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1.
Theor Appl Genet ; 137(6): 123, 2024 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38722407

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: BrBCAT1 encoding a branched-chain amino acid aminotransferase was responsible for the glossy trait, which was verified by allelic mutants in Chinese cabbage. The glossy characteristic, thanks to the epicuticular wax crystal deficiency, is an excellent commodity character for leafy vegetables. Herein, two allelic glossy green mutants, wdm11 and wdm12, were isolated from an ethyl methane sulfonate (EMS)-mutagenized population of Chinese cabbage, and the mutant phenotype was recessive inherited. Cryo-SEM detected that epicuticular wax crystal in the mutant leaves was virtually absent. MutMap and Kompetitive allele-specific PCR analyses demonstrated that BraA06g006950.3C (BrBCAT1), homologous to AtBCAT1, encoding a branched-chain amino acid aminotransferase was the candidate gene. A SNP (G to A) on the fourth exon of BrBCAT1 in wdm11 caused the 233rd amino acid to change from glycine (G) to aspartic acid (D). A SNP (G to A) on the second exon of BrBCAT1 in wdm12 led to the 112th amino acid change from glycine (G) to arginine (R). Both of the allelic mutants had genetic structural variation in the candidate gene, which indicated that the mutant phenotype was triggered by the BrBCAT1 mutation. The expression levels of BrBCAT1 and genes related to fatty acid chain extension were decreased significantly in the mutant compared to the wild-type, which might result in epicuticular wax crystal deficiency in the mutants. Our findings proved that the mutation of BrBCAT1 induced the glossy phenotype and provided a valuable gene resource for commodity character improvement in Chinese cabbage.


Assuntos
Alelos , Brassica , Mutação , Fenótipo , Ceras , Brassica/genética , Ceras/química , Ceras/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Folhas de Planta/genética , Transaminases/genética
2.
Nature ; 629(8012): 507, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38730273

Assuntos
Brassica
3.
ScientificWorldJournal ; 2024: 6086730, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38715843

RESUMO

Cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata L.) holds significant agricultural and nutritional importance in Ethiopia; yet, its production faces challenges, including suboptimal nitrogen fertilizer management. The aim of this review was to review the possible effect of nitrogen fertilizer levels on the production of cabbage in Ethiopia. Nitrogen fertilization significantly influences cabbage yield and quality. Moderate to high levels of nitrogen application enhance plant growth, leaf area, head weight, and yield. However, excessive nitrogen levels can lead to adverse effects such as delayed maturity, increased susceptibility to pests and diseases, and reduced postharvest quality. In Ethiopia, small-scale farmers use different nitrogen levels for cabbage cultivation. In Ethiopia, NPSB or NPSBZN fertilizers are widely employed for the growing of various crops such as cabbage. 242 kg of NPS and 79 kg of urea are the blanket recommendation for the current production of cabbage in Ethiopia. The existing rate is not conducive for farmers. Therefore, small-scale farmers ought to utilize an optimal and cost-effective nitrogen rate to boost the cabbage yield. Furthermore, the effectiveness of nitrogen fertilization is influenced by various factors including the soil type, climate, cabbage variety, and agronomic practices. Integrated nutrient management approaches, combining nitrogen fertilizers with organic amendments or other nutrients, have shown promise in optimizing cabbage production while minimizing environmental impacts. The government ought to heed suggestions concerning soil characteristics such as the soil type, fertility, and additional factors such as the soil pH level and soil moisture contents.


Assuntos
Brassica , Fertilizantes , Nitrogênio , Agricultura/métodos , Brassica/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Brassica/efeitos dos fármacos , Brassica/metabolismo , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Etiópia , Fertilizantes/análise , Nitrogênio/análise , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Solo/química
4.
Sci Total Environ ; 932: 173073, 2024 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38734103

