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1.
Vet Med Sci ; 10(3): e1446, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38595033

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cross-border livestock mobility through transhumance is mainly practiced in West African countries for seasonal access to resources and market. Cross-border herds are involved in the dynamic of transboundary animal diseases among them brucellosis taken as model. Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease causing abortion. OBJECTIVES: This study explores the seroprevalence of brucellosis according to mobility and infection spread between Mali and Côte d'Ivoire in the context of seasonal cross-border transhumance. METHODS: From February to April 2021, a transversal serological survey of brucellosis was conducted on 521 cattle from 111 transhumant herds and 283 cattle from 59 sedentary herds, all from Mali. RESULTS: The global individual seroprevalence for Brucella spp. in transhumant and sedentary cattle from Mali was 8.2% (95% CI = 6.0-10.5). At herd level, seroprevalence was 21.2% with a significant variation between transhumant (11.7%) and sedentary (39.0%) herds. For herds in transhumance, cattle seropositivity was associated with a previous infection suspected by herdsmen odds ratio (OR = 4.4; 95% CI = 1.1-18.1) and unknown abortion aetiology (OR = 4.3; 95% CI = 1.0-17.3). The departure region (coming from Sikasso) and previous brucellosis infection or unexplained abortion could be used to predict Brucella infection in transhumant herds with a probability of around 60%. The risk of brucellosis introduction in host regions was high despite the individual animal seroprevalence of 3.6% and a low sale rate in transhumant cattle. CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest that testing transhumant during border control and survey of cattle markets and sales could improve risk control of the spread of disease at regional scale.


Assuntos
Brucella , Brucelose , Gravidez , Feminino , Animais , Bovinos , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Brucelose/epidemiologia , Brucelose/veterinária , Zoonoses , Fatores de Risco
2.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 28(6): 2550-2557, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38567614

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Non-specific features of spondylodiscitis lead to a delay and challenge in the diagnosis/differential diagnosis/treatment processes, and thus, serious complications may arise. This study aims to compare brucellar, pyogenic, and tuberculous types of spondylodiscitis, considering their demographic, clinical, and laboratory differences. This may provide more rapid management and good outcomes. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 131 patients with infectious spondylodiscitis were included in the study. The patients were divided into brucellar (n=63), pyogenic (n=53), and tuberculous (n=15) types of spondylodiscitis and compared for demographic, clinical, laboratory, and imaging features. RESULTS: Tuberculous spondylodiscitis had higher scores for weight loss, painless palpation, thoracic spine involvement, and psoas abscess formation than other spondylodiscitis. Also, tuberculous spondylodiscitis had higher rates of neurologic deficit and lower rates of lumbar involvement than brucellar spondylodiscitis. Pyogenic spondylodiscitis is more likely to occur in patients who have a history of spine surgery compared to other forms of spondylodiscitis. Also, pyogenic spondylodiscitis had higher rates of fever, erythema, paraspinal abscess, white blood cell (WBC), and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) than brucellar spondylodiscitis. On the other hand, brucellar spondylodiscitis had higher rates of rural living and sweating than pyogenic spondylodiscitis. CONCLUSIONS: Weight loss, painless palpation, involved thoracic spine, psoas abscess, and neurologic deficit are symptoms favoring tuberculous spondylodiscitis. History of spine surgery, high fever, skin erythema, and paraspinal abscess are findings in favor of pyogenic spondylodiscitis. Rural living, sweating, and involved lumbar spine are symptoms that indicate brucellar spondylodiscitis. These symptoms can be used to distinguish the types of spondylodiscitis.


Assuntos
Brucella , Discite , Abscesso do Psoas , Tuberculose , Humanos , Discite/diagnóstico , Discite/tratamento farmacológico , Abscesso do Psoas/complicações , Vértebras Lombares , Eritema , Redução de Peso , Estudos Retrospectivos
3.
Cell Host Microbe ; 32(4): 588-605.e9, 2024 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38531364

RESUMO

Many powerful methods have been employed to elucidate the global transcriptomic, proteomic, or metabolic responses to pathogen-infected host cells. However, the host glycome responses to bacterial infection remain largely unexplored, and hence, our understanding of the molecular mechanisms by which bacterial pathogens manipulate the host glycome to favor infection remains incomplete. Here, we address this gap by performing a systematic analysis of the host glycome during infection by the bacterial pathogen Brucella spp. that cause brucellosis. We discover, surprisingly, that a Brucella effector protein (EP) Rhg1 induces global reprogramming of the host cell N-glycome by interacting with components of the oligosaccharide transferase complex that controls N-linked protein glycosylation, and Rhg1 regulates Brucella replication and tissue colonization in a mouse model of brucellosis, demonstrating that Brucella exploits the EP Rhg1 to reprogram the host N-glycome and promote bacterial intracellular parasitism, thereby providing a paradigm for bacterial control of host cell infection.


