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1.
Food Chem ; 366: 130683, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34343952

RESUMO

This study investigated the effect of single and dual frequency ultrasound washing on freshly cut cauliflower, by pulsed and sweep frequency modes, with or without the addition of zinc acetate (ZA), tea saponin (TS) and ethanol (ET). Results showed that the surface microorganisms were efficiently decreased by sweep dual frequency ultrasound washing. Moreover, the use of 0.5% ZA, or 0.06% TS or 5% ET as washing solution improved the bacterial reduction efficiency. Reducing the interfacial tension, viscosity and contact angle of washing solution may strengthen ultrasound cavitation. Nearly 2.0 log CFU/g natural microorganisms were decreased, and shelf life was extended from 2 to 4-8 days under 4 °C. Physicochemical parameters of bioactive compounds content, enzyme activity, antioxidant ability, freshness were analyzed. Results showed that 0.5% ZA as washing solution of ultrasound washing was beneficial to the quality maintenance during storage period.


Assuntos
Brassica , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana
2.
Food Chem ; 367: 130734, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34359003

RESUMO

Isocycloseram is a new isoxazoline insecticide that can efficiently control the diamondback moth in cruciferous crops. The aim of this study was to establish a method for the determination of isocycloseram residues in/on cabbage and in the soil using HPLC-UV at 264 nm. A field test was conducted in December 2019 and 2020 to monitor isocycloseram dissipation in Jiangxi, China. Acetonitrile was used to extract isocycloseram from cabbage and soil. C18 and GCB were used to purify cabbage extracts, whereas soil extracts did not require purification. At the addition level of 0.01-1.0 mg/kg, the average recoveries in cabbage and soil were 91.81-109.95% and 89.89-104.08% respectively. After having applied 10% isocycloseram DC, isocycloseram dissipated faster in the cabbage matrix. Isocycloseram residues on cabbage leaves could be removed through simple cleaning methods, especially by soaking in 2% citric acid.


Assuntos
Brassica , Resíduos de Praguicidas , Poluentes do Solo , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Meia-Vida , Resíduos de Praguicidas/análise , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise
3.
Planta ; 254(5): 92, 2021 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34633541

RESUMO

MAIN CONCLUSION: From Brassica oleracea genome, 88 anthocyanin biosynthetic genes were identified. They expanded via whole-genome or tandem duplication and showed significant expression differentiation. Functional characterization revealed BoMYB113.1 as positive and BoMYBL2.1 as negative regulators responsible for anthocyanin accumulation. Brassica oleracea produces various health-promoting phytochemicals, including glucosinolates, carotenoids, and vitamins. Despite the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathways in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana being well characterized, little is known about the genetic basis of anthocyanin biosynthesis in B. oleracea. In this study, we identified 88 B. oleracea anthocyanin biosynthetic genes (BoABGs) representing homologs of 46 Arabidopsis anthocyanin biosynthetic genes (AtABGs). Most anthocyanin biosynthetic genes, having expanded via whole-genome duplication and tandem duplication, retained more than one copy in B. oleracea. Expression analysis revealed diverse expression patterns of BoABGs in different tissues, and BoABG duplications showed significant expression differentiation. Additional expression analysis and functional characterization revealed that the positive regulator BoMYB113.1 and negative regulator BoMYBL2.1 may be key genes responsible for anthocyanin accumulation in red cabbage and ornamental kale by upregulating the expression of structural genes. This study paves the way for a better understanding of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes in B. oleracea and should promote breeding for anthocyanin content.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis , Brassica , Antocianinas , Arabidopsis/genética , Brassica/genética , Genes de Plantas , Melhoramento Vegetal
4.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(41): 12270-12277, 2021 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34609877

RESUMO

Volatile compounds of raw and cooked green kohlrabi were investigated using a sensomics approach. A total of 55 odor-active compounds were detected and identified in raw and cooked green kohlrabi using GC-O. Twenty-eight odor-active compounds with high flavor dilution (FD) factors ranging from 64 to 1024 were quantitated, and odor activity values (OAVs) were determined. Eight compounds showed high OAVs in raw and cooked kohlrabi: five sulfur compounds (dimethyl trisulfide, methyl 2-methyl-3-furyl disulfide, and three isothiocyanates (1-isothiocyanato-3-(methylsulfanyl)propane, benzyl isothiocyanate, and 1-isothiocyanato-4-(methylsulfanyl)butane)), two lipid oxidation products (1-octen-3-one and trans-4,5-epoxy-(2E)-dec-2-enal), and 2-isopropyl-3-methoxypyrazine. Among these, the sulfur compounds contributed most to the overall smell of the raw and cooked vegetables. The quantitation analysis indicates that the eight odorants are the backbone compounds for raw and cooked kohlrabi. The OAVs for the backbone compounds and also for minor odorants are clearly higher in raw kohlrabi than in the cooked one. Differences can be explained by the influence of the cooking process.


