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1.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 23(4): 645-683, jul. 2024. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1538073

RESUMO

Information on the knowledge and ways of using food and medicinal plants by traditional populations, family farmers and Brazilian native population in the Amazon is essential to guarantee the food sovereignty of these groups. This study was conducted using semi-structured interviews applied to local respondents. A total of 269 species of both non-conventional food plants and medicinal plants were identified, distributed in 83 botanical families and 198 genera. The Arecaceae and Lamiaceae families had the highest species richness (11 and 7, respectively). The Shannon-Wiener (H') and Pielou (J') diversity indices were considered high (5.02 and 0.9, respectively) when compared to other ethnobotanical works. In the environment in which these families are found, these species become the only food and medicinal resources available.


La información sobre los saberes y formas de uso de las plantas alimenticias y medicinales por parte de las poblaciones tradicionales, agricultores familiares e indígenas brasileños en la Amazonía es fundamental para garantizar la soberanía alimentaria de estos grupos. Este estudio se realizó utilizando entrevistas semiestructuradas aplicadas a encuestados locales. Se identificaron un total de 269 especies tanto de plantas alimenticiasno convencionales como de plantas medicinales, distribuidas en 83 familias botánicas y 198 géneros. Las familias Arecaceae y Lamiaceae tuvieron la mayor riqueza de especies (11 y 7, respectivamente). Los índices de diversidad de Shannon-Wiener (H') y Pielou (J') fueron considerados altos (5,02 y 0,9, respectivamente) en comparación con otros trabajos etnobotánicos. En el ambiente en que se encuentran estas familias, estas especies se convierten en los únicos recursos alimenticios y medicinales disponibles.


Assuntos
Plantas Comestíveis , Plantas Medicinais , Etnobotânica , Brasil , Inquéritos e Questionários
2.
Multimedia | Recursos Multimídia | ID: multimedia-13192

RESUMO

Durante a Oficina do Projeto BVS Saúde Indígena (TA4/TC93), realizada pela BIREME/OPAS/OMS com SESAI/MS no Dia Nacional dos Povos Indígenas, Giovana Cruz Mandulão, Coordenadora-Geral de Gestão do Conhecimento, da Informação, da Avaliação e do Monitoramento da Secretaria de Saúde Indígena, realiza intervenção em homenagem e defesa dos povos indígenas do Brasil.


Assuntos
Brasil/etnologia , Direitos Humanos , Indígenas Sul-Americanos , Território Sociocultural , Povos Indígenas , Violência Étnica , Discurso , Saúde de Populações Indígenas
3.
Recurso na Internet em Português | LIS - Localizador de Informação em Saúde | ID: lis-49622

RESUMO

Ministério da Saúde brasileiro lidera iniciativa de regulamentar a comercialização digital dos produtos, buscando incorporação internacional. Durante a programação da 77ª Assembleia Mundial da Saúde, o Brasil fez uma declaração conjunta em nome de 27 países, defendendo uma resolução para regulamentar a comercialização digital de substitutivos do leite materno e sua incorporação no Código Internacional. “É poderosa a influência da comercialização de substitutivos do leite materno como uma barreira à amamentação. Estamos enfrentando um desafio emergente”, disse o secretário Carlos Gadelha, representante brasileiro no evento da Organização Mundial da Saúde (OMS).


Assuntos
Substitutos do Leite Humano , Leite Humano , Comercialização de Produtos , Aleitamento Materno , Promoção da Saúde , Organização Mundial da Saúde , Brasil
4.
Recurso na Internet em Português | LIS - Localizador de Informação em Saúde | ID: lis-49623

RESUMO

Dados consolidados de 2023 mostram que o Ministério da Saúde registrou a doação de 253 mil litros de leite humano a partir da ação de 198 mil mulheres. Com isso, 225,7 mil recém-nascidos foram diretamente beneficiados.