Assuntos
Brucella , Brucelose , Animais , Camundongos , Brucella/fisiologia , Proteômica , Brucelose/metabolismo , Retículo Endoplasmático/metabolismo
4.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 18(3): e0012046, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38498555

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Brucellosis is a febrile zoonosis occurring among high-risk groups such as livestock keepers and abattoir workers and is a public health priority in Uganda. The technical complexities of bacteriological and molecular methods make serological approaches the cornerstone of diagnosis of human brucellosis in resource limited settings. Therefore, proper application and interpretation of serological tests is central to achieve a correct diagnosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study to estimate the seroprevalence and factors associated with anti-Brucella antibodies among slaughterhouse workers processing ruminants and pigs in three regions of the country with serial testing using a combination of the Rose Bengal Test (RBT) and the BrucellaCapt test. An authorized clinician collected 543 blood samples from consenting abattoir workers as well as attribute medical and social demographic data. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression were used to determine factors associated with anti-Brucella sero-positivity. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: The sero-prevalence among ruminant slaughterhouse workers ranged from 7.3% (95% CI: 4.8-10.7) using BrucellaCapt to 9.0% (95% CI: 6.3-12.7) using RBT. Slaughterhouse workers from the Eastern regions (AOR = 9.84, 95%CI 2.27-69.2, p = 0.006) and those who graze animals for alternative income (AOR = 2.36, 95% CI: 1.91-6.63, p = 0.040) were at a higher risk of exposure to Brucella. Similarly, those who wore Personal Protective Equipment (AOR = 4.83, 95%CI:1.63-18.0, p = 0.009) and those who slaughter cattle (AOR = 2.12, 95%CI: 1.25-6.0, p = 0.006) were at a higher risk of exposure to Brucella. Those who slaughter small ruminants (AOR = 1.54, 95%CI: 1.32-4.01, p = 0.048) were also at a higher risk of exposure to Brucella. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS: Our study demonstrates the combined practical application of the RBT and BrucellaCapt in the diagnosis of human brucellosis in endemic settings. Both pharmaceutical (e.g., routine testing and timely therapeutic intervention), and non-pharmaceutical (e.g., higher index of suspicion of brucellosis when investigating fevers of unknown origin and observation of strict abattoir hygiene) countermeasures should be considered for control of the disease in high-risk groups.


Assuntos
Brucella , Brucelose , Animais , Humanos , Bovinos , Suínos , Matadouros , Prevalência , Uganda/epidemiologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Estudos Transversais , Brucelose/epidemiologia , Brucelose/veterinária , Brucelose/diagnóstico , Ruminantes , Fatores de Risco , Rosa Bengala , Anticorpos Antibacterianos
5.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 14: 1342684, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38533384

RESUMO

Brucella consists of gram-negative bacteria that have the ability to invade and replicate in professional and non-professional phagocytes, and its prolonged persistence in the host leads to brucellosis, a serious zoonosis. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are the best-known sensors of microorganisms implicated in the regulation of innate and adaptive immunity. In particular, TLRs are transmembrane proteins with a typical structure of an extracellular leucine-rich repeat (LRR) region and an intracellular Toll/interleukin-1 receptor (TIR) domain. In this review, we discuss Brucella infection and the aspects of host immune responses induced by pathogens. Furthermore, we summarize the roles of TLRs in Brucella infection, with substantial emphasis on the molecular insights into its mechanisms of action.