RESUMO

The organic matter molecular mechanism by which combined hydrothermal carbonization (co-HTC) of municipal sludge (MS) and agricultural wastes (rice husk, spent mushroom substrate, and wheat straw) reduces the inhibitory effects of aqueous phase (AP) products on pak choi (Brassica campestris L.) growth compared to HTC of MS alone is not clear. Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry was used to characterize the differences in organic matter at the molecular level between AP from MS HTC alone (AP-MS) and AP from co-HTC of MS and agricultural waste (co-Aps). The results showed that N-bearing molecules of AP-MS and co-Aps account for 70.6 % and 54.2 %-64.1 % of all molecules, respectively. Lignins were present in the highest proportion (56.3 %-78.5 %) in all APs, followed by proteins and lipids. The dry weight of co-APs hydroponically grown pak choi was 31.6 %-47.6 % higher than that of the AP-MS. Molecules that were poorly saturated and with low aromaticity were preferentially consumed during hydroponic treatment. Molecules present before and after hydroponics were defined as resistant molecules; molecules present before hydroponics but absent after hydroponics were defined as removed molecules; and molecules absent before hydroponics but present after hydroponics were defined as produced molecules. Large lignin molecules were broken down into more unsaturated molecules, but lignins were the most commonly resistant, removed, and produced molecules. Correlation analysis revealed that N- or S-bearing molecules were phytotoxic in the AP. Tannins positively influenced the growth of pak choi. These results provide new insights into potential implementation strategies for liquid fertilizers produced from AP arising from HTC of MS and agricultural wastes.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Esgotos , Agricultura/métodos , Brassica/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos/métodos
5.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0298371, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38758738

RESUMO

Malathion® is a persistent organophosphate pesticide used against biting and chewing insects on vegetables. It is a difficult-to-remove surface contaminant of vegetables and contaminates surface and ground water and soils. Malathion® is only partially water soluble, but use of detergent carriers makes adhering Malathion® residues difficult to subsequently remove. Magnetically treated water (MTW) successfully removed Malathion® from Chinese Kale (Brassica oleracea L.), meeting Maximum Residue Load (MRL) standards. Samples were soaked in MTW for 30 min prior to detection with GC/MS/MS, 98.5±3.02% of Malathion® was removed after washing by MTW. Removal by simple washing was only ≈42±1.2% which was not nearly sufficient to meet MRL criteria.


Assuntos
Brassica , Malation , Brassica/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Água/química , Inseticidas/análise , Resíduos de Praguicidas/análise , Purificação da Água/métodos , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas
6.
Anal Methods ; 16(15): 2400-2411, 2024 Apr 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38572632

RESUMO

This study presents a novel approach for the detection of carbofuran (CBF) insecticide by systematically exploring a calix[4]arene-derived fluorescence probe, CouC4S, functionalized with two coumarin-labelled cystamine linkages at the narrow edge of the calix[4]arene platform. The proposed method showed a fluorescence "signal - off" effect when CBF binds with CouC4S by quenching the fluorescence intensity of CouC4S. Its limit of detection was as low as 5.55 µM according to the emission study. The working concentration range for this ligand was observed to be up to 5-65 µM. This method could be applied for the on-spot detection of CBF in real samples such as cabbage by spiking CBFvia in situ experiments, which exhibited a limit of detection of 8.823 ppm. For the further confirmation of CouC4S:CBF binding, cyclic voltammetry, differential pulse voltammetry, powder X-ray diffraction, FT-IR spectroscopy, 1H NMR titration, MALDI-TOF and computational investigations were carried out.


Assuntos
Brassica , Carbofurano , Inseticidas , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Cumarínicos
7.
BMC Plant Biol ; 24(1): 275, 2024 Apr 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38605329

RESUMO

Heavy metals (HMs) contamination, owing to their potential links to various chronic diseases, poses a global threat to agriculture, environment, and human health. Nickel (Ni) is an essential element however, at higher concentration, it is highly phytotoxic, and affects major plant functions. Beneficial roles of plant growth regulators (PGRs) and organic amendments in mitigating the adverse impacts of HM on plant growth has gained the attention of scientific community worldwide. Here, we performed a greenhouse study to investigate the effect of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA @ 10- 5 M) and compost (1% w/w) individually and in combination in sustaining cauliflower growth and yield under Ni stress. In our results, combined application proved significantly better than individual applications in alleviating the adverse effects of Ni on cauliflower as it increased various plant attributes such as plant height (49%), root length (76%), curd height and diameter (68 and 134%), leaf area (75%), transpiration rate (36%), stomatal conductance (104%), water use efficiency (143%), flavonoid and phenolic contents (212 and 133%), soluble sugars and protein contents (202 and 199%), SPAD value (78%), chlorophyll 'a and b' (219 and 208%), carotenoid (335%), and NPK uptake (191, 79 and 92%) as compared to the control. Co-application of IAA and compost reduced Ni-induced electrolyte leakage (64%) and improved the antioxidant activities, including APX (55%), CAT (30%), SOD (43%), POD (55%), while reducing MDA and H2O2 contents (77 and 52%) compared to the control. The combined application also reduced Ni uptake in roots, shoots, and curd by 51, 78 and 72% respectively along with an increased relative production index (78%) as compared to the control. Hence, synergistic application of IAA and compost can mitigate Ni induced adverse impacts on cauliflower growth by immobilizing it in the soil.