Assuntos
Promoção da Saúde , Leite Humano , Bancos de Leite Humano , Recém-Nascido , Nutrição do Lactente , Brasil
5.
Recurso na Internet em Português | LIS - Localizador de Informação em Saúde | ID: lis-49624

RESUMO

Mais de 200 profissionais de saúde de 15 diferentes estados de Angola participaram do Congresso de Bancos de Leite Humano da Comunidade dos Países de Língua Portuguesa (CPLP), em Luanda, no país africano. O evento, teve como tema "Segurança alimentar e nutricional para recém-nascidos de risco e lactentes" e foi uma iniciativa conjunta dos governos do Brasil e de Angola, em colaboração com a direção da comunidade.


Assuntos
Segurança Alimentar , Comunidade dos Países de Língua Portuguesa , Angola , Brasil , Bancos de Leite Humano , Leite Humano
6.
Recurso na Internet em Português | LIS - Localizador de Informação em Saúde | ID: lis-49625

RESUMO

Em 2023, o Ministério da Saúde registrou a doação de 253 mil litros de leite humano a partir da ação de 198 mil mulheres. Com isso, 225.762 recém-nascidos foram diretamente beneficiados. O número é 8% maior do que o registrado em 2022 e representa 55% da real necessidade por leite humano no Brasil. Com o objetivo de ampliar ainda mais esse quantitativo, a pasta lançou, nesta segunda-feira (6), a campanha ‘Doe leite materno: vida em cada gota recebida’. A meta para 2024 é ampliar mais 5% a oferta de leite materno a recém-nascidos internados nas unidades neonatais do país.


Assuntos
Promoção da Saúde , Leite Humano , Bancos de Leite Humano , Aleitamento Materno , Nutrição do Lactente , Brasil
7.
Hig. Aliment. (Online) ; 38(298): e1144, jan.-jun. 2024.
Artigo em Português | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1531444

RESUMO

As falhas na higienização em um estabelecimento de alimentos podem refletir em problemas causando a contaminação ou deterioração do produto produzido. Esta pesquisa foi motivada por reclamações de consumidores informando que os queijos apresentaram fungos, mesmo estando dentro do prazo de validade e por solicitação do Serviço de Inspeção Municipal. O objetivo desta pesquisa foi avaliar a contaminação ambiental em uma agroindústria da agricultura familiar produtora de queijo colonial no Sudoeste Paranaense. Foram realizadas a contagem para aeróbios mesófilos em equipamentos e superfícies que entram em contato com o alimento e análise microbiológica ambiental de bolores e leveduras na sala de secagem dos queijos. A coleta foi realizada com método de esfregaço de suabe estéril para aeróbios mesófilos e semeadas em placas de Petri com Ágar Padrão de Contagem. Para a coleta ambiental foram expostas placas de Petri com ágar Saboraund durante 15 minutos. Os resultados demonstraram ausência de contaminação nas superfícies, mas foram encontrados bolores e leveduras de forma acentuada na sala de secagem dos queijos, o que pode contribuir para a deterioração do produto, diminuindo sua validade. Para minimizar as perdas por contaminação é necessário que o processo de higienização dos ambientes seja realizado de forma eficiente.


Failures in hygiene in a food establishment can result in problems causing contamination or deterioration of the product produced. This research was motivated by complaints from consumers reporting that the cheeses had mold, even though they were within their expiration date and at the request of the Municipal Inspection Service. This research was to evaluate environmental contamination in an agroindustry in the family farm producing colonial cheese in Southwest Paraná. For the microbiological assessment of environmental contamination, counting for mesophilic aerobes was carried out on equipment and surfaces that come into contact with food and, environmental microbiological analysis of molds and yeast in the cheese drying room. The collection was carried out using the sterile swab smear for mesophilic aerobes and seeded in Petri dishes with Counting Standard Agar. For environmental collection, sheets of Petri with Saboraund agar for 15 minutes. The results demonstrated absence of contamination on surfaces. But the presence of molds and yeasts in the drying room cheeses, which can contribute to the deterioration of the product and thus reduce the validity. To minimize losses due to contamination, it is It is necessary that the process of cleaning and disinfecting environments is carried out efficiently.


