Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 7.950
Filtrar
1.
Food Chem ; 399: 133824, 2023 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36041335

RESUMO

Innovative pH-colorimetric sensor film was fabricated from agar and methylcellulose matrix (AM) with various concentrations of sunflower wax (SFW) (6%, 9%, 12%, and 15% w/w) combined with purple Chinese cabbage (CPC) anthocyanins for tracking chicken breast freshness. A bio-composition film AM/CPC with (hydrophobic) SFW exhibited significant color variations in acidic pH level of (2-6) and a slight shift in alkaline pH levels ranging from (7-12), as well as marked color change due to ammonia vapor. Microstructure analyses revealed that SFW was fixed effectively into the AM-CPC matrices. The incorporation of varying SFW concentrations enhanced the mechanical, thermal, antioxidant activity, reduced anthocyanin release and physical properties (mainly water vapor permeability), with the best performance at AM/CPC/9% SFW. Interestingly, SFW films demonstrated perfect defense opposing UV-vis and visible light. Finally, it was proved that the efficiency of the pH-colorimetric film as an indicator for evaluating the freshness of chicken breast.


Assuntos
Asteraceae , Brassica , Helianthus , Animais , Antocianinas/química , Biomarcadores , Galinhas , China , Embalagem de Alimentos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio
2.
J Hazard Mater ; 444(Pt A): 130385, 2023 02 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36403447

RESUMO

Atmospheric fine particulate matter (PM2.5) mainly contributes to Pb accumulation in the edible leaves of Chinese cabbage in North China. It was found that a low-Pb-accumulation (LPA) genotype of Chinese cabbage contained less Pb in leaves than high-Pb-accumulation (HPA) genotype exposed to PM2.5-Pb. However, there are no data on the transcriptional regulatory mechanisms of foliar PM2.5-Pb uptake by Chinese cabbage. The present study investigated the retention of PM2.5-Pb in foliar apoplast and symplasm and the underlying molecular mechanisms of reduced Pb in LPA leaves. It appeared more Pb in apoplast and less Pb in symplasm of LPA leaves, whereas the pattern was opposite in HPA. There were 2646 and 3095 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in LPA and HPA leaves under PM2.5-Pb stress with clearly genotype-specific function, respectively. Furthermore, mRNA levels of XTH16 regulating cell wall thickening, PME2 and PME6 involved in cell wall remodification were significantly expressed in LPA, but not in HPA. Meanwhile, foliar PM2.5-Pb stress downregulated expression of ZIP1, YSL1, and CNGC3 responsible for Pb influx to cell, and upregulated expression of ABCG36 regulated Pb efflux from symplasm in LPA leaves. These results improve our understanding to the mechanisms underlying foliar Pb uptake from PM2.5-Pb at transcriptomic level.


Assuntos
Brassica , Transcriptoma , Chumbo , Genótipo , China , Material Particulado , Brassica/genética
3.
Environ Pollut ; 316(Pt 2): 120640, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36403881

RESUMO

Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), a plasticizer derived from phthalate ester, is used as an additive in industrial products such as plastics, paints, and medical devices. However, DEHP is known as an endocrine-disrupting chemical, causing cancers and adverse effects on human health. This study evaluated DEHP biodegradation efficiency via food waste composting during 35 days of incubation. At high DEHP concentrations (2167 mg kg-1) in food waste compost mixture, the DEHP biodegradation efficiency was 99% after 35 days. The highest degradation efficiency was recorded at the thermophilic phase (day 3 - day 11) with the biodegradation rate reached 187 mg kg-1 day-1. DEHP was metabolized to dibutyl phthalate (DBP) and dimethyl phthalate (DMP) and would be oxidized to benzyl alcohol (BA) and mineralized into CO2 and water via various metabolisms. Finally, the compost's quality with residual DEHP was evaluated using Brassica chinensis L. seeds via 96 h of germination tests. The compost (at day 35) with a trace amount of DEHP as the end product showed no significant effect on the germination rate of Brassica chinensis L. seeds (88%) compared to that without DEHP (94%), indicating that the compost can be reused as fertilizer in agricultural applications. These results provide an improved understanding of the DEHP biodegradation via food waste composting without bioaugmentation and hence facilitating its green remediation and conversion into value-added products. Nevertheless, further studies are needed on DEHP biodegradation in large-scale food waste composting or industrial applications.