Assuntos
Brassica , Compostagem , Ácidos Indolacéticos , Poluentes do Solo , Humanos , Níquel/metabolismo , Níquel/toxicidade , Brassica/metabolismo , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Rizosfera , Clorofila A , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(7)2024 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38612494

RESUMO

Climate change causes shifts in temperature patterns, and plants adapt their chemical content in order to survive. We compared the effect of low (LT) and high (HT) growing temperatures on the phytochemical content of broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. convar. botrytis (L.) Alef. var. cymosa Duch.) microgreens and the bioactivity of their extracts. Using different spectrophotometric, LC-MS/MS, GC-MS, and statistical methods, we found that LT increased the total phenolics and tannins in broccoli. The total glucosinolates were also increased by LT; however, they were decreased by HT. Soluble sugars, known osmoprotectants, were increased by both types of stress, considerably more by HT than LT, suggesting that HT causes a more intense osmotic imbalance. Both temperatures were detrimental for chlorophyll, with HT being more impactful than LT. HT increased hormone indole-3-acetic acid, implying an important role in broccoli's defense. Ferulic and sinapic acid showed a trade-off scheme: HT increased ferulic while LT increased sinapic acid. Both stresses decreased the potential of broccoli to act against H2O2 damage in mouse embryonal fibroblasts (MEF), human keratinocytes, and liver cancer cells. Among the tested cell types treated by H2O2, the most significant reduction in ROS (36.61%) was recorded in MEF cells treated with RT extracts. The potential of broccoli extracts to inhibit α-amylase increased following both temperature stresses; however, the inhibition of pancreatic lipase was increased by LT only. From the perspective of nutritional value, and based on the obtained results, we conclude that LT conditions result in more nutritious broccoli microgreens than HT.


Assuntos
Brassica , Ácidos Cumáricos , Humanos , Animais , Camundongos , Temperatura , Cromatografia Líquida , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
9.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0296840, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38625852

RESUMO

Kale is a nutrient-dense leafy vegetable associated with wide-ranging health benefits. It is tolerant of drought and temperature fluctuations, and could thus serve an increasingly important role in providing a safe and nutritious food supply during the climate crisis, while kale's ease of cultivation and ability to be grown in a wide range of soils make it a good fit for urban agriculture. In this pilot study we explored potential differences between kale grown at urban versus rural farms. We planted kale seedlings (Darkibor variety) at three urban and four rural farms in and around Baltimore City, Maryland, instructed farmers to cultivate them using their usual growing practices, harvested the kale from fields and points of distribution, and analyzed it for concentrations of carotenoids, vitamins C and K1, ten nutritional elements, and eight non-essential metals. Although sample sizes for some analyses were in some cases too small to produce statistically significant results, we identified potentially meaningful differences in concentrations of several components between urban and rural kale samples. Compared to urban samples, mean concentrations of carotenoids and vitamins were 22-38% higher in rural field samples. By contrast, mean concentrations for eight nutritional elements were higher in urban field samples by as much as 413% for iron. Compared to rural field samples, mean concentrations of nine non-essential metals were higher in urban samples, although lead and cadmium concentrations for all samples were below public health guidelines. Some urban-rural differences were more pronounced than those identified in prior research. For six elements, variance within urban and rural farms was greater than variance between urban and rural farms, suggesting urbanicity may not be the primary driver of some observed differences. For some nutrients, mean concentrations were higher than upper ranges reported in prior estimates, suggesting kale may have the potential to be more nutrient-dense than previously estimated. The nutritive and metals composition of this important crop, and the factors that influence it, merit continued investigation given its growing popularity.