Assuntos
Higiene dos Alimentos , Queijo/microbiologia , Brasil , Boas Práticas de Fabricação , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/prevenção & controle
8.
Hig. Aliment. (Online) ; 38(298): e1145, jan.-jun. 2024. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1531447

RESUMO

A higienização é um procedimento importante na indústria de alimentos e sua realização deve ocorrer rotineiramente para evitar que os alimentos sejam contaminados. Além disso, todos os manipuladores de alimentos devem receber treinamentos de modo a entender como ocorrem as contaminações e como evitá-las, para que não ocorra deterioração antecipada dos alimentos e para que não exponham os consumidores ao risco de doenças transmitidas por alimentos em caso de contaminação. Esta pesquisa avaliou o processo de higienização e sua eficiência em superfícies presentes em uma agroindústria da agricultura familiar produtora de embutidos cárneos. Apesar de ter instalações adequadas a agroindústria apresentava inadequações quanto aos produtos utilizados e a frequência inadequada para uma higienização eficiente. Foi realizada análise microbiológica das superfícies dos equipamentos para contagem de aeróbios mesófilos e notou-se uma elevada carga microbiana que indicou uma baixa eficiência no processo de higienização. Sugeriu-se melhorias na higiene ambiental associado à instrução dos colaboradores, para contribuir na promoção da qualidade dos produtos, aumento dos lucros e salvaguardando a saúde do consumidor.


Hygiene is an important procedure in the food industry, and its performance must occur routinely to prevent food from being contaminated. In addition, all food handlers must receive training in order to understand how contamination occurs and how to avoid it, so that there is no anticipated deterioration of food and that consumers are not exposed to the risk of foodborne diseases. in case of contamination by pathogenic microorganisms. Thus, this research evaluated the cleaning process and its efficiency on surfaces present in a family farming agroindustry that produces meat products, which despite having adequate facilities, had some difficulties such as product use and inadequate frequency for eficiente cleaning. After performing a microbiological analysis to count surface mesophilic aerobes, a high level of contamination was noted, relating to low efficiency in the cleaning process. Improvements in environmental hygiene are suggested, associated with the instruction of employees for the implementation of the Standard Operating Hygiene Procedure, promoting improvements in product quality, increasing profits and safeguarding consumer health.


Assuntos
Bovinos , Higiene dos Alimentos , Indústria da Carne/normas , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/prevenção & controle , Brasil , Indústria Alimentícia/normas , Produtos da Carne
9.
Hig. Aliment. (Online) ; 38(298): e1149, jan.-jun. 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1531645

RESUMO

Diante do ritmo acelerado da vida contemporânea, observa-se um aumento na tendência dos indivíduos em optar por realizar suas refeições fora de casa. A carne, reconhecida como um componente essencial na alimentação dos brasileiros, está suscetível à contaminação pois apresenta ambiente favorável à proliferação de microrganismos patogênicos. Fazendo-se necessária uma análise de contaminação pós-produção afim de evitar Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos. No presente estudo objetivouse avaliar as boas práticas de fabricação e contaminação de preparações de carne bovina assada, de restaurantes particulares e institucionalizados no município de Americana-SP. Amostras de carne prontas para o consumo foram obtidas de seis estabelecimentos comerciais e seis institucionais. Durante a coleta, foram verificadas as temperaturas e realizadas análises de conformidades com a RDC n° 275, de 2002. As amostras foram examinadas para detectar a presença ou ausência de E. coli e coliformes termotolerantes a 45° C. Para a análise foi realizada a técnica de tubos múltiplos para quantificar a totalidade dos coliformes. Observou-se que, conforme estipulado pela Resolução n°43 de 2015, nenhuma das amostras oriundas de restaurantes comerciais, e a maioria das provenientes de restaurantes institucionais, atingiram as temperaturas requeridas. No que concerne à identificação de E. coli através de testes microbiológicos, foi constatado que seis amostras de restaurantes comerciais e quatro de restaurantes institucionais testaram positivo para a presença deste microrganismo. Conclui-se que as amostras de restaurantes comerciais apresentaram níveis de contaminação superiores em comparação com as amostras de restaurantes institucionais.