Assuntos
Brassica , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis , Culinária , Aromatizantes , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Odorantes/análise , Olfato , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise
5.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 404, 2021 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34488625

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Brassica carinata (A) Braun has recently gained increased attention across the world as a sustainable biofuel crop. B. carinata is grown as a summer crop in many regions where high temperature is a significant stress during the growing season. However, little research has been conducted to understand the mechanisms through which this crop responds to high temperatures. Understanding traits that improve the high-temperature adaption of this crop is essential for developing heat-tolerant varieties. This study investigated lipid remodeling in B. carinata in response to high-temperature stress. A commercial cultivar, Avanza 641, was grown under sunlit-controlled environmental conditions in Soil-Plant-Atmosphere-Research (SPAR) chambers under optimal temperature (OT; 23/15°C) conditions. At eight days after sowing, plants were exposed to one of the three temperature treatments [OT, high-temperature treatment-1 (HT-1; 33/25°C), and high-temperature treatment-2 (HT-2; 38/30°C)]. The temperature treatment period lasted until the final harvest at 84 days after sowing. Leaf samples were collected at 74 days after sowing to profile lipids using electrospray-ionization triple quadrupole mass spectrometry. RESULTS: Temperature treatment significantly affected the growth and development of Avanza 641. Both high-temperature treatments caused alterations in the leaf lipidome. The alterations were primarily manifested in terms of decreases in unsaturation levels of membrane lipids, which was a cumulative effect of lipid remodeling. The decline in unsaturation index was driven by (a) decreases in lipids that contain the highly unsaturated linolenic (18:3) acid and (b) increases in lipids containing less unsaturated fatty acids such as oleic (18:1) and linoleic (18:2) acids and/or saturated fatty acids such as palmitic (16:0) acid. A third mechanism that likely contributed to lowering unsaturation levels, particularly for chloroplast membrane lipids, is a shift toward lipids made by the eukaryotic pathway and the channeling of eukaryotic pathway-derived glycerolipids that are composed of less unsaturated fatty acids into chloroplasts. CONCLUSIONS: The lipid alterations appear to be acclimation mechanisms to maintain optimal membrane fluidity under high-temperature conditions. The lipid-related mechanisms contributing to heat stress response as identified in this study could be utilized to develop biomarkers for heat tolerance and ultimately heat-tolerant varieties.


Assuntos
Brassica/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Lipídeos/química , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico , Temperatura Alta
6.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(39): 11646-11655, 2021 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34549579

RESUMO

Interactions between Brassica vegetables and human saliva can affect in-mouth odor development, which in turn may be linked to individual perception and liking. S-Methyl-l-cysteine sulfoxide is a unique substrate present in Brassicas that produces odor-active sulfur volatiles due to the activity of enzymes present in plant tissue and due to bacteria, which may be present to varying extents in an individual's oral microbiome. Proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry was applied to measure individual differences in sulfur volatile production in real time when fresh human saliva was incubated ex vivo with raw cauliflower for a cohort of child-adult pairs. Large differences in the rate of sulfur volatile production were measured between individuals, but not between age groups. Significant positive relationships were found for volatile production between the adult-child pairs, suggesting a degree of commonality in saliva composition and oral microbiome activity. Furthermore, significant negative relationships were measured between the amount of in-mouth sulfur volatile production and liking for raw cauliflower in children.