Assuntos
Brassica , Projetos Piloto , Fazendas , Nutrientes , Vitaminas , Carotenoides
10.
BMC Plant Biol ; 24(1): 311, 2024 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38649805

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Brassica napus, a hybrid resulting from the crossing of Brassica rapa and Brassica oleracea, is one of the most important oil crops. Despite its significance, B. napus productivity faces substantial challenges due to heavy metal stress, especially in response to cadmium (Cd), which poses a significant threat among heavy metals. Natural resistance-associated macrophage proteins (NRAMPs) play pivotal roles in Cd uptake and transport within plants. However, our understanding of the role of BnNRAMPs in B. napus is limited. Thus, this study aimed to conduct genome-wide identification and bioinformatics analysis of three Brassica species: B. napus, B. rapa, and B. oleracea. RESULTS: A total of 37 NRAMPs were identified across the three Brassica species and classified into two distinct subfamilies based on evolutionary relationships. Conservative motif analysis revealed that motif 6 and motif 8 might significantly contribute to the differentiation between subfamily I and subfamily II within Brassica species. Evolutionary analyses and chromosome mapping revealed a reduction in the NRAMP gene family during B. napus evolutionary history, resulting in the loss of an orthologous gene derived from BoNRAMP3.2. Cis-acting element analysis suggested potential regulation of the NRAMP gene family by specific plant hormones, such as abscisic acid (ABA) and methyl jasmonate (MeJA). However, gene expression pattern analyses under hormonal or stress treatments indicated limited responsiveness of the NRAMP gene family to these treatments, warranting further experimental validation. Under Cd stress in B. napus, expression pattern analysis of the NRAMP gene family revealed a decrease in the expression levels of most BnNRAMP genes with increasing Cd concentrations. Notably, BnNRAMP5.1/5.2 exhibited a unique response pattern, being stimulated at low Cd concentrations and inhibited at high Cd concentrations, suggesting potential response mechanisms distinct from those of other NRAMP genes. CONCLUSIONS: In summary, this study indicates complex molecular dynamics within the NRAMP gene family under Cd stress, suggesting potential applications in enhancing plant resilience, particularly against Cd. The findings also offer valuable insights for further understanding the functionality and regulatory mechanisms of the NRAMP gene family.


Assuntos
Brassica , Proteínas de Plantas , Estresse Fisiológico , Brassica/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genoma de Planta , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Genes de Plantas , Cádmio/metabolismo , Cádmio/toxicidade , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Evolução Molecular , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Proteínas de Transporte de Cátions/genética , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Vegetais
11.
J Environ Manage ; 359: 120956, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38669883

RESUMO

The interaction between cadmium(Cd) and copper(Cu) during combined pollution can lead to more complex toxic effects on humans and plants.However, there is still a lack of sufficient understanding regarding the types of interactions at the plant molecular level and the response strategies of plants to combined pollution. To assess this, we investigated the phenotypic and transcriptomic patterns of pakchoi (Brassica chinensis L) roots in response to individual and combined pollution of Cd and Cu. The results showed that compared to single addition, the translocation factor of heavy metals in roots significantly decreased (p < 0.05) under the combined addition, resulting in higher accumulation of Cd and Cu in the roots. Transcriptomic analysis of pakchoi roots revealed that compared to single pollution, there were 312 and 1926 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) specifically regulated in the Cd2Cu20 and Cd2Cu100 combined treatments, respectively. By comparing the expression of these DEGs among different treatments, we found that the combined pollution of Cd and Cu mainly affected the transcriptome of the roots in an antagonistic manner. Enrichment analysis indicated that pakchoi roots upregulated the expression of genes involved in glucosetransferase activity, phospholipid homeostasis, proton transport, and the biosynthesis of phenylpropanoids and flavonoids to resist Cd and Cu combined pollution. Using weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA), we identified hub genes related to the accumulation of Cd and Cu in the roots, which mainly belonged to the LBD, thaumatin-like protein, ERF, MYB, WRKY, and TCP transcription factor families. This may reflect a transcription factor-driven trade-off strategy between heavy metal accumulation and growth in pakchoi roots. Additionally, compared to single metal pollution, the expression of genes related to Nramp, cation/H+ antiporters, and some belonging to the ABC transporter family in the pakchoi roots was significantly upregulated under combined pollution. This could lead to increased accumulation of Cd and Cu in the roots. These findings provide new insights into the interactions and toxic mechanisms of multiple metal combined pollution at the molecular level in plants.