Given the fast-paced rhythm of contemporary life, there is an increase in individuals choosing to have their meals outside the home. Meat, recognized as an essential component in the Brazilian diet, is susceptible to contamination as it provides a favorable environment for the proliferation of pathogenic microorganisms. It is necessary to conduct post-production contamination analysis to prevent Foodborne Diseases. This study aimed to evaluate the good manufacturing practices and contamination of roasted beef preparations from private and institutional restaurants in the city of Americana-SP. Samples of ready-to-eat meat were obtained from six commercial establishments and six institutional ones. During collection, temperatures were checked, and conformity analyses were conducted according to RDC No. 275, 2002. The samples were examined for the presence or absence of E. coli and thermotolerant coliforms at 45°C using the multiple tube technique to quantify the total coliforms. It was observed that, as stipulated by Resolution No. 43, 2015, none of the samples from commercial restaurants and the majority from institutional restaurants reached the required temperatures. Regarding the identification of E. coli through microbiological tests, it was found that six samples from commercial restaurants and four from institutional ones tested positive for the presence of this microorganism. It is concluded that samples from commercial restaurants showed higher contamination levels compared to institutional restaurant samples.


Assuntos
Higiene dos Alimentos , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos , Carne , Brasil
10.
Food Microbiol ; 122: 104570, 2024 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38839229

RESUMO

Cronobacter spp. are bacterial pathogens isolated from a wide variety of foods. This study aims at evaluating the occurrence of Cronobacter spp. in low water activity functional food samples, detect the presence of virulence genes, and determine the antibiotic susceptibility of strains. From 105 samples, 38 (36.2%) were contaminated with Cronobacter spp. The species identified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing analyses (rpoB and fusA genes, respectively) were C. sakazakii (60.3%), C. dublinensis (25.4%), C. turincensis (9.5%), and C. malonaticus (4.8%). Nineteen fusA alleles were identified, including four new alleles. The virulence genes were identified by PCR and all isolates were positive for ompX and sodA genes, 60.3% to cpa gene, and 58.7% to hly gene. Using the disk diffusion method, antibiotic susceptibility to twelve antibiotics was assessed twice, separated by a 19-month period. In the first test, the isolates showed diverse antibiotic susceptibility profiles, with nineteen isolates (30.2%) being multi-drug resistant (resistant to three or more antibiotic classes), in the second, the isolates were susceptible to all antibiotics. Cronobacter spp. in functional foods demonstrates the need for continued investigation of this pathogen in foods, and further research is needed to clarify the loss of resistance of Cronobacter strains.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Cronobacter , Alimento Funcional , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Cronobacter/genética , Cronobacter/efeitos dos fármacos , Cronobacter/isolamento & purificação , Cronobacter/classificação , Brasil , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Fatores de Virulência/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Água , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética
11.
Syst Parasitol ; 101(4): 44, 2024 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38839661

RESUMO

Species of Diolcogaster parasitize Lepidoptera pests of commercial plants. The diversity of this genus is high, but few species of Diolcogaster have been described. The description of a new Diolcogaster species provides information for the biological control using this insect. This study presents the description and key notes on the biology of a new Diolcogaster parasitoid wasp. This species was reared from a caterpillar of Hypercompe brasiliensis collected after feeding on a Gloxinia perennis plant important to floriculture. Two complementary identification analyzes were performed on Diolcogaster adult bodies. The first was the analyses of its external morphology and the second its molecular analysis (mitochondrial DNA). The morphological analysis defined the insect as a new species of Diolcogaster, named Diolcogaster joanesi sp. nov. A maximum-likelihood (ML) analysis partially confirmed the morphological analysis, placing D. joanesi within a cluster including a previously identified species (Diolcogaster choi) and seven other morphospecies. The proximity of D. joanesi to D. choi is discussed and an updated key for all New World species of the xanthaspis group is provided. Twenty-eight adult wasps were obtained (22 females and six males) out of 50 cocoons which larvae emerged from the caterpillar host. The findings contribute to the broader understanding of Diolcogaster in the Neotropics and its potential for the biological control of lepidopteran defoliators.