Assuntos
Brassica , Verduras , Adulto , Humanos , Boca , Odorantes , Saliva
7.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(39): 11538-11553, 2021 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34551253

RESUMO

Biofumigation is used to control soil-borne plant diseases, and it has paramount importance to reduce the cost of chemical fumigants. Information about the field control efficacies and impacts of Brassica-based biofumigation (BBF) on soil bacterial and fungal microbiota is scattered in the literature. Therefore, this review summarizes and discusses the nature and the underlying causes of soil bacterial and fungal community dynamics in response to BBF. In addition, the major factors influencing the interaction between a biofumigant and soil microbiota are discussed. The pros and cons of BBF to soil microbiota and the subsequent impacts on sustainable farming practices are also highlighted.


Assuntos
Brassica , Microbiota , Fumigação , Solo , Microbiologia do Solo
8.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 225: 112800, 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34547661

RESUMO

Phytochelatins are plants' small metal-binding peptides which chelate internal heavy metals to form nontoxic complexes. Detecting the complexes in plants would simplify identification of cultivars with both high tolerance and enrichment capabilities for heavy metals which represent phytoextraction performance. Thus, a terahertz spectroscopy combined with density functional theory, chemometrics and circular dichroism was used for characterization of phytochelatin2 (PC2), Cd-PC2 mixture standards, and pak choi (Brassica chinensis) leaves as a plant model. Results showed PC2 chelates Cd2+ in a 2:1 ratio to form Cd(PC2)2 complex; Cd connected to thoils of PC2 and changed ß-turn and random coil of PC2 peptide chain to ß-Sheet which presented as terahertz vibrations of PC2 around 1.03 and 1.71 THz being suppressed; the best models for detecting the complex in pak choi were obtained by partial least squares regression modeling combined with successive projections algorithm selection; the models used PC2 as a natural probe for visualizing and quantifying chelated Cd in pak choi leaf and achieved a limit of detection up to 1.151 ppm. This study suggested that terahertz information of the heavy metal-PCs complexes is qualified for representing a simpler alternative to classical index for evaluating phytoextraction performance of plant; it provided a general protocol for structure analysis and detection of heavy metal-PCs complexes in plant by terahertz absorbance.


Assuntos
Brassica , Metais Pesados , Cádmio , Dicroísmo Circular , Fitoquelatinas
9.
Food Res Int ; 148: 110605, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34507749

RESUMO

Effects of mixed cultures composed of any two of four autochthonous lactic acid bacteria on fermentation of Chinese northeast sauerkraut were investigated in this study. Results indicated that different mixed cultures inoculation generated diversified physicochemical, microbiological and flavor quality of sauerkraut. Compared to spontaneous fermentation, mix-culture fermentation showed significant higher population of lactic acid bacteria and lower amounts of undesirable microorganisms. Free amino acids increased by 2- to 5-fold from initial level in spontaneous and mix-culture fermentation, with the lowest production by spontaneous fermentation. Moreover, mix-culture fermentation promoted the flavor formation based on the analysis of HS-SPME/GC-MS, E-nose, E-tongue and sensory evaluation, especially for the mixed culture of Leu. mesenteroides and L. plantarum. These results highlighted that using a mixed culture made up with Leu. mesenteroides and L. plantarum could be a potential way to improve the quality of sauerkraut, which could provide an alternative way to meet consumers' requirement.


Assuntos
Brassica , Lactobacillales , China , Fermentação , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Metaboloma
10.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 167: 630-638, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34479031

RESUMO

Expansin gene (EXP) family plays important roles in plant growth and crop improvement. However, it has not been well studied in the Brassica genus that includes several important agricultural and horticultural crops. To get insight to the evolution and expansion of EXP family in Brassica, Brassica EXPs which are homologues of 35 known AtEXPs of Arabidopsis were comprehensively and systematically analyzed in the present study. In total, 340 Brassica EXPs were clustered into four groups that corresponded multiple alignment to four subfamilies of AtEXPs, with divergent conserved motifs and cis-acting elements among groups. To understand the expansion of EXP family, an integrated genomic block system was constructed among Arabidopsis and Brassica species based on 24 known ancestral karyotype blocks. Obvious gene loss, segmental duplication, tandem duplication and DNA sequence repeat events were found during the expansion of Brassica EXPs, of which the segmental duplication was possibly the major driving force. The divergence time was estimated in 1109 orthologs pairs of EXPs, revealing the divergence of Brassica EXPs from AtEXPs during ~30 MYA, and the divergence of EXPs among Brassica species during 13.50-17.94 MYA. Selective mode analysis revealed that the purifying selection was the major contributor to expansion of Brassica EXPs. This study provides new insights into the evolution and expansion of the EXP family in Brassica genus.


