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1.
Adv Tech Stand Neurosurg ; 50: 335-346, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38592537

RESUMO

Values-based medicine (VsBM) is an ethical concept, and bioethical framework has been developed to ensure that medical ethics and values are implemented, pervasive, and powerful parameters influencing decisions about health, clinical practice, teaching, medical industry, career development, malpractice, and research. Neurosurgeons tend to adopt ethics according to their own values and to what they see and learn from teachers. Neurosurgeons, in general, are aware about ethical codes and the patient's rights. However, the philosophy, concept, and principles of medical ethics are rarely included in the training programs or in training courses. The impact of implementing, observing the medical ethics and the patients' value and culture on the course, and outcome of patients' management should not underestimate. The main principles of medical ethics are autonomy, beneficence, nonmaleficence, justice, dignity, and honesty, which should be strictly observed in every step of medical practice, research, teaching, and publication. Evidence-based medicine has been popularized in the last 40-50 years in order to raise up the standard of medical practice. Medical ethics and values have been associated with the medical practice for thousands of years since patients felt a need for treatment. There is no conflict between evidence-based medicine and values-based medicine, as a medical practice should always be performed within a frame of ethics and respect for patients' values. Observing the principles of values-based medicine became very relevant as multicultural societies are dominant in some countries and hospitals in different corners of the world.


Assuntos
Brassicaceae , Obrigações Morais , Humanos , Conscientização , Beneficência , Códigos de Ética
2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(7)2024 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38612750

RESUMO

AP2/ERF transcription factor family plays an important role in plant development and stress responses. Previous studies have shed light on the evolutionary trajectory of the AP2 and DREB subfamilies. However, knowledge about the evolutionary history of the ERF subfamily in angiosperms still remains limited. In this study, we performed a comprehensive analysis of the ERF subfamily from 107 representative angiosperm species by combining phylogenomic and synteny network approaches. We observed that the expansion of the ERF subfamily was driven not only by whole-genome duplication (WGD) but also by tandem duplication (TD) and transposition duplication events. We also found multiple transposition events in Poaceae, Brassicaceae, Poales, Brassicales, and Commelinids. These events may have had notable impacts on copy number variation and subsequent functional divergence of the ERF subfamily. Moreover, we observed a number of ancient tandem duplications occurred in the ERF subfamily across angiosperms, e.g., in Subgroup IX, IXb originated from ancient tandem duplication events within IXa. These findings together provide novel insights into the evolution of this important transcription factor family.


Assuntos
Brassicaceae , Magnoliopsida , Magnoliopsida/genética , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Poaceae , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
3.
Proc Jpn Acad Ser B Phys Biol Sci ; 100(4): 264-280, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38599847

RESUMO

Self-incompatibility (SI) is a mechanism for preventing self-fertilization in flowering plants. SI is controlled by a single S-locus with multiple haplotypes (S-haplotypes). When the pistil and pollen share the same S-haplotype, the pollen is recognized as self and rejected by the pistil. This review introduces our research on Brassicaceae and Solanaceae SI systems to identify the S-determinants encoded at the S-locus and uncover the mechanisms of self/nonself-discrimination and pollen rejection. The recognition mechanisms of SI systems differ between these families. A self-recognition system is adopted by Brassicaceae, whereas a collaborative nonself-recognition system is used by Solanaceae. Work by our group and subsequent studies indicate that plants have evolved diverse SI systems.


Assuntos
Brassicaceae , Solanaceae , Humanos , Brassicaceae/genética , Solanaceae/genética , Plantas , Pólen , Flores , Proteínas de Plantas
4.
Plant Signal Behav ; 19(1): 2331357, 2024 Dec 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38564424