Assuntos
Controle Biológico de Vetores , Especificidade da Espécie , Vespas , Animais , Brasil , Vespas/classificação , Vespas/anatomia & histologia , Mariposas/parasitologia , Lepidópteros/parasitologia , Filogenia , Larva , Feminino
12.
Mycopathologia ; 189(3): 48, 2024 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38847987

RESUMO

The impact of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) on non-neutropenic critically ill patients in intensive care units (ICU) has been demonstrated in recent decades. Furthermore, after the start of the COVID-19 pandemic, COVID-19 associated with pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA) has become a major concern in ICUs. However, epidemiological data from different regions are scarce. We evaluated the prevalence and clinical-epidemiological data of IPA in patients with COVID-19 requiring mechanical ventilation (MV) in the ICU ("severe COVID-19") and non-COVID ICU patients in MV of a tertiary hospital in the southern region of Brazil. Eighty-seven patients admitted between June 2020 and August 2022 were included; 31 with severe COVID-19. For the diagnosis of IPA or CAPA, algorithms including host factors and mycological criteria (positive culture for Aspergillus spp., immunoassay for galactomannan detection, and/or qPCR) were utilized. The overall incidence of IPA and CAPA in our ICU was 73 cases/1000 ICU hospitalizations. Aspergillosis occurred in 13% (4/31) of the COVID-19 patients, and in 16% (9/56) of the critically ill patients without COVID-19, with mortality rates of 75% (3/4) and 67% (6/9), respectively. Our results highlight the need for physicians enrolled in ICU care to be aware of aspergillosis and for more access of the patients to sensitive and robust diagnostic tests by biomarkers detection.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Estado Terminal , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Aspergilose Pulmonar Invasiva , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Humanos , COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Centros de Atenção Terciária/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Aspergilose Pulmonar Invasiva/epidemiologia , Aspergilose Pulmonar Invasiva/diagnóstico , Adulto , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Respiração Artificial , Prevalência , Incidência , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais
13.
Rev Paul Pediatr ; 42: e2023116, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38836806

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the vaccination coverage and abandonment rates among children under two years old in Brazil, from 2015 to 2021. METHODS: A time-series ecological study. The dependent variables of the research were "vaccination coverage" and "abandonment rate", both assessed by Brazilian region. The data were extracted in July 2022 from the Information System of the National Immunization Program. The Prais-Winsten technique was used for the trend analysis, with the aid of the STATA 16.0 software. RESULTS: The mean vaccination coverage in Brazil was 76.96%, with a decreasing trend during the period (Annual Percent Change=-5.12; confidence interval - CI95% -7.81; -2.34); in 2015, the rate was 88.85% and it dropped to 62.35% in 2021. In turn, the overall abandonment rate was 24.00% in 2015 and 9.01% in 2021, with a mean of 10.48% and a stationary trend (Annual Percentage Change=-9.54; CI95% -22.92; 6.12). In 2021, all the vaccines presented coverage values below 74.00% in the country. CONCLUSIONS: The vaccination coverage rate trend among children under two years old was stationary or decreasing for all the immunobiologicals in all Brazilian regions, with the exception of yellow fever in the South and Southeast regions. There was an increase in the abandonment rate trend for the Meningococcal C vaccine in the country and, specifically in relation to the regions, for BCG in the North, Northeast, and Midwest and for Meningococcal C in the North and Northeast.