Assuntos
Brassica , Brassica/genética , Evolução Molecular , Duplicação Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genoma de Planta , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética
11.
J Hazard Mater ; 416: 126260, 2021 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34492996

RESUMO

Cadmium is an extremely toxic substance known to cause serious health problems. The uptake of Cd in plants is critically affected by dissolved Cd in soil porewater, controlled by soil physicochemical properties. Rhizo-availability of Cd is assumed, as the Cd fraction is found on the plasma membrane of surface root cells. Based on the theory of Cd transformation in soil-crop systems, we established a novel combined mechanistic model related to soil, soil solutions, and crops. The combined model comprises a multisurface model (MSMs; solid adsorbent and porewater) and the Gouy-Chapman-Stern model (GCS; porewater and root surface). The results suggested that in mildly contaminated soil samples, optimum prediction was achieved when DTPA-extractable Cd was used as input variable (R2 = 0.723). Our approach was superior to single-step model calculation (MSMs: R2 = 0.613; GCS: R2 = 0.629) and prediction based on extractable soil Cd (R2 = 0.281). Introducing DTPA extraction expanded the range of model applications at different soil pHs. Our proposed mechanism model was based on soil physicochemical properties for Cd migration from soil to cabbage. Our model showed promise in predicting Cd bioavailability in soil with a wide pH range and evaluating soil risk near the standard Cd safety level.


Assuntos
Brassica , Poluentes do Solo , Disponibilidade Biológica , Cádmio/análise , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise
12.
Planta ; 254(4): 72, 2021 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34519918

RESUMO

MAIN CONCLUSION: We have predicted miRNAs, their targets and lncRNAs from the genome of Brassica oleracea along with their functional annotation. Selected miRNAs and their targets are experimentally validated. Roles of these non-coding RNAs in post-transcriptional gene regulation are also deciphered. Cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. Botrytis) is an important vegetable crop for its dietary and medicinal values with rich source of vitamins, dietary fibers, flavonoids and antioxidants. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs), which regulate gene expression by inhibiting translation or by degrading messenger RNAs (mRNAs). On the other hand, long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are responsible for the up regulation and the down regulation of transcription. Although the genome of cauliflower is reported, yet the roles of these ncRNAs in post-transcriptional gene regulation (PTGR) remain elusive. In this study, we have computationally predicted 355 miRNAs, of which 280 miRNAs are novel compared to miRBase 22.1. All the predicted miRNAs belong to 121 different families. We have also identified 934 targets of 125 miRNAs along with their functional annotation. These targets are further classified into biological processes, molecular functions and cellular components. Moreover, we have predicted 634 lncRNAs, of which 61 are targeted by 30 novel miRNAs. Randomly chosen 10 miRNAs and 10 lncRNAs are experimentally validated. Five miRNA targets including squamosa promoter-binding-like protein 9, homeobox-leucine zipper protein HDG12-like, NAC domain-containing protein 100, CUP-SHAPED COTYLEDON 1 and kinesin-like protein NACK2 of four miRNAs including bol-miR156a, bol-miR162a, bol-miR164d and bol-miR2673 are also experimentally validated. We have built network models of interactions between miRNAs and their target mRNAs, as well as between miRNAs and lncRNAs. Our findings enhance the knowledge of non-coding genome of cauliflower and their roles in PTGR, and might play important roles in improving agronomic traits of this economically important crop.


Assuntos
Brassica , MicroRNAs , RNA Longo não Codificante , Brassica/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , MicroRNAs/genética , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , RNA Mensageiro
13.
Environ Sci Technol ; 55(18): 12449-12458, 2021 09 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34494434