RESUMO

Ornamental crops particularly cut flowers are considered sensitive to heavy metals (HMs) induced oxidative stress condition. Melatonin (MLT) is a versatile phytohormone with the ability to mitigate abiotic stresses induced oxidative stress in plants. Similarly, signaling molecules such as hydrogen sulfide (H2S) have emerged as potential options for resolving HMs related problems in plants. The mechanisms underlying the combined application of MLT and H2S are not yet explored. Therefore, we evaluated the ability of individual and combined applications of MLT (100 µM) and H2S in the form of sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS), a donor of H2S, (1.5 mM) to alleviate cadmium (Cd) stress (50 mg L-1) in stock (Matthiola incana L.) plants by measuring various morpho-physiological and biochemical characteristics. The results depicted that Cd-stress inhibited growth, photosynthesis and induced Cd-associated oxidative stress as depicted by excessive ROS accumulation. Combined application of MLT and H2S efficiently recovered all these attributes. Furthermore, Cd stress-induced oxidative stress markers including electrolyte leakage, malondialdehyde, and hydrogen peroxide are partially reversed in Cd-stressed plants by MLT and H2S application. This might be attributed to MLT or H2S induced antioxidant plant defense activities, which effectively reduce the severity of oxidative stress indicators. Overall, MLT and H2S supplementation, favorably regulated Cd tolerance in stock; yet, the combined use had a greater effect on Cd tolerance than the independent application.


Assuntos
Brassicaceae , Sulfeto de Hidrogênio , Melatonina , Sulfetos , Sulfeto de Hidrogênio/farmacologia , Cádmio/toxicidade , Melatonina/farmacologia , Estresse Oxidativo , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Brassicaceae/metabolismo , Peróxido de Hidrogênio
5.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0302292, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38626181

RESUMO

Proteins containing domain of unknown function (DUF) are prevalent in eukaryotic genome. The DUF1216 proteins possess a conserved DUF1216 domain resembling to the mediator protein of Arabidopsis RNA polymerase II transcriptional subunit-like protein. The DUF1216 family are specifically existed in Brassicaceae, however, no comprehensive evolutionary analysis of DUF1216 genes have been performed. We performed a first comprehensive genome-wide analysis of DUF1216 proteins in Brassicaceae. Totally 284 DUF1216 genes were identified in 27 Brassicaceae species and classified into four subfamilies on the basis of phylogenetic analysis. The analysis of gene structure and conserved motifs revealed that DUF1216 genes within the same subfamily exhibited similar intron/exon patterns and motif composition. The majority members of DUF1216 genes contain a signal peptide in the N-terminal, and the ninth position of the signal peptide in most DUF1216 is cysteine. Synteny analysis revealed that segmental duplication is a major mechanism for expanding of DUF1216 genes in Brassica oleracea, Brassica juncea, Brassica napus, Lepidium meyneii, and Brassica carinata, while in Arabidopsis thaliana and Capsella rubella, tandem duplication plays a major role in the expansion of the DUF1216 gene family. The analysis of Ka/Ks (non-synonymous substitution rate/synonymous substitution rate) ratios for DUF1216 paralogous indicated that most of gene pairs underwent purifying selection. DUF1216 genes displayed a specifically high expression in reproductive tissues in most Brassicaceae species, while its expression in Brassica juncea was specifically high in root. Our studies offered new insights into the phylogenetic relationships, gene structures and expressional patterns of DUF1216 members in Brassicaceae, which provides a foundation for future functional analysis.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis , Brassicaceae , Brassicaceae/genética , Duplicação Gênica , Filogenia , Evolução Molecular , Genoma de Planta , Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Mostardeira/genética , Sinais Direcionadores de Proteínas/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas
6.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 265(Pt 1): 130849, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38484807

RESUMO

This study aimed to enhance carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC)-based films by incorporating zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) and cress seed mucilage (CSM), with a view to augmenting the physical, mechanical, and permeability properties of the resulting nanocomposite films. For the first time, CSM was exploited as a green surfactant to synthetize ZnO NPs using hydrothermal method. Seven distinct film samples were meticulously produced and subjected to a comprehensive array of analyses. The findings revealed that the incorporation of CSM/ZnO-5 % improved the physical properties of the films, demonstrating a significant reduction in moisture content and water vapor permeability (WVP). Increasing the concentration of NPs in conjunction with CSM markedly decreased the solubility of the nanocomposites by up to 56 %. The films containing CSM/ZnO showed higher tensile strength and elongation at the break values. The UV absorption of the films exhibited a substantial rise with the addition of ZnO NPs, particularly with an increased content in the presence of CSM. The thermal stability of nanocomposites containing a high concentration of CSM/ZnO exhibited an improvement compared to the control sample. In light of these results, the CMC/CSM/ZnO-5 % film emerges as a promising candidate for a biocompatible packaging material, exhibiting favorable physical characteristics.