Assuntos
Cobertura Vacinal , Humanos , Brasil , Cobertura Vacinal/estatística & dados numéricos , Lactente , Programas de Imunização/estatística & dados numéricos , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Tempo
14.
PLoS One ; 19(6): e0304268, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38838004

RESUMO

American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL) diagnosis is an open question, and the search for a solution is urgent. The available tests that detect the etiological agent of the infection are specific for ATL diagnosis. However, they present disadvantages, such as low sensitivity and the need for invasive procedures to obtain the samples. Immunological methods (leishmanin skin test and search for anti-Leishmania antibodies) are good alternatives to the etiological diagnosis of ATL. Presently, we face problems with disease confirmation due to the discontinuity in the production of leishmanin skin test antigen, particularly in resource-poor settings. Aiming to diagnose ATL, we validated rLb6H-ELISA for IgG antibodies using 1,091 samples from leishmaniasis patients and healthy controls, divided into four panels, living in 19 Brazilian endemic and non-endemic states. The rLb6H-ELISA showed a sensitivity of 98.6% and a specificity of 100.0%, with the reference panel comprising 70 ATL patient samples and 70 healthy controls. The reproducibility evaluation showed a coefficient of variation of positive samples ≤ 8.20% for repeatability, ≤ 17,97% for reproducibility, and ≤ 8.12% for homogeneity. The plates sensitized with rLb6H were stable at 4°C and -20°C for 180 days and 37°C for seven days, indicating 12 months of validity. In samples of ATL patients from five research and healthcare centers in endemic and non-endemic areas, rLb6H-ELISA showed a sensitivity of 84.0%; no significant statistical difference was observed among the five centers (chi-square test, p = 0.13). In samples of healthy controls from four areas with different endemicity, a specificity of 92.4% was obtained; lower specificity was obtained in a visceral leishmaniasis high endemicity locality (chi-square test, p<0.001). Cross-reactivity was assessed in 166 other disease samples with a positivity of 13.9%. Based on the good diagnostic performance and the reproducibility and stability of the antigen, we suggest using ELISA-rLb6H to diagnose ATL.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Protozoários , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Leishmaniose Cutânea , Humanos , Leishmaniose Cutânea/diagnóstico , Leishmaniose Cutânea/imunologia , Leishmaniose Cutânea/parasitologia , Leishmaniose Cutânea/epidemiologia , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/métodos , Antígenos de Protozoários/imunologia , Feminino , Masculino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Adolescente , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Proteínas Recombinantes/imunologia , Adulto Jovem , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/imunologia , Idoso , Criança , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Brasil/epidemiologia
15.
PLoS One ; 19(6): e0300191, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38838042

RESUMO

Asymptomatic and underreported individuals remain a source of coronafig disease 2019 (COVID-19) transmission to others. Data on the prevalence and epidemiological factors influencing transmission are fundamental for establishing control measures, especially in vulnerable regions such as the Amazon. This study aimed to determine the point prevalence and active infection of COVID-19 among the population in Araguaína, a Brazilian city located in the Amazon region, analyzed the socioeconomic and behavioral variables of a statistically representative sample of this population using an epidemiological survey, and identify the viral genomic diversity in the region. During the sixth epidemiological week of 2021 (February 8 to 12), samples of 497 inhabitants of the municipality asymptomatic for respiratory syndromes underwent reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and serological tests (immunoglobulin M and immunoglobulin G). A questionnaire collated data on socioeconomic factors, prevention measures, and health status history. The active infection rate was 6.2%, and the prevalence was 13.5% of the study population. Active infection cases were under-reported; each reported positive case represented 14-28 under-reported cases. Lineages P.2, P.1, and B.1.1 were detected. Working from home was a protective factor against the infection, and clinical signs of fever, dry cough, and loss of taste or smell were associated with testing positive (p <0.05). A descriptive analysis of the indicators revealed that the entire population was susceptible to the disease. Intensified vaccination strategies are required regardless of socioeconomic factors, health conditions, and preventive measures. Implementation of objective, comprehensive, and efficient management tools to minimize the spread of COVID-19 in this municipality can serve as a model for other regions of Brazil.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humanos , Brasil/epidemiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/virologia , COVID-19/transmissão , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Lactente , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais
17.
PLoS One ; 19(6): e0299022, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38829836