Assuntos
Brassica , Compostagem , Dietilexilftalato , Eliminação de Resíduos , Humanos , Germinação , Dietilexilftalato/toxicidade , Sementes
4.
J Hazard Mater ; 444(Pt A): 130427, 2023 02 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36410248

RESUMO

In this study, soil-grown pakchoi after 2 weeks seedling cultivation were exposed to CeO2 nanoparticles (CeO2 NPs) at 0.7, 7, 70, and 350 mg kg-1 for 30 days. Results showed that chlorophyll content and photosynthetic assimilation rate were decreased significantly under all treatments with the largest decrease of 34.16% (0.7 mg kg-1 CeO2 NPs), however, sub-stomatal CO2 was increased dramatically under low dose of CeO2 NPs (0.7 mg kg-1). There were 4576, 3548, 2787, and 2514 genes up/down regulated significantly by 0.7, 7, 70, and 350 mg kg-1 CeO2 NPs, respectively, and 767 genes affected under all treatments. In addition, 0.7 mg kg-1 CeO2 NPs up-regulated 10 chlorophyll synthesis genes, 20 photosynthesis genes, and 10 carbon fixation enzyme genes; while 350 mg kg-1 CeO2 NPs down-regulated 5 photosynthesis genes and 28 auxin-activated genes. Among the key genes of photosynthesis, Ferredoxin-NADP reductase (PetH) was upregulated in 0.7, 7 and 70 mg kg-1 treatments, while Photosystem II lipoprotein (Psb27) was downregulated under 7, 70 and 350 mg kg-1 treatments. Top 20 metabolic pathways affected by CeO2 NPs including plant hormone, amino acids, and glutathione, and carbon metabolism These results provide information about utilizing CeO2 NPs more safely and effectively in the future.


Assuntos
Brassica , Nanopartículas , Transcriptoma , Fotossíntese , Nanopartículas/toxicidade , Clorofila
5.
J Hazard Mater ; 444(Pt B): 130425, 2023 02 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36435046

RESUMO

Inoculation with growth-promoting rhizobacteria inoculation and the addition of exogenous signaling molecules are two distinct strategies for improving heavy metal resistance and promoting growth in crops through several mechanisms. However, whether rhizobacteria and phyllosphere signaling molecules can act synergistically alleviate heavy metal stress and promote growth and the mechanisms underlying these effects remain unclear. Here, a novel strategy involving the co-application of growth-promoting rhizobacteria and an exogenous signaling molecule was developed to reduce cadmium (Cd) phytotoxicity and promote pak choi growth in Cd-contaminated soil. We found that the co-application of Azospirillum brasilense and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) resulted in significant improvements in shoot biomass and antioxidant enzyme content and a decline in the levels of Cd translocation factors. In addition, this co-application significantly improved pak choi Cd resistance. Furthermore, we observed a significant negative correlation between abscisic acid concentration and Cd content of pak choi and a positive correlation between H2S concentration and biomass. These findings revealed that the co-application of rhizobacteria and exogenous signaling molecules synergistically promoted the growth of vegetable crops subjected to heavy metal stress. Our results may serve as a guide for improving the food safety of crops grown in soil contaminated with heavy metals.