Assuntos
Brassicaceae , Nanocompostos , Nanopartículas , Óxido de Zinco , Antibacterianos , Carboximetilcelulose Sódica , Tensoativos , Polissacarídeos , Materiais Biocompatíveis , Verduras
7.
Funct Plant Biol ; 512024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38479792

RESUMO

Pugionium cornutum is an annual or biennial xerophyte distributed in arid regions, with drought resistance properties. While previous studies have predominantly focused on the physiological changes of P. cornutum , the understanding of its metabolite variations remains limited. In this study, untargeted metabolomic technology was performed to analyse the change of metabolites in the roots of P. cornutum seedlings under drought stress. Our findings revealed that compared to the R1, the root water potential and the number of lateral roots increased, while the length of the tap root and fresh weight increased first and then decreased. In the R1-R2, a total of 45 differential metabolites (DMs) were identified, whereas in the R1-R3 82 DMs were observed. Subsequently, KEGG analysis revealed a significant enrichment of microbial metabolism in diverse environments and aminobenzoate degradation in the R1-R2, and phenylpropanoid biosynthesis, ubiquinone, and other terpenoid-quinone biosynthesis and isoquinoline alkaloid biosynthesis were significantly enriched in the R1-R3. The upregulation DMs, including L-arginosuccinate, L-tyrosine, p-coumarate, caffeate, ferulate, vanillin, coniferin, 5-aminopentanoate, 2-methylmaleate and 2-furoate in P. cornutum seedlings may play a crucial role in enhancing root growth and improving drought resistance. These findings provide a basis for future investigations into the underlying mechanisms of drought resistance in P. cornutum .


Assuntos
Brassicaceae , Plântula , Secas , Metabolômica , Água/metabolismo , Regulação para Cima , Brassicaceae/metabolismo
8.
Molecules ; 29(6)2024 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38542949

RESUMO

Orychophragmus violaceus (L.) O. E. Schulz (Brassicaceae) is widely distributed and plentiful in China and has been widely used for its application in ornamental, oil, ecology, foraging, and food. Recent studies have revealed that the main components of Orychophragmus violaceus include flavonoids, alkaloids, phenylpropanoids, phenolic acids, terpenoids, etc., which have pharmacological activities such as antioxidation, antiradiation, antitumor, hepatic protection, antiferroptosis, anti-inflammatory, and antibacterial. In this paper, the nutritional value, chemical compositions, pharmacological activity, and application value of Orychophragmus violaceus are summarized by referring to the relevant domestic and international literature to provide a reference for further research, development, and utilization of Orychophragmus violaceus in the future.


Assuntos
Alcaloides , Brassicaceae , Brassicaceae/química , Alimentos , Fígado , Valor Nutritivo
9.
Nutrients ; 16(6)2024 Mar 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38542669

RESUMO

Isothiocyanates are biologically active products resulting from the hydrolysis of glucosinolates predominantly present in cruciferous vegetables belonging to the Brassicaceae family. Numerous studies have demonstrated the diverse bioactivities of various isothiocyanates, encompassing anticarcinogenic, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidative properties. Nature harbors distinct isothiocyanate precursors, glucosinolates such as glucoraphanin and gluconastrin, each characterized by unique structures, physical properties, and pharmacological potentials. This comprehensive review aims to consolidate the current understanding of Moringa isothiocyanates, mainly 4-[(α-L-rhamnosyloxy) benzyl] isothiocyanate), comparing this compound with other well-studied isothiocyanates such as sulforaphane and phenyl ethyl isothiocyanates. The focus is directed toward elucidating differences and similarities in the efficacy of these compounds as agents with anticancer, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidative properties.