Assuntos
Brassica , Cádmio , Cobre , Raízes de Plantas , Transcriptoma , Cádmio/toxicidade , Brassica/genética , Brassica/efeitos dos fármacos , Brassica/metabolismo , Cobre/toxicidade , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Transcriptoma/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Redes Reguladoras de Genes/efeitos dos fármacos
12.
BMC Plant Biol ; 24(1): 296, 2024 Apr 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38632529

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Calcium-dependent protein kinases (CPKs) are crucial for recognizing and transmitting Ca2+ signals in plant cells, playing a vital role in growth, development, and stress response. This study aimed to identify and detect the potential roles of the CPK gene family in the amphidiploid Brassica carinata (BBCC, 2n = 34) using bioinformatics methods. RESULTS: Based on the published genomic information of B. carinata, a total of 123 CPK genes were identified, comprising 70 CPK genes on the B subgenome and 53 on the C subgenome. To further investigate the homologous evolutionary relationship between B. carinata and other plants, the phylogenetic tree was constructed using CPKs in B. carinata and Arabidopsis thaliana. The phylogenetic analysis classified 123 family members into four subfamilies, where gene members within the same subfamily exhibited similar conserved motifs. Each BcaCPK member possesses a core protein kinase domain and four EF-hand domains. Most of the BcaCPK genes contain 5 to 8 introns, and these 123 BcaCPK genes are unevenly distributed across 17 chromosomes. Among these BcaCPK genes, 120 replicated gene pairs were found, whereas only 8 genes were tandem duplication, suggesting that dispersed duplication mainly drove the family amplification. The results of the Ka/Ks analysis indicated that the CPK gene family of B. carinata was primarily underwent purification selection in evolutionary selection. The promoter region of most BcaCPK genes contained various stress-related cis-acting elements. qRT-PCR analysis of 12 selected CPK genes conducted under cadmium and salt stress at various points revealed distinct expression patterns among different family members in response to different stresses. Specifically, the expression levels of BcaCPK2.B01a, BcaCPK16.B02b, and BcaCPK26.B02 were down-regulated under both stresses, whereas the expression levels of other members were significantly up-regulated under at least one stress. CONCLUSION: This study systematically identified the BcaCPK gene family in B. carinata, which contributes to a better understanding the CPK genes in this species. The findings also serve as a reference for analyzing stress responses, particularly in relation to cadmium and salt stress in B. carinata.


Assuntos
Brassica , Brassica/genética , Filogenia , Cádmio/metabolismo , Família Multigênica , Genômica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Genoma de Planta
13.
Curr Protoc ; 4(4): e1039, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38665046

RESUMO

Clubroot caused by the obligate parasite Plasmodiophora brassicae is a devastating disease affecting the canola industry worldwide. The socio-economic impact of clubroot can be significant, particularly in regions where Brassica crops are a major agricultural commodity. The disease can cause significant crop losses, leading to reduced yield and income for farmers. Extensive studies have been conducted to understand the biology and genetics of the pathogens and develop more effective management strategies. However, the basic procedures used for pathogen storage and virulence analysis have not been assembled or discussed in detail. As a result, there are discrepancies among the different protocols used today. The aim of this article is to provide a comprehensive and easily accessible resource for researchers who are interested in replicating or building upon the methods used in the study of the clubroot pathogen. Here, we discuss in detail the methods used for P. brassicae spore isolation, inoculation, quantification, propagation, and molecular techniques such as DNA extraction and PCR. © 2024 The Authors. Current Protocols published by Wiley Periodicals LLC. Basic Protocol 1: Extraction of Plasmodiophora brassicae resting spores and propagation Support Protocol 1: Evans blue staining to identify resting spore viability Support Protocol 2: Storage of Plasmodiophora brassicae Basic Protocol 2: Generation of single spore isolates from P. brassicae field isolates Basic Protocol 3: Phenotyping of Plasmodiophora brassicae isolates Basic Protocol 4: Genomic DNA extraction from Plasmodiophora brassicae resting spores Basic Protocol 5: Molecular detection of Plasmodiophora brassicae.