Assuntos
Azospirillum brasilense , Brassica , Cádmio/toxicidade , Ácido Abscísico , Produtos Agrícolas , Solo
6.
Food Chem ; 404(Pt A): 134594, 2023 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36265272

RESUMO

Brassica vegetables are frequently consumed foods of nutritional interest, because they are rich in glucosinolates (GLSs). Among GLS breakdown products, especially isothiocyanates are known for their health-beneficial effects, while nitriles are less beneficial. To increase the understanding of the plant matrix's influence on GLS degradation, differently concentrated vegetable broths were prepared from selected Brassica vegetables (kohlrabi and red cabbage) and subsequently boiled. Altogether, heat stability and conversion of GLSs to the corresponding nitriles were both strongly influenced by vegetable type and plant matrix concentration in the broths. After boiling kohlrabi broths for 120 min, recovery of 4-(methylthio)butyl-GLS as nitrile was 55.5 % in 1 g/mL broth and 8.4 % in 0.25 g/mL broth. In follow-up experiments, a pronounced influence of the matrix's redox status was identified, with H2S being an important factor. A better understanding of these processes will help to preserve health-promoting effects of GLSs in Brassica vegetables in the future.


Assuntos
Brassica , Glucosinolatos , Glucosinolatos/análise , Brassica/metabolismo , Verduras/metabolismo , Nitrilas/metabolismo , Oxirredução
7.
Food Chem ; 405(Pt B): 134907, 2023 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36417803

RESUMO

Glucosinolates are precursors of bioactive and health-promoting isothiocyanates (ITCs). Upon enzymatic hydrolysis, Brassica vegetables, such as cabbage, also often yield nitriles and epithionitriles as main products next to ITCs. Here, we show that amines can be additional main enzymatic hydrolysis products of glucosinolates in Brassica vegetables. We propose that a plant endogenous ITC hydrolase (ITCase) is responsible for the enzymatic-like conversion of ITCs to amines in cabbage samples. This ITCase seems to have high activity towards alkenyl ITCs like allyl ITC and lower activity towards methylthioalkyl ITCs, and not to converting methylsulfinylalkyl ITCs like sulforaphane. In contrast, during heat treatment of homogenized cabbage material, methylsulfinylalkylamine levels increased by 400 % after 2 h of heating, which is likely due to thermal decomposition of ITCs, whereas alkenyl amine levels did not change due to heat treatment. The results show that amines from glucosinolates are part of the human diet.


Assuntos
Brassica , Glucosinolatos , Humanos , Verduras , Aminas , Metabolismo Secundário
8.
Food Chem ; 404(Pt B): 134704, 2023 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36283319

RESUMO

Salvia miltiorrhiza-derived carbon dots (SmCDs), as a new type of nanomaterial, play vital roles in plant growth, antioxidation and abiotic stress alleviation. Flowering Chinese cabbage is prone to wilt and yellowing after harvest. However, the roles of SmCDs in delaying senescence of postharvest flowering Chinese cabbage to maintain quality remain unclear. Herein, we found that SmCDs had effective impacts on anti-aging, enhancing maximal fluorescence ratio, procrastinating chlorophyll degradation, sustaining reactive oxygen species (ROS) metabolism homeostasis, and improving the contents of vitamin C, sucrose, soluble sugar, and flavonoid. Moreover, SmCDs suppressed the expressions of chlorophyll degradation genes (BrNYE1, BrNYC1, BrNOL, BrPPH, and BrPAO), senescence marker gene (BrSAG12), and respiratory burst oxidase homologs genes (BrRBohA, BrRBohB, BrRBohD, and BrRBohF), while SmCDs promoted the flavonoid biosynthesis genes (BrFLS3, BrFLS1, BrC4H, and BrCHI) expression. Interestingly, sucrose synthase, neutral invertase, and acid invertase might be the pivotal enzymes to restrict sugar accumulation under SmCDs treatment.