Assuntos
Anticarcinógenos , Brassicaceae , Glucosinolatos/farmacologia , Brassicaceae/química , Isotiocianatos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios , Anticarcinógenos/farmacologia
10.
Cell Rep ; 43(3): 113913, 2024 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38442016

RESUMO

The self-incompatibility system evolves in angiosperms to promote cross-pollination by rejecting self-pollination. Here, we show the involvement of Exo84c in the SI response of both Brassica napus and Arabidopsis. The expression of Exo84c is specifically elevated in stigma during the SI response. Knocking out Exo84c in B. napus and SI Arabidopsis partially breaks down the SI response. The SI response inhibits both the protein secretion in papillae and the recruitment of the exocyst complex to the pollen-pistil contact sites. Interestingly, these processes can be partially restored in exo84c SI Arabidopsis. After incompatible pollination, the turnover of the exocyst-labeled compartment is enhanced in papillae. However, this process is perturbed in exo84c SI Arabidopsis. Taken together, our results suggest that Exo84c regulates the exocyst complex vacuolar degradation during the SI response. This process is likely independent of the known SI pathway in Brassicaceae to secure the SI response.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis , Arabidopsis , Brassicaceae , Brassicaceae/genética , Brassicaceae/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Pólen/metabolismo , Transporte Proteico , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo
11.
Physiol Plant ; 176(1): e14201, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38342620

RESUMO

Successful overwintering is a prerequisite for high fitness in temperate perennials and winter annuals and is highly dependent on increased freezing tolerance and timely balancing of deacclimation with growth resumption in spring. To assess fitness costs associated with overwintering and elucidate metabolic mechanisms underlying winter survival and the switch from acclimated freezing tolerance to growth resumption, we performed a comparative field study using 14 Eutrema salsugineum accessions, E. halophilum, E. botschantzevii and 11 Arabidopsis thaliana accessions differing in freezing tolerance. Winter survival and reproductive fitness parameters were recorded and correlated with phenological stage and metabolite status during growth resumption in spring. The results revealed considerable intraspecific variation in winter survival, but survival rates of the extremophyte Eutrema were not inherently better. In both Eutrema and A. thaliana, improved winter survival was associated with reduced reproductive fitness. Metabolic analysis by GC-MS revealed intrinsic differences in the primary metabolism of the two genera during deacclimation. Eutrema contained higher levels of several amino and chlorogenic acids, while Arabidopsis had higher levels of several sugars and sugar conjugates. In both genera, increased levels of several soluble sugars were associated with increased winter survival, whereas myo-inositol has different roles in overwintering of Eutrema and A. thaliana. In addition, differences in amino acid metabolism and polyhydroxy acids levels after winter survival were found. The results provide strong evidence for a trade-off between increased winter survival and reproductive fitness in both Eutrema and Arabidopsis and document inherent differences in their metabolic strategies to survive winter.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis , Brassicaceae , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Brassicaceae/metabolismo , Aclimatação , Açúcares/metabolismo , Alemanha
12.
BMC Plant Biol ; 24(1): 111, 2024 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38360561

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The ephemeral flora of northern Xinjiang, China, plays an important role in the desert ecosystems. However, the evolutionary history of this flora remains unclear. To gain new insights into its origin and evolutionary dynamics, we comprehensively sampled ephemeral plants of Brassicaceae, one of the essential plant groups of the ephemeral flora. RESULTS: We reconstructed a phylogenetic tree using plastid genomes and estimated their divergence times. Our results indicate that ephemeral species began to colonize the arid areas in north Xinjiang during the Early Miocene and there was a greater dispersal of ephemeral species from the surrounding areas into the ephemeral community of north Xinjiang during the Middle and Late Miocene, in contrast to the Early Miocene or Pliocene periods. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings, together with previous studies, suggest that the ephemeral flora originated in the Early Miocene, and species assembly became rapid from the Middle Miocene onwards, possibly attributable to global climate changes and regional geological events.


