca , Procedimentos de Cirurgia Plástica , Humanos , Procedimentos de Cirurgia Plástica/métodos , Boca/cirurgia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Minimamente Invasivos/métodos , Neoplasias Bucais/cirurgia
18.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 11114, 2024 05 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38750118

RESUMO

Oral bacteria are known to be associated with perioperative complications during hospitalization. However, no presented reports have clarified the relationship of oral bacterial number with medical costs for inpatients. The Diagnosis Procedure Combination (DPC) database system used in Japan provides clinical information regarding acute hospital patients. The present study was conducted to determine the association of oral bacterial numbers in individual patients treated at a single institution with length of hospital stay and medical costs using DPC data. A total of 2369 patients referred by the medical department to the dental department at Hiroshima University Hospital were divided into the low (n = 2060) and high (n = 309) oral bacterial number groups. Length of hospital stay and medical costs were compared between the groups, as well as the associations of number of oral bacteria with Charlson comorbidity index (CCI)-related diseases in regard to mortality and disease severity. There was no significant difference in hospital stay length between the low (24.3 ± 24.2 days) and high (22.8 ± 20.1 days) oral bacterial number groups. On the other hand, the daily hospital medical cost in the high group was significantly greater (US$1456.2 ± 1505.7 vs. US$1185.7 ± 1128.6, P < 0.001). Additionally, there was no significant difference in CCI score between the groups, whereas the daily hospital medical costs for patients in the high group treated for cardiovascular disease or malignant tumors were greater than in the low number group (P < 0.05). Multivariate regression analysis was also performed, which showed that oral bacterial number, age, gender, BMI, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, malignant tumor, and hospital stay length were independently associated with daily hospitalization costs. Monitoring and oral care treatment to lower the number of oral bacteria in patients affected by cardiovascular disease or cancer may contribute to reduce hospitalization costs.


Assuntos
Hospitalização , Tempo de Internação , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , Japão/epidemiologia , Idoso , Tempo de Internação/economia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Hospitalização/economia , Boca/microbiologia , Bases de Dados Factuais , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Custos Hospitalares , Carga Bacteriana , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Bactérias/classificação , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Adulto
19.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 9998, 2024 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38693196

RESUMO

It is estimated that more than half of the world population has been infected with Helicobacter pylori. Most newly acquired H. pylori infections occur in children before 10 years of age. We hypothesized that early life H. pylori infection could influence the composition of the microbiome at mucosal sites distant to the stomach. To test this hypothesis, we utilized the infant rhesus macaque monkey as an animal model of natural H. pylori colonization to determine the impact of infection on the lung and oral microbiome during a window of postnatal development. From a cohort of 4-7 month-old monkeys, gastric biopsy cultures identified 44% of animals infected by H. pylori. 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing of lung washes and buccal swabs from animals showed distinct profiles for the lung and oral microbiome, independent of H. pylori infection. In order of relative abundance, the lung microbiome was dominated by the phyla Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidota, Fusobacteriota, Campilobacterota and Actinobacteriota while the oral microbiome was dominated by Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidota, and Fusobacteriota. In comparison to the oral cavity, the lung was composed of more genera and species that significantly differed by H. pylori status, with a total of 6 genera and species that were increased in H. pylori negative infant monkey lungs. Lung, but not plasma IL-8 concentration was also associated with gastric H. pylori load and lung microbial composition. We found the infant rhesus macaque monkey lung harbors a microbiome signature that is distinct from that of the oral cavity during postnatal development. Gastric H. pylori colonization and IL-8 protein were linked to the composition of microbial communities in the lung and oral cavity. Collectively, these findings provide insight into how H. pylori infection might contribute to the gut-lung axis during early childhood and modulate future respiratory health.


Assuntos
Infecções por Helicobacter , Helicobacter pylori , Pulmão , Macaca mulatta , Microbiota , Boca , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Animais , Macaca mulatta/microbiologia , Pulmão/microbiologia , Infecções por Helicobacter/microbiologia , Helicobacter pylori/genética , Boca/microbiologia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Masculino , Modelos Animais de Doenças
20.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 108(1): 330, 2024 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38730049

RESUMO

A more optimized culture medium used in vitro to mimic the bacterial composition of original oral flora as similar as possible remains difficult at present, and the goal of this study is to develop a novel oral biofilm medium to restore the original oral microbiome. Firstly, we conducted a systematic literature review by searching PubMed and summarized the current reported culture media in vitro. Seven culture media were found. We used mixed saliva as the origin of oral species to compare the effects of the above media in culturing oral multispecies biofilms. Results indicated that among the seven media brain heart infusion containing 1% sucrose (BHIs) medium, PG medium, artificial saliva (AS) medium, and SHI medium could obviously gain large oral biofilm in vitro. The nutrients contained in different culture media may be suitable for the growth of different oral bacteria; therefore, we optimized several novel media accordingly. Notably, results of crystal violet staining showed that the biofilm cultured in our modified artificial saliva (MAS) medium had the highest amount of biofilm biomass. 16S rRNA gene sequencing showed that the operational taxonomic units (OTUs) and Shannon index of biofilm cultured in MAS medium were also the highest among all the tested media. More importantly, the 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis indicated that the biofilm cultured in MAS medium was closer to the original saliva species. Besides, biofilm cultured by MAS was denser and produced more exopolysaccharides. MAS supported stable biofilm formation on different substrata. In conclusion, this study demonstrated a novel MAS medium that could culture oral biofilm in vitro closer to the original oral microbiome, showing a good application prospect. KEY POINTS: • We compare the effects of different media in culturing oral biofilms • A novel modified artificial saliva (MAS) medium was obtained in our study • The MAS medium could culture biofilm that was closer to oral microbiome.


Assuntos
Bactérias , Biofilmes , Meios de Cultura , Microbiota , Boca , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Saliva , Biofilmes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Meios de Cultura/química , Boca/microbiologia , Humanos , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Saliva/microbiologia , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Saliva Artificial
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