Assuntos
Brucella , Brucelose , Humanos , Receptores Toll-Like , Imunidade Inata
6.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 7278, 2024 03 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38538674

RESUMO

Brucella, a gram-negative intracellular bacterium, causing Brucellosis, a zoonotic disease with a range of clinical manifestations, from asymptomatic to fever, fatigue, loss of appetite, joint and muscle pain, and back pain, severe patients have developed serious diseases affecting various organs. The mRNA vaccine is an innovative type of vaccine that is anticipated to supplant traditional vaccines. It is widely utilized for preventing viral infections and for tumor immunotherapy. However, research regarding its effectiveness in preventing bacterial infections is limited. In this study, we analyzed the epitopes of two proteins of brucella, the TonB-dependent outer membrane receptor BtuB and the LPS assembly protein LptD, which is involved in nutrient transport and LPS synthesis in Brucella. In order to effectively stimulate cellular and humoral immunity, we utilize a range of immunoinformatics tools such as VaxiJen, AllergenFPv.1.0 and SignalP 5.0 to design proteins. Finally, five cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) cell epitopes, ten helper T lymphocyte (HTL) cell epitopes, and eight B cell epitopes were selected to construct the vaccine. Computer simulations are also used to verify the immune response of the vaccine. The codon optimization, in silico cloning showed that the vaccine can efficiently transcript and translate in E. coli. The secondary structure of mRNA vaccines and the secondary and tertiary structures of vaccine peptides were predicted and then docked with TLR-4. Finally, the stability of the developed vaccine was confirmed through molecular dynamics simulation. These analyses showed that the design the multi-epitope mRNA vaccine could potentially target extracellular protein of prevalent Brucella, which provided novel strategies for developing the vaccine.


Assuntos
Brucella , Proteínas de Escherichia coli , Vacinas , Humanos , Brucella/genética , Vacinas de mRNA , Escherichia coli , Lipopolissacarídeos , Epitopos de Linfócito T , Epitopos de Linfócito B , Linfócitos T Citotóxicos , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Vacinas de Subunidades , Biologia Computacional , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Proteínas da Membrana Bacteriana Externa/genética
7.
Chirality ; 36(2): e23643, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38384156

RESUMO

In this study, lipase-catalyzed resolution of N-acetyl-DL-methionine methyl ester (N-Ac-DL-MetOMe) was evaluated. A lipase from Brucella thiophenivorans was prone to exhibit high activity and excellent enantioselectivity toward N-Ac-DL-MetOMe to produce the key chiral intermediate N-acetyl-L-methionine methyl ester (N-Ac-L-MetOMe). The results showed that the enzymatic reaction was carried out in 100 g/L racemic substrate for 2 h, the conversion reached 51.3%, the enantiomeric excess value N-Ac-L-MetOMe exceeded 99%, and the enantiomeric ratio value >200. Therefore, the lipase from B. thiophenivorans has potential prospects for the resolution of N-Ac-DL-MetOMe to produce the important intermediate N-Ac-L-MetOMe.


Assuntos
Brucella , Lipase , Metionina/análogos & derivados , Ésteres , Estereoisomerismo
9.
PLoS One ; 19(2): e0297550, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38359069

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Delayed diagnosis and inadequate treatment of infectious and inflammatory diseases, such as Brucella, lead to high rates of mortality and morbidity. The aim of our study was to investigate the association between serum levels of apelin, presepsin, and irisin with inflammation, laboratory parameters, and blood culture in patients with brucella. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This prospective case-control study involves 30 patients with brucellosis and 30 healthy, matched control subjects. Thirty patients who were diagnosed with brucellosis were aged ≥ 18 years. Blood samples were taken from the patients on the first day they were diagnosed with brucellosis. The values of irisin, presepsin, and apelin were studied. In addition, blood samples were also taken from 30 healthy individuals for the control group. Irisin, presepsin, and apelin values that were measured in the patients on the first day were compared with those values measured in the control group. RESULTS: The sex and age statuses of the subjects are matched among the groups. The levels of irisin were significantly higher in patients with brucellosis compared to the control group (p<0.045). There was no significant difference between the two groups in terms of apelin and presepsin levels (p values 0.087 and 0.162, respectively). There was a positive correlation between irisin levels and elevated ALT levels, as well as positive blood cultures. CONCLUSIONS: It appears that the measurement of irisin levels may be beneficial in patients with brucellosis. Irisin can be used as a diagnostic marker for brucella infection and may greatly clinicians to predict the severity disease and treatment response.