Assuntos
Doenças das Plantas , Plasmodioforídeos , Plasmodioforídeos/genética , Plasmodioforídeos/isolamento & purificação , Plasmodioforídeos/patogenicidade , Doenças das Plantas/parasitologia , Brassica/parasitologia , Brassica napus/parasitologia
14.
BMC Complement Med Ther ; 24(1): 164, 2024 Apr 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38641582

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Infections caused by Acinetobacter baumannii are becoming a rising public health problem due to its high degree of acquired and intrinsic resistance mechanisms. Bacterial lipases penetrate and damage host tissues, resulting in multiple infections. Because there are very few effective inhibitors of bacterial lipases, new alternatives for treating A. baumannii infections are urgently needed. In recent years, Brassica vegetables have received a lot of attention since their phytochemical compounds have been directly linked to diverse antimicrobial actions by inhibiting the growth of various Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, yeast, and fungi. Despite their longstanding antibacterial history, there is currently a lack of scientific evidence to support their role in the management of infections caused by the nosocomial bacterium, A. baumannii. This study aimed to address this gap in knowledge by examining the antibacterial and lipase inhibitory effects of six commonly consumed Brassica greens, Chinese cabbage (CC), curly and Tuscan kale (CK and TK), red and green Pak choi (RP and GP), and Brussels sprouts (BR), against A. baumannii in relation to their chemical profiles. METHODS: The secondary metabolites of the six extracts were identified using LC-QTOF-MS/MS analysis, and they were subsequently correlated with the lipase inhibitory activity using multivariate data analysis and molecular docking. RESULTS: In total, 99 metabolites from various chemical classes were identified in the extracts. Hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA) revealed the chemical similarities and variabilities among the specimens, with glucosinolates and phenolic compounds being the major metabolites. RP and GP showed the highest antibacterial activity against A. baumannii, followed by CK. Additionally, four species showed a significant effect on the bacterial growth curves and demonstrated relevant inhibition of A. baumannii lipolytic activity. CK showed the greatest inhibition (26%), followed by RP (21%), GP (21%), and TK (15%). Orthogonal partial least squares-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) pinpointed 9 metabolites positively correlated with the observed bioactivities. Further, the biomarkers displayed good binding affinities towards lipase active sites ranging from -70.61 to -30.91 kcal/mol, compared to orlistat. CONCLUSION: This study emphasizes the significance of Brassica vegetables as a novel natural source of potential inhibitors of lipase from A. baumannii.


Assuntos
Acinetobacter baumannii , Brassica , Brassica/química , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/química , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Bactérias Gram-Negativas , Bactérias Gram-Positivas , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Lipase
15.
J Chromatogr A ; 1722: 464859, 2024 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38604056

RESUMO

In this study, molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) were prepared for the specific recognition of organophosphorus pesticides and a rapid, efficient and simple method was established for the detection of dimethoate (DIT) in food samples. Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles were synthesized by co-precipitation, and Fe3O4/ZIF-8 complexes were prepared by a modified in-situ polymerization method, and then magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers (MMIPs) were prepared and synthetic route was optimized by applying density functional theory (DFT). The morphological characterization showed that the MMIPs were coarse porous spheres with an average particle size of 50 nm. The synthesized materials are highly selective for the organophosphorus pesticide dimethoate with an adsorption capacity of 461.50 mg·g-1 and are effective resistance to matrix effects. A novel method for the determination of DIT in cabbage was developed using the prepared MMIPs in combination with HPLC. The practical results showed that the method can meet the requirements for the determination of DIT in cabbage with recoveries of 85.6-121.1 % and detection limits of 0.033 µg·kg-1.