Assuntos
Brassica , Salvia miltiorrhiza , Salvia miltiorrhiza/genética , Salvia miltiorrhiza/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Carbono/metabolismo , Brassica/genética , Brassica/metabolismo , Clorofila/metabolismo , Açúcares/metabolismo , Flavonoides/metabolismo , China
9.
Food Chem ; 404(Pt B): 134657, 2023 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36327512

RESUMO

Both cytokinin and NAC transcription factors were reported to involve in leaf senescence. However, the mechanism of NAC transcription factors how to regulate cytokinin-delayed leaf senescence is still unknown. In this study, application of N-(2-chloro-4-pyridyl)-N'-phenylurea (CPPU), a cytokinin analogue, significantly delayed leaf senescence and maintained cytokinin content of Chinese flowering cabbage during storage. Meanwhile, the expression of an NAC transcriptional activator (BrNAC029) was increased but suppressed by CPPU treatment. Furthermore, BrNAC029 activated the expressions of chlorophyll catabolic genes BrPAO and BrSGR2, cytokinin oxidase gene BrCKX1 and senescence maker gene BrSAG113 by binding to their promoters. Additionally, overexpressions of BrNAC029 in tobacco and Arabidopsis accelerated leaf senescence and up-expressed the related genes. Taken together, it was suggested that BrNAC029 may serve as a transcriptional activator to activate the transcriptions of these related genes to eventually accelerate leaf senescence of Chinese flowering cabbage by promoting chlorophyll degradation and reducing endogenous cytokinin level.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis , Brassica , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Citocininas , Senescência Vegetal , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Brassica/genética , Brassica/metabolismo , Clorofila/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , China , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo
10.
Gene ; 851: 146931, 2023 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36244548

RESUMO

APETALA1 (AP1), CAULIFLOWER (CAL) and FRUITFULL (FUL) were homologous genes with redundant functions in the process of flower transformation and floral development in Arabidopsis. Two CALs genes, MiCAL1 and MiCAL2, were cloned from mango (Mangifera indica L.). Their full-length sequences contained 717 bp and 714 bp, encoding 239 and 238 amino acids, respectively. Both the MiCAL1 and MiCAL2 proteins contained typical MADS-box and K-box domains and therefore belonged to the CAL-like protein family. MiCAL1 and MiCAL2 were expressed in all tissues at the inflorescence elongation stage and flowering stage, with the highest expression in the leaves at the flowering stage. They had similar expression patterns during flower development, with the highest expression levels in leaves during flower differentiation and the lowest expression levels during fruit development. Overexpression of MiCAL1 and MiCAL2 resulted in significantly earlier flowering in Arabidopsis. Overexpression of MiCAL1 resulted in terminal flowers with normal flower organs, while overexpression of MiCAL2 induced partially variation in floral organs but had no effect on inflorescences. Yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) experiments showed that MiCAL1 and MiCAL2 can interact with several flower-related proteins as well as stress response proteins, such as SEP1, SVP1, SVP2, SOC1G and Di19-4. These results suggest that these two MiCALs genes may have an important influence on mango flowering.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis , Brassica , Mangifera , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Mangifera/genética , Mangifera/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Expressão Ectópica do Gene , Brassica/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Flores , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Domínio MADS/genética
11.
Food Chem ; 401: 134088, 2023 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36099817

RESUMO

In this study, the effects of red (R), blue (B) and far-red (FR) LED lights and their combination (R + B, R + FR, B + FR, R + B + FR) together with white (W) LED light as control, on the growth, nutritional quality and the glucosinolates of brassica microgreens were determined. Fresh and dry weights were increased with W, R, R + FR lights in broccoli and cabbage and with the R + B + FR and B + FR in radish microgreens. Soluble solids content (SSC) (%) was highest with W, R and B lights in broccoli and cabbage. The highest titratable acidity (TA) (%) was determined with B, FR, R + FR, B + FR in broccoli and W, R + FR, R + B in cabbage. In radish, lower TA was determined. In broccoli microgreens, glucoraphanin content and total GSLs were increased with B light whereas in cabbage, the combination of R + B revealed the highest aliphatics, In radish, glucoraphenin was highest in B light and the glucoraphasatin in R, FR, R + FR and B lights.