Assuntos
Brucella , Brucelose , Humanos , Apelina , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Fibronectinas , Brucelose/diagnóstico , Biomarcadores , Fragmentos de Peptídeos , Receptores de Lipopolissacarídeos
10.
J Int Med Res ; 52(2): 3000605241234050, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38422032

RESUMO

Periprosthetic hip infection caused by Brucella abortus is rare and only a few cases have been reported. This current case report presents a case of a man in his early 50s who developed periprosthetic hip infection 2 years after right hip arthroplasty. There was no fever or pain, the usual cardinal signs of infection, except for a sinus tract at the previous surgical incision. Laboratory and arthrocentesis culture examinations (done twice) confirmed infection with B. abortus. Accordingly, a two-stage revision surgery was performed accompanied by antibiotic treatment with doxycycline and rifampicin after each stage. There was no recurrence at the 2-year follow-up, with good functional recovery of the hip joint. Clinically, this case serves to highlight the fact that periprosthetic hip infections caused by B. abortus might not present with the typical symptoms such as fever or hip pain. Furthermore, this current case involved a chronic sinus tract, so the diagnostic and therapeutic course of this case offers useful insights for managing similar cases in the future. In addition, a review of the literature on the diagnosis and treatment of Brucella-caused periprosthetic hip infection is presented.


Assuntos
Artroplastia de Quadril , Brucella , Brucelose , Humanos , Masculino , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Artroplastia de Quadril/efeitos adversos , Brucelose/diagnóstico , Brucelose/tratamento farmacológico , Dor/tratamento farmacológico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
11.
Curr Opin Microbiol ; 78: 102427, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38309247

RESUMO

Members of the genus Brucella are the causative agents of brucellosis, a worldwide zoonosis affecting wild and domestic animals and humans. These facultative intracellular pathogens cause long-lasting chronic infections by evolving sophisticated strategies to counteract, evade, or subvert host bactericidal mechanisms in order to establish a secure replicative niche necessary for their survival. In this review, we present recent findings on selected Brucella effectors to illustrate how this pathogen modulates host cell signaling pathways to gain control of the vacuole, promote the formation of a safe intracellular replication niche, alter host cell metabolism to its advantage, and exploit various cellular pathways to ensure egress from the infected cell.


Assuntos
Brucella , Brucelose , Animais , Humanos , Brucella/genética , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Vacúolos
12.
Microbiol Spectr ; 12(4): e0338323, 2024 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38376367

RESUMO

Brucella is a zoonotic intracellular bacterium that poses threats to human health and economic security. Intracellular infection is a hallmark of the agent Brucella and a primary cause of distress, through which the bacterium regulates the host intracellular environment to promote its own colonization and replication, evading host immunity and pharmaceutical killing. Current studies of Brucella intracellular processes are typically premised on bacterial phenotype such as intracellular bacterial survival, followed by biochemical or molecular biological approaches to reveal detailed mechanisms. While such processes can deepen the understanding of Brucella-host interaction, the insights into host alterations in infection would be easily restricted to known pathways. In the current study, we applied CRISPR Cas9 screen to identify host genes that are most affected by Brucella infection on cell viability at the genomic level. As a result of CRISPR screening, we firstly identified that knockout of the negatively selected genes GOLGA6L6, DEFB103B, OR4F29, and ERCC6 attenuate the viability of both the host cells and intracellular Brucella, suggesting these genes to be potential therapeutic targets for Brucella control. In particular, knockout of DEFB103B diminished Brucella intracellular survival by altering host cell autophagy. Conversely, knockout of positive screening genes promoted intracellular proliferation of Brucella. In summary, we screened host genes at the genomic level throughout Brucella infection, identified host genes that are previously not recognized to be involved in Brucella infection, and provided targets for intracellular infection control.IMPORTANCEBrucella is a Gram-negative bacterium that infects common mammals causing arthritis, myalgia, neuritis, orchitis, or miscarriage and is difficult to cure with antibiotics due to its intracellular parasitism. Therefore, unraveling the mechanism of Brucella-host interactions will help controlling Brucella infections. CRISPR-Cas9 is a gene editing technology that directs knockout of individual target genes by guided RNA, from which genome-wide gene-knockout cell libraries can be constructed. Upon infection with Brucella, the cell library would show differences in viability as a result of the knockout and specific genes could be revealed by genomic DNA sequencing. As a result, genes affecting cell viability during Brucella infection were identified. Further testing of gene function may reveal the mechanisms of Brucella-host interactions, thereby contributing to clinical therapy.