RESUMO

Controlled Human Infection Models (CHIS) involve administering human pathogens to healthy participants in controlled medical settings, which can elicit complex bioethical issues. Understanding how the community perceives such studies can significantly increase the participant's sense of cooperation and increases the researcher's and the participant's transparency. The current study describes the development of an educational intervention to achieve these ends as it aims to (1) analyze perceptions of the Controlled Human Infection Studies (CHIS), and (2) evaluate the participants' comprehension of the CHIS. METHODS: This is a qualitative action research that includes the development of an educational intervention with residents of a rural area in Minas Gerais, Brazil, where there is continuous natural transmission of the human pathogen Necator americanus ("hookworm"). In this area, it is intended to carry out a proposed phase 3 vaccine clinical trial in the future to test the efficacy of hookworm vaccines using controlled human infection. Two data collection strategies were used: an educational intervention and a focus group. RESULTS: The participants' perceptions showed distinct perspectives on CHIS. On one side, they recognized that the investigation is essential for the community, but on the other side, they thought that there would be resistance to its conduct by fear of infection. The idea that the study would generate a benefit for the greater good, contributing to the prevention of hookworm infection, was clearly stated. The participants perceived that the study offered concrete risks that could be reduced by constant monitoring by the researchers. They also mentioned the importance of access to information and the positive influence those who express interest in participating in the study can exert in the community. In relation to comprehension the participants memorized the information, mobilized it to explain everyday situations and created strategies to disseminate the study and engage the community in its development. By repeating and making sense of the information, the participant not only assimilates the knowledge transmitted, but also creates new knowledge. CONCLUSION: We concluded that an educational process of discussion and dialogue around participants' perceptions about the CHIS, promotes understanding and allows ways to disseminate information about the research to be collectively created.


Assuntos
Necator americanus , Necatoríase , Humanos , Brasil , Animais , Necator americanus/imunologia , Feminino , Necatoríase/prevenção & controle , Necatoríase/transmissão , Necatoríase/imunologia , Masculino , Adulto , Infecções por Uncinaria/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Uncinaria/transmissão , Vacinas/imunologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Participação da Comunidade/métodos , Adulto Jovem , Grupos Focais
18.
PLoS One ; 19(6): e0298826, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38829889

RESUMO

AIM: To test the association between sociodemographic and social characteristics with COVID-19 cases and deaths in small and large Brazilian cities. METHODS: This ecological study included COVID-19 data available in State Health Secretaries (managed by brasil.io API) and three national databases (IBGE, DATASUS and Embrapa). Temporal spread of COVID-19 in Brazil during the first year considered as outcome: a) days until 1st case in each city since 1st in the country; b) days until 1,000 cases/100,000 inhabitants since 1st case in each city; c) days until 1st death until 50 deaths/100,000 inhabitants. Covariates included geographic region, city social and environmental characteristics, housing conditions, job characteristics, socioeconomic and inequalities characteristics, and health services and coverage. The analysis were stratified by city size into small (<100,000 inhabitants) and large cities (≥100,00 inhabitants). Multiple linear regressions were performed to test associations of all covariates to adjust to potential confounders. RESULTS: In small cities, the first cases were reported after 82.2 days and 1,000 cases/100,000 were reported after 117.8 days, whereas in large cities these milestones were reported after 32.1 and 127.7 days, respectively. For first death, small and large cities took 121.6 and 36.0 days, respectively. However, small cities were associated with more vulnerability factors to first case arrival in 1,000 cases/100,000 inhabitants, first death and 50 deaths/100,000 inhabitants. North and Northeast regions positively associated with faster COVID-19 incidence, whereas South and Southeast were least. CONCLUSION: Social and built environment characteristics and inequalities were associated with COVID-19 cases spread and mortality incidence in Brazilian cities.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Cidades , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/mortalidade , Humanos , Brasil/epidemiologia , Cidades/epidemiologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação
19.
BMC Geriatr ; 24(1): 486, 2024 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38831274