Assuntos
Brassica , Raphanus , Glucosinolatos/análise , Valor Nutritivo , Luz
12.
Talanta ; 251: 123814, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35961082

RESUMO

Brassica plants play an important role in common agricultural practices, such as livestock feed or biofumigation, due to the bioactivity of the natural degradation products of glucosinolate metabolites. Therefore, the ability to survey comprehensive glucosinolate profiles for individual brassicas is essential for informing proper species selection for the intended application. Current methods for glucosinolate identification and quantification involve complex or unconventional procedures, and proper reference materials are not readily available. Therefore, researchers with limited resources that require glucosinolate profiles are at an extreme disadvantage. In this work, a simple and accurate HPLC-MS method was developed and validated to build preliminary glucosinolate profiles for three agriculturally relevant forage brassica varieties [turnip (B. rapa L.), canola (B. napus L.), and rapeseed (B. napus L.)]. The average glucosinolate content across three herbage collection dates for canola, rapeseed and turnip were 2.9 ± 0.9 mg g-1, 6.4 ± 1.3 mg g-1, and 14 ± 3.4 mg g-1, respectively. GLS concentrations are reported in milligrams of glucosinolate, calculated as sinigrin equivalents, per gram of dry plant material. This semi-quantitative approach for reporting total GLS content in brassicas is accurate within 15%. Several minor individual glucosinolates were identified that have not been previously reported in canola, rapeseed and turnip species, including glucotropaeolin and 4-hydroxyglucobrassicin (canola), glucoraphanin and glucoberteroin (rapeseed), and glucosinalbin and glucobarbarin (turnip). This non-targeted screen of several forage brassica varieties demonstrates the inherent variation in both the individual glucosinolate content and the total glucosinolate profile among brassicas, and highlights the importance of such glucosinolate characterization in agricultural practices. Additionally, the method developed in this study can be used as a tool for researchers with limited resources to build accurate glucosinolate profiles of brassica plants.


Assuntos
Brassica napus , Brassica rapa , Brassica , Brassica/metabolismo , Glucosinolatos/metabolismo
13.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 43(11): 5234-5243, 2022 Nov 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36437095

RESUMO

The interaction between different elements is an efficient means to control the heavy metal accumulation in crops. Phosphorus (P) and zinc (Zn), as essential nutrient elements of plants, have been shown to have important impacts on cadmium (Cd) accumulation in crops through interactions with each other. However, the function of the simultaneous interaction of P, Zn, and Cd on vegetable growth and Cd accumulation remains unclear. Herein, using a single-factor level design with two alternating fixed factors, pot experiments were conducted to study the impact and mechanism of this simultaneous interaction at different levels of P, Zn, and Cd on Brassica campestris L. growth, antioxidant enzyme activity, and Zn and Cd accumulation with neutral purple soil as the substrate. The results showed that the addition of an appropriate amount of P and Zn could promote the growth of Brassica campestris L. and inhibit its Cd accumulation, through different mechanisms. P mainly reduced the Cd availability in soil and improved the crop resistance, whereas Zn mainly promoted the dilution effect by the crop growth and its physiological antagonism. The antioxidant capacity of Brassica campestris L. was significantly inhibited when 1 mg·kg-1 exogenous Cd was added to the soil, along with decreased activities of CAT and POD and high accumulation of MDA. Notably, both P and Zn could improve the antioxidant capacity and relieve Cd toxicity by increasing CAT activity, without obviously influencing POD activity. The highest yield of Brassica campestris L. (55.72 g·pot-1) was attained when the ratio of stress concentration for exogenous P, Zn, and Cd[ω(Cd):ω(Zn):ω(P)] was 1:10:200. Furthermore, the Cd content in the edible part was also lower than the national standard requirement of 50 µg·kg-1for Cd in green leafy vegetables (GB 2762-2017). In addition, the accumulation of Cd was further decreased when the proportion of P and Zn was increased, along with a decreased yield of the vegetable. Therefore, a proper application of P and Zn fertilizers could simultaneously reduce Cd accumulation and increase crop yield and thus contribute to achieving safe vegetable production.