Assuntos
Brassicaceae , Ecossistema , Filogenia , Brassicaceae/genética , China , Plastídeos/genética
13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(3)2024 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38339216

RESUMO

Climate change is expected to intensify the occurrence of abiotic stress in plants, such as hypoxia and salt stresses, leading to the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which need to be effectively managed by various oxido-reductases encoded by the so-called ROS gene network. Here, we studied six oxido-reductases families in three Brassicaceae species, Arabidopsis thaliana as well as Nasturtium officinale and Eutrema salsugineum, which are adapted to hypoxia and salt stress, respectively. Using available and new genomic data, we performed a phylogenomic analysis and compared RNA-seq data to study genomic and transcriptomic adaptations. This comprehensive approach allowed for the gaining of insights into the impact of the adaptation to saline or hypoxia conditions on genome organization (gene gains and losses) and transcriptional regulation. Notably, the comparison of the N. officinale and E. salsugineum genomes to that of A. thaliana highlighted changes in the distribution of ohnologs and homologs, particularly affecting class III peroxidase genes (CIII Prxs). These changes were specific to each gene, to gene families subjected to duplication events and to each species, suggesting distinct evolutionary responses. The analysis of transcriptomic data has allowed for the identification of genes related to stress responses in A. thaliana, and, conversely, to adaptation in N. officinale and E. salsugineum.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis , Brassicaceae , Brassicaceae/genética , Arabidopsis/genética , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Oxirredutases/genética , Hipóxia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Estresse Fisiológico
14.
Viruses ; 16(2)2024 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38400004

RESUMO

Oysters that filter feed can accumulate numerous pathogens, including viruses, which can serve as a valuable viral repository. As oyster farming becomes more prevalent, concerns are mounting about diseases that can harm both cultivated and wild oysters. Unfortunately, there is a lack of research on the viruses and other factors that can cause illness in shellfish. This means that it is harder to find ways to prevent these diseases and protect the oysters. This is part of a previously started project, the Dataset of Oyster Virome, in which we further study 30 almost complete genomes of oyster-associated CRESS DNA viruses. The replication-associated proteins and capsid proteins found in CRESS DNA viruses display varying evolutionary rates and frequently undergo recombination. Additionally, some CRESS DNA viruses have the capability for cross-species transmission. A plethora of unclassified CRESS DNA viruses are detectable in transcriptome libraries, exhibiting higher levels of transcriptional activity than those found in metagenome libraries. The study significantly enhances our understanding of the diversity of oyster-associated CRESS DNA viruses, emphasizing the widespread presence of CRESS DNA viruses in the natural environment and the substantial portion of CRESS DNA viruses that remain unidentified. This study's findings provide a basis for further research on the biological and ecological roles of viruses in oysters and their environment.


Assuntos
Brassicaceae , Vírus , DNA Viral/genética , Viroma , Vírus de DNA/genética , Vírus/genética , Filogenia , Genoma Viral
15.
Food Chem ; 446: 138886, 2024 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38422641

RESUMO

Pickled radish is a traditional fermented food with a unique flavor after long-term preservation. This study analyzed the organoleptic and chemical characteristics of pickled radish from different years to investigate quality changes during pickling. The results showed that the sourness, saltiness, and aftertaste-bitterness increased after pickling, and bitterness and astringency decreased. The levels of free amino acids, soluble sugars, total phenols, and total flavonoids initially decreased during pickling but increased with prolonged pickling. The diversity of organic acids also increased over time. Through non-targeted metabolomics analysis, 349 differential metabolites causing metabolic changes were identified to affect the quality formation of pickled radish mainly through amino acid metabolism, phenylpropane biosynthesis and lipid metabolism. Correlation analysis showed that L*, soluble sugars, lactic acid, and acetic acid were strongly associated with taste quality. These findings provide a theoretical basis for standardizing and scaling up traditional pickled radish production.


Assuntos
Brassicaceae , Raphanus , Nariz Eletrônico , Metabolômica/métodos , Açúcares
16.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 31(13): 19649-19657, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38363510

RESUMO

The uptake, translocation, and metabolization of four widely used drugs, amitriptyline, orphenadrine, lidocaine, and tramadol, were investigated in a laboratory study. Cress (Lepidium sativum L.) and pea (Pisum sativum L.) were employed as model plants. These plants were grown in tap water containing the selected pharmaceuticals at concentrations ranging from 0.010 to 10 mg L-1, whereby the latter concentration was employed for the (tentative) identification of drug-related metabolites formed within the plant. Thereby, mainly phase I metabolites were detected. Time-resolved uptake studies, with sampling after 1, 2, 4, 8, and 16 days, revealed that all four pharmaceuticals were taken up by the roots and further relocated to plant stem and leaves. Also in these studies, the corresponding phase I metabolites could be detected, and their translocation from root to stem (pea only) and finally leaves could be investigated.