RESUMO

In this study, a biocompatible solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fiber with high-coverage capture capacity based on a nitrogen-rich porous polyaminal was developed. The fiber was used to track the bioaccumulation and elimination of carbamates (isoprocarb, carbofuran, and carbaryl) and their metabolites (o-cumenol, carbofuran phenol, and 1-naphthalenol) in living Chinese cabbage plants (Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis Makino (var. communis Tsen et Lee)). A case-and-control model was applied in the hydroponically cultured plants, with the exposed plant groups contaminated under three carbamates at 5 µg mL-1. Both bio-enrichment and elimination of carbamates and their metabolites in living plants appeared to be very fast with half-lives at ∼0.39-0.79 and ∼0.56-0.69 days, respectively. Statistical differences in the endogenous plant metabolome occurred on day 3 of carbamate exposure. In the exposed group, the plant metabolic alterations were not reversed after 5 days of contaminant-free growth, although most contaminates had been eliminated. Compared with prior nutriological and toxicological studies, >50 compounds were first identified as endogenous metabolites in cabbage plants. The contents of the glucosinolate-related metabolites demonstrated significant time-dependent dysregulations that the fold changes of these key metabolites decreased from 0.78-1.07 to 0.28-0.82 during carbamate exposure. To summarize, in vivo SPME provided new and important information regarding exogenous carbamate contamination and related metabolic dysregulation in plants.


Assuntos
Brassica , Carbamatos , Metabolômica , Microextração em Fase Sólida
14.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(37): 10885-10892, 2021 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34494818

RESUMO

Broccoli-derived peptides show beneficial metabolic effects, and it is necessary to examine their exact functional sequences. First, peptides from the trypsin hydrolysate of broccoli proteins were isolated and identified using column chromatography and quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. After that, their functions were verified by oral administration. The results identified two novel peptides as Leu-Pro-Gly-Val-Leu-Pro-Val-Ala (LPGVLPVA) and Tyr-Leu-Tyr-Ser-Pro-Ala-Tyr (YLYSPAY). LPGVLPVA exhibited an ACE IC50 value of 0.776 ± 0.03 µM and a DPP-IV IC50 value of 392 ± 24 µM; YLYSPAY showed an ACE IC50 value of 8.52 ± 0.63 µM and a DPP-IV IC50 value of 181 ± 4 µM. Administration of the peptides reduced the blood pressure of spontaneously hypertensive rats and reduced blood glucose levels in the oral glucose tolerance test in mice. The results indicated that LPGVLPVA and YLYSPAY could be potential nutritional candidates for hypertensive and diabetic people, especially for those with diabetes associated with hypertension.


Assuntos
Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina , Brassica , Inibidores da Dipeptidil Peptidase IV , Angiotensina I , Animais , Brassica/química , Camundongos , Peptídeos , Ratos , Tripsina
15.
BMC Genomics ; 22(1): 646, 2021 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34493212

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) has been widely used for commercial F1 hybrid seeds production. CMS is primarily caused by chimeric genes in mitochondrial genomes. However, which specific stages of anther development in cabbage are affected by the chimeric genes remain unclear. RESULTS: In the present study, the complete mitochondrial genomes were sequenced and assembled for the maintainer and Ogura CMS cabbage lines. The genome size of the maintainer and Ogura CMS cabbage are 219,962 bp and 236,648 bp, respectively. There are 67 and 69 unknown function ORFs identified in the maintainer and Ogura CMS cabbage mitochondrial genomes, respectively. Four orfs, orf102a, orf122b, orf138a and orf154a were specifically identified in the Ogura CMS mitochondrial genome, which were likely generated by recombination with Ogura type radish during breeding process. Among them, ORF138a and ORF154a possessed a transmembrane structure, and orf138a was co-transcribed with the atp8 and trnfM genes. orf154a is partially homologous to the ATP synthase subunit 1 (atpA) gene. Both these genes were likely responsible for the CMS phenotype. In addition, cytological sections showed that the abnormal proliferation of tapetal cells might be the immediate cause of cytoplasmic male-sterility in Ogura CMS cabbage lines. RNA-seq results showed that orf138a and orf154a in Ogura CMS might influence transcript levels of genes in energy metabolic pathways. CONCLUSIONS: The presence of orf138a and orf154a lead to increased of ATPase activity and ATP content by affecting the transcript levels of genes in energy metabolic pathways, which could provide more energy for the abnormal proliferation of tapetal cells. Our data provides new insights into cytoplasmic male-sterility from whole mitochondrial genomes, cytology of anther development and transcriptome data.