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: National and international guidelines on frailty assessment and management recommend frailty screening in older people. This study aimed to determine how Brazilian healthcare professionals (HCPs) identify and manage frailty in practice. METHODS: An anonymous online survey on the assessment and management of frailty was circulated virtually through HCPs across Brazil. RESULTS: Most of the respondants used non-specific criteria such as gait speed (45%), handgrip strength (37.6%), and comprehensive geriatric assessment (33.2%). The use of frailty-specific criteria was lower than 50%. The most frequently used criteria were the Frailty Index (19.1%), Frailty Phenotype (13.2%), and FRAIL (12.5%). Only 43.5% felt confident, and 40% had a plan to manage frailty. In the multivariate-adjusted models, training was the most crucial factor associated with assessing frailty, confidence, and having a management plan (p < 0.001 for all). Those with fewer years of experience were more likely to evaluate frailty (p = 0.009). Being a doctor increased the chance of using a specific tool; the opposite was true for dietitians (p = 0.03). Those who assisted more older people had a higher likelihood of having a plan (p = 0.011). CONCLUSION: Frailty assessment was heterogeneous among healthcare professions groups, predominantly using non-specific criteria. Training contributed to frailty assessment, use of specific criteria, confidence, and having a management plan. This data informs the need for standardized screening criteria and management plans for frailty, in association with increasing training at the national level for all the HCPs who assist older people.


Assuntos
Idoso Fragilizado , Fragilidade , Avaliação Geriátrica , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Brasil/epidemiologia , Masculino , Feminino , Idoso , Fragilidade/diagnóstico , Fragilidade/epidemiologia , Fragilidade/terapia , Avaliação Geriátrica/métodos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Gerenciamento Clínico
20.
BMC Nephrol ; 25(1): 191, 2024 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38831397

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a global health problem with rising prevalence, morbidity, mortality, and associated costs. Early identification and risk stratification are key to preventing progression to kidney failure. However, there is a paucity of data on practice patterns of kidney function assessment to guide the development of improvement strategies, particularly in lower-income countries. METHODS: A retrospective observational analysis was conducted in a nationwide laboratory database in Brazil. We included all adult patients with at least one serum creatinine assessment between June 2018 and May 2021. Our primary objective was to determine the proportion of patients with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) evaluations accompanied by predicted levels of urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (pACR) assessments within 12 months. RESULTS: Out of 4,5323,332 serum creatinine measurements, 42% lacked pACR measurements within 12 months. Approximately 10.8% of tests suggested CKD, mostly at stage 3a. The proportion of serum creatinine exams paired with pACR assessment varied according to the CKD stage. Internal Medicine, Cardiology, and Obstetrics/Gynecology were the specialties requesting most of the creatinine tests. Nephrology contributed with only 1.1% of serum creatinine requests for testing. CONCLUSION: Our findings reveal that a significant proportion of individuals with a creatinine test lack an accompanying urinary albuminuria measurement in Brazil, contrary to the recommendations of the international guidelines. Non-Nephrologists perform most kidney function evaluations, even among patients with presumable advanced CKD. This highlights the urge to incorporate in clinical practice the early detection of CKD and to encourage more collaborative multidisciplinary care to improve CKD management.


Assuntos
Albuminúria , Creatinina , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Insuficiência Renal Crônica , Humanos , Brasil/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/fisiopatologia , Creatinina/sangue , Estudos Retrospectivos , Feminino , Masculino , Medição de Risco/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Bases de Dados Factuais , Adulto , Testes de Função Renal/métodos , Idoso
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