Assuntos
Brassicaceae , Tramadol , Amitriptilina/metabolismo , Ervilhas , Orfenadrina/metabolismo , Lidocaína/metabolismo , Plantas/metabolismo , Verduras , Preparações Farmacêuticas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo
17.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 208: 108470, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38422576

RESUMO

Camelinasativa has considerable promise as a dedicated industrial oilseed crop. Its oil-based blends have been tested and approved as liquid transportation fuels. Previously, we utilized metabolomic and transcriptomic profiling approaches and identified metabolic bottlenecks that control oil production and accumulation in seeds. Accordingly, we selected candidate genes for the metabolic engineering of Camelina. Here we targeted the overexpression of Camelina PDCT gene, which encodes the phosphatidylcholine: diacylglycerol cholinephosphotransferase enzyme. PDCT is proposed as a gatekeeper responsible for the interconversions of diacylglycerol (DAG) and phosphatidylcholine (PC) pools and has the potential to increase the levels of TAG in seeds. To confirm whether increased CsPDCT activity in developing Camelina seeds would enhance carbon flux toward increased levels of TAG and alter oil composition, we overexpressed the CsPDCT gene under the control of the seed-specific phaseolin promoter. Camelina transgenics exhibited significant increases in seed yield (19-56%), seed oil content (9-13%), oil yields per plant (32-76%), and altered polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) content compared to their parental wild-type (WT) plants. Results from [14C] acetate labeling of Camelina developing embryos expressing CsPDCT in culture indicated increased rates of radiolabeled fatty acid incorporation into glycerolipids (up to 64%, 59%, and 43% higher in TAG, DAG, and PC, respectively), relative to WT embryos. We conclude that overexpression of PDCT appears to be a positive strategy to achieve a synergistic effect on the flux through the TAG synthesis pathway, thereby further increasing oil yields in Camelina.


Assuntos
Brassicaceae , Fosfatidilcolinas , Fosfatidilcolinas/metabolismo , Triglicerídeos/metabolismo , Brassicaceae/genética , Brassicaceae/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Sementes/genética , Sementes/metabolismo , Ciclo do Carbono , Óleos de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/metabolismo
18.
Food Microbiol ; 119: 104432, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38225040

RESUMO

Leafy greens, especially lettuce, are repeatedly linked to foodborne outbreaks. This paper studied the susceptibility of different leafy greens to human pathogens. Five commonly consumed leafy greens, including romaine lettuce, green-leaf lettuce, baby spinach, kale, and collard, were selected by their outbreak frequencies. The behavior of E. coli O157:H7 87-23 on intact leaf surfaces and in their lysates was investigated. Bacterial attachment was positively correlated with leaf surface roughness and affected by the epicuticular wax composition. At room temperature, E. coli O157:H7 had the best growth potentials on romaine and green-leaf lettuce surfaces. The bacterial growth was positively correlated with stomata size and affected by epicuticular wax compositions. At 37 °C, E. coli O157:H7 87-23 was largely inhibited by spinach and collard lysates, and it became undetectable in kale lysate after 24 h of incubation. Kale and collard lysates also delayed or partially inhibited the bacterial growth in TSB and lettuce lysate at 37 °C, and they sharply reduced the E. coli O157:H7 population on green leaf lettuce at 4 °C. In summary, the susceptibility of leafy greens to E. coli O157:H7 is determined by a produce-specific combination of physiochemical properties and temperature.