Assuntos
Brassica , Poluentes do Solo , Cádmio/análise , Zinco/farmacologia , Zinco/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Solo , Verduras
14.
Genes (Basel) ; 13(11)2022 11 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36360321

RESUMO

Chinese cabbage, which is a cold season crop, can still be damaged at an overly low temperature. It is crucial to study the mechanism of the resistance to low temperature of Chinese cabbage. In this study, the Chinese cabbage 'XBJ' was used as the material, and nine different low temperatures and control samples were treated. Using RNA-seq and lignin content determination, we analyzed 27 samples, and the stained sections of them were observed. A total of 8845 genes were screened for the WGCNA analysis, yielding 17 modules. The GO and KEGG analyses of the modules was highly associated with a low-temperature treatment. The pathways such as 'starch and sucrose metabolism' and 'plant hormone signal transduction' were enriched in modules related to low temperature. Interestingly, L-15DAT-associated MEcoral2 was found to have 14 genes related to the 'lignin biosynthetic process' in the GO annotation. The combination of the determination of the lignin content and the treatment of the stained sections showed that the lignin content of the low-temperatures samples were indeed higher than that of the control. We further explored the expression changes of the lignin synthesis pathway and various genes and found that low temperature affects the expression changes of most genes in the lignin synthesis pathway, leading to the speculation that the lignin changes at low temperature are a defense mechanism against low temperatures. The 29 BrCOMT gene sequence derived from the RNA-seq was non-conserved, and eight BrCOMT genes were differentially expressed. This study provides a new insight into how lignin is affected by low temperature.


Assuntos
Brassica , Lignina , Lignina/genética , Temperatura , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Transcriptoma/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Brassica/genética , China
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36429638

RESUMO

Cruciferous vegetables such as cauliflower and radish contain isothiocyanates exhibiting chemoprotective effects in vitro and in vivo. This research aimed to assess the impact of cauliflower (CIE) and radish (RIE) isothiocyanate extracts on the metabolic activity, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), and LDH production of selected human colorectal adenocarcinoma cells (HCT116 and HT-29 for early and late colon cancer development, respectively). Non-cancerous colon cells (CCD-33Co) were used as a cytotoxicity control. The CIE samples displayed the highest allyl isothiocyanate (AITC: 12.55 µg/g) contents, whereas RIE was the most abundant in benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC: 15.35 µg/g). Both extracts effectively inhibited HCT116 and HT-29 metabolic activity, but the CIE impact was higher than that of RIE on HCT116 (IC50: 0.56 mg/mL). Assays using the half-inhibitory concentrations (IC50) of all treatments, including AITC and BITC, displayed increased (p < 0.05) LDH (absorbance: 0.25-0.40 nm) and ROS release (1190-1697 relative fluorescence units) in both cell lines. BITC showed the highest in silico binding affinity with all the tested colorectal cancer molecular markers (NF-kB, ß-catenin, and NRF2-NFE2). The theoretical evaluation of AITC and BITC bioavailability showed high values for both compounds. The results indicate that CIE and RIE extracts display chemopreventive effects in vitro, but additional experiments are needed to validate their effects.