Assuntos
Brassica , Genoma Mitocondrial , Infertilidade , Brassica/genética , Citoplasma/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Melhoramento Vegetal , Infertilidade das Plantas/genética
16.
BMC Genomics ; 22(1): 687, 2021 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34551703

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Wucai (Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis var. rosularis Tsen) is a cold-tolerant plant that is vulnerable to high temperature. This study explored the response mechanism of wucai to low temperature. In this study, wucai seedlings were treated with different temperatures, including low temperature (LT), high temperature (HT), and a control. RESULTS: According to transcriptomics analysis, the number of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in HT and LT was 10,702 and 7267, respectively, compared with the control. The key genes associated with the physiological response of wucai to the treatments were analyzed. The Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes and Gene Ontology annotations indicated the importance of the photosynthesis and photosynthetic-antenna protein pathways. We found that a high-temperature environment greatly inhibited the expression of important genes in the photosynthetic pathway (BrLhc superfamily members, PsaD, PsaE, PsaD, PsaD, PsbO, PsbP, PsbQ, PsbR, PsbS, PsbW, PsbY, Psb27, and Psb28), whereas low temperature resulted in the expression of certain key genes (BrLhc superfamily members, Psa F, Psa H, Psb S, Psb H, Psb 28). In addition, the wucai seedlings exhibited better photosynthetic performance under low-temperature conditions than high-temperature conditions. CONCLUSIONS: Based on the above results, we speculate that upon exposure to low temperature, the plants developed higher cold tolerance by upregulating the expression of genes related to photosynthesis. Conversely, high-temperature stress inhibited the expression of pivotal genes and weakened the self-regulating ability of the plants.


Assuntos
Brassica , Brassica/genética , Brassica/metabolismo , Temperatura Baixa , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Fotossíntese/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Temperatura , Transcriptoma
17.
Molecules ; 26(17)2021 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34500612

RESUMO

Red cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata) continues to receive increasing attention on its health-promoting properties because of its high glucosinolate content. Glucosinolates are an unstable active substance; however, there are few studies on their changes in different cooking processes. In this study, we investigated the effects of processing methods (boiling, steaming, microwave heating, frying, stir-frying) and boiling time on glucosinolates in red cabbage. Ten glucosinolates, including 4-methoxyglucobrassicin, neoglucobrassicin, glucoalyssin, glucobrassicin, glucoraphanin, glucoiberin, progoitrin, gluconapin and sinigrin, in red cabbage were detected. Decreases of 32.36%, 24.83%, 25.27%, 81.11% and 84.29% for total glucosinolates were observed after boiling, microwaving, steaming, frying and stir-frying. Indole glucosinolates were more efficiently lost compared to aliphatic glucosinolates after boiling, while microwaving, steaming, frying and stir-frying also resulted in a greater reduction in indole glucosinolates than aliphatic glucosinolates. Glucoalyssin, glucoerucin and sinigrin were more thermal sensitive than other glucosinolates. It was confirmed that microwaving and steaming retained higher levels of glucosinolates than other methods and may be better for cooking red cabbage.


Assuntos
Brassica/química , Glucosinolatos/química , Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Culinária/métodos , Glucose/análogos & derivados , Glucose/química , Imidoésteres/química , Indóis/química , Micro-Ondas , Oximas/química , Sulfóxidos/química , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos
18.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(18)2021 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34576026

RESUMO

Quorum sensing (QS) is a microbial cell-cell communication mechanism and plays an important role in bacterial infections. QS-mediated bacterial infections can be blocked through quorum quenching (QQ), which hampers signal accumulation, recognition, and communication. The pathogenicity of numerous bacteria, including Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc), is regulated by diffusible signal factor (DSF), a well-known fatty acid signaling molecule of QS. Cupriavidus pinatubonensis HN-2 could substantially attenuate the infection of XCC through QQ by degrading DSF. The QQ mechanism in strain HN-2, on the other hand, is yet to be known. To understand the molecular mechanism of QQ in strain HN-2, we used whole-genome sequencing and comparative genomics studies. We discovered that the fadT gene encodes acyl-CoA dehydrogenase as a novel QQ enzyme. The results of site-directed mutagenesis demonstrated the requirement of fadT gene for DSF degradation in strain HN-2. Purified FadT exhibited high enzymatic activity and outstanding stability over a broad pH and temperature range with maximal activity at pH 7.0 and 35 °C. No cofactors were required for FadT enzyme activity. The enzyme showed a strong ability to degrade DSF. Furthermore, the expression of fadT in Xcc results in a significant reduction in the pathogenicity in host plants, such as Chinese cabbage, radish, and pakchoi. Taken together, our results identified a novel DSF-degrading enzyme, FadT, in C. pinatubonensis HN-2, which suggests its potential use in the biological control of DSF-mediated pathogens.