Assuntos
Brassicaceae , Escherichia coli O157 , Humanos , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Temperatura , Alface , Spinacia oleracea/microbiologia , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise
19.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 198: 105708, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38225062

RESUMO

Descurainia sophia (flixweed) is a troublesome weed in winter wheat fields in North China. Resistant D. sophia populations with different acetolactate synthetase (ALS) mutations have been reported in recent years. In addition, metabolic resistance to ALS-inhibiting herbicides has also been identified. In this study, we collected and purified two resistant D. sophia populations (R1 and R2), which were collected from winter wheat fields where tribenuron-methyl provided no control of D. sophia at 30 g a.i. ha-1. Whole plant bioassay and ALS activity assay results showed the R1 and R2 populations had evolved high-level resistance to tribenuron-methyl and florasulam and cross-resistance to imazethapyr and pyrithiobac­sodium. The two ALS genes were cloned from the leaves of R1 and R2 populations, ALS1 (2004 bp) and ALS2 (1998 bp). A mutation of Trp 574 to Leu in ALS1 was present in both R1 and R2. ALS1 and ALS2 were cloned from R1 and R2 populations respectively and transferred into Arabidopsis thaliana. Homozygous T3 transgenic seedlings with ALS1 of R1 or R2 were resistant to ALS-inhibiting herbicides and the resistant levels were the same. Transgenic seedlings with ALS2 from R1 or R2 were susceptible to ALS-inhibiting herbicides. Treatment with cytochrome P450 inhibitor malathion decreased the resistant levels to tribenuron-methyl in R1 and R2. RNA-Seq was used to identify target cytochrome P450 genes possibly involved in resistance to ALS-inhibiting herbicides. There were five up-regulated differentially expressed cytochrome P450 genes: CYP72A15, CYP83B1, CYP81D8, CYP72A13 and CYP71A12. Among of them, CYP72A15 had the highest expression level in R1 and R2 populations. The R1 and R2 populations of D. sophia have evolved resistance to ALS-inhibiting herbicides due to Trp 574 Leu mutation in ALS1 and possibly other mechanisms. The resistant function of CYP72A15 needs further research.


Assuntos
Acetolactato Sintase , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral , Sulfonatos de Arila , Brassicaceae , Herbicidas , Acetolactato Sintase/metabolismo , Brassicaceae/genética , Herbicidas/farmacologia , Mutação , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/genética , Resistência a Herbicidas/genética
20.
BMC Genomics ; 25(1): 29, 2024 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38172664

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Orychophragmus violaceus is a potentially important industrial oilseed crop due to the two 24-carbon dihydroxy fatty acids (diOH-FA) that was newly identified from its seed oil via a 'discontinuous elongation' process. Although many research efforts have focused on the diOH-FA biosynthesis mechanism and identified the potential co-expressed diacylglycerol acyltranferase (DGAT) gene associated with triacylglycerol (TAG)-polyestolides biosynthesis, the dynamics of metabolic changes during seed development of O. violaceus as well as its associated regulatory network changes are poorly understood. RESULTS: In this study, by combining metabolome and transcriptome analysis, we identified that 1,003 metabolites and 22,479 genes were active across four stages of seed development, which were further divided into three main clusters based on the patterns of metabolite accumulation and/or gene expression. Among which, cluster2 was mostly related to diOH-FA biosynthesis pathway. We thus further constructed transcription factor (TF)-structural genes regulatory map for the genes associated with the flavonoids, fatty acids and diOH-FA biosynthesis pathway in this cluster. In particular, several TF families such as bHLH, B3, HD-ZIP, MYB were found to potentially regulate the metabolism associated with the diOH-FA pathway. Among which, multiple candidate TFs with promising potential for increasing the diOH-FA content were identified, and we further traced the evolutionary history of these key genes among species of Brassicaceae. CONCLUSION: Taken together, our study provides new insight into the gene resources and potential relevant regulatory mechanisms of diOH-FA biosynthesis uniquely in seeds of O. violaceus, which will help to promote the downstream breeding efforts of this potential oilseed crop and advance the bio-lubricant industry.


Assuntos
Brassicaceae , Melhoramento Vegetal , Humanos , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Brassicaceae/genética , Brassicaceae/metabolismo , Sementes/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Óleos de Plantas/análise , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas
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