Assuntos
Brassica , Neoplasias Colorretais , Raphanus , Humanos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio , Botrytis , Isotiocianatos/farmacologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico
16.
Molecules ; 27(22)2022 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36431864

RESUMO

The effects of supplemental UV-A (385 nm) period and UV-A intensity for 5 days before harvest (DBH) on growth, antioxidants, antioxidant capacity, and glucosinolates contents in Chinese kale (Brassica oleracea var. alboglabra Bailey) were studied in plant factory. In the experiment of the UV-A period, three treatments were designed with 10 W·m-2 UV-A supplement, T1(5 DBH), T2 (10 DBH), and no supplemental UV-A as control. In the experiment of UV-A intensity, four treatments were designed with 5 DBH, control (0 W·m-2), 5 w (5 W·m-2), 10 w (10 W·m-2), and 15 w (15 W·m-2). The growth light is as follows: 250 µmol·m-2·s-1; red light: white light = 2:3; photoperiod: 12/12. The growth and quality of Chinese kale were improved by supplemental UV-A LED. The plant height, stem diameter, and biomass of Chinese kale were the highest in the 5 W·m-2 treatment for 5 DBH. The contents of chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, and total chlorophyll were only highly increased by 5 W·m-2 UV-A for 5 DBH, while there was no significant difference in the content of carotenoid among all treatments. The contents of soluble sugar and free amino acid were higher only under 10 DBH treatments than in control. The contents of total phenolic and total antioxidant capacity were the highest in 5 W·m-2 treatment for 5 DBH. There was a significant positive correlation between total phenolic content and DPPH and FRAP value. After 5 DBH treatments, the percentages and contents of total aliphatic glucosinolates, sinigrin (SIN), gluconapin (GNA), and glucobrassicanapin (GBN) were highly increased, while the percentages and contents of glucobrassicin (GBS), 4-methoxyglucobrassicin (4-MGBS), and Progoitrin (PRO) were significantly decreased, especially under 10 W·m-2 treatment. Our results show that UV-A LED supplements could improve the growth and quality of Chinese kale, and 5 W·m-2 UV-A LED with 5 DBH might be feasible for Chinese kale growth, and 10 W·m-2 UV-A LED with 5 DBH was better for aliphatic glucosinolates accumulation in Chinese kale.


Assuntos
Brassica , Glucosinolatos , Glucosinolatos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Clorofila A , Fenóis/farmacologia , China
17.
Nutrients ; 14(21)2022 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36364837

RESUMO

This study reports the digestibility and nutritional quality of pasta made from durum wheat semolina which was partially substituted by puree, juice or pomace from spinach and red cabbage. The results show that 10% substitution of semolina with red cabbage pomace and spinach pomace, 1% substitution of spinach juice, and 2% substitution of spinach puree significantly reduced the area under the curve of the in vitro starch digestion. This reduction was due to a combined effect of decreased starch content, increased dietary fibre content and inhibition of α-amylase caused by vegetable material addition. Total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant capacity increased significantly on raw, cooked and digested samples of vegetable fortified pasta compared to control. The ß-carotene content of spinach pasta (raw, cooked, and digested) was also higher than that of control. At the 1% substitution level, the juice was more efficient in improving the antioxidant capacity of resultant pasta compared to puree or pomace.


Assuntos
Brassica , Triticum , Farinha/análise , Spinacia oleracea , Antioxidantes/análise , Amido , Culinária/métodos , Grão Comestível/química , Glicemia
18.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(21)2022 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36361510

RESUMO

Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L. subsp. pekinensis) is one of the vegetables with the largest cultivated area in China and has been a great addition to the daily diet of Chinese people. A genetic map has been constructed in our previous study using the F2 population of two inbred lines of Chinese cabbage, namely "G291" (a hairy line) and "ZHB" (a hairless line), based on which a candidate gene related to trichome traits was identified on chromosome A06 with a phenotypic variance of 47%. A molecular marker was found to co-segregate with the trichome traits of the F2 population, which is in the 5'-flanking region of BrGL1, and a corresponding patent has been granted (NO. CN 108545775 B). Transcriptome analysis was carried out on the cotyledon, the first true leaf and the leaf closest to each inflorescence of F2 individuals of "G291 × ZHB" with or without trichomes, respectively. Ten pathways, including 189 DEGs, were identified to be involved in the development of trichomes in Chinese cabbage, which may be specifically related to the development of leaf trichomes. Most of the pathways were related to the biosynthesis of the secondary metabolites, which may help plants to adapt to the ever-changing external environment. DEGs also enriched the "plant-pathogen interaction" pathway, which is consistent with the conclusion that trichomes are related to the disease resistance of plants. Our study provides a basis for future research on the occurrence and development of trichomes in Chinese cabbage.