Assuntos
Brucella , Brucelose , Animais , Humanos , Brucella/genética , Brucelose/microbiologia , Edição de Genes , Mamíferos
13.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 13(1): 3, 2024 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38191468

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Brucellosis is a zoonotic affliction instigated by bacteria belonging to the genus Brucella and is characterized by a diverse range of pervasiveness, multiple transmission routes, and serious hazards. It is imperative to amalgamate the current knowledge and identify gaps pertaining to the role of ticks in brucellosis transmission. METHODS: We systematically searched China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), WanFang, Google Scholar, and PubMed on the topic published until April 23, 2022. The procedure was performed in accordance with the Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses extension for Scoping Reviews (PRISMA-ScR) guidelines. The selected articles were categorized across three major topic areas, and the potential data was extracted to describe evidence-practice gaps by two reviewers. RESULTS: The search identified 83 eligible studies for the final analyses. The results highlighted the potential capacity of ticks in brucellosis transmission as evidenced by the detection of Brucella in 16 different tick species. The pooled overall prevalence of Brucella in ticks was 33.87% (range: 0.00-87.80%). The review also revealed the capability of Brucella to circulate in parasitic ticks' different developmental stages, thus posing a potential threat to animal and human health. Empirical evidence from in vitro rodent infection experiments has revealed that ticks possess the capability to transmit Brucella to uninfected animals (range: 45.00-80.00%). Moreover, significant epidemiological associations have been found between the occurrence of brucellosis in animals and tick control in rangelands, which further suggests that ticks may serve as potential vectors for brucellosis transmission in ruminants. Notably, a mere three cases of human brucellosis resulting from potential tick bites were identified in search of global clinical case reports from 1963 to 2019. CONCLUSIONS: It is imperative to improve the techniques used to identify Brucella in ticks, particularly by developing a novel, efficient, precise approach that can be applied in a field setting. Furthermore, due to the lack of adequate evidence of tick-borne brucellosis, it is essential to integrate various disciplines, including experimental animal science, epidemiology, molecular genetics, and others, to better understand the efficacy of tick-borne brucellosis. By amalgamating multiple disciplines, we can enhance our comprehension and proficiency in tackling tick-borne brucellosis.


Assuntos
Brucella , Brucelose , Carrapatos , Animais , Humanos , Lacunas da Prática Profissional , Brucelose/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia
14.
BMC Vet Res ; 20(1): 39, 2024 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38297263

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease caused by a bacterial pathogen belonging to the genus Brucella. It is one of the most frequent bacterial zoonoses globally but unfortunately, it is still considered as a neglected disease in the developing world. Keeping in view, this study was conducted to determine the prevalence and risk determinants of brucellosis in large ruminants of peri-urban and rural areas of district Multan-Pakistan. For this purpose, blood samples (n = 490) were collected from the cattle (n = 245) and buffalo (n = 245) population of the study area and subjected to preliminary screening of brucellosis using local and imported RBPT reagents. All the samples were further analyzed using commercially available multi-specie indirect ELISA kit followed by their confirmation by PCR using genus and species-specific primers. Data obtained from lab analysis and questionnaires were subjected to statistical analysis for Pearson Chi-square, Odds Ratio and Confidence intervals (95%). RESULTS: The results showed that the maximum seropositivity was recorded with local RBPT reagent (VRI, Pakistan; 12.45%; 95%CI = 9.72-15.65%) followed by RBPT-IDEXX (12.24%; 95%CI = 9.52-15.45%) and RBPT-ID.vet (11.84%; 95%CI = 9.18-14.95%) however statistical difference was non-significant (P = 0.956). The ELISA results showed an overall seroprevalence rate of 11.22% (95%CI = 8.59-14.33%) with comparatively higher rate in cattle (12.65%; 95%CI = 8.82-17.44%) as compared to buffaloes (9.80%; 95%CI = 6.49-14.15%). The PCR analysis confirmed the presence of genus Brucella in all seropositive samples whereas frequency of B. abortus and B. melitensis in seropositive samples was 80% and 20%, respectively. The co-existence of both species was also observed in 5.45% samples. The statistical analysis showed a significant association of bovine brucellosis with herd size, breed, reproductive disorders, mode of insemination, educational status and farmers' awareness about brucellosis (P < 0.05). Conversely, locality, age, weight, gender, pregnancy status, parity and puberty status had no associations with brucellosis (P > 0.05). CONCLUSION: In conclusion, brucellosis is prevalent in large ruminants of district Multan, Pakistan. It is suggested to devise and implement stringent policies for the effective control and prevention of brucellosis in the region. Further, the current situation also warrants the need to strengthen interdisciplinary coordination among veterinarians and physicians in one health perspective to ensure and strengthen the human and animal health care systems in the region.