Assuntos
Acil-CoA Desidrogenase/genética , Infecções Bacterianas/genética , Ácidos Graxos/genética , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Xanthomonas campestris/genética , Acil-CoA Desidrogenase/química , Acil-CoA Desidrogenase/isolamento & purificação , Infecções Bacterianas/microbiologia , Brassica/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Brassica/microbiologia , Comunicação Celular/genética , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Regulação Enzimológica da Expressão Gênica , Genoma Bacteriano/genética , Genômica , Mutagênese Sítio-Dirigida , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Percepção de Quorum/genética , Raphanus/genética , Raphanus/microbiologia , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Fatores de Virulência/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma , Xanthomonas campestris/enzimologia
19.
BMC Genomics ; 22(1): 654, 2021 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34511073

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The discovery of male sterile materials is of great significance for the development of plant fertility research. Wucai (Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis var. rosularis Tsen) is a variety of non-heading Chinese cabbage. There are few studies on the male sterility of wucai, and the mechanism of male sterility is not clear. In this study, the male sterile mutant MS7-2 and the wild-type fertile plant MF7-2 were studied. RESULTS: Phenotypic characteristics and cytological analysis showed that MS7-2 abortion occurred at the tetrad period. The content of related sugars in the flower buds of MS7-2 was significantly lower than that of MF7-2, and a large amount of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was accumulated. Through transcriptome sequencing of MS7-2 and MF7-2 flower buds at three different developmental stages (a-c), 2865, 3847, and 4981 differentially expressed genes were identified in MS7-2 at the flower bud development stage, stage c, and stage e, respectively, compared with MF7-2. Many of these genes were enriched in carbohydrate metabolism, phenylpropanoid metabolism, and oxidative phosphorylation, and most of them were down-regulated in MS7-2. The down-regulation of genes involved in carbohydrate and secondary metabolite synthesis as well as the accumulation of ROS in MS7-2 led to pollen abortion in MS7-2. CONCLUSIONS: This study helps elucidate the mechanism of anther abortion in wucai, providing a basis for further research on the molecular regulatory mechanisms of male sterility and the screening and cloning of key genes in wucai.


Assuntos
Brassica , Brassica/genética , Flores/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Infertilidade das Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Transcriptoma
20.
J Food Sci ; 86(9): 3884-3895, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34333772

RESUMO

Chinese kale is one of the most popular vegetables in southern China and Asia, but it has a short shelf-life. The effect of high oxygen atmospheric packaging (HOAP) treatment on the respiration rate as well as chlorophyll content and the expression of their metabolism-related genes of the soluble proteins in Chinese kale during storage were assessed. The results showed that Chinese kale subjected to HOAP treatment showed stimulated respiration rate and regulated expression of chlorophyll metabolism-related genes, such as BrChlases, BrPPH (pheophytin pheophorbide hydrolase), BrPAO (pheidea oxygenase gene), BrRCCR (red chlorophyll catabolite reductase), and BrSAG12 (senescence-associated gene), compared to the Chinese kale in the control. The activities of chlorophyll enzymes, that is, Chlase and Mg-dechelatase, were also influenced by HOAP treatment during storage. Furthermore, the total content of soluble proteins was stimulated to accumulate, and the intensity of protein bands, detected by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis profiling, increased in HOAP-treated samples. Based on the current results, as well as the results of our previous study regarding HOAP treatment of other vegetables, we speculate that HOAP may function by regulating the respiration rate and the accumulation of functional proteins, especially chlorophyll catabolic and antioxidant enzymes, to maintain the freshness of Chinese kale during storage. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: HOAP treatment could be a potential method for delaying quality changes and extending the shelf-life of Chinese kale after harvest.


Assuntos
Brassica , Embalagem de Alimentos , Oxigênio , Brassica/química , Brassica/efeitos dos fármacos , Brassica/metabolismo , China , Clorofila/análise , Embalagem de Alimentos/métodos , Embalagem de Alimentos/normas , Oxigênio/farmacologia
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