Assuntos
Brassica rapa , Brassica , Humanos , Brassica rapa/genética , Tricomas/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Brassica/genética , Folhas de Planta/genética , Transcriptoma
19.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(21)2022 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36361887

RESUMO

In Brassicaceae, the papillary cells of the stigma are the primary site of the self-incompatibility (SI) responses. SI preserves the genetic diversity by selectively rejecting irrelevant or incompatible pollen, thus promoting cross fertilization and species fitness. Mechanisms that regulate SI responses in Brassica have been studied mainly on the mature stigma that often undermines how stigma papillary cells attain the state of SI during development. To understand this, we integrated PacBio SMRT-seq with Illumina RNA-seq to construct a de novo full-length transcriptomic database for different stages of stigma development in ornamental kale. A total of 48,800 non-redundant transcripts, 31,269 novel transcripts, 24,015 genes, 13,390 alternative splicing, 22,389 simple sequence repeats, 21,816 complete ORF sequences, and 4591 lncRNAs were identified and analyzed using PacBio SMRT-seq. The Illumina RNA-seq revealed 15,712 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and 8619 transcription factors. The KEGG enrichment analysis of 4038 DEGs in the "incompatibility" group revealed that the flavonoid and fatty acid biosynthesis pathways were significantly enriched. The cluster and qRT-PCR analysis indicated that 11 and 14 candidate genes for the flavonoid and fatty acid biosynthesis pathways have the lowest expression levels at stigma maturation, respectively. To understand the physiological relevance of the downregulation of fatty acid biosynthesis pathways, we performed inhibitor feeding assays on the mature stigma. The compatible pollination response was drastically reduced when mature stigmas were pre-treated with a fatty acid synthase inhibitor. This finding suggested that fatty acid accumulation in the stigmas may be essential for compatible pollination and its downregulation during maturity must have evolved as a support module to discourage the mounting of self-incompatible pollen.


Assuntos
Brassica , Brassica/genética , Brassica/metabolismo , Polinização/genética , Pólen/genética , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo
20.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(21)2022 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36362095

RESUMO

The Brassica oleracea industry generates large amounts of by-products to which value could be added because of the characteristics of their composition. The aim was to extract different fibre fractions from broccoli stalks to obtain potential new added-value ingredients. Using an ethanol and water extraction procedure, two fibre-rich fractions (total fibre fraction, TFB, and insoluble fibre fraction, IFB) were obtained. These fractions were analysed to determine the nutritional, (poly)phenols and glucosinolates composition and physicochemical properties, comparing the results with those of freeze-dried broccoli stalks (DBS). Although TFB showed a higher content of total dietary fibre, IFB had the same content of insoluble dietary fibre as TFB (54%), better hydration properties, higher content of glucosinolates (100 mg/100 g d.w.) and (poly)phenols (74.7 mg/100 g d.w.). The prebiotic effect was evaluated in IFB and compared with DBS by in vitro fermentation with human faecal slurries. After 48 h, the short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) production was higher with IFB than with DBS because of the greater presence of both uronic acids, the main component of pectin, and (poly)phenols. These results reveal that novel fibre-rich ingredients-with antioxidant, technological and physiological effects-could be obtained from broccoli stalks by using green extraction methods.


Assuntos
Brassica , Glucosinolatos , Humanos , Glucosinolatos/análise , Brassica/química , Fenóis/análise , Antioxidantes , Fibras na Dieta/análise
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...