Assuntos
Bison , Brucella , Brucelose Bovina , Brucelose , Doenças dos Bovinos , Humanos , Feminino , Bovinos , Animais , Gravidez , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Brucelose/veterinária , Zoonoses , Búfalos , Fatores de Risco , Brucelose Bovina/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia
15.
J Hazard Mater ; 465: 133435, 2024 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38224639

RESUMO

Nylon-6,6 microplastics (NMPs) in aquatic systems have emerged as potential contaminants to the global environment and have garnered immense consideration over the years. Unfortunately, there is currently no efficient method available to eliminate NMPs from sewage. This study aims to address this issue by isolating Brucella intermedia ZL-06, a bacterium capable of producing a bacterial polysaccharide-based flocculant (PBF). The PBF generated from this bacterium shows promising efficacy in effectively flocculating NMPs. Subsequently, the precipitated flocs (NMPs + PBF) were utilized as sustainable feedstock for synthesizing PBF. The study yielded 6.91 g/L PBF under optimum conditions. Genome sequencing analysis was conducted to study the mechanisms of PBF synthesis and nylon-6,6 degradation. The PBF exhibited impressive flocculating capacity of 90.1 mg/g of PBF when applied to 0.01 mm NMPs, aided by the presence of Ca2+. FTIR and XPS analysis showed the presence of hydroxyl, carboxyl, and amine groups in PBF. The flocculation performance of PBF conformed to Langmuir isotherm and pseudo-first-order adsorption kinetics model. These findings present a promising approach for reducing the production costs of PBF by utilizing NMPs as sustainable nutrient sources.


Assuntos
Brucella , Caprolactama/análogos & derivados , Microplásticos , Polímeros , Plásticos , Esgotos/microbiologia , Floculação
16.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 18(1): e0011889, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38190394

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Currently, vaccination of livestock with attenuated strains of Brucella remains an essential measure for controlling brucellosis, although these vaccines may be dangerous to humans. The aim of this study was to review the risk posed to humans by occupational exposure to vaccine strains and the measures that should be implemented to minimize this risk. METHODS: This article reviewed the scientific literature indexed in PubMed up to September 30, 2023, following "the PRISMA guidelines". Special emphasis was placed on the vaccine strain used and the route of exposure. Non-occupational exposure to vaccine strains, intentional human inoculation, publications on exposure to wild strains, and secondary scientific sources were excluded from the study. RESULTS: Nineteen primary reports were found and classified in three subgroups: safety accidents in vaccine factories that led to an outbreak (n = 2), survellaince studies on vaccine manufacturing workers with a serologic diagnosis of Brucella infection (n = 3), and publications of infection by vaccine strains during their administration, including case reports, records of occupational accidents and investigations of outbreaks in vaccination campaigns (n = 14). Although accidental exposure during vaccine manufacturing were uncommon, they could provoke large outbreaks through airborne spread with risk of spread to the neighboring population. Besides, despite strict protection measures, a percentage of vaccine manufacturing workers developed positive Brucella serology without clinical infection. The most frequent type of exposure with symptomatic infection was needle injury during vaccine administration. Prolonged contact with the pathogen, lack of information and a low adherence to personal protective equipment (PPE) use in the work environment were commonly associated with infection. CONCLUSIONS: Brucella vaccines pose occupational risk of contagion to humans from their production to their administration to livestock, although morbidity is low and deaths were not reported. Recommended protective measures and active surveillance of exposed workers appeared to reduce this risk. It would be advisable to carry out observational studies and/or systematic registries using solid diagnostic criteria.


Assuntos
Vacina contra Brucelose , Brucella , Brucelose , Exposição Ocupacional , Animais , Humanos , Brucelose/epidemiologia , Brucelose/prevenção & controle , Vacinação , Gado , Vacinas Atenuadas
17.
Infect Immun ; 92(2): e0028923, 2024 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38174929