Assuntos
Brassica , Dimetoato , Limite de Detecção , Polímeros Molecularmente Impressos , Dimetoato/análise , Brassica/química , Polímeros Molecularmente Impressos/química , Adsorção , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Impressão Molecular/métodos , Nanopartículas de Magnetita/química , Extração em Fase Sólida/métodos , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise
16.
BMC Plant Biol ; 24(1): 324, 2024 Apr 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38658831

RESUMO

Black rot, caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc) significantly affects the production of cabbage and other cruciferous vegetables. Plant antioxidant system plays an important role in pathogen invasion and is one of the main mechanisms underlying resistance to biological stress. Therefore, it is important to study the resistance mechanisms of the cabbage antioxidant system during the early stages of Xcc. In this study, 108 CFU/mL (OD600 = 0.1) Xcc race1 was inoculated on "zhonggan 11" cabbage using the spraying method. The effects of Xcc infection on the antioxidant system before and after Xcc inoculation (0, 1, 3, and 5 d) were studied by physiological indexes determination, transcriptome and metabolome analyses. We concluded that early Xcc infection can destroy the balance of the active oxygen metabolism system, increase the generation of free radicals, and decrease the scavenging ability, leading to membrane lipid peroxidation, resulting in the destruction of the biofilm system and metabolic disorders. In response to Xcc infection, cabbage clears a series of reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced during Xcc infection via various antioxidant pathways. The activities of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), and catalase (CAT) increased after Xcc infection, and the ROS scavenging rate increased. The biosynthesis of non-obligate antioxidants, such as ascorbic acid (AsA) and glutathione (GSH), is also enhanced after Xcc infection. Moreover, the alkaloid and vitamin contents increased significantly after Xcc infection. We concluded that cabbage could resist Xcc invasion by maintaining the stability of the cell membrane system and improving the biosynthesis of antioxidant substances and enzymes after infection by Xcc. Our results provide theoretical basis and data support for subsequent research on the cruciferous vegetables resistance mechanism and breeding to Xcc.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Brassica , Doenças das Plantas , Xanthomonas campestris , Xanthomonas campestris/fisiologia , Xanthomonas campestris/patogenicidade , Brassica/microbiologia , Brassica/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
17.
Water Sci Technol ; 89(7): 1647-1664, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38619895

RESUMO

The study evaluated the impact of treated wastewater on plant growth through the use of hyperspectral and fluorescence-based techniques coupled with classical biomass analyses, and assessed the potential of reusing treated wastewater for irrigation without fertilizer application. Cherry tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) and cabbage (Brassica oleracea L.) were irrigated with tap water (Tap), secondary effluent (SE), and membrane effluent (ME). Maximum quantum yield of photosystem II (Fv/Fm) of tomato and cabbage was between 0.78 to 0.80 and 0.81 to 0.82, respectively, for all treatments. The performance index (PI) of Tap/SE/ME was 2.73, 2.85, and 2.48 for tomatoes and 4.25, 3.79, and 3.70 for cabbage, respectively. Both Fv/Fm and PI indicated that the treated wastewater did not have a significant adverse effect on the photosynthetic efficiency and plant vitality of the crops. Hyperspectral analysis showed higher chlorophyll and nitrogen content in leaves of recycled water-irrigated crops than tap water-irrigated crops. SE had 10.5% dry matter composition (tomato) and Tap had 10.7% (cabbage). Total leaf count of Tap/SE/ME was 86, 111, and 102 for tomato and 37, 40, and 42 for cabbage, respectively. In this study, the use of treated wastewater did not induce any photosynthetic-related or abiotic stress on the crops; instead, it promoted crop growth.


Assuntos
Brassica , Águas Residuárias , Fluorescência , Biomassa , Folhas de Planta , Água , Produtos Agrícolas
18.
Bioresour Technol ; 400: 130703, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38631654

RESUMO

Improving the humification of compost through a synergistic approach of biotic and abiotic methods is of great significance. This study employed a composite reagent, comprising Fenton-like agents and effective microorganisms (EM) to improve humification. This composite reagent increased humic-acid production by 37.44 %, reaching 39.82 g kg-1, surpassing the control group. The composite reagent synergistically promoted micromolecular fulvic acid and large humic acid production. Collaborative mechanism suggests that Fenton-like agents contributed to bulk residue decomposition and stimulated the evolution of microbial communities, whereas EMs promoted highly aromatic substance synthesis and adjusted the microbial community structure. Sequencing analysis indicates the Fenton-like agent initiated compost decomposition by Firmicutes, and EM reduced the abundance of Virgibacillus, Lentibacillus, and Alcanivorax. Applied as an organic fertilizer in Brassica chinensis L. plantations, the composite reagent considerably improved growth and photosynthetic pigment content. This composite reagent with biotic and abiotic components provides a learnable method for promoting humification.