RESUMO

Brucella species are Gram-negative intracellular bacterial pathogens that cause the worldwide zoonotic disease brucellosis. Brucella can infect many mammals, including humans and domestic and wild animals. Brucella manipulates various host cellular processes to invade and multiply in professional and non-professional phagocytic cells. However, the host targets and their modulation by Brucella to facilitate the infection process remain obscure. Here, we report that the host ubiquitin-specific protease, USP8, negatively regulates the invasion of Brucella into macrophages through the plasma membrane receptor, CXCR4. Upon silencing or chemical inhibition of USP8, the membrane localization of the CXCR4 receptor was enriched, which augmented the invasion of Brucella into macrophages. Activation of USP8 through chemical inhibition of 14-3-3 protein affected the invasion of Brucella into macrophages. Brucella suppressed the expression of Usp8 at its early stage of infection in the infected macrophages. Furthermore, we found that only live Brucella could negatively regulate the expression of Usp8, suggesting the role of secreted effector protein of Brucella in modulating the gene expression. Subsequent studies revealed that the Brucella effector protein, TIR-domain containing protein from Brucella, TcpB, plays a significant role in downregulating the expression of Usp8 by targeting the cyclic-AMP response element-binding protein pathway. Treatment of mice with USP8 inhibitor resulted in enhanced survival of B. melitensis, whereas mice treated with CXCR4 or 14-3-3 antagonists showed a diminished bacterial load. Our experimental data demonstrate a novel role of Usp8 in the host defense against microbial intrusion. The present study provides insights into the microbial subversion of host defenses, and this information may ultimately help to develop novel therapeutic interventions for infectious diseases.


Assuntos
Brucella melitensis , Brucella , Brucelose , Animais , Humanos , Camundongos , Proteases Específicas de Ubiquitina/metabolismo , Macrófagos/microbiologia , Brucelose/microbiologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Mamíferos , Endopeptidases/metabolismo , Ubiquitina Tiolesterase/metabolismo , Complexos Endossomais de Distribuição Requeridos para Transporte/metabolismo
18.
J Vet Med Sci ; 86(3): 295-299, 2024 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38267042

RESUMO

In the western North Pacific, prominent granulomatous testes have been detected in many Brucella-infected common minke whales (Balaenoptera acutorostrata), but there have been no reports in toothed cetaceans. We found severe orchitis with granulomatous lesions in a rough-toothed dolphin (Steno bredanensis) stranded on the Pacific coast of Japan in 2011. Histopathological examination revealed leukocyte infiltration of the lesions. DNA from the lesion was analyzed by PCR and it showed molecular biological similarities with those of Brucella-infected common minke whales and Brucella ceti of sequence-type 27 (ST27). These results suggest that the type of Brucella ceti that infected the dolphin was ST27, which may have caused severe orchitis. This study adds to our understanding of Brucella infections in marine mammals.


Assuntos
Brucella , Brucelose , Golfinhos , Baleia Anã , Orquite , Masculino , Animais , Orquite/veterinária , Japão/epidemiologia , Brucelose/epidemiologia , Brucelose/veterinária , Cetáceos
19.
World Neurosurg ; 183: e838-e845, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38218437

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Brucellar cervical epidural abscess (CEA) is a rare condition with potentially permanent neurological damage if left untreated. This study aims to define the clinical presentation of brucellar CEA and evaluate the outcome of surgical treatment, specifically decompression and fusion surgery. The findings will contribute to understanding whether all patients with brucellar CEA could benefit from this surgical intervention. METHODS: A retrospective study on brucellar spondylitis was conducted at the First Hospital of Jilin University from August 2018 to August 2022. During this period, a total of 37 patients were diagnosed with brucellar spondylitis at the hospital. Out of the 37 cases, six patients (16.2%) were confirmed to have CEA through cervical magnetic resonance imaging examination and serology test results.. RESULTS: Six patients were diagnosed with brucellar CEA (16.2%), of whom 5 successfully underwent anterior cervical decompression and fusion surgery. One patient had a large prevertebral abscess that could only be drained. In combination with effective antibiotic therapy, the clinical performance of the 5 patients who underwent surgery improved after the surgery. The remaining one patient required delayed surgery due to instability of the cervical spine. The follow-up period of all the 6 patients was 6 months. CONCLUSIONS: Brucellosis should be considered as a potential cause of CEA, especially in endemic areas. Timely detection and effective management of this condition are crucial in order to minimize the associated morbidity and mortality. For patients with detectable brucellar CEA, we recommend decompression and fusion surgery.


Assuntos
Brucella , Brucelose , Abscesso Epidural , Espondilite , Humanos , Abscesso Epidural/diagnóstico por imagem , Abscesso Epidural/cirurgia , Abscesso Epidural/tratamento farmacológico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Brucelose/complicações , Espondilite/complicações , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética
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