Assuntos
Benzopiranos , Compostagem , Substâncias Húmicas , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Ferro , Compostagem/métodos , Ferro/química , Ferro/farmacologia , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/farmacologia , Brassica , Microbiologia do Solo , Solo/química , Bactérias , Fertilizantes
19.
BMC Plant Biol ; 24(1): 335, 2024 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38664614

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The vivid red, purple, and blue hues that are observed in a variety of plant fruits, flowers, and leaves are produced by anthocyanins, which are naturally occurring pigments produced by a series of biochemical processes occurring inside the plant cells. The purple-stalked Chinese kale, a popular vegetable that contains anthocyanins, has many health benefits but needs to be investigated further to identify the genes involved in the anthocyanin biosynthesis and translocation in this vegetable. RESULTS: In this study, the purple- and green-stalked Chinese kale were examined using integrative transcriptome and metabolome analyses. The content of anthocyanins such as cyanidin-3-O-(6″-O-feruloyl) sophoroside-5-O-glucoside, cyanidin-3,5-O-diglucoside (cyanin), and cyanidin-3-O-(6″-O-p-hydroxybenzoyl) sophoroside-5-O-glucoside were considerably higher in purple-stalked Chinese kale than in its green-stalked relative. RNA-seq analysis indicated that 23 important anthocyanin biosynthesis genes, including 3 PAL, 2 C4H, 3 4CL, 3 CHS, 1 CHI, 1 F3H, 2 FLS, 2 F3'H, 1 DFR, 3 ANS, and 2 UFGT, along with the transcription factor BoMYB114, were significantly differentially expressed between the purple- and green-stalked varieties. Results of analyzing the expression levels of 11 genes involved in anthocyanin production using qRT-PCR further supported our findings. Association analysis between genes and metabolites revealed a strong correlation between BoGSTF12 and anthocyanin. We overexpressed BoGSTF12 in Arabidopsis thaliana tt19, an anthocyanin transport mutant, and this rescued the anthocyanin-loss phenotype in the stem and rosette leaves, indicating BoGSTF12 encodes an anthocyanin transporter that affects the accumulation of anthocyanins. CONCLUSION: This work represents a key step forward in our understanding of the molecular processes underlying anthocyanin production in Chinese kale. Our comprehensive metabolomic and transcriptome analyses provide important insights into the regulatory system that controls anthocyanin production and transport, while providing a foundation for further research to elucidate the physiological importance of the metabolites found in this nutritionally significant vegetable.


Assuntos
Antocianinas , Brassica , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Metaboloma , Proteínas de Plantas , Antocianinas/metabolismo , Antocianinas/biossíntese , Brassica/genética , Brassica/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Transcriptoma , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
20.
Molecules ; 29(8)2024 Apr 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38675547

RESUMO

Fermentation is used not only to preserve food but also to enhance its beneficial effects on human health and achieve functional foods. This study aimed to investigate how different treatments (spontaneous fermentation or fermentation with the use of starter culture) affect phenolic content, antioxidant potential, and cholinesterase inhibitory activity in different kale cultivars: 'Halbhoner Grüner Krauser', 'Scarlet', and 'Nero di Toscana'. Chosen samples were further tested for their protective potential against the Caco-2 cell line. HPLC-MS analysis revealed that the fermentation affected the composition of polyphenolic compounds, leading to an increase in the content of rutin, kaempferol, sinapinic, and protocatechuic acids. In general, kale cultivars demonstrated various antioxidant activities, and fermentation led to an increase in total phenolic content and antioxidant activity. Fermentation boosted anti-cholinesterase activity most profoundly in 'Nero di Toscana'. Extracts of spontaneously fermented 'Scarlet' (SS) and 'Nero di Toscana' (NTS) showed cytoprotective properties, as revealed by the malondialdehyde (MDA), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione (GSH) assays. Additionally, strong anti-inflammatory activity of NTS was shown by decreased release of cytokines IL-1ß and TNF-α. Collectively, the conducted studies suggest fermented kale cultivars as a potential source for functional foods.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Brassica , Fermentação , Fenóis , Humanos , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Fenóis/farmacologia , Fenóis/análise , Fenóis/química , Células CACO-2 , Brassica/química , Brassica/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Inibidores da Colinesterase/farmacologia , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Polifenóis/química
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